Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction

Published by Association for Computing Machinery
Online ISSN: 2573-0142
Publications
Dark patterns are user interface design choices that benefit an online service by coercing, steering, or deceiving users into making unintended and potentially harmful decisions. We present automated techniques that enable experts to identify dark patterns on a large set of websites. Using these techniques, we study shopping websites, which often use dark patterns to influence users into making more purchases or disclosing more information than they would otherwise. Analyzing ~53K product pages from ~11K shopping websites, we discover 1,818 dark pattern instances, together representing 15 types and 7 broader categories. We examine these dark patterns for deceptive practices, and find 183 websites that engage in such practices. We also uncover 22 third-party entities that offer dark patterns as a turnkey solution. Finally, we develop a taxonomy of dark pattern characteristics that describes the underlying influence of the dark patterns and their potential harm on user decision-making. Based on our findings, we make recommendations for stakeholders including researchers and regulators to study, mitigate, and minimize the use of these patterns.
 
Many online communities rely on postpublication moderation where contributors-even those that are perceived as being risky-are allowed to publish material immediately and where moderation takes place after the fact. An alternative arrangement involves moderating content before publication. A range of communities have argued against prepublication moderation by suggesting that it makes contributing less enjoyable for new members and that it will distract established community members with extra moderation work. We present an empirical analysis of the effects of a prepublication moderation system called FlaggedRevs that was deployed by several Wikipedia language editions. We used panel data from 17 large Wikipedia editions to test a series of hypotheses related to the effect of the system on activity levels and contribution quality. We found that the system was very effective at keeping low-quality contributions from ever becoming visible. Although there is some evidence that the system discouraged participation among users without accounts, our analysis suggests that the system's effects on contribution volume and quality were moderate at most. Our findings imply that concerns regarding the major negative effects of prepublication moderation systems on contribution quality and project productivity may be overstated.
 
The video game Animal Crossing: New Horizons (AC:NH) launched during the COVID-19 pandemic and families turned to it as a game to play together during isolation. This interview study of 27 families considered how families used AC:NH for Joint Media Engagement (JME), where family members engage with media content together, interacting with each other and bringing additional meaning to the experience. We find that the design of AC:NH well facilitates Takeuchi and Stevens's six conditions for productive JME. Furthermore, we identify and discuss additional conditions that contribute to productive JME: variety and flexibility in play styles that amplify mutual engagement, support for disentrained play that enables new forms of "joint" engagement, and scaffolding for affective interactions. This is followed by an exploration of how the COVID-19 pandemic affected JME. We conclude with design implications for building games to support productive JME for families through design for persistent shared spaces, flexible in-game progress, and social life simulation.
 
Summary of respondents' agreement that they experienced a variety of worries related to the pandemic.
General measures taken to contain the spread of COVID-19.
Respondents' attitudes toward COCOA
Respondents' motivations for using COCOA
Article at https://jackjamieson.net/publications/ Contact tracing apps have been suggested as a promising approach towards containing viral spread during pandemics, yet their actual use in the COVID-19 pandemic has been low. While researchers have examined reasons for or against installing contact tracing apps, we have less understanding of their ongoing use and how they interact with everyday pressures related to work, communities, and mental well-being. Through a survey of 153 working people in Japan and 15 follow-up interviews, we investigated attitudes toward installing and using Japan’s national contact tracing app, COCOA, and how these related to respondents’ daily lives, work structures, and general attitudes about the pandemic. We found that motivations about installing the app differed from those related to ongoing usage. Specifically, we identified ways that people navigate uncertain norms of behaviour during the pandemic, and how people consider individual risks such as COVID-related stigmas, anxiety, and financial precarity when deciding if and how to use COCOA. In light of these, we discuss the tension between COCOA’s design and desires to protect oneself by selective controlling disclosures. We note that perceived risks are closely tied to respondents’ local contexts, and based on our analysis, we identify ways to address these challenges and tensions through design interventions at multiple scales.
 
The COVID-19 pandemic fundamentally changed the nature of work by shifting most in-person work to a predominantly remote modality as a way to limit the spread of the coronavirus. In the process, the shift to working-from-home rapidly forced the large-scale adoption of groupware technologies. Although prior empirical research examined the experience of working-from-home within small-scale groups and for targeted kinds of work, the pandemic provides HCI and CSCW researchers with an unprecedented opportunity to understand the psycho-social impacts of a universally mandated work-from-home experience rather than an autonomously chosen one. Drawing on boundary theory and a methodological approach grounded in humanistic geography, we conducted a qualitative analysis of Reddit data drawn from two work-from-home-related subreddits between March 2020 and January 2021. In this paper, we present a characterization of the challenges and solutions discussed within these online communities for adapting work to a hybrid or fully remote modality, managing reconfigured work-life boundaries, and reconstructing the home's sense of place to serve multiple, sometimes conflicting roles. We discuss how these findings suggest an emergent interplay among adapted work practice, reimagined physical (and virtual) spaces, and the establishment and continual re-negotiation of boundaries as a means for anticipating the long-term impact of COVID on future conceptualizations of productivity and work.
 
Model of coordination and communication for distributed anomaly response and replanning (CoLadder Model), reproduced from Chow et al. [11].
Example illustration of a coordination process where sysadmins address reduced VPN performance. An event (EV) triggers new activities (AC) which then cue an analysis phase (AN). This leads to an updated plan (P) which restructures the activities (AC) and also modifies future expectations (EX).
Coordination and communication mechanisms we identified in sysadmins' response to COVID-19 lockdowns in the distributed anomaly response and replanning model (co-ladder model). For reference: G = Goal; S = Stance; P = Plan; AN = Analysis; AC = Activity; EV = Event; EX = Expectation; D = Data.
Overview of participants' working location, work experience, and their employers business sector.
Overview of our code-book.
The ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic made working from home -- wherever working remotely is possible -- the norm for what had previously been office-based jobs across the world. This change in how we work created a challenging situation for system administrators (sysadmins), as they are the ones building and maintaining the digital infrastructure our world relies on. In this paper, we examine how system administration work changed early in the pandemic from sysadmins' personal perspectives, through semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis. We find that sysadmins faced a two-sided crisis: While sysadmins' own work environment changed, they also had to react to the new situation and facilitate stable options to work online for themselves and their colleagues, supporting their users in adapting to the crisis. This finding embeds into earlier work on the connection between IT (security) work and the notion of 'care', where we substantiate these earlier findings with results from a repeatable method grounded in coordination theory. Furthermore, while we find that sysadmins perceived no major changes in the way they work, by consecutively probing our interviewees, we find that they did experience several counter-intuitive effects on their work. This includes that while day-to-day communication became inherently more difficult, other tasks were streamlined by the remote working format and were seen as having become easier. Finally, by structuring our results according to a model of coordination and communication, we identify changes in sysadmins' coordination patterns. From these we derive recommendations for how system administration work can be coordinated, ranging beyond the immediate pandemic response and the transition to any 'new normal' way of working.
 
The outbreak of COVID-19 forced schools to swiftly transition from in-person classes to online or remote offerings, making educators and learners alike rely on online videoconferencing platforms. Platforms like Zoom offer audio-visual channels of communication and include features that are designed to approximate the classroom experience. However, it is not clear how students' learning experiences are affected by affordances of the videoconferencing platforms or what underlying factors explain the differential effects of these affordances on class experiences of engagement, interaction, and satisfaction. In order to find out, we conducted two online survey studies: Study 1 (N = 176) investigated the effects of three types of videoconferencing affordances (i.e., modality, interactivity, and agency affordances) on class experience during the first two months after the transition to online learning. Results showed that usage of the three kinds of affordances was positively correlated with students' class engagement, interaction, and satisfaction. Perceived anonymity, nonverbal cues, and comfort level were found to be key mediators. In addition, students' usage of video cameras in class was influenced by their classmates. Study 2 (N = 256) tested the proposed relationships at a later stage of the pandemic and found similar results, thus serving as a constructive replication. This paper focuses on reporting the results of Study 1 since it captures the timely reactions from students when they first went online, and the second study plays a supplementary role in verifying Study 1 and thereby extending its external validity. Together, the two studies provide insights for instructors on how to leverage different videoconferencing affordances to enhance the virtual learning experience. Design implications for digital tools in online education are also discussed.
 
This paper investigates the dissemination, situated fact-checking processes, and social effects of COVID-19 related online and offline misinformation in rural Bangladeshi life. A six-month-long ethnographic study in three villages found villagers perceived a lack of knowledge and experience among local medical professionals and often fell for flashy promotions of unreliable and unconfirmed cures. Villagers built on their local beliefs and myths, religious faiths, and social justice sensibilities while fact-checking suspicious information. They often reported being misled by misinformation that caters to these values, and they further spread this information through conversations with friends and family. Based on our findings, we argue that CSCW and HCI researchers should study misinformation and situated fact-checking together as a communal practice to design appropriate wellbeing technologies and social media for given communities.
 
COVID-19 has been a sustained and global crisis with a strong continual impact on daily life. Staying accurately informed about COVID-19 has been key to personal and communal safety, especially for essential workers---individuals whose jobs have required them to go into work throughout the pandemic---as their employment has exposed them to higher risks of contracting the virus. Through 14 semi-structured interviews, we explore how essential workers across industries navigated the COVID-19 information landscape to get up-to-date information in the early months of the pandemic. We find that essential workers living through a sustained crisis have a broad set of information needs. We summarize these needs in a framework that centers 1) fulfilling job requirements, 2) assessing personal risk, and 3) keeping up with crisis news coverage. Our findings also show that the sustained nature of COVID-19 crisis coverage led essential workers to experience breaking points and develop coping strategies. Additionally, we show how workplace communications may act as a mediating force in this process: lack of adequate information in the workplace caused workers to struggle with navigating a contested information landscape, while consistent updates and information exchanges at work could ease the stress of information overload. Our findings extend the crisis informatics field by providing contextual knowledge about the information needs of essential workers during a sustained crisis.
 
The severe impact of COVID-19 in the United States has forced many students to replace in-person socialization with online digital contact. In this study, we investigate the mental health impacts associated with this shift by examining properties of online interactions that may affect loneliness and perceived social support. Students were surveyed (N=827) across 97 universities across the US during their first full semester impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic (Fall 2020). Private online interactions (messaging, phone call, video call) were found to have a comparable correlation to social support as face-to-face interactions, but public online interactions (social media) were associated with more negative outcomes. Among private platforms, messaging had the strongest correlation with social support; and daily self-disclosure over messaging yielded social support levels that were 1.21x higher than rarely or never disclosing over this platform. We speculate that factors such as the level of privacy and peoples' feelings of control contributed to disclosure and perceived social support in online platforms.
 
The COVID-19 2020 lockdown measures altered how families spent time together, with many fathers adopting new household roles and spending more time with their children. This paper contributes an empirical account of technology use and fatherhood during the COVID-19 pandemic, and draws implications for the design of technologies to support fathers. We outline the findings from semi-structured interviews carried out with fathers during lockdown in the UK. Initial interviews (n=19) highlighted challenges in screen viewing, family dynamics, idea generation and self-care. This informed the design of four prototype apps to enrich follow-up interviews (n=12), using these prototypes as prompts to explore the emergent challenges in more depth. The interviews identified significant changes and concerns related to technology use within the context of COVID-19, with new roles for fathers conflicting with traditional ones combined with situational stressors to amplify issues with guilt, shame and self-care related to technology use.
 
The COVID-19 pandemic led to dire consequences globally, and it has been particularly challenging for older adults. They are at a higher risk of adverse outcomes of the disease \citecdc_covid. Older adults also use less technology than other age groups \citetech_old, so they mostly rely on in-person interactions and services for social support. However, disease mitigation efforts such as social distancing and self-quarantining severely limited in-person interactions, hindering older adults' social support during the COVID-19 crisis. In this paper, we present findings on social support realities from semi-structured interviews with older adults (N=15) living alone in community dwellings. We found that older adults' support roles, support sources, and support concerns evolve as they passed through this time of sweeping change. They are enthusiastic about providing support to people who are older and more vulnerable than themselves. At the same time, their needs for safety, autonomy, and independence create tensions around social support. We propose a framework to illustrate the evolving ecology of social support that can facilitate the holistic design of socio-technical support systems for older adults. We argue against the societal portrayal of older adults as vulnerable individuals. Rather, there is an opportunity to design support systems considering them as anchors in society. Towards that goal, we present design implications for future socio-technical support systems to empower older adults to age in place during a crisis.
 
During the COVID-19 global health crisis, institutions, policymakers, and academics alike have called for practicing resilience to overcome its ongoing disruptions. This paper contributes a comparative study of the job search experiences of working-class and upper-middle-class job seekers, particularly in relation to their resilience practices during the pandemic. Drawing from in-depth interviews with 12 working-class and 11 upper-middle-class job seekers in the U.S., we unpack challenges resulting from both the pandemic and unemployment and job seekers' novel practices of navigating these challenges in their everyday disrupted life. Job seekers' ongoing negotiation with their resources, situations, and surroundings gives practical meanings to building everyday resilience, which we theorize as an ongoing process of becoming resilient. While job seekers across classes experienced similar challenges, working-class job seekers took on additional emotional labor in their everyday resilience due to their limited experience in the digital job search space, competition with higher-degree holding job seekers applying for the same jobs, limited social support networks, and at times, isolation. By foregrounding the uneven distribution of emotional labor in realizing the promise of resilience along class lines, this work cautions against the romanticization of resilience and calls for a more critical and nuanced understanding of resilience in CSCW.
 
In the aftermath of the COVID-19 crisis, there has been a massive amount of misinformation both related to the condition, and a range of linked social and economic issues. We present a mixed methods study of misinformation debunked by Indian fact checking agencies since January 2020. Alongside this, we present an analysis of what politicians in India have been discussing in the overlapping period. We find that affective issues dominate misinformation, especially in the period following the lockdown in India. Furthermore, we find that communal prejudice emerges as a central part of the misinformation environment, something that is reflected in the political speech around the same period.
 
Working remotely from home during the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant shifts and disruptions in the personal and work lives of millions of information workers and their teams. We examined how sleep patterns---an important component of mental and physical health---relates to teamwork. We used wearable sensing and daily questionnaires to examine sleep patterns, affect, and perceptions of teamwork in 71 information workers from 22 teams over a ten-week period. Participants reported delays in sleep onset and offset as well as longer sleep duration during the pandemic. A similar shift was found in work schedules, though total work hours did not change significantly. Surprisingly, we found that more sleep was negatively related to positive affect, perceptions of teamwork, and perceptions of team productivity. However, a greater misalignment in the sleep patterns of members in a team predicted positive affect and teamwork after accounting for individual differences in sleep preferences. A follow-up analysis of exit interviews with participants revealed team-working conventions and collaborative mindsets as prominent themes that might help explain some of the ways that misalignment in sleep can affect teamwork. We discuss implications of sleep and sleep misalignment in work-from-home contexts with an eye towards leveraging sleep data to facilitate remote teamwork.
 
Restrictions arising from the COVID-19 pandemic have limited opportunities for older people to participate in face-to-face organised social activities. Many organisations moved these activities online, but little is known about older adults' experiences of participating in those activities. This paper reports an investigation of older adults' experiences of participating in social activities that they used to attend in-person, but which were moved online because of strict lockdown restrictions. We conducted in-depth interviews with 40 older adults living independently (alone or with others). Findings from a reflexive thematic analysis show that online social activities were important during the pandemic for not only staying connected to other people but also helping older adults stay engaged in meaningful activities, including arts, sports, cultural, and civic events. Online activities provided older adults with opportunities to connect with like-minded people; share care, encouragement, and support; participate in civic agendas; learn knowledge and develop new skills; and experience entertainment, distraction, and mental stimulation. Our participants had diverse perceptions of the transition from in-person to online social activities. Based on the findings, we present a taxonomy of multi-layered meaningful activities for older adults' digital social participation and highlight implications for future technology design.
 
Demographic information of the 53 participants in our study.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, millions of previously co-located information workers had to work from home, a trend expected to become much more commonplace in the future. We interviewed 53 information workers from 17 U.S. teams to understand how this unique extended work-from-home setting influenced teamwork and how they adapted to it. Using a grounded theory approach, we discovered that extended remote work highlighted diversity in team members' home-lives and daily work rhythms. Whereas these types of diversity played only marginal roles for teams in the co-located office, they had a more tangible impact in the work-from-home setting, from coordination delays and interruptions to conflicts related to workload fairness, miscommunication, and trust. Importantly, workers reported that their teams adapted to these challenges by setting explicit norms and standards for online communication and asynchronous collaboration and by promoting general social and situational awareness. We discuss computer-supported designs to help teams manage these latent diversities in an extended remote teamwork setting.
 
The Covid-19 pandemic has influenced people's views on work, and a significant portion of the global game industry converted to remote work during the pandemic. To explore the status of game development in this pivotal moment, we have conducted semi-structured interviews with 27 immigrant/expatriate game developers ("game expats") in Finland analyzing their migration push and pull on societal, industrial, social, and individual factors. The results indicate societal and industrial factors simultaneously influencing game expats' migration intention, but with an increasing influence of game corporation's role on developers' both on-the-job and off-the-job embeddedness due to an absence of (local) community activities during the pandemic. The data also reveals that game developers are valuing the physical workspace for face-to-face interactions, despite the industrial norm of digital tools and seamless transition to remote work. Furthermore, an alarming stratification and hierarchization within the game industry were identified, which game developers self-dividing in-house versus outsourced workforce even if they were both required to work remotely. This paper contributes to game studies on game developers' experiences as an attempt to investigate the local context of game development. It is also one of the first snapshots of game work practices in Finland during the Covid-19 era.
 
COVID-19 exposed the need to identify newer tools to understand perception of information, behavioral conformance to instructions and model the effects of individual motivation and decisions on the success of measures being put in place. We approach this challenge through the lens of serious games. Serious games are designed to instruct and inform within the confines of their magic circle. We built a multiplayer serious game, Point of Contact (PoC), to investigate effects of a serious game on perception and behavior. We conducted a study with 23 participants to gauge perceptions of COVID-19 preventive measures and quantify the change after playing PoC. The results show a significant positive change to participants' perceptions towards COVID-19 preventive measures, shifting perceptions towards following guidelines more strictly due to a greater awareness of how the virus spreads. We discuss these implications and the value of a serious game like PoC towards pandemic risk modelling at a microcosm level.
 
The COVID-19 outbreak has resulted in a worldwide public health crisis. In such times of crisis, access to relevant and accurate information is critical. For many people in China, domestic social media platforms such as WeChat and Weibo have become dominant sources of COVID-19-related information and news. People have to evaluate the trustworthiness of COVID-19-related information and make sharing decisions using platforms that have to contend with government censorship policies, astroturfers, and other government interventions. We interviewed 33 Chinese WeChat users to understand how individuals were seeking COVID-19-related information and how they identified and evaluated specific COVID-19-related misinformation. This work exposes how COVID-19-related content with "positive energy" was prevalent on social media in China. A significant number of interviewees exhibited a willingness to prioritize information valence over veracity when evaluating and sharing content with others. Further, the work revealed how Chinese citizens' understanding of information ecosystems played an important role in their attitudes towards censorship and official media, and also influenced their evaluation of domestic and international information during a global crisis.
 
The COVID-19 pandemic lockdown lead to the rapid adoption and use of various groupware applications ("apps'') for remote connection with colleagues, friends, and family. Different factors such as user experiences, trust, and social influences ("user-situational motivations'') were instrumental in determining how and what apps people adopted and used, especially at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this empirical study, we examine how these factors and four predominant user-situational motivations (i.e., the mandated use of an app by an employer/institution, recommended use of an app by an employer/institution, recommended use of an app by a peer(s), and self-selection of an app) influenced the rapid adoption and use of groupware applications. Specifically, we develop an "emergency adoption model" of groupware applications using 195 valid survey responses to highlight the factors that motivated these apps' use at the onset of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. We leverage the Technology Adoption Model (TAM) and integrate it with the users' past use of the application before the COVID-19 lockdown, user-situational motivation, and their privacy-related trust in the application provider to develop a more comprehensive model. Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM), we find that the users who used a groupware app in the past continued to use it, and in line with TAM, users' intention to adopt and use a groupware application was largely driven by the ease-of-use and usefulness of the app. Furthermore, while not a part of the traditional TAM model, we find that privacy-related trust in the application provider plays an important role in emergency adoption. However, unlike typical adoption models, the nature of all these effects---most prominently those related to privacy-related trust---depend on the underlying situational motivation. We discuss the implications of these findings and suggest ways to improve the adoption and use of groupware applications, especially during crises like the COVID-19 pandemic.
 
This paper examines the role played by informal mutual aid networks in mediating precarity for gig workers in Jakarta during COVID-19. Using an original survey of 350 mobility platform drivers conducted in May 2020 and a pre-pandemic set of semi-structured interviews with driver communities, I find that mutual aid dispersed through associative, informal labor networks became an essential infrastructure of support for drivers during the pandemic. Most drivers in Jakarta were able to mobilize pre-existing labor networks for extensive material and emotional support. However, results indicate this support was not universally accessible: the pre-pandemic structures of a driver's community and the driver's own participation within the community correlated with the magnitude of community support a driver reported receiving. By putting CSCW literature in conversation with broader literature on informal urbanism, this paper shows how informal labor networks and mutual aid can be a transformative, even outside of formal union structures. By analyzing the forms and limits of these networks this paper also carries lessons in how to build solidarity amongst distributed workforces. At the same time, this study highlights the role of local socio-economic context in shaping gig worker experiences of the pandemic. Thus, it points to the need for more contextually driven analysis of both gig worker precarity and what are deemed effective forms of labor solidarity
 
Through the past two and a half years, COVID-19 has swept through the world and new technologies for mitigating spread, such as exposure notification applications and contact tracing, have been implemented in many countries. However, the uptake has differed from country to country and it has not been clear if culture, death rates or information dissemination have been a factor in their adoption rate. However, these apps introduce issues of trust and privacy protection, which can create challenges in terms of adoptions and daily use. In this paper we present the results from a cross-country survey study of potential barriers to adoption of in particular COVID-19 contact tracing apps. We found that people's existing privacy concerns are an have a reverse correlation with adoption behavior but that the geographical location, as well as other demographics, such as age and gender, do not have significant effect on either adoption of the app or privacy concerns. Instead, a better understanding of what data is collected through the apps lead to a higher level of adoption. We provide suggestions for how to approach the development and deployment of contact tracing apps and more broadly health tracking apps.
 
The proliferation of social media has promoted the spread of misinformation that raises many concerns in our society. This paper focuses on a critical problem of explainable COVID-19 misinformation detection that aims to accurately identify and explain misleading COVID-19 claims on social media. Motivated by the lack of COVID-19 relevant knowledge in existing solutions, we construct a novel crowdsource knowledge graph based approach to incorporate the COVID-19 knowledge facts by leveraging the collaborative efforts of expert and non-expert crowd workers. Two important challenges exist in developing our solution: i) how to effectively coordinate the crowd efforts from both expert and non-expert workers to generate the relevant knowledge facts for detecting COVID-19 misinformation; ii) How to leverage the knowledge facts from the constructed knowledge graph to accurately explain the detected COVID-19 misinformation. To address the above challenges, we develop HC-COVID, a hierarchical crowdsource knowledge graph based framework that explicitly models the COVID-19 knowledge facts contributed by crowd workers with different levels of expertise and accurately identifies the related knowledge facts to explain the detection results. We evaluate HC-COVID using two public real-world datasets on social media. Evaluation results demonstrate that HC-COVID significantly outperforms state-of-the-art baselines in terms of the detection accuracy of misleading COVID-19 claims and the quality of the explanations.
 
Crisis informatics research has examined geographically bounded crises, such as natural or man-made disasters, identifying the critical role of local and hyper-local information focused on one geographic area in crisis communication. The COVID-19 pandemic represents an understudied kind of crisis that simultaneously hits locales across the globe, engendering an emergent form of crisis communication, which we term cross-local communication. Cross-local communication is the exchange of crisis information between geographically dispersed locales to facilitate local crisis response. To unpack this notion, we present a qualitative study of an online migrant community of overseas Taiwanese who supported fellow Taiwanese from afar. We detail four distinctive types of cross-local communication: situational updates, risk communication, medical consultation, and coordination. We discuss how the current pandemic situation brings new understandings to crisis informatics and online health community literature, and what role digital technologies could play in supporting cross-local communication.
 
Thousands of technology professionals attend in-person meetups each month in cities around the world. However, during the Covid-19 pandemic, social distancing requirements have forced meetups in many locations to operate exclusively virtual events for the first time. We surveyed participants (n=251) who attend technology meetup communities in the UK to find out how the pivot from in-person to virtual meetings has affected meetup communities. We gathered data about participants' experiences of virtual meetups and compared with in-person experiences. While in-person meetups are important venues for practitioners to network, learn, socialise, meet people and participate in discussions (enabling transfer of tacit knowledge), participants attend virtual meetings primarily for learning. Virtual meetups offer poor support for socialising, networking, discussion and transfer of tacit knowledge, However, they do offer learning opportunities via structured talks and content, and can rival in-person meetups when it comes to learning new skills like programming, keeping up to date with general technology developments and improving one's general practice. The low barrier to entry for virtual events improves accessibility for both speakers and participants. Our findings suggest that some meetups may benefit from considering how to incorporate virtual meeting formats into their schedules for the long-term.
 
The COVID-19 pandemic that forced the closure of campuses in the spring of 2020 accelerated the diffusion of distance education in Universities worldwide. The need to shift to distance education without time to prepare or train teachers or students led to what has been called a crisis learning situation in what was far from a seamless transition. This article surveyed 200 students at a large university in the United States at the end of the spring semester in 2020 about their online learner readiness including access to technological infrastructure (computers and highspeed Internet access), computer self-efficacy, computer anxiety, and how that influenced positive and negative learning experiences and feelings about distance education and learning. A four-stage Structural Equation Model shows a detailed picture of the distance education process and suggests intervention points to improve its outcomes. Results suggest that access to technological infrastructure are necessary but not sufficient for successful distance education experiences and point to the critical importance of computer self-efficacy and anxiety in predicting positive (or negative) learning experiences, which lead to increased feelings of learning and the likelihood that students will choose distance education in the future.
 
Software development teams depend on the constant and varied use of technological tools that contribute to the fluidity of development activities. The communication channels provided by these tools contribute to the participatory culture of software development, where requirements include getting involved, learning and co-producing the code. However, the choice of channels to support development is still an open question in the scientific community. Through an investigation of closed remote software teams from a large public educational institution in Brazil during the COVID-19 Pandemic, we identified their preferred communication channels and analyzed them to learn how to improve collaboration. We also drew some comparison with social developers and took a look at the challenges that these channels impose and solutions adopted to mitigate these problems.
 
The COVID-19 global pandemic brought forth wide-ranging, unanticipated changes in human interaction, as communities rushed to slow the spread of the coronavirus. In response, local geographic community members created grassroots care-mongering groups on social media to facilitate acts of kindness, otherwise known as care-mongering. In this paper, we are interested in understanding the types of care-mongering that take place and how such care-mongering might contribute to community collective efficacy (CCE) and community resilience during a long-haul global pandemic. We conducted a content analysis of a care-mongering group on Facebook to understand how local community members innovated and developed care-mongering practices online. We observed three facets of care-mongering: showing appreciation for helpers, coming up with ways of supporting one another's needs, and continuing social interactions online and present design recommendations for further augmenting care-mongering practices for local disaster relief in online groups.
 
The COVID-19 pandemic upended the lives of families with young children as school closures and social distancing requirements left caregivers struggling to facilitate educational experiences, maintain social connections, and ensure financial stability. Considering families' increased reliance on technology to survive, this research documents parents' lived experiences adapting to technology's outsized role alongside other shifts in family life associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we describe a 10-week study with 30 enrolled families with children aged 3 to 13 in the United States using the asynchronous remote communities (ARC) methodology to 1) understand the benefits and challenges faced by families as they adapted technology at home to navigate the pandemic, and 2) to ideate improvements to those experiences through co-design. We found that amidst gaps in infrastructural support from schools, workplaces, and communities, parents experienced deep anxiety and took on new roles, including tech support, school administrator, and curator of meaningful activities for their children. As parents shared bold and creative technology-based solutions for improving family well-being, schooling experiences, social life, and beyond, they demonstrated their capacity to contribute to new models of learning and family life. Our findings are a call to action for CSCW researchers, designers, and family-focused practitioners to work with learning communities that incorporate parent, teacher, and technology experiences in their academic and community planning.
 
The COVID-19 induced lockdowns forced people to shift several activities, including education, online. However, in the context of online schooling, the Digital Divides have magnified and perpetuated existing inequities in the education system and in society. Through a qualitative study with 48 participants across four stakeholder groups we find that students in under-funded government schools in India largely have not been able to access online classes because of a lack of devices, poor quality of Internet access, unreliable data networks and expensive data plans. We also document attempts by teachers and non-profit workers to use mass media broadcast technologies to work around the issue of digital access, highlighting the importance of a human infrastructure to build resilience during a disruptive event. Socioeconomic factors have also forced several students to drop out of schools and into taking up jobs to support their families. We document the importance of enabling environments and economic safety nets at home for online education to succeed. We present some focus points for researchers and policy makers working in the space of digital divide and education to build more resilient systems through Digital Welfarism.
 
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a surge of information visualizations that aim to increase our scientific understanding and communicate about the ongoing health crisis with the general public. In this time, there has also been significant use of data visualization language in artefacts from online communities that provide commentary on the pandemic and create meaning through participatory digital culture. Using a qualitative approach, this paper examines over 300 memes collected from a public social media group targeted to young adults in the United States that uses the language of data visualization to discuss topics related to COVID-19. We outline four main ways that data visualization language is used in these memes-as a coarse indicator, as a visual analogy, as an opportunity for augmentation with emotion or interpretation, and as a visual pun-as well as two ways that memes leverage traditional and emerging approaches in the information visualization community. We describe the context in which these memes are socially created and interpreted in light of the political nature of online spaces and connect this work to ongoing research on participation, emotion, and embodiment in information visualization. These results aim to start a conversation about the use of data visualization language in digital culture and more casual networked environments beyond official channels.
 
We present an ethnographic study of a maker community that conducted safety-driven medical making to deliver over 80,000 devices for use at medical facilities in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. To achieve this, the community had to balance their clinical value of safety with the maker value of broadened participation in design and production. We analyse their struggles and achievement through the artifacts they produced and the labors of key facilitators between diverse community members. Based on this analysis we provide insights into how medical maker communities, which are necessarily risk-averse and safety-oriented, can still support makers' grassroots efforts to care for their communities. Based on these findings, we recommend that design tools enable adaptation to a wider set of domains, rather than exclusively presenting information relevant to manufacturing. Further, we call for future work on the portability of designs across different types of printers which could enable broader participation in future maker efforts at this scale.
 
Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, older adults have been encouraged to stay indoors and isolated, leading to potential disruptions in their social activities and interpersonal relationships. This interview study ($N=24$) provides a close examination of older adults' communication technology adoption and usage in light of the pandemic. Our interviews revealed that the pandemic motivated many older adults to learn new technology and become more tech-savvy in an effort to stay connected with others. However, older adults also reported challenges related to the pandemic that were major impediments to technology adoption. These were: (1) lack of access to in-person technology support under physical distancing mandates, (2) lack of opportunities for online participation due to negative age stereotypes and assumptions, and (3) increased apprehension to seek help from family members and friends who were suffering from pandemic-related stresses. This study extends technology adoption literature and contributes an up-to-date examination of the "grey digital divide" (the gap between older adults who use technology and those who do not). Our findings demonstrate that despite the rapidly increasing number of tech-savvy seniors, a digital divide not only persists, but has been exacerbated by the transition to virtual-only offerings. We reveal the challenges and coping strategies of older adults who remain separated from technology and propose actionable solutions to increase digital access during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.
 
The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically shifted family life across home, work, and education, especially families from nondominant groups. As schools and other educational programs moved online, parents became the primary facilitators for their children's learning. In this work, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 22 parents from nondominant groups. Insights from interviews highlight the technology-based learning experiences of young children during the pandemic, how parents facilitated these learning experiences, and the challenges parents and children encountered in these learning experiences. We summarize four parental facilitation patterns for children's learning (i.e., designing learning, finding resources, managing, and teaching) and highlight equity issues in distance learning, such as unequal access to learning resources and quality education. Finally, we further reflect on potential solutions to address the challenges parents have reported and share implications for designing technologies that better address children's and parents' needs during a crisis.
 
Since the COVID-19 pandemic, businesses have faced unprecedented challenges when trying to remain open. Because COVID-19 spreads through aerosolized droplets, businesses were forced to distance their services; in some cases, distancing may have involved moving business services online. In this work, we explore digitization strategies used by small businesses that remained open during the pandemic, and survey/interview small businesses owners to understand preliminary challenges associated with moving online. Furthermore, we analyze payments from 400K businesses across Japan, Australia, United States, Great Britain, and Canada. Following initial government interventions, we observe (at minimum for each country) a 47% increase in digitizing businesses compared to pre-pandemic levels, with about 80% of surveyed businesses digitizing in under a week. From both our quantitative models and our surveys/interviews, we find that businesses rapidly digitized at the start of the pandemic in preparation of future uncertainty. We also conduct a case-study of initial digitization in the United States, examining finer relationships between specific government interventions, business sectors, political orientation, and resulting digitization shifts. Finally, we discuss the implications of rapid & widespread digitization for small businesses in the context of usability challenges and interpersonal interactions, while highlighting potential shifts in pre-existing social norms.
 
The field of Computer Supported Cooperative Work has constantly evolved to meet the changing needs of individuals at home, at work, and online. To understand how these changes impacted CSCW research, we systematically reviewed 1209 papers and notes published at the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work between 1990 and 2015. When considered with results from two previous literature reviews, covering 1990 - 1998 and 1998 - 2004 respectively, our analysis provides perspective on 25 years of groupware research. We show that the field has responded to, not anticipated, changes in the computing landscape, long-term trends away from 'systems' and explanatory research, and a lack of bibliographic research that synthesizes findings. Finally, we discuss implications of these trends for CSCW research: how results are synthesized across the field, what kinds of research we value, and how multi-device ecologies are studied.
 
This paper investigated to what extent social interactions and empathy of users could be induced when different control mechanisms were used in an asymmetric collaboration. We conducted a user study to explore the user experience under one decentralized and two centralized control conditions via using the proposed two-player asymmetric collaborative bodily play, LAGH, which supports perspective-taking through the integration with the first- and second-perspectives and shared objects. The two players have complementary views and controls to each other in an immersive environment. The results indicate that participant pairs were encouraged by the asymmetric collaboration interface to share their emotional and physiological perspectives with each other. When their control abilities were balanced, they were more motivated to perform information sharing and interact with each other, thereby enhancing closeness and stimulating empathy. Furthermore, users could improve the collaboration efficiency.
 
Since its introduction in 2005, the TUIO protocol has been widely employed within a multitude of usage contexts in tangible and multi-touch interaction. While its simple and versatile design still covers the core functionality of interactive tabletop systems, the conceptual and technical developments of the past decade also led to a variety of ad-hoc extensions and modifications for specific scenarios. In this paper, we present an analysis of the strengths and shortcomings of TUIO 1.1, leading to the constitution of an extended abstraction model for tangible interactive surfaces and the specification of the second-generation TUIO 2.0 protocol, along with several example encodings of existing tangible interaction concepts.
 
In this note, I quantitatively examine various trends in the lengths of published papers in ACM CSCW from 2000-2018, focusing on several major transitions in editorial and reviewing policy. The focus is on the rise and fall of the 4-page note, which was introduced in 2004 as a separate submission type to the 10-page double-column "full paper" format. From 2004-2012, 4-page notes of 2,500 to 4,500 words consistently represented about 20-35% of all publications. In 2013, minimum and maximum page lengths were officially removed, with no formal distinction made between full papers and notes. The note soon completely disappeared as a distinct genre, which co-occurred with a trend in steadily rising paper lengths. I discuss such findings both as they directly relate to local concerns in CSCW and in the context of longstanding theoretical discussions around genre theory and how socio-technical structures and affordances impact participation in distributed, computer-mediated organizations and user-generated content platforms. There are many possible explanations for the decline of the note and the emergence of longer and longer papers, which I identify for future work. I conclude by addressing the implications of such findings for the CSCW community, particularly given how genre norms impact what kinds of scholarship and scholars thrive in CSCW, as well as whether new top-down rules or bottom-up guidelines ought to be developed around paper lengths and different kinds of contributions.
 
In 2015, Reddit closed several subreddits-foremost among them r/fatpeoplehate and r/CoonTown-due to violations of Reddit's anti-harassment policy. However, the effectiveness of banning as a moderation approach remains unclear: banning might diminish hateful behavior, or it may relocate such behavior to different parts of the site. We study the ban of r/fatpeoplehate and r/CoonTown in terms of its effect on both participating users and affected subreddits. Working from over 100M Reddit posts and comments, we generate hate speech lexicons to examine variations in hate speech usage via causal inference methods. We find that the ban worked for Reddit. More accounts than expected discontinued using the site; those that stayed drastically decreased their hate speech usage-by at least 80%. Though many subreddits saw an influx of r/fatpeoplehate and r/CoonTown "migrants," those subreddits saw no significant changes in hate speech usage. In other words, other subreddits did not inherit the problem. We conclude by reflecting on the apparent success of the ban, discussing implications for online moderation, Reddit and internet communities more broadly.
 
Wikipedia plays a crucial role for online information seeking and its editors have a remarkable capacity to rapidly revise its content in response to current events. How did the production and consumption of political information on Wikipedia mirror the dynamics of the 2016 U.S. Presidential campaign? Drawing on systems justification theory and methods for measuring the enthusiasm gap among voters, this paper quantitatively analyzes the candidates' biographical and related articles and their editors. Information production and consumption patterns match major events over the course of the campaign, but Trump-related articles show consistently higher levels of engagement than Clinton-related articles. Analysis of the editors' participation and backgrounds show analogous shifts in the composition and durability of the collaborations around each candidate. The implications for using Wikipedia to monitor political engagement are discussed.
 
In the 2018 U.S. midterm elections, a record number of Native American candidates ran for office at all levels of government. To better understand how these 104 candidates intersected with Indigenous political issues and movements to increase Native American voter turnout, we study 723,269 tweets about or by these candidates and 15,476 tweets associated with the #NativeVote movement between October 6, 2018 and February 5, 2019. We use a mixed methods approach to identify issues that emerge in the Native Candidates data set, including issues of representation and protean usage of the "Make America Great Again" hashtag #maga. When examining the feeds of selected candidates, we find that there can be a disconnect between the issues that candidates align themselves with on social media and the issues that they are associated with by others. We also find evidence of Indigenous issues spanning a vast political spectrum and being coupled with other issues in different ways by different candidates and audiences. Finally, we examine the intersection between Native American candidates and the\#NativeVote movement to discover emergent issue networks, including networks around voter suppression and Indigenous political action. Critically, we discuss how our interdisciplinary Indigenous feminist approach to social media analysis illuminates issues of marginalized communities in both a systematic and inductive manner that allows us to discover new patterns and issues with limited a priori knowledge about a complex system.
 
Photo of a traffic jam in China (see chapter 5.1), mistaken for a protest against petrol price raise in Iranian social media.
To deal with a spontaneous civil uprising following a substantial rise in gas prices, the Iranian security apparatus imposed in late 2019 techno-political measures and blocked access to international websites and services. To analyze these measures, we conducted 19 interviews with Iranians living inside and outside the country. We argue that the concept of the shutdown, as portrayed in Western media, is not perfectly suitable to describe the infrastructural restrictions and propose the concept of an internet nationalization. This paper offers an in-depth analysis of what the nationalization meant and how it affected the lives of Iranians participating or not participating in the protests. We also report on a variety of creative measures, both technical and non-technical, Iranians took to counter-appropriate the government-imposed shutdown of international connectivity. Based on these data, we elaborate on the concept of counter-appropriation.
 
We studied the topical preferences of social media campaigns of India's two main political parties by examining the tweets of 7382 politicians during the key phase of campaigning between Jan - May of 2019 in the run up to the 2019 general election. First, we compare the use of self-promotion and opponent attack, and their respective success online by categorizing 1208 most commonly used hashtags accordingly into the two categories. Second, we classify the tweets applying a qualitative typology to hashtags on the subjects of nationalism, corruption, religion and development. We find that the ruling BJP tended to promote itself over attacking the opposition whereas the main challenger INC was more likely to attack than promote itself. Moreover, while the INC gets more retweets on average, the BJP dominates Twitter's trends by flooding the online space with large numbers of tweets. We consider the implications of our findings hold for political communication strategies in democracies across the world.
 
We are delighted to welcome you to this issue of the Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction, which contains scholarship from the Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW) community. This is the second issue that represents the new quarterly submission model. This issue has 91 papers accepted from the January 2020 round (16 previously accepted papers from the January 2020 round were published in a prior issue and another 19 accepted this round will be published in a later issue). This represents an overall 40.6% acceptance rate from the 310 submissions in January 2020. This issue represents the contributions of external reviewers, Associate Chairs, and the dedicated Editors, who were essential to carrying through the review process, especially during a global pandemic. As Papers Chairs, we are delighted to continue shaping and disseminating CSCW's tradition of high-quality scholarship.
 
Cumulative graphs showing, for a subset of our images, what proportion of its total shares (Y-axis) each image received over the first seven days (X-axis) since it first appeared in our dataset. Above each graph is the index of the image and the total number of shares the image had in our the dataset.
Histogram of the time (in hours) between each image's first appearance until it got half of their total shares in the dataset.
Comparison of the time it took for each image to reach its half-life in terms of shares (X-axis), and in terms of total followers exposure (Y-axis). The size of each marker is proportional to the total number of shares of the image in our dataset, and the colors represent different labels from Role category.
A comparison of the average proportion of shares of images (Y-axis) by users with different levels of popularity (number of followers; X-axis). The different color columns represent images that correspond to specific labels from the Role category.
Images are powerful. Visual information can attract attention, improve persuasion, trigger stronger emotions, and is easy to share and spread. We examine the characteristics of the popular images shared on Twitter as part of "Stop the Steal", the widespread misinformation campaign during the 2020 U.S. election. We analyze the spread of the forty most popular images shared on Twitter as part of this campaign. Using a coding process, we categorize and label the images according to their type, content, origin, and role, and perform a mixed-method analysis of these images' spread on Twitter. Our results show that popular images include both photographs and text rendered as image. Only very few of these popular images included alleged photographic evidence of fraud; and none of the popular photographs had been manipulated. Most images reached a significant portion of their total spread within several hours from their first appearance, and both popular- and less-popular accounts were involved in various stages of their spread.
 
It is our great pleasure to welcome you to this issue of the Proceedings of the ACM on Human Computer Interaction, the first to focus on the contributions from the research community Interactive Surfaces and Spaces (ISS). Interactive Surfaces and Spaces increasingly pervade our everyday life, appearing in various sizes, shapes, and application contexts, offering a rich variety of ways to interact. This diverse research community explores the design, development and use of new and emerging tabletop, digital surface, interactive spaces and multi-surface technologies. The call for articles for this issue on ISS attracted 87 submissions, from all over the world. After the first round of reviewing, 26 (29.9%) articles with minor revisions were invited to the Revise and Resubmit phase, and 39 (44.8%) articles with major revisions for the next full PACMHCI ISS review cycle in 2021 (total of 65 articles, 74.7%). The editorial committee worked hard over the two iterations of the review process to arrive at final decisions. In the end, 25 articles (28%) were accepted. All authors of the accepted articles are invited to present at the ISS conference from November 8-11, 2020. This issue exists because of the dedicated volunteer effort of 31 senior editors who served as Associate Chairs (ACs), and 146 expert reviewers to ensure high quality and insightful reviews for all articles in both rounds. Reviewers and committee members were kept constant for papers that submitted to both rounds.
 
Top-cited authors
Dakuo Wang
Kate Starbird
  • University of Washington Seattle
Michael Muller
  • IBM Research
Shagun Jhaver
  • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Neha Kumar
  • Georgia Institute of Technology