Among the insects reported by Copeland (1989) breeding in the waters retained by treeholes in Indiana was a scuttle fly identified by W. H. Robinson as Megaselia scalaris (Loew). It is here reported that in fact this fly, along with fresh material from Illinois and Missouri, is M. imitatrix Borgmeier, whose type series was from Puerto Rico. An aquatic species reported from Texas is recognized as a sibling species of M. imitatrix and is named M. hansonix Disney, sp. nov. A single female from Brazil represents a third species of this complex, thus raising doubts about the identity of specimens from Brazil attributed to M. imitatrix by Benton and Claugher (2000).
The number of recorded phlebotomine sand fly species in Ecuador has nearly doubled during the past 20 years as a result of surveys. In 2005, a sand fly survey of two localities, Tiputini in the Amazon rain forest and Paraiso Escondido in the Pacific coastal lowland forest, resulted in the capture of 25 species. New records for Ecuador consisted of five species from the Amazonian region and one from Paraiso Escondido. The Amazonian species were Nyssomyia richardwardi (Ready and Fraiha), Psathyromyia dreisbachi (Causey and Damasceno), Psathyromyia runoides (Fairchild and Hertig), Trichophoromyia pabloi (Barretto, Burbano and Young), and Trichopygomyia witoto (Young and Morales). The Pacific coastal lowland species was Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch and Abonnenc).
Type specimens or the type series of 27 North American Herpetogramma species names were located, mostly in European museums, verified, and dissected. Acharana descripta (Warren) is designated as a new synonym of Herpetogramma phaeopteralis (Guene'e). Fifteen lectotypes and 14 paralectotypes are designated where it was deemed necessary to fix and stabilize the current concept of the name. A checklist and a key to nine North American species are provided with photographs of the adults.
The entomofauna of Cocos Island, Costa Rica, includes nearly 100 species of Lepidoptera, among which are 13 species of Tortricidae, most of which are endemic. One of these, Coelostathma insularis, new species, is described and illustrated. The new species is most similar to C. binotata (Walsingham) from Mexico among described species. The genus Coelostathma Clemens is redescribed, and a lectotype is designated for C. binotata. The shared possession of abdominal dorsal pits in Coelostathma Clemens, Amorbia Clemens, and Aesicopa Zeller suggests a close phylogenetic relationship among these genera within Sparganothini; the variably modified subdorsal pits in Sparganopseustis Powell and Lambert may or may not be homologous with those of the other genera.
A method for testing tick attractants under field conditions is described. The uneven distribution of host-seeking ticks, even within habitat types, can compromise evaluations of experimental baits and necessitate extensive testing. This problem can be remedied by releasing known numbers of ticks at predetermined locations and distances from an experimental bait. Lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.), nymphs were released directly downwind of dry ice baits on 2.25 X 2.25 m cotton sheets that had been placed on the ground. Each sheet was aligned with the direction of the wind and edged with a masking tape barrier. Best results in discriminating between dry ice baits and untreated controls were with nymphs released 1.5 and 2 m from the bait and recaptured after 1 h in a zone ≤1 m from the bait. The success of this method depends on the wind not stopping for prolonged periods and not radically changing direction.
Host-seeking and fed larvae and nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, were placed in mesh packets and in vials in the leaf litter on the floor of mixed deciduous forest, Virginia pine-southern red oak forest, and white pine plantations with and without Nepal microstegium, Microstegium vimineum (Trinius) A. Camus. An introduced shade-tolerant grass, Nepal microstegium, is expanding its range northeastward into areas densely populated with I. scapularis. As determined by flag sampling, the density of host-seeking nymphs at the Virginia pine sites was much lower than in the other habitats. None of the four habitats appeared to be consistently more favorable or unfavorable for the survival of confined fed and unfed I. scapularis larvae and nymphs. More unfed nymphs survived in vials than in packets in Virginia pine and white pine with Nepal grass sites. Fed larvae and nymphs tended to survive the summer better than unfed ticks.
In laboratory and behavioral bioassays, host-seeking nymphs and adults of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, were exposed to substances rubbed from the coats of dogs, from chicken feathers and from the interdigital glands of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). Nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.) were exposed to substances from chicken feathers. Nymphs of I. scapularis became akinetic on surfaces rubbed with substances from chicken feathers, but A. americanum nymphs did not. Overall, nymphs of I. scapularis appeared to avoid substances rubbed from the coats of dogs. Although hair samples were obtained from 14 dogs maintained under the same conditions, substances from the hair of one dog elicited arrestant responses among nymphs and substances from the hair of another dog appeared to completely repel I. scapularis nymphs. Adult I. scapularis of both sexes showed high levels of arrestment when exposed to substances from the same canine hair samples. No arrestment was observed when I. scapularis nymphs were exposed to interdigital gland substances of white-tailed deer does.
The condition of dorsal tertiary fringe scales on the wings of females and males for numerous species of tribe Aedini and representative species of other culicid tribes and subfamily Anophelinae is noted. With few exceptions the presence or absence of these scales appears to be consistent for species included in well-defined generic-level taxa.
We provide a compilation of 262 species of aphids that are considered as adventive to North America north of Mexico. Included for each species, where applicable, is reference to: the location and date of introduction of the first North American record; pest status in North America; principal economic hosts; and biogeographical origin. Information is also provided for species whose presence in North America is considered erroneous or questionable and for those species that are considered Holarctic or Beringian.
Dichrorampha odorata Brown and Zachariades, new species, is described and illustrated from Jamaica. It is most similar to D. sapodilla Heppner among described species, both superficially and in the male genitalia. However, the two are easily separated by the long costal fold of the male forewing of D. odorata, which is absent in D. sapodilla. The shapes of the valva and cucullus also distinguish the two. The related D. azteca Walsingham, revised status, which shares a distinct male forewing costal fold with D. odorata, is returned to Dichrorampha. Dichrorampha odorata induces galls in the shoot tips of the invasive weed Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King & H. Robinson (Asteraceae), commonly known as triffid, Jack-in-the-bush, bitter bush, Christmas bush, and Siam weed. The new species appears to have considerable potential as a biological control agent against this weedy shrub in South Africa.
Stantonia pallida (Ashmead) sensu Braet and Quicke (2004) is reported from Neomusotima conspurcatalis Warren (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a classical biological control agent of Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R. Br. (Polypodiales: Lygodiaceae) in Florida. It is the first reported parasitoid of N. conspurcatalis. One undetermined species each of Cotesia Cameron, Glyptapanteles Ashmead, and Rhygoplitis Mason (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are likely parasitoids of N. conspurcatalis but need to be confirmed through rearing from host larvae isolated individually. The use of S. pallida, under the name Stantonia lamprosemae Muesebeck, for control of Diaphania hyalinata (Linnaeus) and Diaphania nitidalis (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Florida is reviewed and used to illustrate the importance of systematics and natural history collections to classical biological control. The potential effects of these parasitoids on control of L. microphyllum in Florida are discussed.
We provide information on 255 species of scale insects that are considered adventive or introduced in the United States. Included for each species, where applicable, is reference to: the state and earliest collection date in which the invader was first discovered; whether it is currently established in the United States; its pest status in the United States along with a validation citation; its principal hosts; and its zoogeographical region of origin. Information is provided about trends of pest introductions and on native scale-insect pests in the United States.
We describe the new species Saemundssonia boschi recently collected from Least Auklets (Aethia pusilla (Pallas)) in Alaska and review the 11 names previously applied to Saemundssonia Timmermann species from alcids. Saemundssonia procax (Kellogg and Chapman) is relegated to a new junior synonym of S. grylle (O. Fabricius). along with the previously recognized junior synonym S. megacephalus (Denny). The nine previously described valid species are redescribed and illustrated and four new host records are documented from alcids. Finally, a key is provided for the identification of the ten recognized species of alcid Saemundssonia.
Alveoplectrus lilli Gates, new species, (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae) is described and illustrated. This species was reared from five species of field-collected slug caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). It is differentiated from similar species of Alveoplectrus.
The new species Dennyus (Collodennyus) mimirogerorum from the Papuan swiftlet, Aerodramus papuensis (Rand), from Papua New Guinea and D. (C.) bartoni from the Philippine swiftlet, A. mearnsi (Oberholser), from the Philippines are described and illustrated. The genetic distinctiveness of these two species from other close relatives is also evaluated using mitochondrial DNA sequences.
Xyleborus seriatus Blandford, an ambrosia beetle described from Japan, is reported for the first time from North America, based on specimens examined from Massachusetts. A re-description and diagnosis of the adult female, a summary of known distribution and biology, a revision to an existing key to North American xyleborine species to include this newly detected immigrant, and photographs of the adult habitus and other diagnostic morphological features are presented.
The sawfly genus Barilochia Malaise (Pergidae: Perreyiinae) was known from a single specimen of one species, B. brunneovirens Malaise, from San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina. A second species from Chile, B. longivalvula, n. sp., is described and illustrated. A male of Barilochia is described for the first time. The possible host plant is Nothofagus dombeyi (Coihue) (Nothofagaceae).
A new species of gall midge, Schizomyia loroco Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described from loroco, Fernaldia pandurata (A. DC.) Woodson (Apocynaceae), from El Salvador. Females lay eggs in flower buds that then produce characteristic galls. The new species is described, illustrated, and compared to its congeners.
The predatory true bug Anthocoris confusus Reuter is native to Europe and Asia. Scattered records for this species in North America date from 1929. In 2007–2008, we collected adults and nymphs of A. confusus from deciduous trees in western Washington State. This is the second North American record for A. confusus from west of the Rocky Mountains, and is the first record from the western United States. Specimens were collected from European beech (Fagus sylvatica; Fagaceae) and linden (Tilia sp.; Tiliaceae). The linden trees were heavily infested with the aphid Eucallipterus tiliae. The presence of adult and immature bugs, and the occurrence of the species at the collecting site in consecutive years, suggests that A. confusus is established at this location. We summarize North American records for A. confusus, briefly discuss host plant records, and list traits used to separate A. confusus from other Anthocoris spp. Additional predatory Heteroptera collected from linden and European beech included three other Old World species, Anthocoris nemoralis (Anthocoridae), Campyloneura virgula (Miridae), and Orthotylus nassatus (Miridae), as well as one native species, Deraeocoris fasciolus (Miridae); the record for O. nassatus is the first for this species from western North America.
Histura perseavora Brown, new species, from Guatemala, is described and illustrated. It is compared with Histura curvata (Meyrick) from Brazil and Histurodes costaricana Razowski from Costa Rica. All specimens of H. perseavora were reared from either fruit, fruit pedicels, or young green branches of avocados (Persea americana Mill.; Lauraceae) during efforts to identify lepidopteran pests of this commodity in Guatemala. Coincidentally, we discovered museum specimens of H. costaricana reared from avocados in Costa Rica. We present a brief review of the fragmentary knowledge of the larval stages of Polyorthini, the tribe to which H. perseavora is assigned.
Ammonoencyrtus carolinensis (Meyer) (n. comb.) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) a parasite of lobate lac scale, Paratachardina lobata (Chamberlin) (Hemiptera: Keriidae), is distinguished from other species of Ammonoencyrtus, and a diagnosis and summary of its known biology are given. Ammonoencyrtus carolinensis was previously reported attacking Mesolecanium nigrofasciatum (Coccidae). Parasitization of Keriidae is an unusual host shift for this group of parasitoids.
The predatory true bugs Anthocoris antevolens White and A. musculus (Say) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) are geographically widespread species in North America having broadly overlapping ranges. The two species are similar in coloration, size, host-plant use, and general appearance of the male genitalia. They are separated in keys by characteristics of the pubescence on the hemelytra: A. antevolens, pubescence long and dense; A. musculus, pubescence short and sparse. However, the extensive variability in this trait, in combination with similarities in other traits, has led to questions about whether A. antevolens and A. musculus are actually distinct species. We compared behavioral, morphological, and molecular genetic traits among specimens collected from four geographic regions, whose appearance would identify them as A. musculus (from three populations: Maine, Michigan, Montana) or as A. antevolens (from one population: central Washington). We included for comparison results for three populations of A. antevolens shown in earlier publications to differ in behavior, morphology, and mitochondrial DNA. Our results showed that identifications made using pubescence traits often failed to parallel variation in other characteristics, notably appearance of the male genitalia, mating success, and DNA sequences. In sum, our results indicate that variation among populations of A. antevolens in morphological, behavioral, and genetic traits may often exceed differences in those same traits between A. musculus and A. antevolens, if identifications are made using available keys.
We reevaluate the status of Ovatus mentharius (van der Goot) in North America which was previously misidentified as Ovatus crataegarius (Walker). Detailed keys for separating O. crataegarius and O. mentharius on Labiatiae, descriptions of apterous viviparae and the alatae of O. mentharius, morphometric analysis, distribution records, and illustrations of O. mentharius are presented.
Cynipini gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) are commonly known as oak gall wasps for their almost exclusive use of oak (Quercus spp.; Fagaceae) as their host plant. Previously, only three of the nearly 1,000 species of Cynipini have been recorded from hosts other than Quercus. These three are known from western chinquapin (Chrysolepis), chestnut (Castanea) and tanbark oak (Lithocarpus), all lineages of Fagaceae related to Quercus. Here we describe Dryocosmus rileypokei Morita & Buffington, new species, a second species of cynipine which attacks Chrysolepis. Unlike the previously known gall wasp D. castanopsidis, which produces a medium-sized spherical external gall near the base of the staminate (male) flowers of Chrysolepis sempervirens, D. rileypokei attacks the same host acting as a nut galler. Dryocosmus rileypokei creates a gall within the mesocarp wall of the nut and appears to draw nutrients away from the developing seed. Later instar larvae and teneral adults were found within these internal galls. It appears that the adult wasp eventually chews an exit hole from these galleries. The evolution of host use in the three, non-oak galling Dryocosmus species is discussed.
Xenothictis gnetivora, new species, from Papua New Guinea, is described and illustrated based on morphological characters and DNA barcode. The type series consists of 124 specimens reared from leaf-rolling larvae primarily on Gnetum gnemon L. (Gnetaceae), but also on Celtis philippensis Blanco (Celtidaceae), Sterculia schumanniana (Laut.) Mildbr. (Sterculiaceae), and other plants during a multi-year rearing project (1995-2001). The five previously described species of Xenothictis are from Australia and Melanesia.
Cirrospilus infuscatus, n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), is described from southeastern Arizona. This species was reared from Tischeria bifurcata Braun (Lepidoptera: Tischeriidae) on Ceanothus fendleri A. Gray (Rhamnaceae).
Six nominal species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) originally assigned to four separate genera and recognized here as three valid species are transferred to Arnoldiola Strand. They are as follows: Arnoldiola azaleae (Felt 1907a), new combination (from Oligotrophus Latreille); Arnoldiola caudata (Felt 1915), new combination (from Phytophaga Rondani) and new synonym of A. azaleae; Arnoldiola brevicornis (Felt 1907a), new combination (from Janetiella. Kieffer); Arnoldiola tiliacei (Felt 1907a), new combination (from Janetiella) and new synonym of A. brevicornis; Arnoldiola castaneae (Felt 1909), new combination (from Rhopalomyia Rubsaamen); and Arnoldiola ligni (Felt 1915), new combination (from Janetiella) and new synonym of A. castaneae. Diagnostic characters of the genus are outlined, and the newly combined species are described with some characters illustrated.
Three new species of Aulacidae, Aulacus gerais Smith and A. unicus Smith, from Minas Gerais, Brazil, and Pristaulacus petiense Smith, from Minas Gerais, Esperito Santo, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Santa Catarina, Brazil, are described. The species are illustrated and separated from described species of their respective genera.
Baryscapus diorhabdivorus Gates and Myartseva, new species, (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is described and illustrated. This species was reared from the saltcedar leaf beetle, Diorhabda elongata Brullé (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Turkmenistan. It is compared to closely related species, and its implications for the biological control of Tamarix spp. are discussed.
Psilochalcis brevialata Grissell and Johnson, new species, is described and illustrated based on specimens from a laboratory culture reared on Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) pupae. This species, isolated from laboratory-reared P. interpunctella placed at a culled fig warehouse in central California, is the first Psilochalcis associated with stored product pyralids. In the laboratory, P. brevialata also sucessfully parasitized Cadra figulilella (Gregson), C. cautella (Walker), Ephestia elutella (Hübner) and Amyelois transitella (Walker). The karyotype of P. brevialata showed a haploid chromosome number (n) of 6, the highest n value known for the family Chalcididae. Female P. brevialata had relatively long reproductive lives of 39.3 days, producing an average of 3.3 progeny/ day for a total of 128.7 progeny per female.
Filatima loowita, n. sp. is described from the Pumice Plain on Mount St. Helens in Washington, United States. An apparent specialist on lupine, early instars feed as leaf-miners, while later instars tie leaflets together into silken tunnels and feed externally, mainly on the leaf tissue. The larvae make webbed tunnels, which extend from the root bundles to the uppermost leaves of the plant. Illustrations are provided of the adult male and female genitalia, and chaetotaxal maps of the last-instar larva, supplemented with scanning electron micrographs and images of the host on the volcano.
Cacocharis is a small Neotropical genus comprised of two species: C. albimacula Walsingham, 1872 and C. cymotoma (Meyrick 1917). The synonymy of Olethreutes canofascia Forbes 1930 (new syn.) with C. cymotoma is proposed. The two recognized species are sympatric in the Caribbean on Jamaica, Dominica, and St. Vincent, indicating considerable independent dispersal or inadvertent introduction events. Based on literature and specimen sources, the larval food plants for the genus are Phyllanthus acidus Skeels and P. niuri L. (Euphorbiaceae), which are widely known for their medicinal properties. A possible explanation for the high level of sympatry of the moth species in the Caribbean is that they have been transported throughout the region along with their larval hosts.
A new species of Trichogramma, T. kaykai is described from the deserts of southern California where it is a common egg parasitoid of the lycaenid butterfly Apodemia mormo. The new species is closely related to T. deion, the most common Trichogramma in western North America. It is distinguished from T. deion by morphological, allozymic and ITS2 sequence differences; the two also appear to be reproductively incompatible.
Jurinella baoruco, n. sp., (Diptera: Tachinidae) is described and illustrated from the Sierra de Baoruco, Dominican Republic. A key to the genera of Tachinini from the Caribbean is presented. Two new generic synonyms are proposed: Hystriciella Townsend, 1915 and Parajurinia Townsend, 1928 both = Jurinella Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889, resulting in Jurinella pilosa (Drury), new combination and Jurinella obesa (Townsend), new combination.
Two new species of Compsolechia Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), C camilotus Adamski and C vittatiella Adamski, are described from dry-forests In western Mexico. Larvae of both species were collected on leaves of Casearia nitida (L.) Jacq. (Flacourtiaceae), a new host record for the genus. Photographs of larvae and their shelters and adult moths are provided. In addition, illustrations of the male and female genitalia of the adults, larval chaetotaxal maps, and scanning electron micrographs for both species are included. The pupa of only C. camilotus was available for description.
The poorly known European species Janetiella thymi (Kieffer), type species of Janetiella Kieffer (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is redescribed. Gall makers on grape that were formerly placed in Janetiella are shown to be distinct from that genus and transferred to Vitisiella Fedotova & Kovalev, a genus recently erected For a species on grape in Siberia. Among the distinguishing traits of Vitisiella, more fully characterized here than previously, are the closed costal vein at its juncture with R(5), the deeply divided male hypoproct, and the conspicuous dorsolateral sclerites of the ovipositor. Janetiella brevicauda Felt, also redescribed, and Cecidomyia oenephila Haimhoffen, both previously placed in Janetiella, are newly combined with Vitisiella.
Two new species of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae) from high-elevation Peruvian rodents are described and illustrated: Gliricola cutkompi from Cuscomys ashaninka Emmons (Abrocomidae) and G. brooksae from Dactylomys peruanus (J. A. Allen) (Echimyidae). The specimen of Cuscomys ashaninka that yielded the series of G. cutkompi also was the source of the type series of the previously described Abrocomophaga emmonsae Price and Timm. This finding reconfirms that single individual caviomorph rodents may harbor 2 different genera of lice of the family Gyropidae. Se describen y se ilustran dos especies nuevas de piojos suramericanos (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae) de roedores peruanas de alta montaña: Gliricola cutkompi parásito de Cuscomys ashaninka Emmons (Abrocomidae) y G. brooksae parásito de Dactylomys peruanus (J. A. Allen) (Echimyidae). La serie típica de G. cutkompi fue colectada del mismo especimen de Cuscomys ashaninka del cual se colectó la serie típica de Abrocomophaga emmonsae Price y Timm, anteriormente descrita por nosotros. Tal descubrimiento reconfirma que un solo individuo de roedor caviomorfo puede hospedar a dos generos distintos de la familia Gyropidae.
Two new species of Wockia Heinemann, 1870 (Lepidoptera: Urodidae), W. chewbacca and W. mexicana, are described from primary dry-forests in western Mexico. A new host record is reported for the genus from larvae of W. chewbacca feeding on leaves of Casearia nitida (L.) Jacq. (Salicaceae). Several shared genitalic features and DNA barcode similarities suggest a congeneric relationship between the two Mexican species but uncertain generic placement within Urodidae. Scanning electron micrographs of the larva and illustrations of the larva and pupa of Wockia chewbacca are provided, along with illustrations of male and female genitalia of both Mexican species. Three unusual features found in the larval stage are documented for W. chewbacca include; a multi-lobed integument, recurved D2 seta on the shield of T1, and a "hydroid bush" consisting of multiple sensilla trichoidea on the apical turret of the antenna. Locality data indicate the existence of Neotropical elements of Wockia and an expanded distributional range for the genus.
The genus Stringaspidiotus MacGillivray, 1921 is synonymized with Pseudaonidia Cockerell, 1897 as a junior subjective synonym (new synonymy) and the type species of Stringaspidiotus (Aspidiotus (Pseudaonidia) curculiginis Green) is redescribed and illustrated.
Neoleucinodes silvaniae, u. sp., from Colombia, is described. The larvae feed on the fruit of wild Solanum lanceifolium Jacq. Adults and larvae of the new species are figured. The new species is compared to Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenee), a major pest of tomatoes throughout South America. Neoleucinodes prophetica (Dyar), N. imperialis (Guenee), and N. torvis Capps are reported from Colombia for the first time.