This paper presents behavioral-based models for describing pedestrian gap acceptance at unsignalized crosswalks in a mixed-priority environment, where some drivers yield and some pedestrians cross in gaps. Logistic regression models are developed to predict the probability of pedestrian crossings as a function of vehicle dynamics, pedestrian assertiveness, and other factors. In combination with prior work on probabilistic yielding models, the results can be incorporated in a simulation environment, where they can more fully describe the interaction of these two modes. The approach is intended to supplement HCM analytical procedure for locations where significant interaction occurs between drivers and pedestrians, including modern roundabouts.
For the majority of Polish students school is a source of negative experiences and therefore may increase the risk of adolescent problem behaviors. The results of the study conducted in Warsaw middle schools (N=2244, 54% girls) indicated that changes for worse (between 7 and 8 grade) in students' behavior increase the risk of drug use. However, changes for better in students' perception of school value and school achievements are risk factors, too (even when family and peer risk factors are controlled).
Potential of 200 km-SMF-span in a long-haul system with OADMs was evaluated. Adoption of remotely-pumped-optical-amplification enabled 1,200 km transmission of 1.6 Tb/s WDM signal with a simple dispersion map, which enabled OADMs to be inserted at any repeaters.
We demonstrate compact, passively fundamental-mode-locked Er:Yb:glass lasers with 25 GHz and 40 GHz repetition rate. They can serve as pulse generators for future high-speed RZ transmission systems or as multi-wavelength sources locked to the ITU grid.
This paper presents a relatively new approach to investigate the Principals’ leadership behaviours. Qualitative data gathered through interviews with Principals from eight secondary schools (four urban and four rural) in Sabah and Sarawak will be collated and mapped against Jack Welch's typology of leadership (Bryne, 1998; Shanley, 2005), namely “E to the fourth power” leadership model. This typology serves as a dynamic way for obtaining insights into principals who occupy the apex of leadership and management in the school's social system. The leadership behaviours will be mapped against school performance. Results and findings will be discussed.
This study has two purposes. First is to explain possible educational utilization of Web 2.0 tools, namely blogs, wikis, podcasts and social networks, from the point of importance of interaction for distance education. The second purpose of this study is to investigate adoption process of Web 2.0 tools in distance education by defining theories and models which have different construct that effect this process. Because the nature and structure of both distance education and Web 2.0 include multifaceted and dynamic variables, the limitation of utilization from only single diffusion, adoption or acceptance model or theory is underlined and it is proposed to handle a holistic view or using different models and theories suitable for research variables.
The aim of the study was to examine the pre-service teachers’ perceptions about Web 2.0 technologies in their learning process and to understand their acceptance levels and attitudes towards these tools. The data gathered from a sample of 101 first year pre-service science and computer teachers in the 2009 Fall semester. The survey was made up of three components: demographic data, Web 2.0 attitude scale, and Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) scale. The results indicated that participants’ perceptions about Web 2.0 technologies were positive and also acceptance and willingness to use these technologies was high. The learners mostly preferred to use audio/video conferencing technologies rather than the other technologies since they are more familiar with it.
This study explored the effects on mathematics achievement of students’ and Schools’ characteristics. To do that, gender, computer use for internet or entertainment, self-confidence in high level computer tasks, school types and economic, social and cultural status of students’ families are analyzed with detailed. The sample was prepared from students who participated in Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 in Turkey. The estimates of PISA mathematics performance and questionnaire responses of 4942 15 year-old Turkish students in 160 schools were analyzed via multilevel analysis. Also, it was shown that frequencies of the reasons of students’ computer use. Two-level model was used to estimate coefficients and modeled differences across school types. Results from this study indicated that male students, students who have high self-confidence to use computer, students who have high economic, social and cultural status and schools which have quality educational resources have better scores in mathematics. However, female students and schools which have high student teacher ratio have lower score in mathematics. Furthermore, students, particularly female students, need greater motivation to use computers and teachers should integrate computer within mathematics and programs. Also, higher socio-economic and cultural status of the family, higher educational background of the parents and students who find mathematics subjects important are the factors that increase mathematics performance too. As a result of this study, it is shown that some characteristics of student and schools, especially gender and quality educational resources, have a positive effect on mathematic achievement.
This paper explores the efficacy of using a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) as a platform for engaging with adult literacies practitioners working in diverse communities across Scotland and the challenges this implies when quality of relationships are recognised as having a central influence on the learning process. Research methods included an analysis of interaction on Web 2.0 based learning forums and a qualitative/quantitative evaluation of practice in the field. Early findings suggest the virtual learning environment can provide a social space for learning - ‘Agora’ – a discursive space where students become participants in the creation and dissemination of knowledge rather than passive consumers. The evidence gathered to date also shows that a ‘blended’ approach to delivery of the TQAL programme is necessary to increase student use of the VLE. However, challenges remain in overcoming technical barriers and encouraging experimentation in developing new learning strategies.
‘Nation’ and ‘ethnic group’ are distinct concepts in Western literature. But under the strong influence of the Soviet Model of ‘nationality’, China established a similar framework dealing ethnic relations since the 1950 s. This framework is different from the Chinese tradition of over 2000 years. Because the Soviet Union has disintegrated, China should rethink the Soviet model in comparison with Chinese tradition as well as the ‘nation-ethnic group relations’ in the western nations. ‘De-politicization of ethnicity’ in China might lead China to a new direction for harmonious society construction.
The purpose of this study was to compare if a creative program in physical education can be more enjoyable than a regular one.The instrument that was used for enjoyment was the PACESThe results showed that there was not a statistical significant difference between the two groups (F (1, 83) = 2.67, p = 0.10), statistical significant main effect of the time (pre- intervention / post- intervention) (F (1, 83) = 202.8, p = 0.00) was demonstrated.The findings showed that both programs were enjoyable. They are some indicators that the characteristics of the teacher might effect more the enjoyment.
In information age, modern health organizations can use distance education of e-learning issues effectively and they can increase the speed of the learning process of development. Because, health systems can adapt changes by using innovations of leadership and they can reach learning organization level by understanding, thinking and doing well things properly. In this paper, we demonstrate the role of informal discussion about face to face Academic Counseling System (ACS) requirement HES. We try to explain of the synchronal integration of face to face e-learning process and adapting continuous training of the HRM. In this paper, for reaching expected high quality in training we want to explain the importance of academic counseling system and supporting by face to face training during HESM.
Learning style is personal characteristics of students which determine their preferences in perceiving the environment, processing information and communicating to their environment and reacting to it. Procrastination is defined as unnecessarily deferment of an action that should be done or have priority or leaving it to the last minute. This study analyzes the interaction among learning modalities, academic procrastination behaviors and academic achievements of the students participating in the Certificate Program in English Language Teaching delivered in the Faculty of Educational Science, Ankara University during the academic year 2008/09. It is found that there is no significant correlation between the academic achievement and academic procrastination, and learning modalities and academic achievement of the students. It is also seen that there is a significant positive correlation of .05 between learning modalities and academic procrastination behaviors of the students. This means that a course design based on the learning modalities of the students may result in a decrease in academic procrastination behaviors of the students and thereby an increase in the academic achievement.
Education research has frequently examined effective teacher and student, but has ignored effective communication skills. Briefly education process in classrooms and other environments (internet, out school activities) is required communication. Students communicate with other students and teachers. The communication is affecting the instruction. So teacher-student, student-student communication must be research for successfully education. This study was designed to examine students’ opinions about their teachers’ communication skills and to compare their responses based on gender, nationality and age. Study was applied to 97 students from the Communication department of Near East University. Results showed that students have positive opinions towards teachers’ communications skills in education.
A two-year study on the use of laptop computers by New Brunswick (Canada) grade 7–8 francophone students aimed to better understand the impact of laptops on learning. Two problem-based learning (PBL) interdisciplinary scenarios (math, science, language arts) were implemented in eight experimental classes to measure students’ learning process, particularly in terms of their ability to scientifically investigate complex problems, to reason mathematically, and to communicate. Based on our findings, we argue that laptops in themselves may not automatically lead to better results on standardized tests, but rather create opportunities for more open-ended, constructive, collaborative, reflective, and cognitively rich learning tasks.
Stereotypes of nursing as a female profession and of male nurses as gay can limit male recruitment. This UK-based focus-group study examines whether student nurses reproduce or challenge such views. Using discourse analysis, discussion transcript segments dealing with male nurses’ gender or sexuality were examined for turn design, sequential organization, and procedural relevance. Results showed participants characterized such stereotypical constructions of male nurses as held only by other people. They themselves, however, used gender-based distinctions to problematic male nursing. These findings indicate nursing students would benefit from training which emphasizes the positioning of men and women within society.
An individual's personal network encodes social contacts as well as relations among them. Personal networks are therefore considered to be characteristic and meaningful variables of individuals—supplementing more traditional characteristics such as age, gender, race, or job position.We analyze an ensemble of several hundred personal networks of migrants using a recently introduced classification method. As a result, individuals are partitioned into groups defined by similarity of their personal networks, and abstract summaries of classes are obtained. From the analysis we can conclude that Berry's modes of acculturation feature prominently in the empirical data.
Many research indicated that ICT has been proven useful as a tool in supporting and transforming teaching and learning. In mathematics classroom, ICT can help students and teachers to perform calculation, analyse data, explore mathematical concepts thus increasing the understanding in mathematics. This quasi-experimental study with non-equivalent control group post-test only design was conducted to examine the effects of using a free-software called GeoGebra in the learning of Coordinate Geometry among students classified as high visual-spatial ability students (HV) and low visual-spatial ability students (LV). The Spatial Visualization Ability Test Instrument (SVATI) had been used to categorize the students in different spatial ability level. A total of 53 secondary school students in Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur participated in the study. They were assigned into two different groups. One group was taught Coordinate Geometry using GeoGebra while the other underwent learning the traditional way. Students’ mathematics achievement was measured using post test at the end of the intervention. The test format was based on Additional Mathematics KBSM syllabus. Independent samples t-test results showed that there was a significant difference in mean mathematical achievement between the GeoGebra group (M = 65.23, SD = 19.202) and the traditional teaching strategy group (M = 54.7, SD = 15.660); [t (51) = 2.259, p = .028 < .05]. This study also found that the HV students performed better than the LV students in both group. Findings showed that there were no significant different among HV students between GeoGebra group and traditional group. Meanwhile the LV students in GeoGebra group (M = 64.07, SD = 21.569) significantly outperformed the LV students in traditional group (M = 48.79, SD = 15.106); [t (51) = 2.222, p = .036 < .05]. These findings showed that the use of GeoGebra enhanced the students’ performance in learning Coordinate Geometry.
Bilingual first language acquisition (BFLA) is a sub-field of bilingualism. Two conditions considered for a speaker in terms of are: (1) contact with the two languages has to start no later than a week after birth, and (2) contact with the two languages has to be regular until the time of the study (
[Meisel, 1989] and [De Houwer, 1990]). The present study aims to investigate the acquisition of word order (verb placement) in an adult Serbo-Croatian-Turkish bilingual. Data came from spontaneous speech. The results revealed a great deal of evidence for syntactic transfer due to different word order patterns between the two languages. Further details are discussed in the research.
The thrust towards constructivist learning and critical thinking in the National Curricular Framework (2005) of India implies shifts in pedagogical practices. In this context, drawing on grounded theory, focus group interviews were conducted with 40 preservice teachers to ascertain the contextual situation and the likely outcomes of applying critical literacy across the curriculum. Central themes that emerged in the discussion were: being teacher centred/ learner centred, and conformity/autonomy in teaching and learning. The paper argues that within the present Indian context, while there is scope for changes to pedagogy and learning styles, yet these must be adequately contextualised.
This study reports on findings from a longitudinal research examining pre-service language teachers’ (teacher candidates) conceptual change over two years. Personal theories and personal and professional development of pre-service teachers were the focus of this study. Data was collected through the use of verbal reports, micro teaching field experience notes and detailed comments taken in micro teaching experiences. The conceptual change in the context of “effective language teaching” has been studied by employing action research methodology has been employed. Findings from the research suggest that pre-service language teachers alter their perception of “effective language teacher” as well as their own practices.
This paper explores the English in Action (EIA) intervention in Bangladesh and explores how the school-based support systems impact on classroom practice in Underprivileged Children's Educational Programs (UCEP) Schools. It presents evidence to demonstrate how in-school training helps teachers’ professional development (TDP). This paper explores TPD by analysing interviews with UCEP school administrators and teachers who are participating in the pre-pilot EIA intervention. It draws a conclusion that school-based support systems combined with technology enhanced open and distance learning (ODL) are contributing significantly to TPD as an in-service training.
The purpose of this study is to determine the preferences of preschool teachers using place arrangement as a motivation method during science and nature activities. The sample consists of 23 randomly selected teachers working at pre-schools in Trabzon. The data were collected from semi-structured interviews and classroom observations. According to the data most of the teachers believe that place arrangement in science and nature corners is very fruitful to motivate and challenge students to attend science and nature activities. On the other hand, limited opportunities, such as deficiency of materials, crowded classes with small sizes, prevent teachers to make various instructive activities for pre-school children.
This study examined the basic psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the “Mother-Adult Daughter Questionnaire (MAD)” by Rastogi (1995). The MAD and Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) were administered to 185 female university students. The total score of three subscales (connectedness, trust in hierarchy, and interdependency) constitute the strength of mother and adult daughter relationship. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Internal Consistency Coefficient (Cronbach Alpha), test-retest reliability and Convergent validity were examined to assess the cross-cultural equivalence of this particular instrument. Based on the results, MAD questionnaire appears to be a valid and reliable scale for Turkish samples.
This article analyses different methods of adapting digital content for its delivery via mobile devices taking into account two aspects which are a fundamental part of the learning process; on the one hand, functionality of the contents, and on the other, the actual controlled navigation requirements that the learner needs in order to acquire high level knowledge.Currently the existing development processes consist of adapting content ad-hoc considering the device's special technical features and the programming language which has been used.Designers and programmers pay special attention to the increasing need of implementing and going about the creation process in a systematic way. This obviously leads to a growing need to establish reference marks that will allow us to compare these different methods of creation.The development and adaptation of digital content and navigability and the impact on the user is a point of departure for future research. Its function would be to determine effectively whether this learning process is viable or not.
Democracy essentially means ‘people ruling themselves’ or ‘self-rule’. In the light of this, democracy education should aim at nurturing citizens well-suited to live in a democracy, that is, capable of ‘ruling themselves’ or ‘self-rule’. Ideal citizens in a democracy should seek to be well-informed, have independent decision-making abilities with regard to community affairs, possess high degree of tolerance of diversity, have respect for the individual, equality and freedom, share a certain degree of consensus with and have concern for others in society as well as care for the general good of society. Certain elements in Confucian thought may be conducive to and congenial with the nurturing of citizens, indeed even better ones, well-suited to live in a democracy, perhaps one with a hue of Confucianism. This paper will examine to what extent Confucianism is compatible with or add value to the ideal of democracy education. In doing so, one has to distinguish between ‘Confucianism as an ideal’ and ‘Confucianism in practice’ as the latter may deviate from the former as inexact implementation of the ideal.
The aim of this study is to determine the effect of cyber bullying on the distrust levels among the final year university students by considering the intermediary effect of Internet addiction. The study group comprises preservice teachers who were senior year students at the Firat University Education Faculty in Elazig city, Turkey during the spring term of the 2009,2010 academic year. Cyber bullying of preservice teachers directly impacts their distrust levels at the (24) level. However, when Internet addiction was included in the model as a mediating variable, the direct impact of cyber bullying on distrust decreased to (14). Therefore, it is evident that when cyber bullying is mediated by Internet addiction, its impact on the distrust levels of pre-service teachers is more significant.
The present study aimed at the comparison of the prevalence of ADHD and also the components of the disorder (hyperactivity’attention deficit and impulsivity) among patients with substance use disorder and normal people. To achieve the goal‚ 85 patients were selected among clients referring to addiction treatment centers in Tehran city‚ and 85 normal subjects were selected using at-hand sampling. Data from the subjects were collected using the Adult Questionnaire – Childhood ADHD Symptoms Rating Scale (AQ- CASRS). Data were analyzed using T-test: Results indicated there existed a significant difference between patients with substance use disorder and normal people in terms of their total scores in ADHD and its components: patients with substance use disorder reported more problems and symptoms compared to normal people.
36 female university students in the city of Tehran, who had lost a close family member in 2008-2009 year, randomly assigned into a control and two experimental groups. The two experimental groups received twice a week intervention for eight weeks and then was post tested and once again reassessed in a two-month follow up by GHQ-28. Mixed ANOVA showed the GMT wasn’t more significant than SGT on improving mental health in post test but that was in follow up. The GMT was an efficacious and permanent technique among adolescent.
The paper intends to look in depth at the relationship between SDL readiness and the Malay cultural values. The Self-directed Learning Readiness Survey (SDLRS) was distributed to twenty adult learners in distance learning mode. Three respondents were chosen for this study. The respondents were asked to keep a journal entry, observed during class and finally interviewed at the end of the study. This study seems to indicate that culture could be a strong influence and may affect their communication and learning strategies in the classroom.
Increasing education need in today's bewilderingly fast changing organizations necessitates review of the recent educational policies. In today's information age, it is seen that programs and plans that are for a certain period or age group are being abandoned quickly and life-long learning programs for every age group and every educational level have been put into practice in different dimensions. On the other hand the value given to educated human resource in information age made it compulsory that people who give education to individuals in every field and administrators to be qualified. “Function of planning” is one of the most functional dimensions of educational administration and it became strategically a parameter that defines efficiency of educational policies and quality of education. In this study an evaluation about “adult education” that will have wider application area in the future and “planning” concept is presented.
Whenever we feel those ‘higher’ and hard to define sensations like synchronicity, love, wholeness, and appreciation is this a pattern or a metaphorical illuminative system that is part of a larger ecological network or evolutionary design meant to establish homeostasis within the planet? Meeting as groups in person, or posting online to an interactive website, adults track, record, and describe in layman's terms their everyday encounters with illumination. Illumination in this sense could encompass both spiritual and/or secular significance. Participants build data files of illuminative sensation recorded in video, text, sound bite, drawing, and/or journaling. This spatial and sensory awareness activity, initiating from an appreciative foundation, eventually leads to participantsconducting informal skillshares where adults teach to one another the strengths they possess when illuminated. Next adults collectively design new courses, programs, and products for their immediate community. A pilot study reveals that adults yearn for opportunities to talk about illuminative moments with one another.
In this paper it is explained the construction and utility of a didactic
exhibit about the effect of aerosol in atmosphere on electromagnetic wave
propagation. The exhibit is composed by a lamp simulating the Sun, a Plexiglas
case (the atmosphere), white or black panels (surface albedo), a combustion
chamber to supply aerosol inside the case and other equipments. There are
temperature and relative humidity of air sensors and 5 light sensors to measure
direct and scattered light. It is possible to measure the cooling effect of
aerosol inside the case and the increasing in scattered light.
The paper examines the impact of globalization on state capacity in Africa. It problematizes globalization as a central determining factor in building the capable state in Africa. Globalization, although it requires typologizing and contextualizing or historicizing, is used to refer to a complex set of interconnected multi-linear, multifaceted and dialectical and still unfolding historical processes, propelled by the transnationalization of finance capital, in search of new markets, and the logic of capital accumulation, and typically characterized by structural differentiation and unequal functional integration between metropolitan and dependent or satellite nations, peoples and markets. State capacity is used neither narrowly nor exclusively as human and physical resource capacity-building or capacity-enhancement, nor limited to econometric or statistical computations of gross domestic product or national income data, though it includes and requires both. Its use assumes a democratic, open, participatory, and socially inclusive political system, as important conditions for expanding and consolidating state capacity on a sustainable basis in Africa.
Socio-economic and political changes which swept through Africa in the 1980 s had a major impact on African universities; including the University of Dar-es-Salaam. In response to these changes, the University of Dar-es-Salaam embarked on a self-controlled strategic planning exercise starting in 1989. The model adopted by the University of Dar-es-Salaam and the lessons learnt are summarized in this paper.
Rankings of higher education institutions are important for students, research administrations, industry and academics. A number of rankings are published internationally, most of which aim to identify the top universities in the world.Developing countries are also interested for relevant rankings that could assist them to develop appropriate higher education policies.In this article we develop a ranking approach based on citations received for articles produced by universities in a variety of scientific disciplines. The approach is relatively simple and has the potential to guide policy.In this context this article identifies the international standing of the South African universities in the various scientific disciplines, compares them with their standing over time and elaborates on the consequences relevant to higher education and science and technology policy.
This paper presents a methodology for evaluating city logistics measures considering the behaviour of several stakeholders associated with urban freight transport using a multi-agent model. The model constructed consists of a learning model and a model for vehicle routing and scheduling problem with time window-forecasted (VRP-TW-F). We used a method of Q-learning, a technique of reinforcement learning, in constructing a learning model. We implemented the model on a test road network representing an urban area. The results indicate that implementing a truck ban directly to environmentally damaged areas and discounting motorway tolls entirely in the urban motorway network together has large environmental effects, and leads to an acceptable environment for all stakeholders.
Air pollution from fossil fuel combustion has been known to affect human health for centuries. More detailed insights developed in the 20th century, as a result of studies prompted by severe air pollution episodes such as those in the Meuse Valley, Belgium in 1930, and London, UK in 1952. The focus in the early studies was on local pollution produced by industry, power generation and home heating sources. Later, the emphasis shifted to so-called secondary pollutants, the products of atmospheric reactions producing pollutants such as ozone, sulphates and nitrates. The secondary pollutants typically affected large areas extending hundreds of kilometers downwind from primary sources. Effects of secondary pollutants on human health became evident from population studies and, in case of ozone, also from controlled human laboratory experiments.On an even larger scale, we are now confronted with air pollution masses extending over thousands of kilometers, and occupying several kilometers of the troposphere, the so-called ‘brown clouds’. Emissions from megacities, industry, energy production plants, home heating, biomass combustion for cooking and heating in rural areas as well as wildfires contribute to these ‘brown clouds’. Adverse effects of such clouds on human health are suspected but have not yet been conclusively proven.On the other end of the spatial scale, it has become convincingly clear that at the very local level, indoor air pollution from biomass combustion and exposure to traffic-related air pollution constitute major health hazards.Developing economies such as in China are confronted with each of these types of air pollution simultaneously, posing tremendous challenges for public health policy.
Each profession has specific ethic codes which promote members of that profession reach highest standards. Although teaching professional ethics is accepted an important part of vocational education, personal characteristics and moral values of professionals largely ignored. Moreover, personal characteristics and moral values of professionals, is accepted in border of private life in today's world. The Akhi institution established in 13th century in Anatolia is one of the best examples of occupational foundation in the world ever. One of the reasons is the institution is not only interested in professional ethics but also moral values. The aim of the present study was to discuss the Akhi institution in respect of teaching professional ethics and moral values to candidates of profession. Then it was discussed how contemporary vocational educational system can be benefited from this old well designed system.
The present study aimed at the comparison of the prevalence of Alexithymia among patients with substance use disorder and normal people. To achieve the goal‚ 85 patients were selected among clients referring to addiction treatment centers in Tehran city‚ and 85 normal subjects were selected using at-hand sampling. Data from the subjects were collected using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS). Data were analyzed using T-test: Results indicated there existed a significant difference between patients with substance use disorder and normal people in terms of their total scores in alexithymia: patients with substance use disorder reported more problems and symptoms compared to normal people.
Using bibliometric data from 269 Alzheimer investigators and the 167,142 researchers contained in their two-step collaboration network (i.e., co-authors and co-authors of co-authors), an eigen decomposition of the 13,254 unique Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms associated with the 43,736 papers authored by the Alzheimer researchers was performed. A correspondence-analysis-based transformation of the data produced a bench-to-bedside translational spectrum along which each of the original 269 Alzheimer investigators were placed. The spectrum was found to naturally divide into two partitions one of which housed basic scientists while the other grouped together clinical researchers. In addition to the semantic partitions, two main coauthor subgroups were isolated, and the authors who were most central to those co-author subgroups were analyzed for their ability to bridge the “translational divide” which separated researchers grouped in the “bench” (i.e. basic science) partition from those in the “bedside” (i.e., clinical investigation) partition. If a given research community can be partitioned into bench and bedside components, then the possibility exists to use such a dataset to identify people who might be best suited to attempt to bridge the “translational divide” which often exists between those researchers who make scientific breakthroughs in the lab and those clinical investigators capable of bringing the bench discoveries to the patients in the form of clinical trials.
The paper is based on work carried out as part of the Green Logistics project1. The paper provides a review of urban freight studies that have taken place in the UK over approximately a thirty year period from the early 1970 s to the present (this is the first attempt at such a review in the UK as far as the authors are aware). Coverage of both goods collection and delivery vehicle activity and service vehicle activity is included. This review covers the survey techniques used, as well as the survey results obtained. Comparisons are made between the results of studies from the 1970 s and those carried out in the last decade in order to gain insight to changes in urban freight transport operations.The data provided in the studies reviewed is extremely important as it provides insight into urban freight operations that is unavailable from any other data source, including national freight surveys conducted by government. However, until now, the results of these studies have not been widely disseminated or compared.
Some studies have shown that technology use in education increases motivation and promote interactive learning. Our study was conducted in two science courses during the first academic semester of 2008. Lectures’ audio and video were recorded and then published in a course administration tool. To motivate participation an audience response system was used in the classroom. All students used available materials at the course website, at least once a week, and although it is not possible to generate a statistical relation between use and benefits, our results permit to infer that the use of technological tools improve participation and communication.
The aim of this study is to investigate the level of mathematics anxiety among pre-service elementary school teachers. Survey method was used in this descriptive type study. The sample of the study consisted of 207 pre-service elementary school teachers. To assess mathematics anxiety level, a mathematics anxiety scale composed of 39 items developed by Üldaş (2005) was used. The data were analyzed by independent samples t-test using the SPSS 13.0 statistics program. In conclusion with the analysis, the level of mathematics anxiety of pre-service elementary school teachers was interpreted as low and the difference based on gender was not significant. On the other hand, there were significant differences according to class, perceived ability and perceived success levels. Finally, suggestions to teacher educators were provided to overcome mathematics anxiety.