Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century

Published by Scientia Socialis Ltd
Print ISSN: 2029-8587
Publications
Doctors and other allied healthcare professionals are constantly exposed to stressful situations that can undoubtedly negatively affect their psychological well-being. This precarious situation has been further exacerbated due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to explore the mental stress and trauma among doctors, in light of the pandemic. A number of relevant studies (quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, and case studies) have been gathered to present a global trajectory of the responses of the doctors in the pandemic, and, as a consequence how this has impacted their psychological well-being. Collated findings suggest a need for a more nuanced and global approach, which is necessary towards addressing the immediate and long-lasting effects of the pandemic within the medical community. This study also provides a theoretical framework that can be used to design psychological interventions which can target the healthcare profession. Keywords: community psychology; COVID-19, healthcare professionals, psychological well-being; systematic review
 
In the life cycle of family systems, transition periods are important stages for the maturation of the individual and his family as it allows the reorganization of relational arrangements. The health emergency of recent months makes it necessary for us to reflect on resilience education, to cultivate more authentic educational relationships and to react to stressful and problematic situations with greater self-effectiveness. If rigid family systems risk of causing communicative and relational diseases, investing in emotional literacy and empathy means providing adults and children with the tools to deal with the painful situations, that are inevitably part of everyday life, to share negative experiences and bring out the inner resources. In this perspective, technologies play a significant role in the media, both because they are a bridge between the family context and the external social network, and because they potentially allow more inclusive and flexible learning-teaching processes. A meticulous analysis of assistive technologies is thus necessary in order to call for a reconfiguration of information flows, spatial-temporal arrangements, methodologies and tools that are to be reconfigured ad habitus of the new individual and social educational needs. Keywords: assistive technologies, educational resilience, emotional literacy, family system, health emergency, psychotherapy.
 
There were 3 countries which participated in Erasmus+ project „Supporting teachers to face the challenge of distance teaching” (2020-1-LV01-KA226-SCH-094599) during last year. The aim of the project was to develop a well-functioning digital support system for teachers, promoting socio-emotional health and resilience. The main aim of this research was to outline a research problem on teacher well-being factors in three countries during the Covid-19 pandemic, when teachers worked remotely, and to further explore the problem in a focus group in Latvia. The following is a description of the study that was carried out in Latvia on the problems of teachers' social and emotional health factors during distance learning in 2020-2021. The study in Latvia took place in parallel with the study in Slovakia and Lithuania. This article describes the first part of the study in Latvia. One of the tasks of the study was to identify the factors that predicted teachers’ social and emotional health (SEH-T), to determine the relationships between teacher SEH, emotional burnout and teacher engagement in work indicators, and to perform a linguistic and psychometric adaptation of the teacher SEH-T (Social-emotional Health Survey – Teachers, Furlong and Gajdosova, 2019). Latvian teachers from different schools in Latvia participated in this study. Respondents completed three surveys: Teachers SEH-T (Social- emotional Health Survey – Teachers, Furlong and Gajdosova, 2018), Engaged Teachers Scale (ETS; Klassen, Yerdelen & Durksen, 2013) and the K. Maslach Burnout Survey – General Survey (MBI– GS, Maslach, Jackson & Leiter, 1996; Caune, 2004). The results showed that the translation of teachers' SEH-T survey into Latvian language had good internal coherence of articles, the article discrimination index indicator was statically significant, and the reaction index was within the normal range. Teachers SEH is positively predicted by teacher engagement indicators. Demographic and emotional burnout rates do not predict teachers' SEH-T scores. The results showed that there were statistically significant positive correlations between teacher SEH-T, teacher engagement, and emotional burnout rates. There were statistically significant negative correlations between teachers' SEH-T indicators, teacher involvement and emotional burnout indicators. Keywords: Teachers SEH, work engagement, emotional burnout
 
Restrictions, physical distancing and lockdown imposed during Covid-19 are associated with many challenges such as financial shortages and lack of social relationships, which have been particularly damaging for vulnerable groups dependent on others. This research aims to study financial and social challenges faced by one of the vulnerable social groups-pensioners living alone below the poverty line during the covid-19 period in four Georgia municipalities (Bolnisi, Dmanisi, Tianeti and Kaspi) in July-August 2020. The survey was conducted with 475 respondents (confidence level 95, interval 4), but 11 questionnaires were discarded due to technical deficiencies. The analysis was performed on 464 data. The study used available sampling where gender (strata) representation was maintained. 78.6% were female and 21.14% male. Overall, the elderly is a fairly vulnerable group in municipalities and across the country. The biggest problem during the pandemic period was a lack of financial resources. The study participants' primary income source is social assistance and various pensions; Thus, the elderly people are financially dependent on state aid. The elderly have limited social relationships; They rarely interact with neighbors, much less with relatives, and even less with friends. The elderly rarely go to the city or village center either. Limited social networking and activities affect the mental health of the elderly. Such a situation is especially noteworthy in a pandemic. There is a positive correlation between limited access to technologies and lack of financial resources that plays a vital role in social relationships among the elderly; Those elderly who cannot afford access to computer/internet and telephone reported higher isolation levels. Keywords: social isolation, Covid-19, pensioners living alone, under poverty line
 
In 1979 a large international symposium dedicated to the problem of unconscious was held in Tbilisi. More than 150 visitors from 17 foreign countries and about the same member from different scientific centers of the former Soviet Union took part in its work. These ciphers may not sound very impressive now but taking into account the years when the Soviet Union was still separated from outer world by the so called “iron curtain”, the symposium can indeed be considered a grand event. Foreign participants came not only from the countries of “socialist camp”, but also from Western states (Austria, Canada, England, Ireland, Italy, France, USA, Western Germany). One more notable thing is that a lot of researchers working in the sphere of psychoanalysis visited Tbilisi. Remembering the fact that psychoanalysis, even at that period, stayed as the main ideological “scarecrow” for “Soviet psychology”, the symposium seemed really unique and unprecedented.
 
Recently HIV is falling in a significant number of countries, partly due to the adoption of preventive behaviors, which demonstrates that decreasing sexual transmission of HIV is possible. The aim of this research was to analyze preventive sexual behavior in Portuguese adolescents, including information and attitudes about HIV/AIDS, and assessing whether they changed from 2002 to 2010. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire from the Portuguese sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC), a collaborative WHO study. The study provided national representative data of 10587 Portuguese adolescents, randomly chosen from those attending 8th and 10th grades and the opportunity to examine trends in sexual behaviour on a national level. In terms of preventive behaviours, results showed an increasing trend regarding the percentage reporting first sexual intercourse at 14 years old or more and condom use at last sexual intercourse and a stabilized trend concerning having had sexual intercourse and contraceptive pill use. Nevertheless, in terms of information and attitudes about HIV/AIDS, results showed a systematic decreasing trend. Key words: adolescents, attitudes, information, preventive behaviours, sex education.
 
Practicing sexual intercourse (SI) under the influence of alcohol or drugs has been identified as an unhealthy sexual behaviour. The sample consisted of 5695 adolescents, of which 46.1% were males, with a mean age of 15 years old. The measures consisted of asking the adolescent if he or she had ever had SI, age of 1st SI, condom use at last SI, SI under the influence of alcohol or drugs and HIV testing. Most adolescents reported having never had SI (77.0%). Among those who responded affirmatively, they referred having had their 1st SI at 15 years old. A significant minority reported not having used condom at last SI (34.1%) and having had SI under the influence of alcohol or drugs (14.5%). It was noticeable that males, adolescents with high SES, those who reported not having used condom at last SI, those not having been HIV tested, those who consider themselves fat, smoke daily, and scored lower in emotional sensitivity and quality of life were those who were more likely to have reported having had SI under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Adolescents who reported having had SI under the influence of alcohol or drugs have multiple risk behaviours. These results may account for important changes in educational and health policies, directed towards the development of personal and social skills, the importance of adolescents’ quality of life and the activation of all the support structures where adolescents are involved and that are somewhat responsible for promoting a healthy lifestyle. Keywords: unhealthy sexual behaviour, sexual intercourse, substance use, Portuguese adolescents
 
Among the threats and dangers of the future, our duty to the younger and future generations is to develop the instincts, feelings and self-preservation of children and young people, who by their very birth suffer from inventions, conflicts and crises inherited by all previous older generations. The dominants of future self-preservation are in the mental development of children and youth, the main of which we consider mental abilities, development of feelings and especially - a sense of empathy for all living things, as well as - the imagination of every child and young person. her own life and the lives of others. Our common methodology should be to understand that the social world is not simplified, but complicated, and we have a duty to prepare our children and young people to solve these complications.
 
People with Asperger’s syndrome often have superior abilities in various fields, including art, natural science, and solving social problems. However, they tend to become stressed easily due to difficulties in relating to others. This stress sometimes prevents them from showing their full potential. Their abilities and tendency to become stressed are similar to those of people with schizoid temperament. Recent evidence has shown that purpose in life (PIL)/ikigai, moderate aerobic exercise, and diet, which are related to each other and to prefrontal lobe function, are effective methods for coping with stress. PIL/ikigai, which is an attitude in which one seeks to establish meaning of life, is developed through positive experiences, such as cordial human relations with suitable role-models, spending time in beautiful natural surroundings, and being moved by people or events. PIL/ikigai for people without schizoid temperament develops through such positive experiences throughout their life. However, PIL/ikigai for people with schizoid temperament/Asperger’s syndrome develops through positive experiences during a limited number of life stages: infancy, childhood, and adulthood. Moderate aerobic exercise, such as walking, running, and swimming, were linked to finding food during the evolution of mankind. In turn, our diet supplies nutrients to our organs. Therefore, we propose that providing positive experiences during the critical periods and maturation periods of particular brain regions may influence PIL/ikigai, which is related to moderate aerobic exercise and diet. This process may help people with Asperger’s syndrome to demonstrate their full potential abilities and to contribute to various fields. Key words: Asperger’s syndrome, stress, purpose in life/ikigai, moderate aerobic exercise, diet.
 
Currently, many universities are demonstrating interest in identifying the factors that may place their students’ psychological well-being at risk. It is considered important to identify the personality traits that may endanger students’ university education and professional activities. The sample consisted of 324 students recently entering an undergraduate program in psychology. The Spanish-language version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) with standards for Mexican university students was used. Female students report feelings of sadness, depression and anxiety, as well as behaviors that are demanding, histrionic, persuasive and impulsive, and they indicate a desire that situations be adapted to them. Male participants report immature and rebellious behavior toward authority figures and tend to blame others for their problems. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for internal consistency of the instrument was calculated for the Validity, Basic, Supplementary and Content scales, yielding a total score of 0.824. These results indicate that the MMPI-2 version for Mexico is a reliable measure for the university students tested. Key words: academic risk, low school performance, MMPI-2, psychological profile, university students.
 
This paper aims to analyse the importance of intrinsic motivation factors as determinants of academic achievement in English as a Foreign Language (EFL). The general aim of the present study has been to analyse the existing relationship between students’ academic motivation and performance. This paper explores the importance of motivational variables for school achievement. In particular, the present study suggests that students with a higher intrinsic motivation to learn English will achieve better grades in this subject. Participants were 542 students (male and female) of Secondary Education. Results show that there is a correlation between academic goals and academic results; in particular an association exists between learning goals (intrinsic motivation) and a high academic achievement. With regards to the importance of intrinsic motivational factors, this study concludes that these factors are determinants of academic achievement in English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Therefore, results are useful in view of improving the process of teaching/learning EFL. The relevant conclusion reached here point to the academic goals as being indicator of and decisive factor for academic achievement. Key words: academic achievement, academic goals, academic motivation, English as a foreign language.
 
Little research has been done on the issue of fear and anxiety as critical motivators in an individual’s behavior as a juvenile in detention. This research studies adolescents who are serving sentences in juvenile detention centers and study at penitentiary schools, based on E. Hussliein’s projective method “School Fear Test” (School Angs Test or SAT). The data, through studied school situations, is obtained in a method free from conscious protection and organized according to the form and intensity of the subjects' fears and their fear-inducing stimuli. The case study involves a comparison of 50 male juveniles aged 14-18, half of whom were incarcerated, with the other half randomly chosen from a pool of boys who have never been incarnated. The research studies specific emotional-motivational characteristics emanating from the subjects’ school perceptions to assess the behavioral risks related to mental health and the internal psychological problems of juvenile offenders. The obtained data revealed that while there is a higher rate of physical manifestation of fear, there is a lower rate of future-oriented fear. This combination of affective and emotional traits makes adolescents more likely to engage in careless behaviors, which increases their risk of delinquency. Also, for imprisoned juveniles, a teacher’s personality is the most potent catalyst for inducing fear through demanding achievement in school situations. This data is important for educational settings and schools in penitentiary institutions to understand better the role of a teacher and their use of resources to prevent antisocial behavior and recidivism in adolescents. Keywords: emotional functioning, juvenile offenders, penal system, projective techniques, school fears
 
The study was based on a theoretical presumption that social climate and relationships in the class can be in specific ways connected with students’ achievement motivation. Previous research in the area of student motivation was mostly based on self-reports and was therefore focused on explicit motives, i.e. personal goals which the respondents strived for. Self-report measures of motivation, however, can be affected by biases and misperceptions of one’s own self. Our study approached achievement motivation at its implicit, i.e. non-conscious level. It was conducted with students in five classes of a secondary school, N = 138, 107 female and 31 male, with an average age of 17 years. The respondents were administered a sociometric questionnaire and the projective Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) in McClelland´s adaptation using Heckhausen´s content-analytical clue for the measurement of achievement motivation. The hypothesized relation between social position in class and achievement motivation was only partly supported. Affiliation was unrelated to achievement motivation, even when analyzed for both achievement motives separately. We found a slight negative relationship between influence in the class and achievement motivation, especially with the motive to achieve success. These results, partly diverging from theoretical presumptions, can be explained in terms of specific features of the sample as well as a general methodological disparity in previous research, especially a lack of differentiation between implicit and explicit motives in the interpretation of the findings. Key words: achievement motivation, social position, sociometry.
 
Research in cognitive linguistics suggests that individuals understand abstract concepts by using knowledge of the superficially dissimilar, and more concrete concepts through conceptual metaphors. Previous studies have reported round-warm and square-competent associations: such that curved shapes (e.g., rounds) increase the perception of warmth and angular shapes (e.g., squares) enhance the perception of competence in a metaphor-consistent manner. The study investigated whether manipulating abstract concepts (e.g., social judgments) influenced the processing of concrete concepts (e.g., shapes). Participants were asked to select round or square ornaments in a restaurant in a dating (warm) or a business (competent) situation. Results indicated that participants in the dating condition selected more round ornaments whereas those in the business condition selected more square ornaments, revealing that the representations of a round shape were activated in the dating condition, whereas the representations of a square shape were activated in the business situation. The theoretical implications of this finding are discussed. Keywords: cognitive linguistics, metaphor-consistent effects, round and square, social judgments.
 
The victimhood of indirect witnesses of terrorist acts, which includes both the audience of the media and the population as a whole, is a complex socio-psychological phenomenon. The reasons victimizations are changes in the system of internal regulation of behavior, namely contradictions between the basic beliefs of people and the real consequences of terrorist acts, which are subjectively perceived as an unexpected, uncertain threat to existence (both objective and subjective), the irreparability of what can happen. Among the indirect witnesses were singled three response styles: slightly negative assessment, partial justification of the perpetrators of a terrorist act, negative emotional assessment with expressed anxiety. The most significant consequences of the psychological impact of terrorist acts on the media audience and the general population should be considered: the contradiction between the basic ideas of people and the reality demonstrated by the media: the subjective and objective unexpectedness of a terrorist act; incorrigibility of the offense. Shown, that psychological countermeasures should be based on the information component aimed at preventing inappropriate reactions, especially in the first days after the terrorist act, development and demonstration of optimal algorithms of behavior, prevent recourse to unconscious or subconscious impulses that violate basic illusions existence. With the presence of drivers that trigger patterns of victim-induced behavior, the media can provoke in the general population a massive loss of social and personal identity, meaning of life, prospects, to form a complex of inferiority, to induce certain adverse behaviors. The most significant consequences of the psychological impact of terrorist acts on the audience of the media and the general population should be considered the contradiction between the basic ideas of people (activate the images of death, destruction, horror of nothingness, which subconsciously everyone has. These "forms of the unspoken" violate three basic illusions of existence: the illusion of one's own immortality, the illusion of justice, the illusion of the hidden meaning of life) and the reality published by the media, which is subjectively perceived as a threat to existence; subjective and objective unexpectedness of a terrorist act; incorrigibility of the committed. Psychological measures to combat victimization should be based on the dominance of the information component of counteraction aimed at preventing dangerous reactions, especially in the first hours after the commission of a terrorist act, the development and demonstration of optimal behavioral algorithms. Keywords: indirect witnesses, terrorist attack, psychological measures, induced behavior, optimal algorithms
 
The investigation of teenage orphans’ opinions of both themselves and other people within phenomenological point of view means researching that in their self structure in the broader context than their self – consciousness. The term self structure requires the definition; its sources need to be determined. The article deals with the analysis of solving these problems within some of psychological and philosophical approaches. It was solving these problems by S. Frank, N. Lossky that we used in the experimental study orphans’ opinion about themselves and other people. These scientists belong to Russian intuitivist group that is the part of phenomenological branch of non Marxian theory of knowledge. Their conception has been developed in modern Russian psychology by F. Mihaylov and V. Muhina. The self structure is understood as state of person’s mind (I) to subject (Subject). The “I” is detachment himself by person as separable side, which function is act of distinguishing. The “Subject” includes the subject itself and person’s sense, attitude and feeling, connected with the subject, given to the person in perception intuitively. Self structure’s sources are both isolating, connected with person’s instinctive selfish inclinations, and involving into communications, connected with person’s inclination for searching contacts with others. The article offers the typology of orphan’s strategies in isolating and involving into communications with the others, formatted theirs’ self structure. The correlation between orphans’ opinion about the others and their self structures was been confirmed. Key words: Intuitivism, cognition as distinguishing, opinion about self and others, self structure, isolating, involving into communications.
 
In order to be able to correct the asocial behaviour of adolescents, several factors that can have POSITIVE AND DESTRUCTIVE FAMILY an effect on the issue must be understood, these being biological, social, and psychological, as well as understanding the context of the situation itself. Various methods were used to research valuable adolescent family environments, including the questionnaire entitled Positive and Destructive Family, which was developed by Russian authors (Опросник “Конструктивно-деструктивная семья” (КДС), Эйдемиллер, Юстицкис). Since this methodology was not available to researchers in Latvian, the first step to be taken was to adapt this method to the cultural environment of Latvia. (The author’s consent has been received for the use of the questionnaire in scientific work.) The adaptation of the method allows the following steps to be implemented (Hambleton & Patsula, 1998; 1999; 2000; Van de Vijver & Hambleton, 1996): the translation and backward translation of questionnaire observing the context of the cultural environment; empirical verification of the translated questionnaire, thereby establishing its reliability and validity in accordance with the psychometric indicators used to provide a validity check on the factors illustrated in the source survey; the administration of the survey in the new cultural environment; documentation showing the adaptation of the questionnaire and the development of the interpretation of the survey’s values. To date, only some of the aforementioned steps have been implemented and presented. Respondents from sixty families participated in the survey (all of whom were aged in group of 31-68, and who included 42 women and eighteen men). The survey consists of twenty statements to which respondents will reply either positively or negatively (this being the dichotomy scale). Further tasks are related to the complete adaptation and application there of in population surveys in Latvia. Another method for family study that has been adapted in Latvia provides more extensive opportunity for further empirical studies, and will also provide a useful set of instruments for practitioners in psychology. Key words: adolescent deviance, dysfunctional family, questionnaire adaptation.
 
Comparison of Psychological Research Methods Used in the Study
Convergent Validity of Measuring Instruments (Spearman Correlation Coefficient)
Descriptive Statistics of Flourishing Measuring Instruments
Relationships between Questionnaire's Results and Respondents' Socio-Demographic Indicators
Content Comparison of Measuring Instruments According to Content of Items and Frequency of the Criterion
The aim of the study is to adapt linguistically and psychometrically the construct of flourishing and to compare four most popular measuring instruments by looking at their psychometric validity indicators and examining in more details the flourishing level of randomized sample in Latvia (N=312). As this construct was not adapted in Latvia jet, it is a new concept both – in terms of content and psychometry. Therefore, the tasks of research were more related to the study of the construct’s own content by comparing most popular flourishing measuring instruments, their internal consistency, analyzing the convergent validity of measuring instruments, and studying of the relationships between various demographic indicators and the level of flourishing. The research results confirm that flourishing scores of all four measuring instruments mutually correlate, that suggests cross compliance of all four instruments. Demographic indicators as education and occupation are the only ones which are mathematically plausible, but only at trend level correlate with flourishing characteristics. The data adapted in the study and psychometrically tested methodologies can be used in the practice of psychologists and in other studies in the future. The discussion raised the question of why neither gender nor age correlate with flourishing, that contradicts other similar studies in the word. Keywords: flourishing characteristics, measuring instruments, positive psychology, well-being
 
To achieve the status of ego identity remains the most important challenge for the adolescence period and consequently is a challenge for developmental psychologists too. The vast majority of studies focus on understanding the dynamics of ego identity development, however, factors that cause different path of development remained unclear. This study aims at tracking the paths, which differentiate ego statuses from finding psychosocial factors contributing to ego identity achievement. For this purpose the relationships between four identity statuses - achievement, exploration, moratorium and foreclosure and number of psychosocial variables such as attachment style, self-esteem and perfectionism have been examined. 386 school teenagers aged 14-17 (M = 15.48) filled a set of questionnaires comprised of four instruments: The Ego Identity Process Questionnaire (EIPQ), The Measure of Attachment Qualities (MAQ), The Perfectionism Inventory (PI) and Adult Sources of Self-Esteem Inventory (ASSEI). Discriminant analysis revealed two basic dimensions (adaptive and maladaptive), which are capable to depict the difference between ego identity statuses. The first discriminant function of ego identity status is primarily defined by conscientious perfectionism and secured attachment; whereas, the second discriminant function consists of avoidance attachment, self-evaluative perfectionism and ambivalent attachment styles. Key words: adolescence period, ego identity status, ego identity development, psychosocial factors.
 
This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the problem of determining the integral parameters of the psychological development. The publication touches the main factors, mechanisms and natural laws of mental development, presented in the works of foreign and Soviet / Russian researchers. The effects of psychological development are considered as qualitatively unique functions and properties of varying degrees of complexity, the acquired person in life and manifest themselves at different levels of personality organization. The authors make an attempt to systematize the classification of the products of psychological evolution of the individual in the ontogenesis and individual way of life. This paper outlines approaches to systems analysis of the phenomenon of maturity of personality, understood as an integral characteristic of the level and quality of psychological development. The authors differentiate between the concept of personal and adaptive maturity , based on major regulatory units, goals, strategic factors and structural properties. Key words: adaptation, adaptation maturity, effects of development, personal maturity, psychological development.
 
The study of coping strategies in children and adolescents is a topic in line with the study of a healthy development, as the very fact of having coping skills serves as a guarantee for a healthy lifestyle and quality of life. The general aim is the prediction of children coping (coping strategies used by students of elementary education, and in relation to four types of stressors known as the school, family, peer interaction and health) in terms of the impact of varying stress, coping, School, clinical and social maladjustment. Participants were 402 students, ranging from 9 to 12 years old. Results show that that the variable coping with the ACS, stress and clinical maladjustment predict, with different impact, coping strategy employed by children. This information attempts to be useful in the applied Educational. Key words: assessment, coping strategies, maladjustment, middle-childhood.
 
Changes within the group A with both interventions.
Changes within the group B with the communication intervention.
Changes within the group C with the information intervention.
Changes within the group D with no intervention.
Using psychometric measures as communication tools instead of automatic and mechanic tools to provide an immediate profile of the client, constitutes a relevant challenge in the domain of psychometric testing. Interventions in the psychometric measurement process can increase the utility of measures as potential therapeutic tools. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the measure administration setting in reducing self-reported symptoms. The administration setting was manipulated in respect to two factors: a) researcher-subject communication during the measure administration process, and b) information of the subject on the one-week retest procedure. The sample (N=147) included four randomly assigned groups in 2x2 design. The group A was provided both interactive administration of the questionnaire and information about its repetition in the one-week-later retest; group B was provided interactive administration without information about the retest; group C conducted self-administration without the presence of the researcher, but information about the retest was provided; the control group D conducted self-administration only, with none of both interventions. The study has shown the effect of the researcher-subject communication; the CORE-OM values decreased significantly by the retest administration in groups A and B. The study results support the understanding of the psychometrical measurement as a dynamical inter-personal process. Moreover, they provide a relevant hint for clinicians who can optimize the use of tests as potentially therapeutic tools. Key words: administration effects, administration settings, CORE-OM, cross-cultural psychometry, self-report.
 
In the presented research, the ideas of Czech adolescents about their future profession were researched. In the research, data from examinations of 17-year-old respondents were analyzed. The views of their future vocation as well as the vocations of significant others (mother, father, significant other) were acquired by a modified version of the REP-test and assessed from the perspective of their favorableness and cognitive complexity. The aim was to detect relations between the assessment of individual vocations, the components of upbringing analyzed by the Czech Questionnaire for Determining the Upbringing Style in Family (Čáp, Boschek) and self-esteem measured by Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. It was discovered that adolescents, while assessing their potential future vocation, are influenced by family upbringing- there is a strong influence of the factor of emotional warmth in family related to a positive relationship to the adolescents’ vocational future. Moreover, it became evident that the more negative view the adolescents have of the individual vocations, the more differentiated they try to perceive them (higher cognitive complexity), probably in order to develop appropriate coping strategies in their future performance or to justify their negative assessment by a more precise, i.e. not “black and white” perspective. However, in a more detailed analysis, it was revealed that vocations viewed as strongly negative and strongly positive are perceived as less differentiated than vocations assessed in a neutral way, which can be explained by the hypothesis of emotional engagement. Key words: cognitive complexity, future profession, REP-test, self-esteem.
 
Mythodrama group psychotherapy approach of resolving conflict and bullying has been successful as an intervention in a school setting. This study aimed to provide further evaluation of Mythodrama group approach. A total of 97 Georgian adolescents (Mean of age = 14.65, SD = 1.76) participated in the controlled experimental study. Participants of the experimental group received a Mythodrama group intervention during a period of three months. Analyses revealed a significant increase in emotional intelligence, prosocial behavior and adaptive coping strategies in the intervention group. No significant changes were observed in the control group. The findings suggest that adolescents’ behavior, trait emotional intelligence and coping strategies can be improved using Mythodrama intervention. Follow-up research is required to reveal the persistence and replicability of the result.
 
Population distribution according to the first applications used.
Distribution of population by monthly family return.
Crosstabs between Nomophobia scores and the frequency of degree of school.
Crosstabs between Nomophobia scores and the frequency of first application used.
Social networks are a new form of addiction to technology and are beginning to take place in the moroccan society in the last decades, especially among children and adolescents. Furthermore the Nomophobia is a new form of addiction to new generations of mobile phones. Because of the importance of their speed spread and their influence on the person's future and interpersonal relationships, we conducted a study to calculate the degree of Nomophobia in adolescent population. It is through the establishment of a questionnaire for a sample of 541 adolescents including 298 girls and 243 boys of young Moroccans and a test on Nomophobia NMP-Q. The statistical result stated that 69.1% of girls and 63% of boys have Nomophobia in a moderate and severe state, and that the Smartphone is more solicited than the laptop with a negative correlation between school performance and the score of Nomophobia. Thus, poor school performance and mental disorders in adolescents can be explained by taking Nomophobia.
 
The study investigates factors responsible for extramarital affairs as perceived by married adults in Lagos metropolis. Extramarital affair has been described by many authors and scholars and has been identified as one of the causes of marital problem. Descriptive survey method was employed for this study and the population is all married adults in Lagos metropolis. A total number of 200 respondents were randomly selected in Lagos metropolis and a self developed instrument titled “Factors Responsible for Extramarital Affairs Questionnaire” (FAREAQ) was used to collect relevant data from the respondents. Collected data were analyzed with both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive static was employed for the personal data and research question and inferential statistic was used to analyze the hypotheses generated for the study. All hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level. The major finding of the study revealed that “sex related factor” was perceived by married adults in Lagos metropolis to be the highest factor responsible for extramarital affair. Gender, age, religion and educational qualification of the factors responsible for extra marital affairs while family type of the respondents did not influence their perception. Implications of the findings to guidance and counselling therefore is that counselling (Guidance) services should be extended to families so as to educate parents on the effects of extramarital affair on marriage and on the children and also for counsellors to emphasize the effectiveness of “sex” in marital relationship. Based on the findings of the study, it was therefore recommended that counsellors should organize continuously on the mass media enlightenment programme on the various factors responsible for extramarital affairs so that couples can learn and work on themselves to secure their marriage. Key words: extramarital affairs, factors responsible.
 
After the experience of alienation, insecurity, distrust and dismay in the family, getting into institutional care teenager is forced to feel it once more, on the other hand, new environment and intermittent situation in the care institution leads teenager to look for new ways for social interaction and often these ways are limited due to the peculiarities of teenager’s psychosocial development. It is complicated for youngster to master new and unusual forms of social interactions that are based on common activities and result planning, social activity and responsibility, because stereotypes of teenagers’ behaviour and reactions in the different situations cannot change so fast. The lack of social skills disturbs optimal development of social networks, determines low level of self control, decreases ability to solve conflict situations constructively, so usually they are forced to use known behavioural strategies (to behave aggressively and provocative in order to get advantage). In such situation the demonstration of advantage gets a specific attribution and transforms to the manifestations of concurrent aggression that are evident more and more often. Concurrent aggression determines complicated and difficult relationships between teenagers, institutional staff as well and with environment in general. The paper presents research which aim is to define concurrent behaviour among teenagers who are placed in the institutional care. With the authors’ permission approbated check list of self evaluation YSR 11/18 (Youth self report, Achenbach, Rescoria, 2001) was used and 14 – 17 years old 126 teenagers from different care institutions of Lithuania took place in the research. Approbated check list YSR 11/18 (Žukauskienė, Malinauskienė, 2008) consists of 20 statements that reveal social and behaviour (activeness) competences and 122 statements that let for the researcher to assess problems in behavioural and emotional performance. Six scales were used: anxiety/depression, withdrawal/depression, rules breaking, aggressive behaviour and scale of attention and social problems. The data of quantitative research point out those statistically significant correlate results of behaviour and emotional problems; the strongest ties among the teenagers group were set up between aggressive behaviour and breaking of the rules. The results of correlation analysis proved that anxiety/depression scale of teenagers placed into the institutional care closely correlates with social problems, and social problems are in tight relations with aggressive behaviour and lack of attention and lack of attention correlates with aggressive behaviour, as well. In qualitative research 6 interviewers were involved. Applying method of narrative research the subjective point of view of teenagers on striving for domination, manifestations of aggression signs and factors that determine such their behaviour was done. Key words: behavioural norm, concurrent aggression, institutional care.
 
The main aim of the research is to estimate the efficiency of psychological influence mechanisms in social advertising. Numerous psychological, sociological, culturological studies, devoted to this issue, do not answer the question which mechanisms will be efficient and will lead to the expected reaction of a recipient. The correlation between the psychological influence methods and the goals set by the creators is especially important for social advertising, because its efficiency can’t be measured by economic indicators as it occurs in commercial advertising. In addition, it should be remembered that for guaranteeing of efficiency in this kind of advertising one need to take into account such special features of a recipient as their beliefs and sets. The study concentrates on the comparison of psychological influence mechanisms, used in World Wildlife Fund (WWF) social advertising. Its creators use a great number of methods. But as practice shows us by no means all of them lead to the planned results. The study justifies, that the efficiency of advertising influence should be estimated by such indicators as the willingness of a recipient to take part in WWF programs (conative component) and their emotional response (affective component). Consequently, it has been established that the behaviour of a recipient does not depend on a chosen creative strategy’s type, which is used by the creators. The willingness of a recipient to take part in the programs, advertised by WWF, is estimated by the content of their social and psychological sets (attitudes). The displayed results prove that one need to refuse a cruel and shocking way of advertising, which causes people’s negative emotions. It is corroborated by experiments that social advertising which defends wild nature can be efficient on condition that it gives a recipient an opportunity to actualize their own social and psychological sets. Key words: affective component, commercial advertising, conative component, psychological influence mechanisms, social advertising.
 
The act of written emotional disclosure has been widely studied for the past several decades. Yet, in spite of this, there are limited studies which examine the interplay of expressive writing, self-compassion and positive affect, along with its potential to augment ego identity among students. Using repeated measures experimental design, the present research explored the efficacy of expressive writing in improving levels of positive affect among university students ageing 18-25 (M = 19.23; SD = 1.21). Participants were tested in groups and wrote either about life goals (n = 46), positive experiences (n = 49) or a control topic (n = 46). Two separate three-way ANOVA were carried out to investigate whether writing about life goals has an impact on the students’ positive affect. It further examined how students could benefit according to their self-compassion levels. Regardless of the form of expressive writing, students did not significantly differ on the levels of positive affect. The results of this study are aimed at designing intervention for students to help them develop their ego identity. Future studies employing randomised, controlled designs are warranted. Keywords: expressive writing, positive affect, self-compassion.
 
This research was designed with a view to presenting the specific results of the usage of the russified version of D. Buss questionnaire “Events and behaviors affecting status and reputation” on a sample of Russian participants. This psychodiagnostic measure allows to assess the different manifestations of status behavior and to predict the development of tactic techniques and strategies of status behavior aimed at gaining and maintaining an individual’s position in the hierarchical social structure. The main goal of the research was the approbation of D. Buss questionnaire on the Russian sample: testing the scales consistency and comparison the data and the standard deviations with the American sample, that formed the starting point for further development and modification of this psychodiagostic measure. The russified version of questionnaire (216 items comprising 23 scales of tactics of status behavior) has showen the high level of reliability and validity. In the study (N = 185) the tactic scales show the high internal consistency (the internal consistency varies in the range of 0.44 – 0.78 among the participants of both Russian and American samples). The russified version of questionnaire was used in Russia for the first time and it can be used in the basic and application researches in future. Key words: Cronbach’s alpha, cross-cultural differences, questionnaire, psychodiagnostics, repeatability, reputation, status, status behavior, validity.
 
In the road traffic field the biggest danger is caused by a phenomenon of „aggressive driving”. The topicality of the problematic issue is noted by such organizations like the WHO and the UNO; as a result of this the term “aggressive driving” was introduced in Latvia on the legislative level. In the territory of Latvia a multi-stage study was performed; its aim was to study ideas of drivers on aggressive driving. During the study the following methods were used: method of associations, method of unfinished sentence, structured, partially structured and non-structured interview, personal differential method, socially demographic questionnaire and Aggressive Driving Questionnaire (Jenenkova, 2009). In all, 2160 drivers representing all regions of Latvia were questioned. As a result of the study one of the components of ideas on aggressive driving was found out – information awareness, which is considered in this article. Information awareness is represented by the following component parts: self- evaluation of terminology knowledge (expected level), level of term understanding (expected level), term knowledge (real level), level of term understanding (real level), level of agreement with the formulation, information sources. During the comparative analysis of drivers’ group and inspectors’ group of the road traffic not only their differences by these components were discovered, but also the current problems in relation to the terminology knowledge and understanding were found out. Key words: aggressive driving, dangerous driving, drivers and inspectors, information awareness, problems in terminology, road traffic.
 
The present research investigates emotional characteristics of professional culture – artists, examining the difference between art and non-art faculty students in emotional creativity and exploring the relationship between emotional creativity and alexithymia. Emotional creativity refers to the person’s ability to express and experience authentic, original and appropriate combinations of emotions. Art and non-art faculty students from different universities (34 female and 46 males; M of age=20.41, SD=1.64) were administered with the Emotional Creativity Inventory (ECI) along with the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) The result showed that art faculty students have higher scores on emotional creativity than students from other faculties. Emotional creativity aspects are negatively related with the alexithymia. In the interpretation of results, emotional creativity is represented as one of the psychological constructs which is an important characteristic for the individuals working in the field of art. There’s an illustration how differently artistic individuals understand and experience emotions. The results have practical implication for social and emotional learning perspective. According to following research not only cognitive but emotional creativity is an important disposition for creative work. This emotional aspect should be identified at school age to contribute the development of individuals’ artistic skills. Key words: artistic skills, alexithymia, emotional creativity.
 
Technological upgrades, progressive scientific and technical developments are a direct reflection of the challenges of the 21st century, the overcoming of which implies a review of the content of education and the results obtained from it, aimed at developing a creative, self-planning, results’ predicting personalities. The acquisition of the mentioned qualities is ensured by the introduction of a chess game in the educational process, the purpose of which is not only to learn chess, but also to develop cognitive, emotional qualities at young age (Karapetyan & Misakyan, 2020), action prediction, thinking quality, decision-making quality, performing analytical actions (Kasparov, 2007).
 
Education and employment are essential factors for social inclusion of young people in society, so it is important to study young people who are neither in education or in employment (called NEETs) to determine how they deal with their social status and their mechanisms to integrate into society. This study examines how negatively or positively NEET young people perceive their social status, how NEET status affects young people's attitudes, social identity, or well-being, and whether young people try to escape from the status of NEET. The survey was conducted with 380 young people and in-depth interviews with 12 people. Research shows that the social status of NEET is neither desirable nor appreciated. NEETs are associated with diminished well-being mainly because of their lower life satisfaction. NEET youth scores lower than the general population in life satisfaction, although they have similar level of self-esteem. Research has shown that NEET youth use psychological mechanisms, such as identifying with a positively assessed group, to help young people maintain high self-esteem or use strategies to escape from the NEETs group, get a job, or continue their education. The following factors positively contribute to the desire to leave the NEET group: self-esteem is the most important motivator, followed by social identity, attitudes towards education and employment, and family economic status. The high NEET rate in Georgia suggests that NEETs youth should be a particular target group for interventions to enable their ‘activation’ to integrate into society. Keywords: attitudes towards education, attitudes towards employment, NEET youth, social identity, well-being
 
In line with some metamemory literature, people are unable to predict the influence of interference on their metacognitive ability to prognosticate future memory performance (Eakin, 2005). However, according to other researchers, there are certain circumstances in which an individual can predict the factors that restrict access to the target information in memory (Maki, 1999; Diaz & Benjamin, 2011). Henceforth, this study is aimed at investigating the ease of processing heuristics as a source of errors on the meta-level in terms of proactive interference (PI), as well as the conditions under which it is possible to avoid its negative impact on the accuracy of different types of metamemory judgments. To do this, we encouraged participants to make metamemory judgments (e.g., EOL, JOL) under the time pressure and without it (non-analytic and analytic groups) in two different conditions (interference and control). Our findings demonstrate that (i) fast metamemory judgments are based on ease-of-processing heuristics, which enhances the “illusion of knowing” (see Eakin, 2005); (ii) inferences during study allocation can diminish the effect of the “illusion of knowing” phenomenon. In addition, analytic inference leads to more accurate metamemory performance under PI condition. In addition, analytical metamemory judgments are more accurate under PI condition; also it should be concluded that, despite the fact that the primary source of information in making EOL judgments is ease-of-processing heuristics, in this process some other resources, analogical to JOL judgments, were involved. Key words: metamemory judgments, proactive interference (PI), ease-of-processing heuristic.
 
Two independent mixed method studies are aimed at exploration of the major process of negotiation with an internalization of the master narrative, which assists as the cultural framework for narrative identity development. It analysed and compared the data obtained from same-sex desire individuals, ex-convicts and ordinary Georgian citizens, and traced the process of autobiographical reasoning and negotiation with autobiographical master narrative as the mean for development alternative master narrative, which, in turn, serves as the avenue for overcoming stigma, achieving resocialization and generativity, and coming in accord to one’s own identity. The comparative analysis addressed the following questions: How do research participants construct biographical alternative master narrative? Does this narrative lead to generativity? Does autobiographical reasoning mediate development of alternative master narrative? Altogether 30 life stories (16 same-sex desired persons and 14 ex-convicts) or 840 narratives were coded for narrative autobiographical reasoning, generativity, as well as for narrative structure (redemption and contamination). Besides, thematic comparative analysis was carried out. Qualitative analysis revealed the main thematic lines of the life stories, such as stigmatization and victimization, family relations, hard childhood experiences, urge for generativity, resocialization and identity formation. Research participants from both samples constructed their life stories or narrative identities through bringing on the surface the implicit master narrative and creating their own alternative one via either shifting and replacing the events or modifying sequences of the events included in the normative life story or autobiographical master narrative.
 
The purpose of this research is to describe the requirements that psychologists must meet as per required by employers in different Latin American countries and their connection with professional training programs. Three countries were selected Chile, Mexico and Colombia, and as criteria for their selection was the ranking obtained in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). For data collection, web pages were visited. A sample for each country was taken monthly from January to May in the year 2009. All of the job listings for psychologists were registered and also those activities that a psychologist could perform, in spite of the fact that the offer specifically did not mention such professional. The university plans and programs of a representative public university of each country of interest were checked. In general terms we can point out that the psychology professionals that employers require the most are those specialized in the training area in organizations with an emphasis on training, recruitment and selection activities. Key words: employers, psychology, Latin American countries, university plans.
 
Seven decades have passed since the "Scientific Session on the Problems of the Physiological Teachings of Academician IP Pavlov" from June 28 to July 4, 1950. Its main direction was the assertion of the leading role of the cerebral cortex with the subordination of all physiological processes reflected in the conditioned reflexes defined by IP Pavlov. JV Stalin's interference in the session is reflected in his comment: "In my opinion, the greatest damage to Pavlov's teachings was caused by Academician Orbeli… The sooner Orbeli is exposed and the more thoroughly his monopoly is eliminated, the better. Beritov and Stern are not so dangerous, because they oppose Pavlov openly and thus facilitate the reprisal of science over these artisan artisans… Now something about the tactics of combating opponents of the theory of Academician Pavlov.
 
Although medicine, psychology and law have a long history behind them (Frank, 1930; Kapardis, 2009), and several issues may emerge at the interface of these scientific fields, new specific disciplines have been created to fill the research gap, such as legal psychology and forensic psychology (Taylor, 2019). In this direction, forensic neuropsychology combines not only psychometric testing, but also interviews, behavioral observations, and record reviews as additional sources of information for answering cognitive functioning questions in legal and forensic settings (Fink, 2007). Additionally, the emergence of a new promising interdisciplinary field, neurolaw, explores how neuroscience and advanced techniques can be used in the legal system (Meynen, 2014; van Dongen & Franken, 2019). Although there are still a plethora of topics that are not adequately described and need further research in neuropsychology, several attempts have been made to collect data for different research questions linked to this complex field (Canter & Žukauskiene, 2019). Methods and protocols regarding the processes of criminal profiling, the examination of cognitive biases in legal decision making, interrogations and confessions, detection of deception, eyewitness memory and false memories-distortions, cognition and emotions of child witnesses, and competence to stand trial, are still not clear (Bornstein & Miller, 2016; Brewer & Douglass, 2019).
 
Anxiety is a recurrent topic in personality psychology of today. According to Z. Matějček’s (1991) estimation, the issue of anxiety assumes the third place as for the number of clients in children’s counselling service (behind the issue of intellectual capabilities and ADHD) in the Czech Republic. In children where it occurs to a higher degree, it can have a negative impact on their socialisation, achievements, development of self-confidence. The most influential factor in developing an anxious personality appears to be family environment. If the family fails to satisfy the child’s basic needs – feeling of security and confidence – the child’s development can be in jeopardy. The current research is concentrated on how the style of parenting in families (the so-called parenting styles) is related to anxiety in children at a younger school age. The aim of the research is to find out what relationship there is between the individual components of parenting in families (positive – negative component, component of requirements – freedom) and anxiety in eight-year-olds. These relationships were inquired into from mothers’ perspective by means of questionnaire surveys (Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale and Questionnaire for acquiring the parenting style in family). The data from 407 mothers of eight-year-old children have been analysed. An assumption that anxiety in children of younger school age is significantly influenced by parenting styles in family has been confirmed. The most anxious children appear to be children raised in families with a negative parental emotional involvement towards the child and at the same time with discordant control. They were also some differences in the importance of individual components of parenting by fathers and mothers for anxious orientation of the child identified. Key words: anxiety, anxious children, parenting styles.
 
Effect of teaching methods on learners' educational gains
Effect of brainstorming, inquiry, problem solving and cooperative method on learners' educational gains
Comparison of teachers' teaching methods between science and arts learners' educational gains
Applications of teachers’ pedagogical approaches for learners’ educational gains have been remained one of the educational debates since ago. Teachers transfer chunk of information among students through implementing techniques to strengthen teaching learning process. Relevance of ground-breaking instructional strategies put concrete effect on students’ entire academic success. Present quantitative research was conducted to explore the effect of teachers’ usage of students’ centered teachers’ pedagogical approaches on students’ educational gains. Researchers adopted ex-post-fact research design on sample of 800 respondents; 400 urban and 400 rural students randomly selected from public sector secondary schools of District Kasur Punjab-Province of Pakistan. Data were collected by administering self-constructed questionnaire mode of 5-point Likert type options. Validity of the instrument was confirmed from experts and Cronbach’s Alpha was applied to ensure instrument’s reliability scores; .864. Learners’ educational gains of science and arts students were obtained from gazette of Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Lahore. Results of independent sample t-test and regression analysis ascertained that teachers’ centered students’ pedagogical approaches effect 58% on learners’ educational gains whereas brainstorming 43%, inquiry 57%, problem solving 54% and cooperative technique effect 50% on learners’ educational gains. Science teachers were making more use of brainstorming, inquiry, problem solving, and cooperative teaching as compared to arts teachers. Study recommends that Govt. may train heads of the institutions on students’ centered teachers’ pedagogical approaches and bound them to implement with true spirit and vigor through teachers to overcome science and specially arts students’ declining level of educational gains; stakeholders’ cause for concern. Keywords: brainstorming, cooperative teaching, inquiry base, learners’ educational gains, problem solving.
 
Both philosophy and cognitive science have made valuable contributions towards accounting for the aetiology of Schizophrenia, an illness that possesses a disparate assortment of symptoms. However, there is no firm agreement on what causes such experiences to arise. A theory is proposed which simplifies the signs and symptoms of Schizophrenia and is something which does not appear to exist in the field to date. The model proposed is a hybrid theory, combining the phenomenological approach of Sass and Parnas with elements from Frith and Hemsley’s cognitive science perspective. An argument is that if a hybrid theory was used it would assist in the early intervention of Schizophrenia by providing a focus for treatment during developmental stages. Keywords: psychiatric practice, cognitive science, early intervention in Schizophrenia, prodromal symptoms in Schizophrenia, unification of symptom clusters in Schizophrenia.
 
The analysis of the reason-emotion dynamics intersects several disciplinary fields, such as psychology, medicine, informatics, linguistics, neuroscience, with a specific relevance for Education Sciences, as it offers interesting perspectives over its influence on the learning process. Such issues are rooted in philosophical reflections by Plato, Aristotle and later by Descartes, Vico and Kant. These dualistic perspectives will be definitively abandoned in favour of a globalist vision of the mind-body relationship, during the first half of the XX century, particularly thanks to Dewey (1933) who, inspired by Darwin’s theories, was the first to support this unity by recognizing an intersection among physical, mental and environmental processes. Over the last decades, an imperatively anti-dualistic analysis has been developing in the field of neurosciences and cognitive linguistics: on the one hand, cognitivism, considering the mind in its function of symbolic manipulation; on the other hand, connectionism, studying neural networks. Furthermore, recent scientific research has allowed mapping in a detailed - albeit admittedly incomplete manner - the complex activity of the brain and highlighting analogies between elementary connections and complex interactions. The systemic perspective is hence considering “mind and body”, “reason and emotion” as two interconnected and essential aspects of human complexity. In this regard, Damasio’s research shows how participation of the organism to conscious experience returns to the consciousness itself those biological requirements which are essential to legitimate it as an object of scientific study. Knowledge is generated by socio-experiential relationships that play a crucial role within knowledge representation. The mind takes therefore an active role in shaping the representation of the world: understanding does not just consist in a mere reproduction of the external world in our mind; instead, it is a continuous process of creative reconstruction of our perceptive dynamics. Emotion, creativity and rationality are essential elements of the human being, which activate and develop due to personal inclination as well as socio-cultural aspects. Both genetic and social components are decisive in cognitive dynamics, as they represent innate potentials that need to be recognized, understood and exploited. Key words: emotion and reason, knowledge, learning, neuroscientific perspective.
 
The present study aims to provide an analysis of values and attitudes in a sample of post-graduate students and to provide an assessment of the impact and satisfaction that they had been reported in specific educational activities for solidarity. This study is framed by the project of educational innovation "A cross sectional study in education for solidarity in the training of psychologists and educators" (PIE 10-127; 2010-2012). Participants were 226 post-graduate students belonging to various specialities of the MSc in Teaching of Secondary Education and High School, Vocational Training, and Teaching Languages, aged between 22 and 49 years. The data obtained demonstrate that the majority of the interviewes strongly agree with aspects of the situation that can be considered stealing, a violent action or the avoidance of conflict. Most students graduate participants do not collaborate with NGOs; who mention the lack of time, the issue not being raised as well as not being involved in any solidarity activity noting as reasons: lack of information, idleness, not having the opportunity presented and not having the funds to do so. In addition, students have found these educational activities for solidarity very satisfactory, for example, the "discussions, work and reflection on the importance of volunteerism and solidarity in the present world" and “design of a solidarity act”. Key words: basic competence, European space of higher education, evaluation of values and attitudes, university students.
 
Rising interactions of asymmetrical exchange as a consequence of unequal access to economic resources create status differences between people. In that way some people are provided with authority benefits while the others are in dependent position. The situation of economic dependence arises when the object is seen by the subject like a unique source for personal needs gratification. The degree of dependence is right proportional to the object’s subjective significance for a particular person, group, organization, etc. This statement provokes the problem of dependence as a psychological phenomenon that defines personal behavior and the character of interactions in respect of actual needs gratification. Contrary, economic independence is associated with these resources that are the result of personal incomes, property, and capital dividends. Key words: attitudes, dependence, independence, psychometric properties, structure.
 
86 male university students completed an assessment battery regarding their attitudes towards women and beliefs about sexual violence, as well as their own intentions to be sexually violent. They read five vignettes depicting different situations in which women were raped, and answered questions about what they thought happened in the vignettes, i.e. whether the actions depicted were rape. Results showed only one of the constructs, acceptance of sexual violence, predicted men’s ability to recognize rape scenarios, whereas hostility towards women, adversarial sexual beliefs, rape myth acceptance and sex role stereotyping were not significant after acceptance of sexual violence was accounted for. Furthermore, men’s acceptance of sexual violence mediated the relationship of their perceptions of rape vignettes and their self-reported intentions to be sexually violent. Implications for further research in sexual violence and interventions to prevent acts of aggression towards women are discussed. Key words: rape, sexual aggression, violence against women.
 
Current theories of intellectual disabilities underlie an approach centred on a more complete description of the development, known as “the whole child approach”, in which emphasis is placed on the reciprocal relationships between the cognitive and motivational dimensions which characterise development. In particular, subjects with intellectual disabilities, who have experienced repeated failures, may develop an attribution profile characterised by a bias towards primarily external causes. However the consideration of internal causes, such as effort and ability, requires the involvement of higher metacognitive and metalinguistic levels. Consequently, attribution to effort requires an awareness of one’s own internal states. The aim of this study is to compare the attribution style and the knowledge of internal states words (physiological, emotional and cognitive) in adolescents with intellectual disability and typical development. Two groups consisting of 14 participants each were employed, an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group was composed by adolescents with intellectual disability. Participants in the control group were matched to the experimental Ss for mental age. All of the 24 participants were given an Attribution Test (Pepi and Alesi, 2001) and a Internal States Lexicon Test (Alesi and Pepi, 2005). The attribution test consisting of 14 items illustrating either everyday or school-related events in which the main character experiences either success or failure. The participants were asked to attribute the character’s performance to one of five causes: ability; effort; help; luck; or task difficulty. On the whole, individuals with intellectual disability tend to attribute mainly performance to external causes such as the ease of the task. Moreover the results show a significant relationship between attribution style and knowledge of internal states words. In summary this study provide support for the planning of multidimensional training programs aimed at internalize the attribution style in subjects with intellectual disability. Key words: attribution style; intellectual disability; internal state lexicon; motivation.
 
On the basis of systematization of a number of ideas of philosophers, physiologists, ethologists and the actual material about violation at people of instincts, by origin the general at us with animals, owing to incorrect understanding of freedom as permissivenesses, excessive development of consumption, a hypertrophy of feeling of a property, and also about weakening of will to overcoming of adversity of life, the conclusion about need of training of inhibition in the course of formation of the identity of the person is made. Briefly, referring to the detailed scientific publications, the actual material about neurophysiological ensuring inhibition of behavior during training by means of increase of reactivity of inhibitory systems, local and all-brain, and about positive influence on this process of an agonist of receptors of an inhibitory neuromediator (gamma aminobutiric acids - GABA) – phenibut is stated. It is supposed that these data can be useful to the correct organization of education and for prophylaxis and correction of deviant behavior. Key words: deviant behavior, inhibition training, personality.
 
The study deals with individual factors that are related to more or less adaptive behavior in the situation of job loss. Problem- and emotion-oriented coping strategies, their antecedents and consequences were in the focus. The data were obtained through a two-wave longitudinal study on a sample of 462 persons of various demographic and work characteristics who had recently lost their jobs. In the first wave, data on their demographic and work characteristics, experienced resources (financial situation, core self-evaluation, social support, job involvement and job-search self-efficacy) and strategies of proactive job search, occasional work, job-loss distancing and job devaluation were collected. In a follow-up study, conducted after six months, employment status and perceived work uncertainty were in the focus. The results can be summarized in several general findings: (1) Different patterns of individual characteristics were related to the tendency to use the individual strategy more or less intensively, and the strategies showed different adaptive roles in terms of their relations to measured outcomes; (2) The availability of coping resources is a significant predictor of the most adaptive, problem-oriented, strategy of proactive job search; (3) Some measured resources were not related to emotion-oriented strategies, and some of them stood in negative relations; (4) Proactive job search, but not the measured resources, was a significant independent predictor of reemployment six months later, in addition to age and education level; (5) Employment status, measured after six months, was a significant independent predictor of the concurrent experience of work uncertainty – reemployed individuals experienced less anxiety regarding their future work; (6) Demographic variables and measured resources served alongside current employment status as significant predictors of work uncertainty, but strategies did not. Key words: coping resources, coping strategies, job loss, unemployment, work uncertainty.
 
Health promotion is defined as the process of enabling people to increase control over and to enhance their health. It focuses on individual behaviors towards a wide range of interventions on social and environmental determinants of health and other health related aspects of life (WHO, 2015; 2017). Thus, health promotion implies the need to promote and empower people with resources and skills towards health and well-being (Saboga-Nunes, et al., 2019). The literature reports a negative variation in the lifestyle of university students, and simultaneously demonstrates a significant percentage of university students with a set of emotional, relational, anxiety and stress management difficulties (WHO, 2021, 2018). The need to curb behavioral tendencies harmful to the health of young university students comes justify the need for health promotion in the context of these institutions. This study aimed at analyzing the impact of university students' training, in the area of health promotion and of personal and socio-emotional skills. Participated 286 students. The results show that in addition to the skills worked during the training, the students’ well-being and health also improved at the end of the training. The variables that evidenced to be the most important for the university students’ health promotion were that they finished the training with more self-esteem, resilience, psychological well-being, self-efficacy, happiness and less instability and alienation. Regarding the pre and post evaluation comparisons about skills, importance and usefulness of HBSC/JUnP training, it was observed that both knowledge about health aspects and personal and socio-emotional skills, namely the resilience, self-regulation and problem-solving strategies had a strong positive impact on promoting the health and well-being of students. Higher education institutions present themselves as enhancers of public health, contributing to the students make healthy choices. Keywords: health promotion, personal and socio-emotional skills, university students’ training, healthy universities, Portugal
 
Top-cited authors
Cristiano Mauro Assis Gomes
  • Federal University of Minas Gerais
Bianca Costa
  • University of Brasília
Pavol Prokop
  • Comenius University Bratislava
Danilo Jagenow
  • Medical School Berlin
Kate-Mills Drury
  • Jewish General Hospital