Problems of Education in the 21st Century

Print ISSN: 1822-7864
Plates from Tartaglia's poem solution of the third-degree equation.
Mathematics education is also a social phenomenon because it is influenced both by the needs of the labour market and by the basic knowledge of mathematics necessary for every person to be able to face some operations indispensable in the social and economic daily life. Therefore the way in which mathematics education is framed changes according to modifications of the social environment and know–how. For example, until the end of the 20th century, in the Italian faculties of engineering the teaching of mathematical analysis was profound: there were two complex examinations in which the theory was as important as the ability in solving exercises. Now the situation is different. In some universities there is only a proof of mathematical analysis; in others there are two proves, but they are sixth–month and not annual proves. The theoretical requirements have been drastically reduced and the exercises themselves are often far easier than those proposed in the recent past. With some modifications, the situation is similar for the teaching of other modern mathematical disciplines: many operations needing of calculations and mathematical reasoning are developed by the computers or other intelligent machines and hence an engineer needs less theoretical mathematics than in the past. The problem has historical roots. In this research an analysis of the phenomenon of “scientific education” (teaching geometry, arithmetic, mathematics only) with respect the methods used from the late Middle Ages by “maestri d’abaco” to the Renaissance humanists, and with respect to mathematics education nowadays is discussed. Particularly the ways through which mathematical knowledge was spread in Italy between late Middle ages and early Modern age is shown. At that time, the term “scientific education” corresponded to “teaching of mathematics, physics”; hence something different from what nowadays is called science education, NoS, etc. Moreover, the relationships between mathematics education and civilization in Italy between the 12th and the 16th century is also popularized within the Abacus schools and Niccolò Tartaglia. These are significant cases because the events connected to them are strictly interrelated. The knowledge of such significant relationships between society, mathematics education, advanced mathematics and scientific knowledge can be useful for the scholars who are nowadays engaged in mathematics education research. Key words: Abacus schools, mathematics education, science & society, scientific education, Tartaglia
The focus of this article is to analyse what associations are related with school's creative lessons (music, art, craft, physical education) and how should teachers interpret those associations. In addition there is a comparison across all creative lessons about the feeling which is felt by pupils before entering the lesson (response alternatives: “I’m looking forward to this lesson, I’m happy to go there”; “It’s like any other lesson, nothing special”; “I’m anxious, I feel frustrated about going there”). The sample (N = 227) consisted of seventh form pupils of seven upper secondary schools of Tallinn (the largest city of Estonia with 420,000 inhabitants) aged 13–14 (47% of them were boys, N = 107, and 53% girls, N = 120). Pupils’ associations formed six thematic categories describing the most prevalent themes: (1) Teacher, (2) Activities, (3) Emotions, (4) Objects, (5) Classroom environment, and (6) Schoolwork load. Results show that music lesson stands out from other creative lessons both with negative associations and more negative entering feeling. That outcome is discussed from the music teacher's point of view – how it could be interpreted and what it reflects from current educational situation. Key words: adolescents, associations, creative lessons.
In a school system in which young people receive an ever greater degree of self-determination, it is important to study how the teacher can influence young people’s motivation to work towards long-term goals in schoolwork. The purpose of this study is to investigate which teaching skills influence the volition of 16-year-olds. Structural equation modelling of cross-sectional surveys from one survey was used to estimate the path coefficients. The influence of teachers’ skills on 16-year-olds’ volition was estimated. The analysis indicates that the teacher’s perceived ability to influence pupil volition is present, but modest. Classroom management has a moderately-high effect on pupil volition, whilst the teacher’s press has only a moderate effect on pupil motivation. The teacher’s relationship-building efforts have little effect on either pupil motivation or volition. The indirect effect from pupil motivation to pupil volition is of moderately-high strength. However, a cross-sectional study does not allow us to test causal relationships amongst personal antecedents of pupil volition. Teachers may exercise some influence over 16-year-olds’ volition primarily by means of classroom management, but also in terms of pupil motivation via teacher press. Teachers may exploit this capacity to influence in order to improve pupil performance at school. For pupils lacking academic motivation, the teacher’s efforts to motivate and to strengthen pupil volition are important, including in terms of social levelling. The study provides new knowledge about teacher influence on the volition of Norwegian 16-year-olds. Keywords: adolescence, classroom management, motivation, Norway, teacher press, teacher’s relational building, volition, youth.
In the period 2012-2013 I got the qualification (abilitazione) to teach history and philosophy in the Italian high schools. The course I followed was called TFA (Tirocinio Formativo Attivo, Active Formative Training). The final examination was constituted by various proofs. Two of them were the written presentations of one educational itinerary in history and one in philosophy. Both of them had to be structured in a series of interconnected lessons. In this editorial I will expose, with some minor modifications, the translation of the educational itinerary I prepared for philosophy. It concerns the scientific revolution of the 17th century. The interest of this itinerary is not limited to the schools in which philosophy is taught, but it can also provide ideas useful in a course of physics at the high school or of history and philosophy of science at the university. What follows is divided into two parts: 1) a general presentation of the aims and methods followed in the lessons; 2) the lessons of the educational itinerary. In my training in philosophy – developed in September and October 2013 in an Italian scientific high school – I presented the following lessons concerning the scientific revolution.
In the present study, the socialists’ impact upon the educational policy formulation on female education is being studied. The Greek socialist P. Drakoulis’ standpoints are hereby examined as a Case Study. The dynamics of standpoints on female education shifting from England to Greece as well as the gradual formulation of educational standpoints within socialist societies and how these standpoints have been tied to broader issues on social progress and economic development are being presented. Thus, the traditional conservative Greek educational system is contradicted and gradually substituted by modern and progressive elements of educational consideration. Women’s rights in education are also interpreted in terms of political freedom. Social progress is, therefore, closely associated to female emancipation. According to Drakoulis, the connection of democracy, humanism and socialism is conducive to an overall respect for the human being. A fair society would therefore be the outcome of universal compulsory education targeting all social strata and which could be achieved through a combination of “instrumental knowledge”, morality and humanism on the basis of social justice and a socialist transformation of society. That era’s archives as well as corresponding scarce bibliography of that period (1870-1915) have been studied in order to approach the ideological and political framework of the Greek policy formulation. Key words: economy, educational policy, female education, ideology, socialism.
The Covid-19 pandemic has placed the world in a public health emergency since the beginning of the year 2020, posing a challenge to education, especially to Special Education. This study aimed to analyze the situation of special education in Brazil and Canada during the Covid-19 pandemic. The research was part of a postdoctoral project in education. Methodologically, it is an international comparative study in education. It was carried out from April 2020 to November 2021, based on a literature review and official documents. The search was carried out in the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and in the Institute of Educational Sciences (ERIC), and 233 articles were found. After analysis and following the inclusion criteria, 217 articles were excluded. In the end, 16 studies were selected. The results show that the more structured the educational system and Special Education, the greater the chances of success. In addition to returning to face-to-face classes earlier, Canada also provided more support for families and students, but it was still insufficient. In both countries, children with disabilities are in a fragile situation owing to social isolation. Aspects such as choice of tools, internet connection quality, user skills, virtual spaces for collective support, school and family communication, strengthening of special education policies and programs, adequate support, among others, led to the success of remote education. This research is intended to contribute to an increase in the number of studies in Brazil and abroad, serving as a basis for the scientific production of other international comparative studies. Keywords: Covid-19, special education, comparative study, literature review, Brazil and Canada
On March 24 of this year 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that the United States had the potential to become the new epicenter of the coronavirus pandemic, due to the data presented that infected more than 42,000 people in the United States at that time. President Donald Trump dismissed the seriousness of the growing threat of the virus. He trivialized the emergency by saying it was a "farce" from his political rivals. Today, May 23, according to the data from the Coronavirus Resource Center at Johns Hopkins University, there are more than 5 million confirmed victims in the world and of these more than 1,6 million in the United States alone, with more than 98 thousand deaths. Director Michael Ryan of the World Health Organization (WHO) emergency program announced on May 22 that South America has become the new epicenter of covid-19 in the world, considering data from Brazil. He said, "We have seen many South American countries with an increase in the number of cases and, clearly, there is concern in many of these countries, but certainly the most affected is Brazil at the moment".
In February 2020 Ecuador declared a health emergency due to the Covid-19 pandemic. On-site classes were suspended. The Ecuadorian university population does not adapt to virtual educational platforms. The objective of the study was to analyse student perception of Ecuadorian educational platforms in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study was quantitative. The sample was non-probabilistic participatory, consisting of students from different universities in the Province of Chimborazo. For data collection, a questionnaire with four study variables was applied. The results were analysed with T student and MANOVA. There is a positive perception of students using the educational platforms. There were significant statistical differences according to gender variables, contrary to the levels of study and location, there is a greater sympathetic affection of students when receiving virtual classes by female teachers. It can be concluded that the Covid-19 pandemic accelerated the adoption of online learning by higher education institutions. Keywords: Covid-19, virtual education, higher education, Ecuador, education platform, virtual education, Ecuador
Outbreak of COVID-19, online examination, and e-proctoring have caused more exam anxiety and affected exam performance among students’ studying in International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme (DP). Therefore, the present research aimed to find effect of online test anxiety on academic performance of IBDP students in the subjects related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Study employed quantitative descriptive survey research design and administered survey questionnaire to 200 IB DP students who took online test during COVID-19 through convenient sampling technique. Sample included both first and final year DP students with due representation to boys and girls. Results of the study revealed a moderate negative correlation between online test anxiety and academic performance of IBDP students in STEM subjects. Regression analysis explained 14.1% variation in the STEM subject performance because of online exam anxiety under e-proctored condition. There exists a statistically significant difference between first and final year students’ online exam anxiety and STEM subject average grades. Future research may focus on conducting comfortable online examination methods with no additional exam anxieties. Keywords: International Baccalaureate (IB), Diploma Programme (DP), e-proctored test, virtual examination
The transition from analogue campus-based learning to digital distance learning during the Covid-19 pandemic affected our society in many ways. This study set out to explore the experiences of 30 pre-service teachers when transitioning to digital distance learning. The pre-service teachers (PSTs) participated in a series of focus-group interviews that were subsequently analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results indicate that the transition to digital distance learning worked well and that the technology that was used performed satisfactorily. However, the PSTs experienced both opportunities and obstacles with respect to distance learning. The opportunities associated with digital distance learning were reported to be instantiated by teacher-led ‘flipped classroom’ teaching sessions and the additional freedom that was enjoyed by the PSTs (in both space and time). An obstacle associated with digital learning was the feeling that important aspects of interpersonal interaction disappeared. The PSTs remained sedentary and isolated at home, and the learning experience became somewhat dysfunctional when the teaching was not clearly structured and teacher-lead. The study concludes that it is not possible to replace IRL (‘in real life’) teaching entirely with digital distance learning. However, the results suggest that a hybrid form of teaching or elements of digital teaching can work well as a complement to future campus-based courses. Keywords: Covid-19, digital learning, digital teaching, distance learning, hybrid learning
Reflective practitioner teachers should critically review their own work and introduce innovations that should improve everyday educational practice. For this reason, the focus of the research is on the personal and professional empowerment of reflective practitioner teachers during the SARS-CoV2 pandemic. 355 teachers from the Republic of Serbia participated. The empirical research used descriptive methods and techniques of scaling and surveying with an instrument specially constructed for the needs of this research - Questionnaire with assessment scale (RP-COV-19). The results show that the most common form of empowerment is attending online seminars, while teachers rarely attended online classes of colleagues from the school where they work and colleagues from other schools. Teachers' perceptions on the use of the Internet in the aspect of personal and professional empowerment are very positive. Teachers generally rate their training and engagement during the pandemic with the highest marks (four and five), while there were no negative marks at all. Reflexivity accompanied by personal and professional empowerment must be given priority by teachers, because in today's process of education, reflective practitioners are considered successful teachers. Keywords: teacher reflective practitioner, professional empowerment, the Covid-19 pandemic, empirical research, improvement of educational practice.
Descriptive Statistics of Measured Variables
ICT Ownership and Use (%)
Differences between Teaching Management before and during Pandemic
As the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (causing COVID-19) has begun to spread around the world, education has taken the form of distance education from one day to the next. To this day, little is known about distance education during the pandemic period from teachers’ point of view, so the study focused on perception and management of distance education in primary school (primary and lower secondary education) and upper-secondary school (upper secondary education) teachers; and the main aim was to explore the connection between teaching experience, personality traits, and emotions of teachers and their perception and management of distance education during the coronavirus pandemic. The research sample consisted of 379 teachers (89.7% women) aged 23 – 70 years (M = 44.91; SD = 10.38). They completed the questionnaire which consisted of: demographic questions, questions related to perception and management of distance education, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and the Big Five Inventory 2. During the pandemic period, the negative emotions of teachers increased while positive emotions decreased; distance education was closely related to emotions (and changes in emotions) and personality; moreover, teachers reported willingness to implement partial changes into their teaching after the pandemic period.
Education is a significant factor which contributes to overcoming social, economic, health, ecological and other challenges. During a pandemic, formal education adapts to ongoing circumstances, and the learning-teaching process transitions to distance education. A study of the advantages and disadvantages of the realization of certain modalities of distance education is significant as it contributes to the improvement of its quality. The aim was to determine how the citizens of Serbia evaluated the quality of distance education during the COVID-19 pandemic. The research questions focused on how they evaluated: distance education based on modality (via Radio Television of Serbia, Google Classroom, Google Meet, Zoom, Viber groups, WhatsApp), the level of involvement of the learners/students during distance learning classes, the quality and extent of their acquired knowledge, and the level of skills that teachers need to effectively teach in distance education. The study presents the results of a survey carried out in 2020 on a sample of 602 adult Serbian citizens. The results confirm the initial hypothesis that certain modalities of distance education received a highly positive evaluation (Google Classroom, Google Meet, Zoom), and that teachers, learners/students, and other citizens provided statistically significant different evaluations of their quality (classes for primary and secondary school students broadcast on the Radio Television of Serbia; classes via Viber groups, on WhatsApp). Citizens feel that distance education enables efficient learning-teaching during the pandemic, confirming the importance of modern technologies for the learning-teaching process in Serbia, and the need for their continued intense development and application in education. Keywords: learners/students, distance education, Serbia, teachers’ skills, the COVID-19 pandemic
With the start of the COVID-19 pandemic period, the need to continue the educational process imposed the exclusive move to the online environment - a new and insufficiently prepared experience, which generated controversies, but also reflections, and adaptation for teachers, students, decision-makers, and even parents. The major concern of the academic community was related to the quality of the educational process and how the student-centered education paradigm can be introduced in the online environment. The students and teachers of the post-pandemic generation are no longer the same, this period has strongly impacted society, mentalities, and the school's future. Analyzing online education from multiple perspectives, the advantages, and opportunities generated by the integration of ICT in the teaching process are obvious. However, many variables have an impact on the effectiveness of e-learning, and many unanswered questions, yet. This research aims to analyze the key drivers of technology acceptance and the role played by three external variables: content adaptation, facilitating conditions, and ease of access in the context of exclusive online education. For this purpose, an extended technology acceptance model has been conceptualized and tested on a sample of Romanian university students. The results illustrate that content adaptation represents an important predictor of both the perceived ease of use and usefulness. The model explained a lot of variance in the continuance intention which is due to the positive attitude towards using the online learning platform in the future. Keywords: distance education; TAM; COVID-19 pandemic; online learning platform; learning motivation;
The Core Competencies for Early Childhood Education Teachers in Turkey (Code List of The Study)
Codes Distribution According to Preschool Teacher Competencies During student teaching practicum in ERT
Competency Domain of Child Growth and Development
Competency Domain of Professional Development
Turkish early childhood pre-service teachers had to follow their student teaching practicum courses through emergency remote teaching on the online platform available to them during COVID-19 pandemic like in most countries. The pre-service teachers were experimenting with this new form of student teaching practicum by building up new knowledge and experiences without being present in the school context and having no interaction with the children. This study aims to analyse early childhood education pre-service teachers' experiences of emergency remote teaching (ERT) during COVID-19 Pandemic in Turkey and explore how these experiences shape their professional development to meet the quality standards and preschool teacher competencies. Doing a content analysis of the codes through a qualitative data analysis software program (NVivo 12) and making a constant comparison between codes and categories, three themes as a result of this study after doing a content analysis of the data, have emerged: (1) Early childhood education pre-service teachers’ practices in ERT supported only certain competencies. (2) With its natural structure of distance education, ERT restrained pre-service teachers' field experiences to enable them to gain the necessary competencies and qualifications for early childhood education (3) the pre-service teachers perceived ERT as insufficient for their placement experiences. There is a need for a regulation on how the practice in teacher education should be done in ERT since pre-service teachers' field placements have a crucial role in their training and there is a missing gap for practice during distance education. Keywords: Early childhood education, emergency remote teaching, COVID-19 pandemic, preservice teachers
Cohesive speech has commonly become regarded as one of the essential aspects of language development, especially for pre-schoolers. This study aimed to shed light on the cohesive speech of pre-schoolers (CSP) knowledge base. Three hundred ninety-five publications close related cohesive speech research of 5-6-year-old children were collected from the Scopus database. By using the bibliometric approach, the results showed the growth rate of publications over time from 1970 to 2020. In this period, the top five countries, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Brazil and France, have published over 60% of total documents. Besides, four main interests of authors in this field were discovered: “language development”, “speech pathology outcomes”, “speech therapy”, “language intervention”. Among these themes, “speech pathology outcomes” was the most relevant one. Another finding, in recent years, scholars focused on aspects of autism spectrum disorder of pre-schoolers. More importantly, the achievements of this discipline have considerably made positive contributions to various fields both in terms of theory and practice, especially in language and linguistics, speech and hearing, psychology, and medicine. Overall, these studies highlight the need for many other studies, particularly relevant to pre-schooling when new generations should be better prepared to be happy in school by their future cognitive developments. Keywords: language development, language intervention, speech pathology outcomes, speech therapy
The toothed squares. Gerdes, Etnomatemática, 1991, 2012, p. 86. 
A toothed square decomposed into two squares. Gerdes, Etnomatemática, 1991, 2012, p. 88. 
Relations between toothed squares and squares. Gerdes, Etnomatemática, 1991, 2012, p. 89. Now, Gerdes unifies the train of thought summarized in the figures 2 and 3 in this manner: 
1. An intuitive approach to Pythagoras theorem 1. Gerdes, Etnomatemática, 1991, 2012, p. 90. 
2. An intuitive approach to Pythagoras theorem 2. Gerdes, Etnomatemática, 1991, 2012, p. 90. 
Mathematics has always been a difficult issue, especially in the African countries. Mozambique is not an exception. This country had been colonized by Portugal until 1975. When the independence was obtained, a socialist regime was adopted (1977). The learning of mathematics entered the struggle against colonial and imperialistic ideas. Its best ally was Paulus Gerdes, one of the most relevant ethnomatematicians of the world, who carried out an intense promotion of this approach to mathematics in Mozambican school system. Albeit the great international impact of Gerdes' ideas, Mozambique never implemented his methodology. When, at the end of the 80s, the country changed from socialism to liberalism, voting a democratic Constitution in 1990, its school system was aligned to the measures of International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank (WB). The most recent ones are represented by the Millennium Development Goals. Despite the various reforms of Mozambican school system, the results of Mozambican children in mathematics are among the worst in Africa. The reasons of such a failure are here explained, through a historical approach based on national documents. The most recent experiences of school reform carried out by international agencies together with national institutions are stressed. The negative results obtained by the Mozambican learners as to mathematics are due to several reasons: 1) a lack of consideration of the Mozambican cultural substrate; 2) an improper massification of the school system, where the quality of instruction has been neglected; 3) the specific choice to marginalize mathematics education.
Since 2013, Vietnam has implemented a plan to reform the whole education sector. However, there is little understanding on the status of educational research in Vietnam, which may lay the foundation for such plan. Thus, this research aims to analyze the whole picture of educational research from Vietnam, as seen from the Clarivate Web of Science (WOS) database: 215 publications were recorded, ranging from 1991 to 2018. These 215 publications were further analyzed from five perspectives: 1) number of publications by year; 2) research fields and levels of education; 3) top institutions with the highest number of publications; 4) international collaboration; and 5) quality. Some of the most notable results are: 1) the educational sciences in Vietnam have been still under-developed until recently; 2) among different research topics research among educational sciences, some (e.g., Vocational Education and Training or Early Childhood Education) seemed to be overlooked whereas others (e.g., Higher Education and Teaching and Learning) seemed to receive more attention from educational scholars; 3) all the most major education – specialized universities did not appear among the top five institutions with highest number of publications; 4) Australia, Thailand, the USA, New Zealand and China were the countries with the highest number of co-publications with Vietnamese researchers; and 5) The majority of publications belonged to low-ranked journals. Implications would be withdrawn for Vietnamese policymakers, education leaders, educational researchers and teachers in order to adjust their policies and/or action plans; thus, enhancing the performance and impacts of educational research in the future. Keywords: academic database, bibliometrics analysis, Clarivate WOS, educational sciences, international publishing, Vietnam.
The subject of our interest is an educational process, which is a dynamic process, changing in time, and can be examined from various viewpoints. We can focus on participants of this process, i.e. on students and lecturers, and observe their mutual relations and interactions. Educational process understood as a dynamic system is an insofar extensive sphere that it provides almost limitless opportunities of observation, modelling and simulation. In this contribution we shall focus mainly on the special part of educational processes – on teaching of subjects focusing on technical and system issues (Logical systems, Architecture of computers, Operating systems and Computer networks), which are specific with their focus on adopting the knowledge on principles and functionality of computer systems for the processing and transfer of information within the studies of informatics. Key words: e-learning, learning management system, blended learning, modelling of Petri nets, adaptive hypermedial systems, model of user, information and communication technology.
In this study, the impact of activity designing experiences with Web 2.0 tools on prospective math teachers was examined. The aim of the study was to examine the impact of activity design experiences organized with Web 2.0 tools in the mathematics teaching course on the technological pedagogical content efficacy of prospective teachers, their attitude towards teaching technologies, and rapid content development self-efficacy with Web 2.0 tools. In the study, a nested mixed method was employed. In the study conducted with 33 prospective teachers from the primary mathematics teaching department, the quantitative data was collected using the scales “Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge”, “Self-Sufficiency for Web 2.0 Rapid Content Development” and “Attitude to Teaching Technologies”. Qualitative data was collected using an interview form. Within the scope of the distance education and “Teaching numbers” course, different Web 2.0 tools were introduced for a period of 10 weeks, and it was presented how to create activity examples that could be used in mathematics teaching. According to the quantitative results, the prospective mathematics teachers’ self-efficacy increased for rapid content development with Web 2.0 tools. In addition, it was observed that the “Attitude towards Teaching Technologies” scale had a significant effect on the sub-dimensions such as believing in the use of teaching technologies in lessons, enjoying the use of teaching technologies in lessons, and not enjoying the use of teaching technologies. In line with the opinions of prospective mathematics teachers, it was concluded that the study raised awareness about technology integration, enabled content production with Web 2.0 tools, and developed positive attitudes, new knowledge, and skills about technology. Keywords: mathematics education, teaching numbers, distance education, teaching technology, web 2.0 tools.
The current social dynamics perceive education as an impeller of social and economic change. However, there are problems of coverage, relevance and methodology in the educational process, mainly in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). Recently, tools have emerged that adopt and appropriate ICTS in learning processes, such as mobile learning, which seeks to meet the requirements of mobility, accessibility and interactivity that traditional teaching mechanisms have not covered satisfactorily. Based on the necessity to identify the factors that drive the adoption of mobile learning by different HEIs, this research identifies the factors that encourage the adoption of mobile learning in the institutions. For this, results of an exercise of technological surveillance in indexed database (Scopus) were analyzed by means of scientometric indicators. Some of the most significant factors detected are: preparation of the professor, perceptions and attitudes of students, technological culture, and technological environment that leverages new learning models. Keywords: bibliometric analysis, high education, mobile learning, research trends.
The study looked into the variances and differences of the two curricula of Capitol University College of Education for the graduates of Academic Year 2008-2009, and the performance of the graduates who opted to take the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) of the same year. The University produced 39 Education Graduates from two separate curricula implemented, wherein 25 were from the old curriculum and 14 were from the new one. The study specifically monitored the academic, practical and national performances of the Bachelor of Science in Education (BEEd) graduates, at which the academic criteria focused on their marks according to the university standards for General and Professional Education, as well as marks from the Mock Exam (as a course requirement); practical performances measured according to marks given by supervisory instructors during their practicum or Practice Teaching. These marks were then statistically derived to represent the general training these graduates received from Capitol University. The LET results of 2009 were used as the benchmark to determine the performances of the curricula stated. Along with information gathered from graduate insights and job experiences, the study highlighted on the perceived identified strengths of the both curriculums as an add-on experience to further improve the LET performances of the incoming graduates for the Education Program of Capitol University. The new curriculum is currently implemented in the University, with the distinction specific to the Department awarded by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) as a center of Excellence. Key words: accreditation, curriculum comparison, Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET), performance.
Research Methodologies Employed in the ODL Journals in the Period under Study
Data Collection Techniques Employed Within the Period
Methodological trends are a key to the development of research in open and distance learning as a cognitive field. The purpose of this study was to review the methodological trends in the open and distance learning scholarly communication literature. It is important that research strategies are reviewed often to ensure the production of quality research output in a cognitive discipline. The study adopted qualitative content analysis to a sample of 1,393 articles published in five open and distance learning (ODL) journals from 2009 to 2018. The main findings of the study indicated that qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used more often than mixed methods research methodology, which was underrepresented. This implies that research in ODL relied heavily on positivist and interpretivist epistemologies, rather than pragmatist ones. Survey research approaches dominated in the research articles published in the ODL journals during the period under study. The main data analysis techniques were statistical and narrative techniques. Having ascertained that there is a gap in the use of mixed methods research in ODL, there is a need to set the future direction for open and distance learning research to focus on mixed methods research to minimise the weakness inherent in using only one method. Keywords: data analysis technique, methodological trends, open distance learning, research paradigm
Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is an international comparative study that has been implemented by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) since 1995. This proposed study is aimed to identify the affective factors contributing to eighth graders' science achievement in TIMSS among Southeast Asian and East Asian countries. The freely-downloadable secondary data were analyzed using IEA's International Database (IDB) Analyzer (version 4.0) for TIMSS, a plug-in for SPSS. TIMSS uses an imputation methodology, involving plausible values, to report student performance. This study found that students' views on engaging teaching in science (BSBGESL) were negatively and significantly contributed to eighth-grade students' science achievement in Thailand, Singapore, Chinese Taipei, and Hong Kong SAR. Students Like Learning Science (BSBGSLS) were positively and significantly contributed to eighth-grade students' science achievement in Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Hong Kong SAR, and Chinese Taipei. Students Confident in Science (BSBGSCS) were positively and significantly contributed to eighth-grade students' science achievement in Korea, Japan, Chinese Taipei, Hong Kong, Thailand, and Singapore. Students Value Science (BSBGSVS) was positively and significantly contributed to eighth-grade students' science achievement in Japan, Korea, Thailand, Chinese Taipei, Singapore, and Malaysia. Based on the research findings, policy recommendations were made to the Malaysian Ministry of Education to boost Malaysian eighth graders' science performance in the forthcoming TIMSS studies. Keywords: TIMSS, comparative study, affective factors, science achievement
Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is an international comparative study that has been implemented by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) since 1995. This proposed study is aimed to identify the correlations of science classroom teachings with eighth graders' science achievement in TIMSS among Southeast Asian and East Asian countries. The freely downloadable secondary data were analyzed using IEA's International Database (IDB) Analyzer (version 4.0) for TIMSS, a plug-in for SPSS. TIMSS uses an imputation methodology, involving plausible values, to report student performance. This study found that countries with higher average science achievement allocated higher percentage of educational hours for science teaching, students were taught the TIMSS science topics, students attended schools with science laboratories and have assistance available when conducting experiments, computer availability during science lessons, with science teachings were not limited by student needs, and less frequency of student absences. Based on the research findings, policy recommendations were made to the Malaysian Ministry of Education to boost Malaysian eighth graders' science performance in the forthcoming TIMSS assessments. Keywords: TIMSS, comparative study, classroom teachings, science achievement
In September 2015 the United Nations (UN) accepted the Sustainable Development Goals (2016-2030) for mankind, including 17 Goals and 169 detailed Targets. Sustainability is understood in the wider sense by the document, considering society and economy not just as conditions for environmental sustainability, but as equally important pillar of the "building of sustainability". Fulfilment of these goals and targets needs active participation of present and future generations, hence education of these tasks is inevitable. The aim of the research is to specify those goals and detailed targets in which renewable energy sources are involved. The latter is just one aspect for bringing the whole complex closer to the adults and youngsters to educate. This topic, however, is characterised by three features that make this aspect appealing: Renewable energies are (i) fast developing, (ii) future oriented by saving the environment and (iii) they represent relatively new pieces of knowledge, so contemporary information should not fight with older learning. Before turning to these goals and targets, a reasonable classification of the 17 goals, listed without any systematic order in the UN document, is provided. The presented classification of the goals recommends the following groups: (i) Primary needs of humans (Goals 2, 3, 6 and 7) (ii) Equality between humans (1, 4, 5 and 10), (iii) Efficient, sustainable production (8, 9, 12 and 13), (iv) Landscapes in danger (11, 14 and 15) and (v) Worldwide cooperation (16, 17). From these Goals, No. 7 (affordable and clean energy) and No 13 (climate action) are in full synergy with the aim of extended renewable energy utilisation, but No 2 (zero hunger) might be in contradiction with extensive land use for bio-energy. If consumption of timber for bio-energy continues to be intense than No. 15 (life on land) may also contradict to other goals of sustainable development. Six further targets are identified as related to renewable energies without relatedness of the complete goals. So, we may consider 14 targets belonging to 9 goals to be related to energy sources. The recommended classification of the goals and quotations of the energy-relevant targets are illustrated by some world-wide and Hungarian indicators. Being acquainted with these objectives is useful for all youngsters, presented at their level of knowledge, and it provides a good basis to refresh one's activity expressed in the environmental education.
This research aimed to present the effect of the activities conducted within the context of the 2023 Education Vision Document on the perceived teacher image by determining teachers’ perceptions in regards to the teacher image existing in today’s society. The qualitative research was conducted with the phenomenology design. The research group was composed of teachers (n=57) who completed a non-thesis master’s degree program in the field of Classroom Teaching at Amasya University, Institute of Social Sciences during 2016-2018 academic years. The research data were obtained from teachers’ written statements provided for the open-ended questions in the question form developed by the researcher. Content analysis method was used in the analysis of the collected data. While the participating teachers generally emphasized the sanctity of the teaching profession in their answers, they also stated that the perceived image of the teaching profession in today’s society was basically negative. The variables affecting the perception of the teaching profession in society were classified under the following themes: sociological changes, local practices, employee rights, policy makers, media, parents, students, teachers, teacher training and qualification of prospective teachers. Teachers’ suggestions to contribute to the image of the teaching profession were gathered under the themes of teacher motivation, teacher training, employee rights, media, innovative practices and training support for teachers. In the context of the obtained data, it can be argued that some of the actions have been put forward so far in regards to 2023 Education Vision Document, and the practices expected to be implemented in the near future will positively contribute to the perceived image of the teaching profession in society. Keywords: teacher image, teacher’ image perceptions, 2023 education vision document
Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991).
Questionnaire variable.
Informants in the interview.
t-test results for difference between genders.
ANOVA results for difference among ages and teaching experience.
To facilitate educational staff, especially teachers with adequate information and communication technology (ICT) tools and its integration, has been one of the main agendas in vocational high schools around the world. One of the key factors of the ICT integration success in education is teachers’ beliefs. To understand the phenomenon, this mix method study aimed at elaborating Vocational Technical High School (VTHS) teachers’ beliefs on the ICT and its integration in education and differences of the teachers’ beliefs between demographic information. Quantitatively, a survey was addressed to 765 respondents; the analysis was descriptive using mean, percentage, and standard deviation, as well as t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for a difference between the demographic information namely genders, ages, and teaching experiences. Following the quantitative phase, interview was conducted with 10 teachers to get in-depth information through a thematic process. Findings suggest that the VTHS teacher’s beliefs on ICT and its integration in education mainly focused on 1) student engagement and effective learning, varied use of ICT regarding grades and content (behavioral beliefs); 2) needs of digital-age students and expectations of authorities, administrators, and colleagues (normative beliefs); 3) varied self-efficacy for using ICT in VTHSs, access to learning, access to ICT and human resource support (control beliefs). Keywords: beliefs, ICT, mix method, vocational technical education.
21st-century learning is integral to the transformation of the curriculum in Malaysia with the transition from School Integrated Curriculum (SIC) to School Standard Curriculum (SSC) introduced around 2014. During this time, the implementation of 21st-century learning was acceptable and very rewarding. However, the impact of implementation on students' skills, abilities, potentials and achievements should be looked at to ensure that the new curriculum is stable and practical to continue. There is a need to discuss the level of metacognitive regulation skills and students’ achievement in line with the introduction and implementation of 21st-century learning in the context of the Malaysian curriculum. Therefore, this research was conducted to examine whether the implementation of 21st-century learning has an impact on metacognitive regulation skills and student achievement. This quantitative survey was conducted by 201 Form 2 students from four secondary schools in Pasir Gudang District, Johor, Malaysia. The results show that the level of students' metacognitive regulation skills and the level of achievement in mathematics is moderate. Correlation analysis also showed there was a significant correlation between metacognitive regulation skills and student achievement. The implications from this research suggest that stakeholders including ministries, curriculum developers, education departments and teachers need to take initiatives to strengthen and improve the reputation of curriculum transformation in line with the 21st-century learning era in producing quality education. Keywords: curriculum transformation, mathematics learning, metacognitive regulation skills, students’ achievement, 21st-century learning.
Contemporaneity, defined as post-modernity, is a stage of civilization changes, which in its nature entails changes in the sphere of didactic and educational thinking and practice. The rapid pace of social change, shaping new interpersonal relationships, progressive axiological chaos, enforce a kind of revision of views on the school as a place and the role of the teacher in it. Over the past several decades, throughout the world we have been observing the role of education, which is increasingly seen as a factor affecting, to a large extent, the well-being, development and quality of life of citizens and the economic progress of the countries. One can also suppose that this process will shape the face of future times to an even greater extent. The persons responsible for the organization of education are therefore wondering what education will be most useful to young people in the future. Attempts are made to identify certain key competences for the 21st century. According to the position of some people, any planning and anticipation of such a rapidly changing reality is impossible because the effects of various phenomena that already exist and inventions that are just emerging will be so great that the forecasts themselves do not make sense. On the other hand, “somehow” we have to find ourselves in this reality. And this uncertainty and variability, which, paradoxically, is certain, becomes the anchor point. From this emerges the task of preparing to cope with the uncertainty and changeability that can be met. The aim is to prepare the young generation to live in a world of constant change and to cope with what is unpredictable. Substantially, the task of the 21st century school seems to be double: prepare the young generation to live here and now and to live in a different, ever-changing reality. Is it possible?
This study examined the reform Agenda and the educational policy in Kenya with regard to the secondary school sector in Eldoret municipality. The study was based on the social systems theory as advanced by Newstrom (1993). The research adopted an exploratory survey design. The target population was the principals in secondary schools, the student governing council, teachers and parents. The sample was selected using proportionate stratified random sampling and purposive sampling. Data was collected by use of questionnaires, interview schedules, and observation schedule. Descriptive statistics, (percentages, frequency distribution tables and graphic representations) were used in data analysis and interpretation of data. The significance of the study lies in the fact that reform agenda in education with regard to educational policy is aimed at creating equal opportunity for all learners in Kenya. The study findings revealed that the education opportunities at secondary school level are unevenly distributed, ranking of schools based on performance create discrimination. The admission criteria have created a rift rather than promote unity, and that affirmative action in the education sector has led to inequalities. The study concludes that, the government of Kenya needs to redirect some public resources for education from the wealthiest people to the poor population. Concludes that unless the regional differences are considered educational policies will always replicate social injustices. Key words: education, policy, social injustices, regional disparity.
The intake of English lexis in the Eastern Europe countries has been increasing considerably since the end of their political, social and cultural isolation. Having one of the most severe and violent political systems Albania was probably more eager to accelerate the exchanges with the ‘outer world’ and its integration in Europe. Thus adapting to the international context English language was, and still is, one of the mediators to achieve this integration. From the linguistic perspective what results from this languages contact are the loans, neologisms, and even ‘pseudo – loans’ (Albanian words with the form or the pronunciation of the donor language - English in this case, but that do not exist in the donor language). In this context this paper states some of the extra-linguistic factors (historical, social, political and other factors) which conditioned and determined the language contact between English and Albanian and that would further lead to a considerable number of borrowings from English. Pseudo loans and other new Albanian words created under the influence of English language are briefly discussed under the title of ‘Language shifting’. The study also describes Albanians’ attitude toward English language, which is found to be definitely a positive attitude. Based on the above overview of English-Albanian contact and on some of the linguistic outcomes deriving from it, is concluded that the impact of English language and culture in the Albanian context is of a considerable degree, and that the outcomes of this impact are only at the primary stages of identification and examination. Key words: Albanians’ attitude to English, English-Albanian contact, language shifting.
Quality assurance in secondary schools (ages about 12-18) and in higher education has been a growth industry for many years, with all kinds of agencies being funded. With apparently endless growth in education at all levels, with insistent demands on more resources, the political pressures in ensuring value for money have increased. This study looks at what is meant by quality assurance, challenges some of the current procedures and points to some better ways forward for the 21st century. Specifically, it argues that quality assurance must focus on the key goals for education at each stage with the learner always at the focus of all procedures to assess quality. Finally, the study illustrates this approach by considering what 793 secondary students thought of their experiences at the point when they were almost completing their education journey in secondary schools in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The research aim is to show how focussing on the actual learners can identify key issues that need addressed to enrich education provision. These issues include the emphasising understanding and not memorisation, the need for more groupwork and dialogue, restoring the visual-spatial aspects of learning, re-thinking curriculum balance, and re-examining national examination systems. The most fundamental question of all is whether quality assurance has improved quality - a key issue for the 21st century? Key words: national assessment, nature of learning, quality assurance, understanding-memorisation.
Assessment of 21st-century mathematical competencies conducted by lecturers
Mathematics is one of the fields that has important role in the 21st-century thinking because mathematics involves the process of logical and systematic thinking to solve problems. This makes mathematical competencies need to be developed through learning and integrated into knowledge, skills, and attitudes. When learning has facilitated the development of 21st-century mathematical competencies, the assessment must also be able to photograph it. This research aimed to find out whether the lecturers of the Mathematics Education Study Program have conducted a 21st-century mathematics competency assessment. This research used a qualitative approach with the phenomenological method. The data were collected using in-depth interviews with each participant. The research participants were 20 lecturers from Mathematics Education Study Program who came from 12 provinces in Indonesia. Data analysis was performed by using the help of ATLAS.ti 8 software to analyze participants' transcripts and documentation, formulate important phrases or sentences, formulate meaning, bring themes up, and be integrated into in-depth descriptions of the phenomenon. The result showed that lecturers of the Mathematics Education Study Program have not focused on the 21st-century mathematics competency assessment. The assessment of each mathematical competency was only done globally and not carried out in detail about each of the competency indicators. Keywords: 21st-century mathematical competencies, competency assessment, lecturers' experience in assessment, Mathematics Education Study Program lecturers.
Teachers who teach English as a foreign language (EFL) should constantly develop their skills and knowledge by taking part in professional development programs (PDPs) which keep them aware of the most recent teaching trends. This mixed method study seeks to explore how PDPs influence EFL teachers’ teaching practices in activating 21st century skills, and therefore their students’ acquisition of these skills. It also examines the correlation between EFL teachers’ activation of 21st century skills and their students’ acquisition of these skills. The study used a sequential explanatory research design by utilizing questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The results revealed that the two dimensions of 21st century skills that got the highest level of activation were the collaboration and communication skills. Furthermore, the results showed that the students acquire all 21st century skills with different levels of acquisition. Finally, the results showed that EFL teachers’ activation of 21st century skills had no significant direct correlation with students’ acquisition of these skills. These findings could provide insights on the area of PDPs that need to be researched more in different contexts. They also suggested that PDPs designers should incorporate all dimensions of 21st equally to be activated accurately by teachers in higher education institutions. Keywords: professional development, EFL teachers, EFL learners, 21st century skills activation, 21st century skills acquisition
Although teaching of reading skills and the prerequisites of literacy are extensively studied, children’s opinions on learning to read are not. The aim of this research was to reveal children’s opinions on learning to read at the time they start school. Forty-three children (23 girls, 20 boys), aged six and a half years, were interviewed preceded by measurements of their level of literacy. Children were divided into three groups: the good readers (n= 8, 19 %) who were able to read easy texts; the ones who recognized some words (n=16, 37 %) or letters but were not exactly able to read; and the non-readers (n=19, 44 %) who recognized some letters but were not able to read words. Data were analyzed with the phenomenographic method. Learning to read appeared as a surprising and pleasant experience, but also demanding. School entrants showed strong belief and trust in their own abilities to learn to read and were careful and realistic when evaluating them. A challenge of today's teaching is to pay attention to all children with their various skills and learning perceptions to secure each individual child's learning, especially when instructing them with new methods and means. Multiple literacies are considered necessary for succeeding in the postmodern world. Key words: literacy, reading, reading comprehension, children’s perceptions, learning to read.
Variable names and definitions.
Summary statistics.
DEA results.
Efficient targets for input and outputs.
One of the main goals of education policy is to enhance educational outcomes. If resources are used inefficiently, they will fail to maximise those outcomes. Data Envelopment Analysis was used to calculate technical efficiency of public spending on education for EU-28 using the latest higher education statistics available. Focusing on European higher education, conceptual and methodological issues related to the measurement and analysis of efficiency were discussed. The most efficient countries are identified and also countries for which real efficiency improvements are possible. A novel set of variables is used to highlight more appropriately the distinctiveness of the higher education sector and the relationship between input and outputs. The advantage of using Data Envelopment Analysis is that it identifies the best performing decision, making units and not the averages. This type of information about the efficiency of public spending on education is of importance to many parties. It can be used to promote ‘yardstick’ competition in the areas of education where the lack of market mechanisms is apparent, guide policy proposals, and to enhance the monitoring of education. Key words: efficiency in education, higher education, public spending, data envelopment analysis, European Union.
A key aspect for evaluation of a school subject teaching, which is applied in the majority of EU countries, is filling the school curricula with the content subject mater, the extent of their connection with practice and its needs and impulses, compatibility and comparability in the European education area. The paper is based on a widely conceived international research oriented on the comparative evaluation of the current state of teaching the school subject informatics from the point of view of specific factors at the upper secondary level of education (ISCED 3A) in three EU countries - Slovak Republic, Czech Republic and Belgium. The authors describe statistical processing of the collected data and present quantitative and qualitative analyses of the obtained research results. Key words: quality in education, school subject informatics, the upper secondary level of education (ISCED 3A).
This study assesses the level of application of the 5E’s educational model by Rwandan physics teachers and how the model affects the learning of basic classical mechanics in secondary school physics classrooms. For this analysis, quantitative data were collected using the classroom observation tool framed at the 5E’s educational model. A sample of six secondary physics teachers was selected purposively from three boarding secondary schools of Nyamasheke district in the western province of Rwanda to participate in this study. Twenty-four classroom observations were conducted during teaching and learning mechanics concepts in the way of four observations for each teacher before being trained on 5E’s educational model. This was done to help the researcher to have the real picture of the prior ability of teachers to incorporate 5E’s aspects in their usual teaching practices. Similarly, a total of 24 observations were done after teachers’ training. The collected data were tabulated in Microsoft Excel, and descriptive statistics were analyzed and presented. The overall mean scores on the teachers’ ability to apply 5E’s educational model during lesson delivery on introductory mechanics were low before training and increased due to teacher training on the use of 5E’s educational model. The main findings from this study revealed that 5E’s educational model is more effective in stimulating students’ motivation and strong interaction and a better understanding of mechanics concepts through interactive activities, discrepant events, and computer simulations. Based on the findings of this study, some recommendations were suggested that would improve more physics students’ active learning. Keywords: active learning of mechanics, 5E's educational model, classroom observation, physics students, secondary school, Rwanda
Socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents. 
Distribution of respondents according to their counselling needs. 
ANOVA of the perception of quality and effectiveness of G&CS across all colleges. 
This research investigated students ' needs, awareness, perception and use of Guidance and Counselling Services (G&CS) in Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB). Simple random sampling technique was used to sample 283 respondents across the ten (10) colleges in the institution. Data were collected with the aid of questionnaire and analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentages, and mean. The questionnaire was subjected to a pilot study that revealed psychometric properties of Cronbach's Apha 0.86. Result revealed that 91.1% of the respondents were aware of G&CS and 74.6% of the respondents currently using the services indicated that it was very helpful. The rating of the counselling needs of the respondents revealed that academic issues with a mean of 3.62 ranked first, and exam pressure management had a mean of 3.51 ranked second. Furthermore, the rating of the perception of students on the quality and effectiveness of G&CS indicated that organized orientation services for fresh students ranked first (mean = 2.55), while effective counselling on personal, social, academic and vocational challenges ranked second (mean = 2.49). The study concluded that the G&CS needs of the students across the colleges differ due to the dissimilarities in their disciplines across the University. The G&CS was assisting students to attain competencies needed to overcome academic, career and personal concerns. The fresher's orientation service received the highest perception (mean = 2.55) among respondents on the quality and effectiveness of G&CS in the institution.
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of gender, age, parent’s education, scholarship and students’ education on students’ confidence in their financial management capability and knowledge. In the research, 259 students participated from two different faculties – the Faculty of Education and the Faculty of Economics. This investigation has revealed that the likelihood of students’ confidence in their financial management capability and knowledge is significantly smaller for students who do not specialize in economics or business studies, and for female students. The likelihood of confidence in their financial management capability and knowledge also statistically significantly increases with the father’s educational level, but, interestingly, not with the mother’s. The results also showed, although it is not statistically significant, that students on scholarships on average express a higher confidence in their financial management capability and knowledge. Therefore, the adequacy of the current educational policy (formal and non-formal education) should be considered. Key words: confidence, education, financial literacy, money management, perception.
One of the cognitive theories is the embodied cognition theory. According to this theory, it is important to use appropriate gestures in the process of assimilating new information and the acquisition of new skills. The further development of information and communication technologies has enabled the development of interfaces that allow the user to control computer programs and electronic devices by using gestures. These Natural User Interfaces (NUI) were used in teaching Chemistry in middle school and secondary school. A virtual chemical laboratory was developed in which students can simulate the performance of laboratory activities, similar to those that are performed in a real lab. The Kinect sensor was used to detect and analyze hand movement. The conducted research established the educational effectiveness of a virtual laboratory, which is an example of a system based on GBS gestures (gesture-based system). The use of the teaching methods and to what extent they increase the student's complete understanding were examined. The results indicate that the use of the gesture-based system in teaching makes it more attractive and increases the quality of teaching Chemistry. Key words: chemistry experiments, educational simulation, gesture based system, embodied cognition theory.
The education of a dialogic person capable of humane and creative interaction with other people, the surrounding world, culture, and her/himself is one of the most important goals of modern education. This paper presents a conceptual study in which the essence of dialogic interaction is analyzed and in accordance with it the main tasks of dialogic education in high school and university are clarified. Particular attention is paid to metaphoric dialogue, because of its role in the educational process and because of its importance for the contemporary culture. The study is based on the concepts of the classics of the dialogue theory of the 20th century (M. Buber, M. Bakhtin, G. Gadamer, and others) as well as on some works of contemporary researchers into dialogic pedagogy. We have analyzed dialogic interaction in terms of the struc¬ture of abilities that its participants need to have. We have identified the three main prerequisites of the dialog, closely connected with one another (which define three main tasks of dialogical education). These are: (1) a dialogic relation between participants of the dialogue with one another and with the dialog proper (the emotional and ethical basis of the dialogue); (2) antinomic thinking (its intellectual basis); (3) a procedurally open perception of the world (a prerequisite of the creative development of one's own meanings). Key words: dialogic interaction, dialogic development of students, prerequisites of the dialogue, tasks of dialogic education.
The research findings describe a model of experiential learning that promotes the development of foundation phase student teachers’ metacognitive abilities for mathematics through classroom reflective discourse using an open approach. A case study was carried out on two foundation phase mathematics classes in South Africa’s universities; data were collected through observation and focus group interviews. The research’s main findings indicated that student teachers’ interest in reflective classroom discourse is important using an open-approach-based mathematics class, which helped pave the way for the student teachers to exhibit metacognitive abilities relevant to the teaching and learning steps of a foundation phase mathematics class. Deciding on the type of problem to work on, posing open-ended problems to colleagues for discussion in class, stimulating students’ reflective self-centred learning, whole-class discussion, comparison of a particular problem and summarising important information for self-development in teaching and learning through connecting students’ mathematical ideas all formed part of reflective classroom discourse. Recommendations were made for further development of metacognitive abilities. Keywords: mathematics class, metacognitive strategies, open approach, preservice teachers, reflective classroom, school learners, student teachers.
This research suggests emphasis manipulation on constituent skills of least-abled sets, improves coordination and integration of knowledge, skills, and attitudes on cognitive load, transfer, and instructional efficiency. The participants were divided into two groups. Competency levels for the designated skill sets were evaluated, and a pre-test was performed on both groups. The research applied an educational design based on individual learner’s least-abled sets of constituent skills and identified the design’s effectiveness on complex learning. One group was provided with the whole learning contents according to emphasis manipulation sequencing method, and the other group was provided personalized learning contents according to a method based on the least-abled sets of constituent skills emphasis manipulation. The group received materials constructed with emphasis manipulation, learned the whole constituent skills of learning contents and carried out conventional tasks. However, treatment group received materials constructed with the least-abled sets of constituent skills emphasis manipulation, learned only the least-abled constituent skills and carried out conventional tasks. This research suggests that teaching with the least-abled sets of constituent skills helps to reduce expertise-reversal effect and improve results of cognitive load, transfer and instructional efficiency. Keywords: cognitive load, complex tasks, emphasis manipulation, instructional efficiency, learning transfer.
Interaction and Information technologies have reshaped our live today, and nowadays' students and teachers have a massive use of smart phones, iPads and other portable devices; moreover, they are continually looking for cutting edge technologies. But often the use of these devices is not in ways anticipated by technology proponents. All these smart phones and other portable devices are equipped or ready for social media applications like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, WhatsApp, Telegram, and Instagram, Snapchat, which are part of what is known as Social Web 2.0, best characterized by the notions of social interaction, content sharing, and collective intelligence.
Article titles and sources.
Scientific article writing is undoubtedly an inseparable part of academic activity. Every researcher/scientist, in one way or another, has to declare scientific research activity results, i.e., to publish in scientific press. If this is not done, it is considered that a scientific work is not finished regardless of the size of the research/experiments carried out and so on. Such information has to be completely understandable not only in the academic environment but also in society. Publications in the international and independent science journals acknowledged in the academic community show the real value of the scientist and his works. This does not mean in any way that the other level publications are not necessary (Lamanauskas, 2013). Every publication has its auditorium, purpose, aims and so on. Regardless of the type of publication broadly speaking, it has to be appropriately prepared.
A conceptual four-sector model of the development of cognitive process dimensions.
Structure of respondents according to the intellectual level and academic achievement in the economic subject.
Multiple regression analysis model -students with an average intellectual level (n = 109).
Description of sectors in terms of the impact of variables on academic achievement.
Academic achievement results (academic grading) versus the actual performance in the individual cognitive dimension.
The research deals with the development of cognitive process dimensions in economic education. The aim is to research factors that influence academic achievement of students according to their intellectual level and grades. The researchers used quantitative design of research based on standardized assessment of intelligence and non-standardized questionnaire. The questionnaire was used to analyse the pedagogical competences of the teachers of economic subjects from the students' point of view in close relation to the teaching management and the impact on the motivation to learn and the achievement of students in these subjects. The respondents were 277 Czech students aged 16-17 who were divided into groups according to their intellectual level and grades. The data were analysed by a correlation analysis and a multiple regression model. In conclusion, the following can be stated: (a) From the point of view of the above average intelligent students, expertise can be considered as an important competency of the teacher; teaching average intelligent students, communication and presentation skills seem to be important. (b) It is desirable to develop cognitive processes, critical thinking actively, to lead students to become aware of changes in their own thinking and to orient them towards mastery goals. (c) Particularly for students with weaker results it is necessary to create intrinsic motivation, which develops cognition and thus is able to develop higher cognitive dimensions further. The links between these areas are of utmost importance for education and, above all, for developing of students' scholarship. Each student can be educated, and it is necessary to influence them to develop their personality and all of their potential abilities. The conceptual four-sector model represents the initial pathway to lead students who are differentiated according to the intellectual level and academic achievement to the active development of thinking, learning and critical insight.
Violence and abuse against children are important social issues for teachers. The aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of foreign language students, regarding violence and abuse against children, and their suggestions for preventing violence. The research was designed in the case study pattern, which is a qualitative research method. The study group of the research consists of 82 first year and second year foreign language pre-service teachers studying at Tishk International University, Faculty of Education, and voluntarily agreeing to participate in the research. The data of the study were obtained by using the structured “Recommendations Form for Preventing Violence and Abuse Against Children” developed by the researchers. Written data were analyzed by content analysis method. 82 students from first and second years at Education Faculty were interviewed and their opinions were taken. There were some subheadings during the survey: family, laws, national and international non-governmental organizations, schools and teachers, society, media, and art. They expressed their opinions about what the functions of these organs should be to prevent the violence and abuse against children. The pre-service teachers attached important duties to each of these organs separately. It is concluded that the prevention of violence and abuse against children can only be achieved in cooperation and separate duties of these organs. It is also recommended that courses and training that will provide pre-service teachers with knowledge, skills and awareness about violence and abuse against children should be placed in the curriculum as compulsory in education faculties. Keywords: violence and abuse against child, prevention of abuse, foreign language pre-service teacher
The problem of this study was to investigate the teaching of the integrated topics on drug abuse in the secondary school curriculum as a strategy to wipe out the problem of drug abuse among students in Machakos District, Kenya. The specific objectives of the study were to: establish the prevalence of drug abuse at the secondary school level according to gender, locality (urban/rural), boarding or day and religious practice, and establish the effect of teaching integrated topics on prevalence rate of drug abuse. It was also meant to examine which topics on drug abuse are integrated in the secondary school curriculum. A survey study was carried out in Machakos District, Kenya. The subjects of the study were drawn from 24 randomly selected secondary schools. A sample of 774 respondents selected through stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used for the study. The sampling matrix comprised of 24 principals, 280 teachers and 470 students. The study utilized five research instruments: three questionnaires, interview schedule and observation schedule. The data collected was analyzed using frequencies, percentages, mean, mode and median. The main findings of the study were: the prevalence of drug abuse according to gender was Boys’ (11.19%), Girls’ (9.58%) and mixed sex (9.49%) schools. The urban schools had a prevalence of 10.73% whereas it was 9.66% in the rural ones. The prevalence according to status of the schools was: Day (13.84%), Mixed Day and Boarding (12.28%), and Boarding (11.54%). The teaching of the integrated topics on drug abuse had helped schools to reduce the drug menace. The topics on drug abuse were integrated in five subjects in the formal curriculum (English, Kiswahili, Chemistry, Biology and Christian Religious Education), the integrated topics were also taught through the non formal (Clubs and societies meetings) and in the informal (class, assembly and dormitory meetings) curriculum. Key words: curriculum, integrated topics, prevalence rate of drug abuse.
Top-cited authors
Heri Retnawati
  • Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta
Ezi Apino
  • Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta
Hasan Djidu
  • Sembilanbelas November University
Rizqa Devi Anazifa
  • Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta
Kartianom Kartianom
  • Institut Agama Islam Negeri Bone