Political Communication

Published by Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Online ISSN: 1091-7675
Publications
Adjusted odds ratios for union formation among unmarried people of each sex according to their drinking frequency, showing full coefficients. Russia 1998–2010 Odds ratios for having formed a union by (time t) (figures in parentheses show 95 per cent confidence interval) 
Multinomial adjusted odds ratios for competing risks of cohabitation and marriage, among single people of each sex aged 16-49 years, according to drinking frequency and pattern. Russia 1998-2010
of the pooled sample of follow-up periods from wave t − 1 to wave t of the RMLS, including unmarried and cohabiting men and women aged 16-49 years. Russia 1998-2010
odds ratios for union formation among unmarried people of each sex according to their drinking frequency, showing full coefficients. Russia 1998-2010 Odds ratios for having formed a union by (time t) (figures in parentheses show 95 per cent confidence interval)
Article
Using data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, 1998-2010, we investigated the extent to which patterns of alcohol consumption in Russia are associated with the subsequent likelihood of entry into cohabitation and marriage. Using discrete-time event history analysis we estimated for 16-50 year olds the extent to which the probabilities of entry into the two types of union were affected by the amount of alcohol drunk and the pattern of drinking, adjusted to allow for social and demographic factors including income, employment, and health. The results show that individuals who did not drink alcohol were less likely to embark on either cohabitation or marriage, that frequent consumption of alcohol was associated with a greater chance of entering unmarried cohabitation than of entering into a marriage, and that heavy drinkers were less likely to convert their relationship from cohabitation to marriage.
 
Article
Unlabelled: BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: What people remember can be shaped by how they access and evaluate their memories as well as by events that happen after the original experience. This study examined how thinking about events in different ways after their occurrence can influence younger and older adults' memory for what really occurred. Methods: Younger adults (ages 18-22) and older adults (ages 65-88) saw and imagined pictures of objects and later evaluated each object 0, 1, or 3 times on a task that either required them to remember the objects in a general way (old or new?), in a more specific manner (perceived, imagined, or new?), or that required thinking about objects without regard to whether or how they were earlier experienced (e.g., judging their function or frequency in everyday life). Results: RESULTS showed that probing items multiple times on the intervening tasks increased the number of items younger and older adults successfully remembered later but also increased source misattributions of claiming to have seen objects that were really imagined, with older adults showing lower recall but higher source errors. Exposure to items on the nonretrieval intervening tasks negatively affected later source memory, and remembering items without explicitly considering their source increased source errors even more that did the non-retrieval-based intervening tasks. Conclusions: These findings illustrate the negative impact of thinking about and nondiscriminately remembering past events on subsequent memory accuracy.
 
Article
Unlabelled: BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Previous research has shown an increase of subjective organization of stimuli and of recall performance across learning trials. However, up to date, it has not been examined whether subjective organization and recall performance are positively related also at the level of the individual. To close this gap, parameters of verbal learning were regressed on growth parameters of subjective organization. Methods: The sample for this investigation involved N = 205 subjects (65 to 80 years old). Participants learned a word list containing 27 unrelated words, presented randomly across five trials. Subjective organization was measured by using the Paired Frequency measure. Results: Overall, there were reliable individual differences with regard to both subjective organization and verbal learning. RESULTS showed that the learning parameters were positively correlated with the initial level and linear slope of subjective organization. Furthermore, growth parameters of subjective organization turned out to be reliable predictors of verbal learning. Conclusion: The present study emphasized the role of analyzing individual differences in subjective organization. Implications are discussed, in particular, regarding the interdependency of subjective organization and verbal learning in old age.
 
Article
Business cycles in different regions of the United States tend to synchronize. This study investigates the reasons behind this synchronization of business cycles and the consequent formation of a national business cycle. Trade between regions may not be strong enough for one region to "drive" business cycle fluctuations in another region. This study suggests that regional business cycles synchronize due to a nonlinear "mode-locking" process in which weakly coupled oscillating systems (regions) tend to synchronize. There is no definitive test for mode-lock. However, simulations, correlations, Granger causality tests, tests for nonlinearities, vector autoregressions, and spectral analysis reveal modest econometric support for the regional mode-locking hypothesis of business cycle synchronization. Copyright Blackwell Publishers, 2005
 
Diagram showing the exchange of artefacts A…G in a comparison involving a coordinator (NIST), two sub-coordinators (NML and PTB) and 12 other laboratories. In this case the artefacts were standard platinum resistance thermometers which the participating laboratories were required to use to measure their realization of the gallium fixed point on the ITS-90 temperature scale [5]. 
Article
We consider the evaluation of laboratory practice through the comparison of measurements made by participating metrology laboratories when the measurement procedures are considered to have both fixed effects (the residual error due to unrecognised sources of error) and random effects (drawn from a distribution of known variance after correction for all known systematic errors). We show that, when estimating the participant fixed effects, the random effects described can be ignored. We also derive the adjustment to the variance estimates of the participant fixed effects due to these random effects.
 
Article
After spending two decades studying the news media as an institution, Tim Cook turned his attention to public attitudes about the press, a topic that lurked behind much of his work, most prominently Governing with the News, but one that he had never addressed directly in print. As was typically the case with Tim's voracious intellectual appetite, the project grew into a larger study of public trust and confidence in institutions. This piece represents the first fruits of this collaboration, addressing what began our inquiry: what was the cause of the long known, but seldom explained, decline in pubic confidence in the press? Was it because they had become, in Cook's words, just another "governing" institution? Or was there something distinct about the press as an institution in the array of public attitudes about the social and political world? In this piece, we demonstrate how confidence in the press is distinct from generalized confidence in other social and political institutions. In particular, we find that the same political indicators that lead to higher confidence in institutions in general drive down confidence in the press. We close by speculating on likely future trends given the adversarial tenor of press coverage.
 
Article
In this article, we provide a comprehensive, systematic examination of media coverage of Congress in the 1990s. Specifically, we content analyze over 2,600 congressional news stories from the New York Times and CBS Evening News from 1990 through 1998. We find that the news media covered substantive policy concerns and the legislative process quite regularly and that stories focusing on individual personalities and political scandals were comparatively infrequent. We also find that legislative maneuvering is a mainstay of congressional media coverage, and the democratic process is most often framed as conflict between parties and Congress and the president.
 
Article
Modern election campaign studies focus on national dimensions at the expense of attending to local campaigns in legislative elections. This is also true of analyses of media coverage and impact of election campaigns. This paper examines the local dimension of media and election campaigns across a wide range of diverse constituency contexts in Canada in order to identify the political, socioeconomic, and geographic determinants of constituency party associations’ ability to attract local media attention during an election campaign. We also examine the role of these features of the constituency settings and explain variations in satisfaction with the media’s coverage of the local campaign.
 
Overview of agreement and disagreement hypotheses
OLS regression analyses of the effect of individual and others' agreement and disagreement on three deliberation evaluations
Regression analyses of three outcomes
Article
While research on democratic deliberation has burgeoned, little systematic work has been done on the effects of the communication content of deliberations. We examine how expressions of agreement and disagreement during online deliberation affect participants' evaluations of their experience, including satisfaction, reevaluation of opinions, and expected future participation. The effects of these evaluations on perceived legitimacy and opinion ambivalence also are considered. Several alternative hypotheses are entertained, including avoidance, in which high disagreement reduces evaluations; reevaluation, in which high disagreement enhances evaluations; sociability, in which high agreement enhances evaluations; balance, which suggests that a balance of agreement and disagreement would enhance evaluations; and disequilibrium, which indicates that high agreement and low disagreement and the reverse yield good evaluations. The hypotheses are tested with survey data and a discussion content analysis of a representative sample of 179 individuals who participated in a deliberation experiment. Findings indicate that deliberation evaluations are important for decision legitimacy and ambivalence. Also, the sociability hypothesis is strongly confirmed for satisfaction. The disequilibrium hypothesis is confirmed for future engagement. The avoidance hypothesis is not supported, contesting the prevalent view that people seek to avoid political disagreements.
 
Article
In June 1989, when Chinese citizens were massacred at Tiananmen Square, and in August 1991, when antireform Communists attempted to lead a coup against Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, the American public in unusually high numbers paid attention to the crises; the public s views on policy matters were recorded in public opinion surveys; press coverage of both crises was exhaustive; and elite opinion about U.S. policy was widely aired through the media, exposing the American public to the full spectrum of elite opinion. In both cases elite opinion (voiced in the media and measured through content analysis) was compared with public opinion (measured in public opinion surveys) to test the theories of Walter Lippmann and others that the elites lead public opinion about American foreign policy. In neither case could the dependence of mass opinion on elite opinion be demonstrated. The two bodies of opinion appear to have formed and been expressed in two different, nonoverlapping worlds.
 
Article
This article presents a new institutionalism approach to news grounded in sociological and historical approaches to new institutionalism and argues that this approach to news production has several advantages. Among them are that it encourages analysts to see the news as an outcome of interaction between journalists and other political actors, that it allows for variance in news coverage around a general tendency toward homogeneity in the news, and, finally, that it encourages scholars to examine the full range of news outlets in the media universe rather than to concentrate their attention on the narrow world of mainstream elite media. This approach is compared and contrasted with that offered by Sparrow elsewhere in this issue, and future directions for research are offered.
 
Article
This article examines the state of media regulation in Arab and other Muslim countries. Whereas most countries in Europe, including the emerging democracies of Central and Eastern Europe, and some of the African societies in transition have developed media commissions of different types, most Muslim countries are so far reluctant to ease the dominating state control of the media, especially in the audiovisual sector. A majority of journalists associations in the Middle East and North Africa still need to distance themselves from governments and ruling parties. Their major task is to ensure observance of ethical standards, a task in which they have to struggle with the desires of governments and parliaments to make excessive use of the judiciary to sanction journalists. So far, Muslim countries have yet to develop their own models for restructuring the changing media sector and for creating a viable system of checks and balances that would control the media in a democratic way. Governments should aim to develop a common understanding among regulatory bodies and media practitioners and thus to provide for common concepts of ethical standards. In these efforts, much can be learned from the wide range of experiences gained by the transitional societies of Eastern Europe and sub-Saharan Africa during the last decade.
 
Article
Cable television news channels and online news sites appear to offer interested voters the ability to follow presidential election campaigns more closely than ever before. However, survey research looking at the extent to which Americans are taking advantage of these newer media is incomplete. Rarely is new media use adequately assessed in surveys, and no extant study has simultaneously examined exposure to contemporary news channels over the course of several weeks. The present study uses an aggregate-level analysis of naturally occurring news consumption behavior to determine whether public selection of broadcast news programs, cable news channels, and online news outlets follows the primary election schedule and fluctuations in voter interest in the election. The results suggest that people turn to cable news and online political content during key political events (i.e., the Super Tuesday primary period) but less so when the political stakes are much lower. In addition, the data reveal that news reading at local news sites during key events takes on a more local character than does reading at other times. In sum, the study demonstrates that aggregate-level use of the newer media is responsive to changes in the political environment. Audiences seem willing to take advantage of a growing number of options for finding information about politics.
 
Article
In the fall of 1994 a nonpartisan and nonprofit voter information organization Project Vote Smart-designed and implemented an education project for "atrisk" voters in northern California. The Project Vote Smart (PVS) effort was a systematic attempt to provide typically nonvoting groups both information and incentive to participate in the November general election. The results presented here suggest that the receipt of PVS materials did not directly increase the likelihood of voting or election interest. However, the receipt of PVS materials did make voters feel better about the resources they had to bring to bear on electoral choices.
 
Article
Social and political groups can facilitate the transmission of information and the formation of political attitudes. We employ the logic of group formation to examine electronic communities. Do electronic groups form cohesive social groups exhibiting the characteristics of traditional physical groups such as churches and peers? We conduct a content analysis of 5,611 USENET messages. The messages are analyzed for the following behaviors: political content, group maintenance, and recruitment. We find that most political USENET groups demonstrate the behavioral characteristics one would be expect of a socially cohesive group. We also find that liberal or left-wing political groups are less active and more poorly organized.
 
Article
Although there is an extensive research literature on the ideological uses of news particularly during times of war there has been little investigation of how media present news in support of their nations' position in international economic conflicts This study analyzes the newscasts of Radio Japan during a period of major trade disputes between Japan and the United States It identi fies the way in which a clear and serviceable image of an international trade rival can be constructed as a cumulative product over an extended period of newscasts
 
Article
Gabriel Tarde (l843–1904) is thought to have “lost” his debates with Durkheim by insisting that sociology ought to occupy itself with observable interpersonal processes. Given contemporary interest in such processes—much abetted by the computer—Tarde's reputation is being rehabilitated. Terry Clark (1969)5. Clark , T. N. , ed. 1969. Gabriel Tarde on communication and social influence, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. View all references was first to notice that Tarde (1898) had anticipated Lazarzfeld's two-step flow of communication. Tarde's work has bearing on social networks, interpersonal influence, diffusion of innovation, and the aggregation of public opinion.
 
Article
This article examines the connection between the changing definitions of a social problem-racial inequality-and a public policy designed to remedy that problemschool desegregation-focusing on the case of Mobile, Alabama. Survey data show that Whites in Mobile during the 1980s began to settle on one prevailing view of why Black people generally get fewer of the good things in life than Whites-that "Blacks don't try hard enough"-while support for other explanations, such as White discrimination and the lingering burden of historical abuse, declined. During the same period, the Mobile public changed its views of busing for school desegregation to be consistent with the new redefinition of the problem of race. The rapid change in the public's views of race and busing was not explained by objective measures of racial conditions in Mobile or by media coverage of these topics. Instead, the change was a converging social construction by conservative activists nationally and locally operating indirectly through mass media and among people directly through face to face encounters.
 
Article
Implicit and explicit norms in broadcasting require that interviewees be treated in a fair and objective manner and given an equal chance to express themselves, regardless of interviewers' personal liking or preference. Nonverbal behavior of seven Israeli televison interviewers was investigated to discover whether they treated politicians from opposing camps and other interviewees in a differential or fair manner. Very brief clips (averaging 7 seconds) showing the interviewer alone were judged by American students who had no comprehension of speech content. In Study 1, all six interviewers were found to demonstrate differential nonverbal behavior toward interviewees, and four of them treated Labor versus Likud camp politicians in a differential manner. A range of individual differences in effect magnitudes of the differential behavior effects was found. Study 2 focused on two lengthy parallel interviews conducted by a prominent interviewer during the 1996 election campaign with the two candidates for prime minister. The interviewer's nonverbal behavior was found to be blatantly preferential in favor of one candidate. Study 3 examined micro behaviors contributing to the formation of global negative/positive impressions. Correlational analyses yielded several global (presumably universal) mediators: smiling, rhythmical beating hand movements, leaning forward, sarcasm, and attempts to regulate the interviewee. Each interviewer was found to demonstrate a unique personal style in which different nonverbal behaviors mediated the overall impression. The tentative conclusion is that more dominant and aggressive interviewers show more differential/preferential behavior. Social and ethical implications, as well as implications for nonverbal research, are discussed.
 
Article
An inverse association between education and fertility in women has been found in many societies but the causes of this association remain inadequately understood. We investigated whether observed and unobserved family-background characteristics explained educational differences in lifetime fertility among 35,212 Finnish women born in 1940-50. Poisson and logistic regression models, adjusted for measured socio-demographic family-background characteristics and for unobserved family characteristics shared by siblings, were used to analyse the relationship between education and the number of children, having any children, and fertility beyond the first child. The woman's education and the socio-economic position of the family were negatively associated with fertility. Observed family characteristics moderately (3-28 per cent) explained the association between education and fertility, and results from models including unobserved characteristics supported this interpretation. The remaining association may represent a causal relationship between education and fertility or joint preferences that form independently of our measures of background.
 
Article
This paper reports on an analysis of neonatal mortality from communicable and non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh. The competing-risks model employed incorporated both observed and unobserved heterogeneity and allowed the two heterogeneity terms to be correlated. The data used came from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Matlab. The results confirm the conclusions of previous studies about the levels, trends, and causes of neonatal death in the Matlab area: the education of the mother helps protect her children from death from both communicable and non-communicable diseases; the children of a father in a low-status occupation are particularly vulnerable to death from communicable diseases; and children born to mothers aged less than 20 face a particularly high risk of dying from a non-communicable disease. The risks of dying from a communicable disease and from a non-communicable disease were both found to fall significantly as the distance to the nearest health centre decreased.
 
Determinants of Negative Campaigning
Article
In a few short years, the World Wide Web has become a standard part of candidates’ campaign tool kits. Virtually all candidates have their own sites; and voters, journalists, and activists visit the sites with increasing frequency. In this paper, we study what candidates do on these sites - in terms of the information they present - by exploring one of the most enduring and widely debated campaign strategies: “going negative.” Comparing data from over 700 congressional candidate websites, over three election cycles (2002, 2004, and 2006), with television advertising data, we show that candidates go negative with similar likelihoods across these media. We also find that while similar dynamics drive negativity on the Web and in television advertising, there are some notable differences. These differences likely stem, in part, from the truncated sample available with television data (i.e., many candidates do not produce ads). Our results have implications for understanding negative campaigning, and for the ways in which scholars can study campaign dynamics.
 
Effect exposure to benefit framing on Eurosceptic vote (high-choice countries). Upper lines denote probability among voters who stated a Eurosceptic vote intention. Lower lines denote probability among voters who did not state a Eurosceptic vote intention. HB = higher bound 95% confidence interval; LB = lower bound 95% confidence interval (color figure available online). 
Article
Extant research is not very specific about when the media matter for vote choice. In this study, we test multiple theories about the influences of the media on vote choice in 21 countries. The European Parliamentary (EP) election campaign offers a unique research context to test these influences. We rely on a two-wave panel survey conducted in 21 European Union (EU) member states, asking both vote intentions before the campaign and reported actual votes (among 14,000 voters). We link these data to media content data of campaign coverage between the two waves in these countries (37,000 coded news items). We conclude that media evaluations of the EU affect voting for Eurosceptic parties. On average, the more positive the evaluations of the EU a voter is exposed to, the less likely she or he is to cast a vote for a Eurosceptic party. In addition, our findings indicate that in countries where political parties have markedly different views on EU issues, the more a voter is exposed to framing of the EU in terms of benefits derived from membership in these countries, the less likely she or he is to cast a Eurosceptic vote. This suggests that the outcome of the 2009 EP elections was influenced by how the media covered EU-related news during the campaign.
 
Article
The effect of campaign tone, in particular negative campaigns, have been studied extensively of late. One aspect that has been largely neglected is the effect of campaign tone on citizen understanding of a candidate's message. Citizen understanding of candidate priorities is highly consequential for both elections and post-election accountability, and is especially key to the office of the presidency. I examine the impact of campaign advertising tone on citizen understanding in the context of the 2000 presidential election. Merging data on political ads from the Wisconsin Advertising Project with individual survey data, I test whether citizens are more likely to accurately hear a positive campaign theme. The analysis provides empirical support for this benefit of positivity.
 
Article
Political advertising offers carefully crafted messages, not only in what the ad states explicitly in words but in the subtle messages conveyed in the background through tone, setting, and symbols. Scholars have studied different facets of campaign advertising to make generalizations about the messages candidates send, Americans receive, and the effect of each on campaigns and elections. But, to date, they have done very little with one important part of television advertising: voiceovers. In this paper, we draw on a comprehensive database of political advertising, television audience profile data and a survey experiment to investigate the ways in which gender factors into strategic choices regarding voiceovers in political advertising. Our findings suggest that men and women running for office speak with similar voices, and it is context rather than sex or gender that determines sex of the voiceover announcer. However, men and women in the audience (whom advertisers target) hear different voices and women rate ads voiced by women more positively than men do.
 
Article
In order to study presidential leadership and responsiveness, this research focuses on the role of the news media and examines the multidirectional relationships between the president, the news media, and the public. One of the purposes of this study is to examine competing theoretical expectations about the causal direction between the three actors by focusing on their issue stances. The potentially reciprocal influences between the three actors are estimated by using vector autoregression and moving average representation simulations. According to the statistical results, the news media significantly interact with the public and the president. In contrast, the direct relationship between the president and the public is weak or insignificant.
 
Article
Journalists, candidates, and scholars believe that images, particularly images of war, affect the way that the public evaluates political leaders and foreign policy itself, but there is little direct evidence on the circumstances under which political elites can use imagery to enhance their electoral chances. Using National Election Studies (NES) panel data as well as two experiments, this article shows that, contrary to concerns about the manipulative power of imagery, the effect of evocative imagery can enhance candidate evaluations across partisan lines when they originate from the news but are more limited when they are used for persuasive purposes. By looking over time, the three data sets demonstrate different circumstances in which terrorism images have different effects on candidate evaluations—crisis versus non-crisis times and through news exposure versus direct use by a candidate. The NES data reveal that exposure to watching the World Trade Center fall on television increased positive evaluations of George W. Bush and the Republican party across partisan boundaries in 2002 and 2004. The news experiment that exposed subjects to graphic terrorism news in a lab in 2005/2006 increased approval of Bush’s handling of terrorism among Democrats. Lastly, an experiment where hypothetical candidates utilized terrorism images in campaign communication in 2008 demonstrates that both parties’ candidates can improve evaluations of their foreign policy statements by linking those statements to evocative imagery, but it is more effective among their own party members.
 
Article
Measuring media attention to politically relevant topics is of interest to a broad array of political science and communications scholars. We provide a practical guide for the construction, validation, and evaluation of time series measures of media attention. We review the extant literature on the coherence of the media agenda, which provides evidence in support of and evidence against the emergence of a single, national news agenda. Drawing expectations from this literature, we show the conditions under which a single national news agenda is likely to be present and where it is likely to be absent. We create 90 different keyword searches covering a wide range of topics and gather counts of stories per month from 12 national and regional media sources with data going back to 1980 where possible. We show using factor analysis wide variance in the strength of the first factor. We then estimate a regression model to predict this value. The results show the conditions under which any national source will produce time series results consistent with any other. Key independent variables are the average number of stories, the variance in stories per month, and the presence of any “spike” in the data series. Our large-scale empirical assessment should provide guidance to scholars assessing the quality of time series data on media coverage of issues.
 
Article
We use the “war on terror” to examine the conditions under which presidential and media framing of a crisis align — that is, when both institutions feature the same frames at the same time. We hypothesize that windows of framing alignment will be few and short-lived, since different institutional constraints produce fundamentally different framing tendencies. Yet these differences also make framing alignment predictable: in a crisis, alignment will start high and then decay in tandem with national solidarity. We compare frames in New York Times and Wall Street Journal stories to those in Presidential speeches about the war, showing empirically that framing alignment is indeed a function of decaying solidarity, captured alternately through public support for the war and the natural log of time. If president/press framing alignment following 9/11 was an instance of “when the press fails,” the failure was an institutionally-driven one that we should expect to see repeated.
 
Article
Telomeres are essential for cell proliferation and tumor cell immortalization requires the presence of a telomere maintenance mechanism. Thus, interfering with this mechanism constitutes a potential means to impede cell proliferation and tumor progression. Many cancer cells rely on telomerase activity to ensure indefinite proliferation capacity and developing therapeutic approaches that target telomerase has attracted much attention in the last couple of decades. Nevertheless, a non-negligible proportion of tumors utilize telomerase-independent, alternative mechanisms to lengthen telomeres (ALT). Here we briefly discuss both our current understanding of ALT mechanisms and the potential to develop a therapeutic approach targeting ALT.
 
Cisplatinum cytotoxic activity in Ewing sarcoma cells following inhibition of telomerase activity. Ewing sarcoma SK-N-MC cells were continuously exposed to GRN163. The cytotoxic activity of cisplatinum was assessed in untreated cells (); in cells with intact telomerase after 3 days of telomerase inhibition (); in cells with 20% shortening of telomeres after 3 months of telomerase inhibition () and in cells with 50% shortening of telomeres after 16 months of telomerase inhibition ().  
The difference in initial telomere length in normal vs. cancer cells defines a therapeutic window for telomerase inhibition. Telomeres are usually shorter in cancer cells compared to normal cells. Therefore, upon telomerase inhibition, telomeres in cancer cells will reach the Hayflick's limit faster than the normal cells, thus enabling a reasonable therapeutic window for the use of telomerase inhibitors.  
Article
The telomere-telomerase system has a unique role in the biology of cancer. Telomere maintenance, mostly affected by the up regulation of telomerase activity, is a prerequisite for perpetuation of malignant cells. This fundamental biologic feature defines telomere maintenance as an attractive therapeutic target for most types of cancer. This review summarizes some critical aspects of telomere biology with special emphasis on the connection to anticancer therapy. In particular, the effects on the telomere - telomerase system of conventional anticancer treatments, including various cytotoxic drugs, targeted biological agents and radiotherapy, and their possible combination with telomerase-directed therapy are discussed. Several potential problems, including side effects and complications inherent to perturbations of telomere biology in normal cells, are also highlighted. In spite of significant progress in this field, there are still several issues that have to be addressed and ultimately resolved in order to obtain a better characterization of the pros and cons of telomerase-directed therapies and, consequently, their clinical relevance.
 
Article
The discovery of novel nucleic acid folding architectures bears a twofold interest related to the structural properties of unprecedented forms and to their functional significance. In addition, physiologically and pathologically important processes can be impaired by endogenous or xenobiotic ligands interacting with specific target sequences. In this paper we will focus on recent advances in the study of telomeric G-quadruplex DNA and RNA structures and the rational design and development of synthetic ligands aimed at pharmacological applications.
 
Article
The relationship between the United States and Iran has had an important influence on world affairs during the past two decades. Accordingly, the U.S. news media have an instrumental role in portraying U.S.‐Iran relations to the public. The Iranian Revolution and hostage crisis of 1979–1981, the TWA hijacking of 1985, the Irangate controversy of 1986–1987, and the Persian Gulf War of 1990–1991 are examples of important media events that have impacted public opinion regarding U.S. policy toward Iran. This research analyzes government and print media portrayals of the Reagan administration's U.S.‐Iran policy during Irangate. Results supported the prediction that the print media would fulfill their “watchdog” function by providing more critical portrayals of the United States' policy toward Iran than the Tower Commission Report, an investigative document published by President Reagan's Special Review Board. Among the three leading newspapers analyzed, there was significant diversity in the reporting of U.S.‐Iran relations. Results indicate the Reagan administration's attempt to “spin” its version of Irangate did not successfully pressure the media to neglect their watchdog role. Although the Tower Commission Report was less critical of U.S. policy toward Iran than the print media, all four print media sources portrayed the Reagan administration's policy as a flawed approach that degenerated into trading arms for hostages. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed.
 
Densities and Odds Ratios of ties within and between categories. 
Article
How do attitudes and social affiliations co-evolve? A long stream of research has focused on the relationship between attitudes and social affiliations. However, in most of this research the causal relationship between views and affiliations is difficult to discern definitively: Do people influence each other's views so that they converge over time or do they primarily affiliate (by choice or happenstance) with those of similar views? Here we use longitudinal attitudinal and whole network data collected at critical times (notably, at the inception of the system) to identify robustly the determinants of attitudes and affiliations. We find significant conformity tendencies: individuals shift their political views toward the political views of their associates. This conformity is driven by social ties rather than task ties. We also find that, while individuals tend to associate with similar others, political views are notably less a basis for associational choices than demographic and institutional factors.
 
Article
The literature implicating the media as responsible for the contagion of terrorist violence has grown rapidly, but, under scrutiny, it appears to contain no credible supporting evidence and fails to establish a cause-effect relationship. Some students of terrorism have borrowed conclusions from the literature about the effects of televised violence and crime on viewers and have attempted to project them onto the coverage of terrorism. But not all terrorism scholars fully embrace this view, and some cite the diffusion of innovations such as bombing techniques and technical training rather than media coverage as the contagion factor. Conclusions drawn from studies of diffusion of innovations in other situations do not provide much support for the view of the media as contagion agents. This does not exonerate the media from excesses in coverage, although one important school of thought suggests that coverage may actually reduce the possibility of terrorist violence by removing terrorists' need to resort to violent acts to gain coverage. While it is probably inappropriate for journalists to interview terrorists while their group's terrorist acts are in progress, interviews not conducted during a specific event should be helpful. The chances of this idea being widely accepted, however, are very slim. Whatever the results of legitimate terrorist research, it will move closer to reality than the views that the media are wholly at fault and wholly blameless. (HTH)
 
Article
Election campaigns are more than simple competitions for votes; they also represent an opportunity for voters to become politically knowledgeable and engaged. Using a large-scale Web panel (N ≈ 5,000), we track the development of political knowledge, internal efficacy, and external efficacy among voters during the 2011 Danish parliamentary election campaign. Over the course of the campaign, the electorate’s political knowledge increases, and these gains are found across genders, generations, and educational groups, narrowing the knowledge gap within the electorate. Furthermore, internal and external efficacy increase over the course of the campaign, with gains found across different demographic groups, particularly narrowing the gaps in internal efficacy. The news media play a crucial role, as increased knowledge and efficacy are partly driven by media use, although tabloids actually decrease external efficacy. The findings suggest that positive campaign effects are universal across various media and party systems.
 
of newspaper stories covering each of the contenders for the Republican nomination
Article
This article analyzes two data sets to determine differences in print media coverage of Elizabeth Dole and five other Republican contenders for the presidential nomination in 1999: George W. Bush, John McCain, Alan Keyes, Gary Bauer, and Steve Forbes. Our findings indicate that Dole received a differential amount and type of print media coverage that was decidedly gendered and may have hindered her candidacy. Dole did not receive an amount of media coverage consistent with her standing as the number two candidate in the polls throughout the time period we examined, and the press paid more attention to Dole's personality traits and appearance than to the traits and appearance of other candidates. Journalists also repeatedly framed Dole as the "first woman" to be a serious presidential candidate and focused on her gender more than any other aspect of her candidacy, suggesting implicitly, if not explicitly, that she was a novelty in the race rather than a strong contender with a good chance of winning.
 
The impact of telomere attrition and loss of chromosome end capping on tumor suppression and malignant transformation. Loss of telomeric repeats can eventually compromise the protection of the chromosomal end and induce a DNA damage response. In cells with intact cellcycle checkpoints, loss of the protective T-loop structure at the ends of the chromosomes triggers replicative senescence, an irreversible halt of cellular proliferation that strongly suppresses tumor formation. If the checkpoint barriers are abrogated, telomeres shorten further and end-to-end fusion of uncapped chromosomes will originate dicentric chromosomes. These chromosome configurations are unstable during mitosis, when the two centromeres of a chromatid suffer opposite pulling forces from the two spindle poles and a chromatin bridge is created at anaphase. Chromatin bridges are important sources of instability as they produce a continuous scrambling of the genome through the endless formation of genome rearrangements. This rampant chromosome instability can lead to cell apoptosis, but it can also promote malignant cell transformation when unbalanced rearrangements lead to oncogenic changes and cells acquire a mechanism to maintain telomere length.
Article
Most cancer genomes show abnormalities in chromosome structure and number, two types of aberrations that could share a common mechanistic origin through proliferation-dependent loss of telomere function. Impairment of checkpoints that limit cell proliferation when telomeres are critically short might allow unrestrained cell division. The resulting uncapped chromosomes can fuse to each other, forming unstable configurations that can bridge during mitosis. Chromatin bridges can break to generate new broken ends that will then fuse with other broken ends. Successive events of break and fusion will continuously generate unbalanced chromosomal rearrangements, leading to gene-copy gains and losses. However, chromosome bridges do not always break. Evidence has recently been obtained to suggest that telomere-dependent chromosome bridges remaining unbroken can hinder cytokinesis and yield tetraploid cells. This might constitute an unstable intermediate in tumorigenesis, as progressive losses of individual chromosomes due to geometrical defects during cell division result in subtetraploid karyotypes. Additionally, the presence of short dysfunctional telomeres in cells can also cause these cells to become sensitive to mutagens, and particularly to radiation exposure. Human individuals exhibit differences in their sensitivity to radiation, which can be relevant for choice of therapy. Telomere function may well be involved in cellular and organism responses to ionizing radiation. Since eroded telomeres are sensed and act as double-strand breaks, they can interact with radiation-induced breaks, sharply increasing the possibility of misjoining. Altogether, this scenario provides certain clues to understanding the important role of telomeres in maintaining genomic integrity.
 
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Было много попыткок создавать новояза. Но смотря но то что сейчас известно о таких попытках, ясно, что даже самые успешные из них очень далеко од предсказания Оруэлла. Место того, чтобы эти новояза становились более и более совершение инструменты, тоталитарного контроля, пройзошло совсем противоположное развитие. Народы, которые были принужденные использовать эти искуственные языка учились как их использовать к своей пользе, и их эффективность как инструмент контроля снизилась. Статья рассматривать эту дегенерацию новояза, рассматривая некоторые предположения относительно языка, человека и общества. Это делает явным слабости теории тоталитарного контроля, основанных на языке, который подразумевается в кинге 1984. Затем показывает, что некоторые из основных предположении таких теории явно утопичны, и другие неправдоподобные. Помимо глубокого проникновения Оруэлла в суть динамику тоталитаризма, даже утопические элементы 1984 помогают нам лучше понимать ограничение, а также возможности тоталитарного контроля в современном обществе. Статья показывает условия, которые нужные для такого контроля, и почему эти условия никогда не могут быть реализованы в действительности.Many attempts have been made to create Newspeaks. But in light of what is now known about such attempts, it is clear that not even the most successful of them have come anywhere near to realization of Orwell's projection. Rather than these Newspeaks becoming increasingly fine-tuned, comprehensive instruments of totalitarian control as suggested in 1984, quite an opposite development has taken place. The peoples upon whom Newspeaks have been imposed have learned to live with and manipulate these artificial languages, and their effectiveness has declined rather than increase over time. The present paper explores this degeneration of Newspeak, examining some of the assumptions about language, man, and society underlying Orwell's picture of the future. It makes explicit the theory of totalitarian control based on language that is implicit in 1984, and then shows that several fundamental assumptions of this theory are patently utopian while others are highly implausible. Apart from its rich insights into the dynamics of totalitarianism, even the utopian elements of 1984 help us to understand better the limitations as well as the possibilities for totalitarian control in contemporary society by placing in relief the conditions that would have to be met for such control actually to be realized. Setting forth these conditions makes clear why these conditions could never be met in reality.
 
Article
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and an estimated 1 in 4 deaths in the United States is due to cancer. Despite recent advances in cancer treatment, adverse effects related to cancer therapy remain a limiting factor for many patients. The ideal cancer treatment would selectively target cancerous cells while sparing normal, healthy cells to offer maximal therapeutic benefit while minimizing toxicity. Telomeres are structurally unique DNA sequences at the end of human chromosomes, which play an integral role in the cellular mortality of normal cells. As telomeres shorten with successive cellular divisions, cells develop chromosomal instability and undergo either apoptosis or senescence. In many cancers, this apoptosis and senescence is avoided as normal telomere length is maintained by a ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase called telomerase. Telomerase is expressed in more than 85% of all cancers and confers cancerous cells with a replicative immortality, which is a hallmark of malignant tumors. In contrast, telomerase activity is not detectable in the majority of normal somatic cell populations. Therefore, the targeting of telomerase and telomere maintenance mechanisms represents a potentially promising therapeutic approach for various types of cancer. This review evaluates the roles of the GRN163L, T-oligo and small molecule G-quadruplex stabilizers as potential anticancer therapies by targeting telomerase and other telomere maintenance mechanisms.
 
Overview of possible subcellular localisation of hTERT and its respective functions in these compartments.  
Comparison of different molecular events involving telomerase and genomic instability. On the left side telomerase overexpression is the initial event that prevents genomic instability and renders those cells resistant to the action of activated oncogenes as demonstrated by Morales et al. [34]. In contrast, the right side shows the experiment of Hahn and colleagues who constructed a step-wise tumour cell model by generating genomic instability by transfecting the SV40 large T antigen first and then introducing telomerase that now conserves telomere ends and thereby preserves the genomic changes that had occurred earlier and also supplies the cells with an unlimited proliferation potential. These cells are now susceptible to the transfection of activated oncogenes which drives them on the road to becoming a cancer cell [32]  
Schematic drawing of shuttling of hTERT from nucleus to mitochondria. In both organelles Src kinase phosphorylates tyrosine 707 [108, 146], which then results in hTERT nuclear exclusion or degradation within mitochondria. The mitochondrial localisation signal (MLS) is responsible for the direction of TERT to the mitochondria [107] while the nuclear exclusion signal is involved in transport of TERT out of the nucleus [128]. Note that this scenario seems to be typical for non-lymphocytic cells, whereas in lymphocytes TERT seems to reside in the cytoplasm and actively transported into the nucleus upon stimulation [76, 130, 131, 135]; (see main text for abbreviations).  
The exclusion time of hTERT from the nucleus after oxidative stress is different in hTERT overexpressing fibroblasts and cancer cell lines. Cells have been treated for 3 h with 400 M H2O2. Results obtained in HeLa and MCF-7 have been combined and reported as " Cancer cells " and then compared to those obtained in hTERT-expressiong MRC-5 fibroblasts. Fractions of the cell populations represent different hTERT localisations of cells: predominantly (>75%) nuclear, cytoplasmic (>75%) or between both localisations (intermediary). See also [145].  
Article
Telomerase activity is essential for human cancer cells in order to maintain telomeres and provide unlimited proliferation potential and cellular immortality. However, additional non-telomeric roles emerge for the telomerase protein TERT that can impact tumourigenesis and cancer cell properties. This review summarises our current knowledge of non-telomeric functions of telomerase in human cells, with a special emphasis on cancer cells. Non-canonical functions of telomerase can be performed within the nucleus as well as in other cellular compartments. These telomere-independent activities of TERT influence various essential cellular processes, such as gene expression, signalling pathways, mitochondrial function as well as cell survival and stress resistance. Emerging data show the interaction of telomerase with intracellular signalling pathways such as NF-κB and WNT/β-catenin; thereby contributing to inflammation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer invasiveness. All these different functions might contribute to tumourigenesis, and have serious consequences for cancer therapies due to increased resistance against damaging agents and prevention of cell death. In addition, TERT has been detected in non-nuclear locations such as the cytoplasm and mitochondria. Within mitochondria TERT has been shown to decrease ROS generation, improve respiration, bind to mitochondrial DNA, increase mitochondrial membrane potential and interact with mitochondrial tRNAs. All these different non-telomere-related mechanisms might contribute towards the higher resistance of cancer cells against DNA damaging treatments and promote cellular survival. Understanding these different mechanisms and their complexity in cancer cells might help to design more effective cancer therapies in the future.
 
Telomeres can adopt at least three different conformational states. The fully capped state inhibits both the DDR and DNA repair by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) which would result in end-to-end joining of chromosomes and therefore genomic instability. Normal telomere shortening results in an intermediate-state telomere which inhibits NHEJ but not DDR. When the threshold number of telomeric DDR foci is exceeded, the cell continues through mitosis and then arrests in G1 phase. An abnormal cell state, such as excessively slow transit through mitosis, also elicits intermediate-state telomeres (ISTs) by an unknown mechanism, with the result that the cell continues to proceed through mitosis until it reaches G1 and can then undergo an orderly exit from the cell cycle. Excessive telomere shortening results in fully uncapped telomeres which elicit both DDR and NHEJ and result in cell death; when most of the cells in a culture enter this state, this is referred to as "culture crisis". 
Article
The presence of immortal cell populations with an up-regulated telomere maintenance mechanism (TMM) is an almost universal characteristic of cancers, whereas normal somatic cells are unable to prevent proliferation-associated telomere shortening and have a limited proliferative potential. TMMs and related aspects of telomere structure and function therefore appear to be ideal targets for the development of anticancer therapeutics. Such treatments would be targeted to a specific cancer-related molecular abnormality, and also be broad-spectrum in that they would be expected to be potentially applicable to most cancers. However, the telomere biology of normal and malignant human cells is a relatively young research field with large numbers of unanswered questions, so the optimal design of TMM-targeted therapeutic approaches remains unclear. This review outlines the opportunities and challenges presented by telomeres and TMMs for clinical management of cancer.
 
Top-cited authors
Robert M. Entman
  • George Washington University
Michael X Delli Carpini
  • University of Pennsylvania
William P. Eveland
  • The Ohio State University
Rodney Benson
  • New York University
Matthew Baum
  • Harvard University