The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical response of living cell model of glia to irradiation. High resolution 1 H NMR spectroscopy as a non-invasive measurement method was applied. An evident increase of lactate-lipid band centered at 1.32 ppm was observed 48h after irradiation.
In total, 145 adult (<15 cm) eelpouts from various parts of the Baltic Sea were analyzed: Brunskär (Archipelago Sea) Tvärminne (Finnish Western Gulf of Finland), Bays of Kunda and Muuga (Estonian Gulf of Finland), Bay of Matsalu (Western Estonian coast), Roja (Latvian Gulf of Riga), Laboe and Schwentine river-mouth (German Kieler Förde). Concentrations of Hg were higher in muscle tissue than in liver, but for Cd and Zn the opposite was the case. The highest mean values for Hg were obtained from eelpouts from Schwentine river-mouth (Kieler Förde), for Cd from eelpouts from the Bay of Muuga, and for Zn from eelpouts from the Bay of Kunda. Statistically significant negative correlations have been calculated between the condition factor (CF) and Hg for eelpouts from Brunskär (Archipelago Sea), Tvärminne (Gulf of Finland) and Schwentine (Kieler Förde), between CF and Cd for eelpouts from Brunskär, Tvärminne, and between CF and Zn for eelpouts from Brunskär, Tvärminne and Kunda, respectively, indicating sub-lethal influences on the condition of the fishes by the metals in question. With the exception of a few liver samples from Finnish (Tvärminne) and Estonian (Muuga) costal waters the safety level for metals in fish as food in the European Union were not exceeded.
This paper describes the application of two direct and one indirect methods for the extraction of microbial community DNA from soils polluted with heavy metals. DNA was extracted directly from soil using a gentle method based on soil incubation at 37°C with proteinase K and SDS, or the method was modified by the addition of a bead beating step. The indirect approach was based on the RNA/DNA extraction method. The level of soil contamination did not affect the yields of DNA extracted and PCR amplification of the target DNA. The results indicate that the DNA obtained by the applied protocols was sufficiently pure for further molecular analyses.
Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy at X-band (9.3 GHz) was used to examination of proton irradiated (22-47×10⁶ Gy) neomycin and gentamicin. The antibiotics were irradiated by 2 MeV beam from Van de Graff accelerator. It was proved that the drug sterilization may be accompanied by formation of free radicals (3.3-5.0×10¹⁸ spin/g). g-Values 2.0046 and 2.0041 were obtained for free radicals in neomycin and gentamicin. Free radical concentrations in the studied antibiotics increase for higher doses of irradiation and decrease with increasing time after irradiation. Microwave saturation of EPR curves indicates that slow spin-lattice relaxation processes exist in the studied drugs.
The role of imaging in radiotherapy is rapidly growing, and in some treatment schemes relatively high-dose imaging procedures are repeated before every fraction. For patients with good prognosis and for the most radiation-sensitive organs the dose in radiotherapy imaging may be an issue. In the case of pre-treatment megavoltage imaging with the lens of the eyes within the field of view, the probability of radiation-induced cataract might be significant. In such cases the dose should be accounted for during radiotherapy treatment planning.
Presented at: V Symposium on Medical Physics (III International Symposium on Medical Physics), Ustroń, Poland, September 20-23, 2006
Many of the peatlands that used to extend over large parts of Northern Europe have been reclaimed for agriculture. Human influence continues to have a major impact on the hydrology of those that remain, affecting river flow and groundwater levels. In order to understand this hydrology it is necessary to analyze and assess the groundwater and surface water system as a whole. The SIMGRO model was developed for such situations: it simulates groundwater flow in the saturated and unsaturated zones and also surface water flow. Being physically-based, it is suitable for application to situations with changing hydrological conditions and for practical aspects of water management in peatlands. This paper describes the application of the model to different hydrological situations in the Netherlands, Poland and Lithuania. The 3 cases deal with aspects of flooding, natural flow regime and flood storage in relation to suitable conditions for agriculture and nature. The calibration of the model for the cases was limited, but the simulation results show that the estimates of the discharges and groundwater levels were satisfactory, demonstrating that the model is an adequate tool for simulating the hydrological system, and has the potential to assess the impact of different measures. The Dutch case demonstrates that lowland basins where the groundwater has been lowered by extensive land drainage can be restored by restricting the inflow of surface water from the upper parts of the basin: peak flows are significantly reduced. For the Polish case, the damming of ditches in the valley of the Biebrza River could significantly improve the water regime in the peatlands of this floodplain. For the Lithuanian case, the flow regime for the Dovine River could be made more natural if sluice gates were replaced by overflow spill weirs. Understanding the hydrological system is crucial for sustainable land development and effective soil and nature conservation. The different measures simulated in the 3 cases illustrate SIMGRO’s potential to simulate hydrological measures.
Even though massive winds are significant disturbing factors for forest ecosystems, studies assessing topsoil properties in relation to wind-induced changes in forest floor and, specifically, works dealing with soil water repellency are lacking. On the other hand, the majority of works aimed at the wettability of soil have been carried out on soils from arid or semiarid climatic regions. Besides that, much less attention has been dedicated to soil water repellency in boreal-temperate regions and mountainous areas in particular. Here we report on water repellency of topsoil in mountainous region of the High Tatras of northern Slovakia (central Europe), where katabatic windstorm have blown down app. 12, 500 hectares of forest canopy. Different management practices applied on windblown areas together with fire impact have resulted in four types of sites in the area: harvested, reference, left on self-recovery and struck by wild-fire. In order to cover the diversity of topsoil conditions, samples were taken at four representative sites. Results of WDPT and MED measurements show that a great portion of samples exhibited considerable degree of water repellency. It was found that there are significant differences in actual water repellency and field water contents between particular groups of samples taken at individual sites. Results of multiple regression analysis showed that water repellence of topsoil material is significantly controlled by water and organic carbon contents. Besides, for fire-unaffected soils it was found that the degree of water repellence is closely related to detected values of soil reaction as well. Explained portions of WDPT and MED variances ranged from 45 up to 72%.
Several circumstances influence the accuracy and precision of temperature readings from thermal images: the object imaged, the camera systems, standards, imager calibration and image analysis affects both accuracy and precision, but object position, image capture, information protocols and resources have only an impact on the repeatability of measurements. The Medical Imaging Research Group at the University of Glamorgan investigated the influence of imaging and object conditions on temperature readings from thermal images. The results indicated that following strictly standard procedures for camera calibration, image capture, subject preparing, body positioning and image analysis reduces errors and increases both accuracy and precisions of temperature measurements.
Kielce University of Technology was a member of the international research project COST Action IC0802 - Propagation Tools and Data for Integrated Telecommunication, Navigation, and Earth Observation Systems, whose main goal was to analyze the impact of weather conditions on the quality of wireless satellite transmissions. Measurements in the region of Kielce city seem to be a good indication for rain rate exceeding the average year in Poland by 0.01%, especially due to a central location, environment, and morphology of terrain. Near the city since 1974 at Psary-Kąty was a large satellite ground station, operated by TP SA, with up to seven large parabolic antennae. The aim of this study was to present the rain rate (mm/h) exceeding the average year (R0.01) in Poland by 0.01%. The part of results connected with measurements and data acquisitions and their processing for rain rate exceeding the average year by 0.01% is presented in this article. This R0.01 parameter for Kielce was experimentally verified. Moreover, the R0.01 parameters for the most important regions in Poland are also included in the article. On the basis of this we can predict, e.g., the availability of satellite systems within the whole territory in Poland to minimize the risk of lack or interruption of communications due to adverse weather conditions.
Resupinate white rot fungi were isolated from across Thailand (seven provinces) and evaluated for their ability to degrade the recalcitrant and toxic dye reactive black 5 (RB5). Seven of the 13 isolates decolorized RB5 (100 mg/L) within three days (greater than 50%). One isolate, Phanerochaete sordida PBU 0057, yielded complete decoloration within three days. It was active under environmental conditions in which waste dyes are discharged. The degradation of RB5 by P. sordida PBU 0057 was confirmed by spectrophotometric and HPLC analyses. The degradation was associated with the activities of laccase and lignin peroxidase. Manganese peroxidase was additionally active in the comparative control strain of P. chrysosporium. The degradation dye products produced by P. sordida PBU 0057 were not phytotoxic towards Phaseolus vulgaris, Sorghum bipolar, and Zea mays. Overall, P. sordida PBU 0057 showed somewhat greater dye-degradative activities when compared to the control reference strain P. chrysosporium ATCC 24725 under practical environmental conditions. P. sordida PBU 0057 has potential for application in the biological detoxification treatment of waste dye residues. P. chrysosporium ATCC 24725.The degradation dye products produced by P. sordida PBU 0057 were not phytotoxic towards Phaseolus vulgaris, Sorghum bipolar, and Zea mays. Overall, P. sordida PBU 0057 showed somewhat greater dye-degradative activities when compared to the control reference strain P. chrysosporium ATCC 24725 under practical environmental conditions. P. sordida PBU 0057 has potential for application in the biological detoxification treatment of waste dye residues.
A permanent improvement in ambient air quality in the Urban Area of Katowice over recent years could have resulted in a decreased risk of air pollution-related daily mortality. Our study investigates the risk associated with the levels of PM10 and SO2, obtained seven years apart (time-series analyses in 1994-95 and 2001-02). For both periods the acute mortality risk depends more on SO2 than on PM10 levels. The permanent improvement in ambient air pollution was associated with a decrease in relative risk of mortality, only for SO2 levels. For example, the magnitude of the total mortality relative risk related to a 10 μg/m3 increase in pollutant's concentration (a 3-day moving average) was for SO2 1.019 (1.015-1.023) in 1994-95 and 1.012 (1.005-1.019) in 2001-02, and for PM10 1.007 (1.004-1.011) in 1994-95 and 1.007 (1.003-1.011) in 2001-02.
Our paper presents results from surveillance of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables carried out in 2004-05. 747 samples of 39 different types of fresh fruit and vegetables were analyzed for their pesticide residue contents. The highest resides found were: bupirimate residues (2.19 mg/kg), captan residues (1.82 mg/kg), ethylenebisdithiocarbamate residues (1.6 mg/kg), tolylfluanid residues (1.44 mg/kg), procymidone residues (1.19 mg/kg) and chlorpyrifos residues (1.01 mg/kg). In 27 samples (3.6%) residues exceeded national MRLs. Comparisons of the highest residues to ADI levels indicate that fresh fruit and vegetables from southeastern Poland seem to be quite safe for toddlers and adults.
This paper is a synthetic presentation of the current state of theoretical knowledge and practical applications of Coleoptera: Carabidae in environmental research. An additional task is constituted by the assessment of applicability of these indication methods in investigations at the landscape level. The source of information was constituted by the database of scientific papers of ISI Web of Science. The search was narrowed down to journals published by two environmental science publishing houses: Elsevier and Kluwer. Papers including the criteria of a time interval of 2005-08 and keywords "Carabidae" and "indicator" were selected. The publications were classified into six thematic groups: rural, forest, urban/suburban, natural, mixed, and the group survey/theory.
A cubic crystal form Co3O4 was synthesized using the sol-gel method and applied as catalyst in the visible light-driven photocatalytic degradation of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,,4-TCB). 1,2,4-TCB removal efficiency initially increased and was followed by a gentle decrease as the Co3O4 dosage increased, with the optimal dosage of 2.0 g/L. The degradation rate changed positively with light intensity and reaction temperature. However, pH exerted only a slight effect on 1,2,4-TCB degradation. Strong acidic and basic conditions were conducive to the photocatalytic degradation of 1,2,4-TCB. The optimal parameters for the photocatalytic degradation of 1,2,4-TCB were found at a Co3O4 dosage of 2.0 g/L, 350 W of illumination intensity, initial 1,2,4-TCB concentration of 7.5 mg/L at 30ºC, with 1,2,4-TCB removal efficiency of 90.13% after 6.0 hours photocatalytic degradation. The Co3O4 synthesized in the study with high-purity and stable properties guaranteed its high catalytic activity and stability. The possible mechanisms of visible light-driven photocatalytic degradation of 1,2,4-TCB with synthesized Co3O4 photocatalyst were also proposed.
Because of an increasing interest in “green” processes for the production of chemicals, researchers are constantly looking for new strains. The natural environment offers a rich isolation source. Strains from natural probes have strong metabolic properties because they must adapt to variable conditions, and they are also able to produce a wide range of metabolites efficiently. This work is a very early report on some capacities of a few bacteria from Hafnia and Citrobacter genera, isolated from environmental probes to 1,3-PD and organic acids (fumaric, succinic, and acetic) production from glycerol. In this report, the predisposition to effective synthesis of 1,3-PD by investigated strains, based on feedback tests and resistance of bacteria to raw material, have been described.
The aim of our study was to explore the tissue distribution of 3,5-dimethylbenzene acid (3,5-DMBA) and its excretion with urine of rats and to evaluate toxicokinetics of mesitylene in blood of rats after single and repeated inhalation exposure to mesitylene vapours. Experiments were performed on male outbred IMP:WIST rats. The animals were exposed to mesitylene vapours at the target concentration of 25, 100, and 250 ppm in dynamic inhalation chambers for 6 h at single exposure and for 4 weeks (6 h/day for 5day/week) at repeated exposure. The study revealed in rats, after inhalation exposure to mesitylene, exposure-dependent increases in 3,5-DMBA tissue concentration and urinary excretion as well as enhanced mesitylene concentration in tissues and blood. After termination of exposure, mesitylene was rapidly eliminated from blood of rats. Mesitylene retention reduced in rat lungs after repeated exposure, as compared to a single exposure, was most likely the reason for its lower concentration in lungs and blood. Compared with single exposure, 3,5-DMBA concentration increased in rat lungs after repeated inhalation exposure to mesitylene at 100 and 250 ppm, and in the liver at 250 ppm, which may be associated with the induction of mesitylene-metabolizing enzymes. Mesitylene metabolism in the lungs of the rats after repeated exposure to its low concentrations probably had a significant impact on the increased urinary excretion of 3,5-DMBA.
The ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) seed aerosols commonly found in the Chinese urban atmosphere could affect the formation and aging of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Aging of aromatic SOA is performed using UV-irradiation of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (135-TMB)/CH3ONO/NO/air mixtures with high concentrations (~100 μg/m3) of (NH4)2SO4 seeds in the laboratory chamber in this study. The particulate products of SOA were measured using an aerosol laser time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ALTOFMS) in real-time, and fuzzy c-means (FCM) was applied to the mass spectra organic species for clusters. Experimental results indicated that methylglyxoal, 2-methyl-4-oxo-2-pentenal, 4-methyl-1H-imidazole, 4-methyl-imidazole-2-acetaldehyde, and other imidazole derivative compounds are the principal products in the aged particles. Imidazole compounds that can absorb solar radiation effectively were newly detected in the aged 135-TMB SOA with high concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 seed aerosols. These would provide new information for discussing the 135-TMB SOA aging mechanism.
One of the biomethods for organic waste utilization is the vermicomposting process, that is run with the use of dense populations of the Californian redworm (Eisenia foetida), whose role in the processes of prevention of soil degradation and organic waste recycling is well known. In recent years, shredded material from car tyres has been used more and more frequently for the hardening and filling of road embankments, which poses a hazard to the soil environment. Our paper attempts to demonstrate opportunities for the use of the red California hybrid (Eisenia foetida Sav.) in the bioutilization process of cis-1.4-polybutadiene rubber (BR) vulcanizate, which is a major component of car tyres. The basis for the study was a culture of Eisenia foetida on various beddings run over six months, as well as chemical and microscopic analyses using the Quanta 250 scanning electron microscope. The study has shown that the red California hybrid (Eisenia foetida Sav.) may be used in the bioutilization process of cis-1.4-polybutadiene rubber (BR) vulcanizate. Following the introduction of the butadiene rubber vulcanizate into the soil with the Californian hybrid, its complete decomposition occurs due to the redworm's trophic activity.
Our study analyzed the fire (pyric) environment (vegetation or fuels, meteorology, topography, suppression time) of the large forest fires (greater than 1,000 ha) that occurred in Greece during 1990-2003. Statistical analysis of 84 large fires (representing 0.37% of the total number of fires) revealed that they usually spread under moderately to low relative humidity (21-40%) in the presence of strong to moderate northern winds. Approximately one-fourth of all large fires occur during heat waves (i.e. air temperature higher than 30°C and air relative humidity 21-40%). Large fires occur as both surface and crown fires and usually spread in dense vegetation with a continuous duff layer. Successful containment requires a combination of both ground and aerial fire suppression forces. Although large forest fires usually have short initial attack time (less than 30 minutes), the suppression time is variable. The main differences between the large fires and all the others lie in the prevailing wind speed (strong for large fires, moderate for smaller fires) and the mode of propagation (mixed surface and crown spread for large fires, only surface spread for smaller fires). However, no unique characteristics of large fires were found that would distinguish them from smaller fires. This supports the hypothesis that any fire may become large under certain circumstances. The results of this study could be useful in forest fire danger rating and presuppression alertness in the context of judicial fire prevention and suppression planning.
As Populus 107 is an efficient phytoextraction plant, it was used in the present investigation in order to better understand the mechanisms of detoxification and tolerance of Cd. Cd-induced impacts on photosynthetic parameters (chlorophyll content, soluble protein, and chlorophyll fluorescence) and ultrastructural changes in leaves of Populus 107 exposed to 50 mu M, 100 mu M, and 500 mu M for 40 days were carried out. The results showed that in the Cd-treated cells, almost all the chloroplasts seemed to be affected. Cd induced several significant ultrastructural changes, including swollen chloroplast thylakoids, dissolved thylakoid grana, disintegrated chloroplasts, and numerous plastoglobuli in chloroplasts. Data from chlorophyll fluorescence showed that F-v/F-m, F-v/F-m', phi PSll, ETR, and qP decreased while qN increased in leaves of Populus 107 exposed to Cd when compared to control. The content of soluble protein increased with increasing Cd concentration and declined with prolonged duration of treatment. The soluble protein content in leaves treated with 50 mu M Cd reached the maximum, which was 14.29% more than that of control. The content in leaves exposed to 500 mu M Cd were only 61.76% of control. At the end of the experiment the contents of chlorophyll a, b, and a+b of Populus 107 treated with 500 mu M Cd decreased to the minimum, which were 47.69%, 37.10%, and 45.49% of control, and respectively, and significantly (P < 0.05) lower than control. The toxic mechanisms of Cd are briefly explained.