The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical response of living cell model of glia to irradiation. High resolution 1 H NMR spectroscopy as a non-invasive measurement method was applied. An evident increase of lactate-lipid band centered at 1.32 ppm was observed 48h after irradiation.
In total, 145 adult (<15 cm) eelpouts from various parts of the Baltic Sea were analyzed: Brunskär (Archipelago Sea) Tvärminne (Finnish Western Gulf of Finland), Bays of Kunda and Muuga (Estonian Gulf of Finland), Bay of Matsalu (Western Estonian coast), Roja (Latvian Gulf of Riga), Laboe and Schwentine river-mouth (German Kieler Förde). Concentrations of Hg were higher in muscle tissue than in liver, but for Cd and Zn the opposite was the case. The highest mean values for Hg were obtained from eelpouts from Schwentine river-mouth (Kieler Förde), for Cd from eelpouts from the Bay of Muuga, and for Zn from eelpouts from the Bay of Kunda. Statistically significant negative correlations have been calculated between the condition factor (CF) and Hg for eelpouts from Brunskär (Archipelago Sea), Tvärminne (Gulf of Finland) and Schwentine (Kieler Förde), between CF and Cd for eelpouts from Brunskär, Tvärminne, and between CF and Zn for eelpouts from Brunskär, Tvärminne and Kunda, respectively, indicating sub-lethal influences on the condition of the fishes by the metals in question. With the exception of a few liver samples from Finnish (Tvärminne) and Estonian (Muuga) costal waters the safety level for metals in fish as food in the European Union were not exceeded.
This paper describes the application of two direct and one indirect methods for the extraction of microbial community DNA from soils polluted with heavy metals. DNA was extracted directly from soil using a gentle method based on soil incubation at 37°C with proteinase K and SDS, or the method was modified by the addition of a bead beating step. The indirect approach was based on the RNA/DNA extraction method. The level of soil contamination did not affect the yields of DNA extracted and PCR amplification of the target DNA. The results indicate that the DNA obtained by the applied protocols was sufficiently pure for further molecular analyses.
Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy at X-band (9.3 GHz) was used to examination of proton irradiated (22-47×10⁶ Gy) neomycin and gentamicin. The antibiotics were irradiated by 2 MeV beam from Van de Graff accelerator. It was proved that the drug sterilization may be accompanied by formation of free radicals (3.3-5.0×10¹⁸ spin/g). g-Values 2.0046 and 2.0041 were obtained for free radicals in neomycin and gentamicin. Free radical concentrations in the studied antibiotics increase for higher doses of irradiation and decrease with increasing time after irradiation. Microwave saturation of EPR curves indicates that slow spin-lattice relaxation processes exist in the studied drugs.
The role of imaging in radiotherapy is rapidly growing, and in some treatment schemes relatively high-dose imaging procedures are repeated before every fraction. For patients with good prognosis and for the most radiation-sensitive organs the dose in radiotherapy imaging may be an issue. In the case of pre-treatment megavoltage imaging with the lens of the eyes within the field of view, the probability of radiation-induced cataract might be significant. In such cases the dose should be accounted for during radiotherapy treatment planning.
Presented at: V Symposium on Medical Physics (III International Symposium on Medical Physics), Ustroń, Poland, September 20-23, 2006
Many of the peatlands that used to extend over large parts of Northern Europe have been reclaimed for agriculture. Human influence continues to have a major impact on the hydrology of those that remain, affecting river flow and groundwater levels. In order to understand this hydrology it is necessary to analyze and assess the groundwater and surface water system as a whole. The SIMGRO model was developed for such situations: it simulates groundwater flow in the saturated and unsaturated zones and also surface water flow. Being physically-based, it is suitable for application to situations with changing hydrological conditions and for practical aspects of water management in peatlands. This paper describes the application of the model to different hydrological situations in the Netherlands, Poland and Lithuania. The 3 cases deal with aspects of flooding, natural flow regime and flood storage in relation to suitable conditions for agriculture and nature. The calibration of the model for the cases was limited, but the simulation results show that the estimates of the discharges and groundwater levels were satisfactory, demonstrating that the model is an adequate tool for simulating the hydrological system, and has the potential to assess the impact of different measures. The Dutch case demonstrates that lowland basins where the groundwater has been lowered by extensive land drainage can be restored by restricting the inflow of surface water from the upper parts of the basin: peak flows are significantly reduced. For the Polish case, the damming of ditches in the valley of the Biebrza River could significantly improve the water regime in the peatlands of this floodplain. For the Lithuanian case, the flow regime for the Dovine River could be made more natural if sluice gates were replaced by overflow spill weirs. Understanding the hydrological system is crucial for sustainable land development and effective soil and nature conservation. The different measures simulated in the 3 cases illustrate SIMGRO’s potential to simulate hydrological measures.
Even though massive winds are significant disturbing factors for forest ecosystems, studies assessing topsoil properties in relation to wind-induced changes in forest floor and, specifically, works dealing with soil water repellency are lacking. On the other hand, the majority of works aimed at the wettability of soil have been carried out on soils from arid or semiarid climatic regions. Besides that, much less attention has been dedicated to soil water repellency in boreal-temperate regions and mountainous areas in particular. Here we report on water repellency of topsoil in mountainous region of the High Tatras of northern Slovakia (central Europe), where katabatic windstorm have blown down app. 12, 500 hectares of forest canopy. Different management practices applied on windblown areas together with fire impact have resulted in four types of sites in the area: harvested, reference, left on self-recovery and struck by wild-fire. In order to cover the diversity of topsoil conditions, samples were taken at four representative sites. Results of WDPT and MED measurements show that a great portion of samples exhibited considerable degree of water repellency. It was found that there are significant differences in actual water repellency and field water contents between particular groups of samples taken at individual sites. Results of multiple regression analysis showed that water repellence of topsoil material is significantly controlled by water and organic carbon contents. Besides, for fire-unaffected soils it was found that the degree of water repellence is closely related to detected values of soil reaction as well. Explained portions of WDPT and MED variances ranged from 45 up to 72%.
Several circumstances influence the accuracy and precision of temperature readings from thermal images: the object imaged, the camera systems, standards, imager calibration and image analysis affects both accuracy and precision, but object position, image capture, information protocols and resources have only an impact on the repeatability of measurements. The Medical Imaging Research Group at the University of Glamorgan investigated the influence of imaging and object conditions on temperature readings from thermal images. The results indicated that following strictly standard procedures for camera calibration, image capture, subject preparing, body positioning and image analysis reduces errors and increases both accuracy and precisions of temperature measurements.
Kielce University of Technology was a member of the international research project COST Action IC0802 - Propagation Tools and Data for Integrated Telecommunication, Navigation, and Earth Observation Systems, whose main goal was to analyze the impact of weather conditions on the quality of wireless satellite transmissions. Measurements in the region of Kielce city seem to be a good indication for rain rate exceeding the average year in Poland by 0.01%, especially due to a central location, environment, and morphology of terrain. Near the city since 1974 at Psary-Kąty was a large satellite ground station, operated by TP SA, with up to seven large parabolic antennae. The aim of this study was to present the rain rate (mm/h) exceeding the average year (R0.01) in Poland by 0.01%. The part of results connected with measurements and data acquisitions and their processing for rain rate exceeding the average year by 0.01% is presented in this article. This R0.01 parameter for Kielce was experimentally verified. Moreover, the R0.01 parameters for the most important regions in Poland are also included in the article. On the basis of this we can predict, e.g., the availability of satellite systems within the whole territory in Poland to minimize the risk of lack or interruption of communications due to adverse weather conditions.
Resupinate white rot fungi were isolated from across Thailand (seven provinces) and evaluated for their ability to degrade the recalcitrant and toxic dye reactive black 5 (RB5). Seven of the 13 isolates decolorized RB5 (100 mg/L) within three days (greater than 50%). One isolate, Phanerochaete sordida PBU 0057, yielded complete decoloration within three days. It was active under environmental conditions in which waste dyes are discharged. The degradation of RB5 by P. sordida PBU 0057 was confirmed by spectrophotometric and HPLC analyses. The degradation was associated with the activities of laccase and lignin peroxidase. Manganese peroxidase was additionally active in the comparative control strain of P. chrysosporium. The degradation dye products produced by P. sordida PBU 0057 were not phytotoxic towards Phaseolus vulgaris, Sorghum bipolar, and Zea mays. Overall, P. sordida PBU 0057 showed somewhat greater dye-degradative activities when compared to the control reference strain P. chrysosporium ATCC 24725 under practical environmental conditions. P. sordida PBU 0057 has potential for application in the biological detoxification treatment of waste dye residues. P. chrysosporium ATCC 24725.The degradation dye products produced by P. sordida PBU 0057 were not phytotoxic towards Phaseolus vulgaris, Sorghum bipolar, and Zea mays. Overall, P. sordida PBU 0057 showed somewhat greater dye-degradative activities when compared to the control reference strain P. chrysosporium ATCC 24725 under practical environmental conditions. P. sordida PBU 0057 has potential for application in the biological detoxification treatment of waste dye residues.
A permanent improvement in ambient air quality in the Urban Area of Katowice over recent years could have resulted in a decreased risk of air pollution-related daily mortality. Our study investigates the risk associated with the levels of PM10 and SO2, obtained seven years apart (time-series analyses in 1994-95 and 2001-02). For both periods the acute mortality risk depends more on SO2 than on PM10 levels. The permanent improvement in ambient air pollution was associated with a decrease in relative risk of mortality, only for SO2 levels. For example, the magnitude of the total mortality relative risk related to a 10 μg/m3 increase in pollutant's concentration (a 3-day moving average) was for SO2 1.019 (1.015-1.023) in 1994-95 and 1.012 (1.005-1.019) in 2001-02, and for PM10 1.007 (1.004-1.011) in 1994-95 and 1.007 (1.003-1.011) in 2001-02.
Our paper presents results from surveillance of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables carried out in 2004-05. 747 samples of 39 different types of fresh fruit and vegetables were analyzed for their pesticide residue contents. The highest resides found were: bupirimate residues (2.19 mg/kg), captan residues (1.82 mg/kg), ethylenebisdithiocarbamate residues (1.6 mg/kg), tolylfluanid residues (1.44 mg/kg), procymidone residues (1.19 mg/kg) and chlorpyrifos residues (1.01 mg/kg). In 27 samples (3.6%) residues exceeded national MRLs. Comparisons of the highest residues to ADI levels indicate that fresh fruit and vegetables from southeastern Poland seem to be quite safe for toddlers and adults.
This paper is a synthetic presentation of the current state of theoretical knowledge and practical applications of Coleoptera: Carabidae in environmental research. An additional task is constituted by the assessment of applicability of these indication methods in investigations at the landscape level. The source of information was constituted by the database of scientific papers of ISI Web of Science. The search was narrowed down to journals published by two environmental science publishing houses: Elsevier and Kluwer. Papers including the criteria of a time interval of 2005-08 and keywords "Carabidae" and "indicator" were selected. The publications were classified into six thematic groups: rural, forest, urban/suburban, natural, mixed, and the group survey/theory.
A cubic crystal form Co3O4 was synthesized using the sol-gel method and applied as catalyst in the visible light-driven photocatalytic degradation of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,,4-TCB). 1,2,4-TCB removal efficiency initially increased and was followed by a gentle decrease as the Co3O4 dosage increased, with the optimal dosage of 2.0 g/L. The degradation rate changed positively with light intensity and reaction temperature. However, pH exerted only a slight effect on 1,2,4-TCB degradation. Strong acidic and basic conditions were conducive to the photocatalytic degradation of 1,2,4-TCB. The optimal parameters for the photocatalytic degradation of 1,2,4-TCB were found at a Co3O4 dosage of 2.0 g/L, 350 W of illumination intensity, initial 1,2,4-TCB concentration of 7.5 mg/L at 30ºC, with 1,2,4-TCB removal efficiency of 90.13% after 6.0 hours photocatalytic degradation. The Co3O4 synthesized in the study with high-purity and stable properties guaranteed its high catalytic activity and stability. The possible mechanisms of visible light-driven photocatalytic degradation of 1,2,4-TCB with synthesized Co3O4 photocatalyst were also proposed.
Because of an increasing interest in “green” processes for the production of chemicals, researchers are constantly looking for new strains. The natural environment offers a rich isolation source. Strains from natural probes have strong metabolic properties because they must adapt to variable conditions, and they are also able to produce a wide range of metabolites efficiently. This work is a very early report on some capacities of a few bacteria from Hafnia and Citrobacter genera, isolated from environmental probes to 1,3-PD and organic acids (fumaric, succinic, and acetic) production from glycerol. In this report, the predisposition to effective synthesis of 1,3-PD by investigated strains, based on feedback tests and resistance of bacteria to raw material, have been described.
The ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) seed aerosols commonly found in the Chinese urban atmosphere could affect the formation and aging of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Aging of aromatic SOA is performed using UV-irradiation of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (135-TMB)/CH3ONO/NO/air mixtures with high concentrations (~100 μg/m3) of (NH4)2SO4 seeds in the laboratory chamber in this study. The particulate products of SOA were measured using an aerosol laser time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ALTOFMS) in real-time, and fuzzy c-means (FCM) was applied to the mass spectra organic species for clusters. Experimental results indicated that methylglyxoal, 2-methyl-4-oxo-2-pentenal, 4-methyl-1H-imidazole, 4-methyl-imidazole-2-acetaldehyde, and other imidazole derivative compounds are the principal products in the aged particles. Imidazole compounds that can absorb solar radiation effectively were newly detected in the aged 135-TMB SOA with high concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 seed aerosols. These would provide new information for discussing the 135-TMB SOA aging mechanism.
The aim of our study was to explore the tissue distribution of 3,5-dimethylbenzene acid (3,5-DMBA) and its excretion with urine of rats and to evaluate toxicokinetics of mesitylene in blood of rats after single and repeated inhalation exposure to mesitylene vapours. Experiments were performed on male outbred IMP:WIST rats. The animals were exposed to mesitylene vapours at the target concentration of 25, 100, and 250 ppm in dynamic inhalation chambers for 6 h at single exposure and for 4 weeks (6 h/day for 5day/week) at repeated exposure. The study revealed in rats, after inhalation exposure to mesitylene, exposure-dependent increases in 3,5-DMBA tissue concentration and urinary excretion as well as enhanced mesitylene concentration in tissues and blood. After termination of exposure, mesitylene was rapidly eliminated from blood of rats. Mesitylene retention reduced in rat lungs after repeated exposure, as compared to a single exposure, was most likely the reason for its lower concentration in lungs and blood. Compared with single exposure, 3,5-DMBA concentration increased in rat lungs after repeated inhalation exposure to mesitylene at 100 and 250 ppm, and in the liver at 250 ppm, which may be associated with the induction of mesitylene-metabolizing enzymes. Mesitylene metabolism in the lungs of the rats after repeated exposure to its low concentrations probably had a significant impact on the increased urinary excretion of 3,5-DMBA.
One of the biomethods for organic waste utilization is the vermicomposting process, that is run with the use of dense populations of the Californian redworm (Eisenia foetida), whose role in the processes of prevention of soil degradation and organic waste recycling is well known. In recent years, shredded material from car tyres has been used more and more frequently for the hardening and filling of road embankments, which poses a hazard to the soil environment. Our paper attempts to demonstrate opportunities for the use of the red California hybrid (Eisenia foetida Sav.) in the bioutilization process of cis-1.4-polybutadiene rubber (BR) vulcanizate, which is a major component of car tyres. The basis for the study was a culture of Eisenia foetida on various beddings run over six months, as well as chemical and microscopic analyses using the Quanta 250 scanning electron microscope. The study has shown that the red California hybrid (Eisenia foetida Sav.) may be used in the bioutilization process of cis-1.4-polybutadiene rubber (BR) vulcanizate. Following the introduction of the butadiene rubber vulcanizate into the soil with the Californian hybrid, its complete decomposition occurs due to the redworm's trophic activity.
Our study analyzed the fire (pyric) environment (vegetation or fuels, meteorology, topography, suppression time) of the large forest fires (greater than 1,000 ha) that occurred in Greece during 1990-2003. Statistical analysis of 84 large fires (representing 0.37% of the total number of fires) revealed that they usually spread under moderately to low relative humidity (21-40%) in the presence of strong to moderate northern winds. Approximately one-fourth of all large fires occur during heat waves (i.e. air temperature higher than 30°C and air relative humidity 21-40%). Large fires occur as both surface and crown fires and usually spread in dense vegetation with a continuous duff layer. Successful containment requires a combination of both ground and aerial fire suppression forces. Although large forest fires usually have short initial attack time (less than 30 minutes), the suppression time is variable. The main differences between the large fires and all the others lie in the prevailing wind speed (strong for large fires, moderate for smaller fires) and the mode of propagation (mixed surface and crown spread for large fires, only surface spread for smaller fires). However, no unique characteristics of large fires were found that would distinguish them from smaller fires. This supports the hypothesis that any fire may become large under certain circumstances. The results of this study could be useful in forest fire danger rating and presuppression alertness in the context of judicial fire prevention and suppression planning.
As Populus 107 is an efficient phytoextraction plant, it was used in the present investigation in order to better understand the mechanisms of detoxification and tolerance of Cd. Cd-induced impacts on photosynthetic parameters (chlorophyll content, soluble protein, and chlorophyll fluorescence) and ultrastructural changes in leaves of Populus 107 exposed to 50 mu M, 100 mu M, and 500 mu M for 40 days were carried out. The results showed that in the Cd-treated cells, almost all the chloroplasts seemed to be affected. Cd induced several significant ultrastructural changes, including swollen chloroplast thylakoids, dissolved thylakoid grana, disintegrated chloroplasts, and numerous plastoglobuli in chloroplasts. Data from chlorophyll fluorescence showed that F-v/F-m, F-v/F-m', phi PSll, ETR, and qP decreased while qN increased in leaves of Populus 107 exposed to Cd when compared to control. The content of soluble protein increased with increasing Cd concentration and declined with prolonged duration of treatment. The soluble protein content in leaves treated with 50 mu M Cd reached the maximum, which was 14.29% more than that of control. The content in leaves exposed to 500 mu M Cd were only 61.76% of control. At the end of the experiment the contents of chlorophyll a, b, and a+b of Populus 107 treated with 500 mu M Cd decreased to the minimum, which were 47.69%, 37.10%, and 45.49% of control, and respectively, and significantly (P < 0.05) lower than control. The toxic mechanisms of Cd are briefly explained.
A bibliometric approach was employed to identify the characteristics of Polish Journal of Environmental Studies during 2000-11. It is a young journal, and bibliometric analyses can provide insights into its citation and performance pattern. Findings can be used to devise approaches to improve performance for young journals in general. Our analysis includeds the publication's output, distribution of authors' keywords, and performances of countries, institutions, and authors. Bibliometric indicators such as total, single, collaborative, first author, and corresponding author publications were applied. The top-cited publications each year and publications of the highest impact also are reported. Results show that "heavy metals" were the most frequently used author keywords, followed by "soil" and "cadmium" Authors from 54 different countries published in the journal, with the most publications submitted by authors from Poland. Two Polish institutions, Technical University of Gdansk and Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, were the main contributing institutions.
The Drina River is the biggest tributary of the Sava River, created by the merger of the Tara and Piva rivers at Scepan Polje. The Drina represents the border between Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Water quality index (WQI) is a numeric expression used to evaluate the quality of water bodies and make it more easily understood by managers. In this study, the water quality status and the spatial and temporal trends along the Drina were assessed through the application of seven WQI parameters, to an eight-year public database of environmental data (2004-11). Water quality of the Drina is one of the significant factors taken into consideration in evaluation of sustainability of the development of this region and it is controlled by complex anthropogenic activities and natural factors. Values of pH grew steadily from CP1 to CP3, but on CP4 values of pH were lower (8.11) than on two previous control points (CP2 8.14 and CP3 8.16). 02 saturation shows highest values at CP1 121.3%, while the lowest values were observed at CP3 101.8%. BOD5 at all four CPs shows that water quality of the Drina can be classified as I class (<2 mg/l). According to statistical data processing we can state that Drina water quality at all four control points allows for its exploitation.
This paper presents the results of determinations of radiocesium and plutonium activity concentrations and some heavy metals in soil samples from two main Tatra Valleys: Koscieliska and Rybi Potok Valley. The results were obtained during 2001. It has been found that the content of Cs-137 and Pu239+240 is much higher at altitudes over 1300 m asl.
The aim of this study was to remove Cd 2+ by ion-exchange resin Amberjet 1200H in flow condition. The adsorption characteristics of metal onto the resin were accurately described by Freundlich isotherms. The ion exchange of cadmium on resin follows pseudo-second-order kinetic. Ion exchange capacities of the cadmium on the ion exchange resin was studied in metal solution. The capacities of sorption were 3.0 meq Cd/g, and the resin can be generated by HCl.
Nowadays heavy metals in the environment and everyday life are very common. Their usage and influence in industry is essential. Quite often not only the environment but also general human health might be impacted by their use and presence. Metal poisoning and its effect on living structures and tissues impacts their condition. The environment and every living species in it are heavily vulnerable to any heavy metal exposure and might lead to catastrophic natural disasters. In humans skin irritations and general diseases are not so common, but they do appear, and everyone should be aware of this. In this paper we focus on a very special topic related to heavy metal exposure to eyesight and their influence on this important organ. Lead and cadmium are the most common heavy metals used almost everywhere.
To understand the effects of geomorphology and environment on the C-13 character of soil organic carbon (SOC) in a hilly karst area, 26 soil samples were collected in 2008 in Nanchuan, Chongqing, SW China. The results showed that the delta C-13-SOC values were between 48.66 parts per thousand similar to 27.41%, with the mean value of -23.3 parts per thousand The data firmly indicated that the modern soil organic carbon was the mixture of C3 and C4 plants and mainly originated from C3 plants rather than C4 plants. According to the sequence of delta C-13-SOC along the geomorphological change at this hilly karst area, it can be seen that the PC-SOC values was the crest > brae > foot. Based on the results of correlation analysis, the positive correlation between the delta C-13-SOC values and their altitude is 0.432 (p=0.028), which reflects the land/soil degradation effects caused by the hilly geomorphology, especially in the water and soil erosion process.
This study presents the results of determinations of Cs-137 in full-fat cow milk powder originating from four regions of Poland. The assays performed demonstrated differences in the content of Cs-137 in milk powder depending on the region. The higher content of Cs-137 was found in powdered milk samples collected from Opole (3.50 Bq/dm3́). The lowest content of Cs-137 was in milk samples from Września (0.98 Bq/dm). In powdered milk samples from Lapy and Krotoszyn the amount of Cs-137 was 2.02 and 1.11 Bq/dm3, respectively. The average content of Cs-137 in full-fat cow milk powder from all examined regions was 1.90 Bq/dm3 after reconstituting to liquid milk, and did not exceed the admissible level of Cs-137 in food.
The concentrations of 137Cs and potassium in the surface layers of arable soils were analyzed in the selected region of Eastern Poland approximately 20 years after the Chernobyl power plant accident. Additionally, the occurrence of the elements in soil in the forms available for plants was determined. In relation to the total concentrations of 137Cs and 40K in the soil, cesium is found in larger quantities in the forms available for plants than potassium. Radiation doses through ingestion were estimated on the basis of 137Cs and 40K measurements in food samples. It was proved that during the period 1998-2007 the annual average intake of radiocesium per person exceeded twofold the national average, whereas the intake of potassium satisfied the body's daily demand for this element.
Our article deals with the accumulation of artificial (Cs-137) and natural (K-40) radionuclides in the segments of carrots (Daucus carota L.), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L), beet (Beta vulgaris L), and head cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.). The main physical properties of soils and their possible impact on the specific activity of Cs-137 and K-40 in vegetables have been determined. The specific activities of Cs-137 and K-40 in the soil and vegetable segments were measured; transfer (TB) and Cs-137 discrimination (DP) factors were identified. It was determined that artificial radionuclide Cs-137 transfer factors from the soil to vegetable segments were subject to fluctuate from 0.02 to 0.39. The accumulation of natural radionuclide 4 K in vegetable segments is almost three times more intensive than that of artificial "7Cs the values of the 4 K transfer factor varied from 0.06 to 1.32. The Cs-137 discrimination factor (DF) in vegetable segments ranged from 0.01 to 1.07.
This paper presents the results of determinations of radiocesium and plutonium activity concentrations and some heavy metals in soil samples from two main Tatra Valleys: Koscieliska and Rybi Potok Valley. The results were obtained during 2001. It has been found that the content of 137 Cs and 230+240 Pu is much higher at altitudes over 1300 m asl.
This paper presents the results of determination of artificial 137Cs and natural 40K activity concentrations in plants (bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and moss (Polytrichum commune)) and in soil samples from two main Tatra Valleys; Kościeliska and Rybi Potok Valley. The data were obtained during two years (2001-02). These plants are known a as good bio-monitors for radioceasium [1,2]. It is known that 137Cs and 40K isotopes play important roles in the environment, due to their good assimilation by plants. The transfer of these elements from soil to plant depends of many factors: type of soil, organic matter contents, pH, type of plants. In this paper some results concerning the transfer of 137Cs and 40K isotopes from various types of Tatra soil to moss or bilberry are shown.
This study focused on Cs-137 and Pb accumulation in sediments from the Dobczyce Reservoir in southern Poland. Elements' spatial distribution as well as their distribution in sediment core samples were analyzed. The conditions of cesium and lead desorption were also investigated. The distribution coefficient for Cs-137 (K-Cs) was obtained using a radiometric determination in combination with static ion-exchange chromatography. Detemlination of the distribution coefficient for Pb (K-Pb) was performed by means of atomic absorption spectrometry (electrothermal technique). The experiments were carried out considering various concentrations of potassium and calcium ions (from 5.10(-3) to 10(-5) mol.dm(-3) by addition of KNO3 and Ca(NO3)(2), respectively). It was found that: a) spatial distribution of anthropogenic Cs-137 and Pb in the sediments of the Dobczyce Reservoir results mainly from hydrological conditions of the sedimentation process and, on the other hand, from the sorptive properties of the deposited material b) in the case of Cs-137 sorption, a pronounced competitive effect was noted for K ions; much less effect was found for Ca. On the contrary, in the case of lead such a competitive effect was visible for Ca, much less for K. The conditions of Cs-137 desorption from the sediments caused by K and Ca ions present in water were estimated.
This paper presents the results of determination of artificial 137Cs and natural 40K activity concentrations and some heavy metals in soil samples from the region of one of the main valleys of Tatra National Park (Chochołowska). Our investigation concentrated on 137Cs and heavy metal levels in mountain soil taken from Chochołowska Valley, which revealed great variability in their concentration. The results show considerably small amounts of radionuclides 137Cs and 40K in the soils. Larger amounts of those elements can be found in the organic surface horizons of the soils. The evaluation of the content of those elements must be based on the bulk density analysis of the soil.
Despite the perceived importance of humin to forest ecosystem C sequestration, few studies have attempted to examine the responses to elevated temperature (ET, +2.5°C) and elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentration (EC, 700 ppm) on the chemical structures of humin. Solid-state ¹³ C cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ( ¹³ C CPMAS NMR) spectroscopy was applied to evaluate the 6-year effect of ET and EC on the chemical structure of humin under the coniferous forest ecosystems in the eastern Tibetan Plateau of China. Results showed that ET treatment decreased soil organic carbon (SOC), whereas EC and ETC treatment increased SOC. ET treatment decreased aromatic C and carbonyl C of humin while increasing alkyl C, the ratios of alkyl C/O-alkyl C, aliphatic C/aromatic C, and hydrophobic C/hydrophilic C. Compared with ET treatment, the ETC treatment had a similar but reduced impact on the chemical structure of humin, while EC had slightly and undetectable impact on the chemical structure of humin. The 6-year exposure to ET decreased SOC and changed the molecular structure of soil humin to be more alkyline and hydrophobic, and it was a protection mechanism to the sequestration and stability of organic C in soil.
In this study, soil samples under long term OW treatments were collected to analyze the changes in soil humic acid composition. The treatments in this study included a control (CK), fodder grass (FG), mushroom (MR), maize straw (MS) and tree leaves (TL) wastes. Soil HA structure was analyzed using (FTIR) and (13C- NMR). The results from the study showed that treatments TL, MS, FG, and MR increased soil organic carbon (SOC) by 23.45%, 13.83%, 11.90%, and 5.76%, respectively. Similarly, the contents of humic carbon (HAC) increased in all the OW treatments. Moreover, there was a positive relationship between O-alkyl C and SOC, alkyl C, soil HA contents while a negative relationship was observed between O-alkyl C and aromatic C, and carbonyl C. Compared with other treatments, TL and FG were also recorded as having the lowest E4/E6 ratio, ΔlogK value, and hydrophobic carbon (C)/hydrophilic carbon (C) ratio of soil HA. In conclusion, the OW treatments improved the structural characteristics of soil humic acid where the most effective treatment was TL as it higher the accumulation of SOC, soil HA, and made the structure of HA more complex and stable.
Keywords: soil HA, organic wastes (OW), elemental analysis, E4/E6 ratio, black soil
We analyzed the causes, the course, and consequences of the extreme precipitation events that occurred 14 July 2016 in the watershed of Strzyza Creek in Gdańsk, Poland. Automated rain gauges located in Strzyża catchment registered a total precipitation lasting about 16 hours – from 129 to 160 mm of rain depth. More in-depth analysis based on rain data collected by Gdańsk University of Technology (GUT) rain station was done. The course of rainfall was compared with existing rain models on the national range and also with local rain formula. The results showed that, according to the Chomicz classification, the rainfall can be qualified as torrential. Its course far exceeded the theoretical values calculated for the probability of occurrence 1% (return time: 100 years). Although the analyzed rain episode was characterized by extremely high instantaneous rainfall intensities, the duration of the most intensive middle stage of about eight hours caused the highest daily rain sum registered in Gdańsk in the history of meteorological measurements. As a result, the rainfall caused two fatalities in the lower part of the Strzyza watershed. It was noted that this type of rain qualified as an extraordinary event at the turn of the XX and XXI centuries in areas located in the Mediterranean region. Rainfalls that currently occurr in this part of Europe are also characterized by proportionally higher parameters that should be considered as an indisputable effect of climate change on a global scale.
This paper aims to develop a model based on ISO 14001(EMS) clauses to improve environmental performance and enhance business efficiency in Indian context. For this purpose, a questionnaire was prepared considering all the clauses to understand and arrive at better performance. Input and output variables were derived through deep study and reviewed by people involved in implementation. Based on 146 responses, the present research has resulted in a strong relationship between each clause of ISO 14001. The findings of this study confirm that input and output variables have a positive and significant relationship. The reliability and factor analysis is done by adopting SPSS software, and models are prepared for the same industries. In the present study, linear regression coefficients R = .869, .833, and .847, which indicates that there is strong correlation between independent and dependent variables. Multiple linear regressions were performed on five independent variables toward three dependent variables, and results for the regression models were significant, i.e., Sig. = 0.000. The availability of resources (0.624 to 0.906) is found to be more significant for input variables among the other four variables, whereas the input variables, i.e. achievement of objective, has come out as the strongest amongst all output variables. It has been observed that Model 1 has contributed more in the present study, which proposes significant improvement after implementing the model in any sector of ISO 14001-certified industries.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the capability of Phormidium valderianum BDU 140441 on biodegradation and decolorization of distillery spent wash. The effect of initial pH (6-10), temperature (24-32°C), and light intensity (20-54 W/m2) was studied using single factorial design and achieved a maximum decolorization of 74.5% with COD reduction of 83.48%. A 23 full factorial experimental central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the interaction effect between these variables and the optimal values. The predicted results showed that a maximum decolorization of 85.5% and COD reduction of 87.29% was achieved under the optimum conditions of 8 pH, 30°C, and light intensity of 36 W/m2. It was observed that model predictions were in good agreement with experimental values (R2 = 0.9830, Adj-R2 = 0.9677), which indicated the suitability of the model and the success of the optimization tool. A non-linear artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to predict the biological decolorization of the spent wash. The results indicated that ANN revealed reasonable performance (R2=0.9999, y=0.9781x-0.5679).
Interest in the determination and screening of pesticide residues in soil is caused by widespread use of chemical pesticides in agriculture, which increase soil contamination. Two extraction techniques, matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of residual pesticides (acaricides, insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides) from soil were compared. Advantages and disadvantages of both approaches were discussed. Pesticides from different chemical classes (organohalogen, organophosphorus, carbamates, pyrethroids, strobilurines, triazoles) were quantified by GC with a dual system detection - electron capture (EC) and/or nitrogen-phosphorus (NP). The MSPD was validated by comparing it with conventional LLE. Recovery studies were carried out at three levels: 1) ranged between 0.005-0.05 mg/kg, 2) 0.05-0.5 mg/kg, and 3) 0.25-2.5 mg/kg and average recoveries obtained for these compounds ranged from 72.4 to 120% for MSPD and 70.6-120% for LLE with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 20%. Both methods were linear over the range assayed, 0.005-2.5 mg/kg. The uncertainties of the analytical methods were lower than 25.6% and 30%, with and without recovery correction, respectively. The rapid and practical MSPD technique has found a particular application in determining 147 pesticide residues of different physicochemical properties in soil with satisfactory validation parameters. The study estimated that MSPD has significant advantages over LLE because, coupled with simultaneous stage of purification, it allowed for a radical reduction time of analysis and its cost. MSPD fulfilled the requirements of multiresidue techniques. The method is reliable and can be useful for routine monitoring in soil.
The vulnerability of the nervous system to toxic insult is particularly high during foetal life and early childhood. Exposures during this period, via maternal blood and/or milk, may result in neurobehavioural disorders, some of which may not become apparent before in adulthood. Methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent environmental pollutants and may be present in some food products. Both are neurotoxic. It is suspected that MeHg and PCBs may act synergistically in inducing neurotoxic effects. Some data suggest that catecholaminergic systems, especially the dopaminergic one, are particularly vulnerable to the harmful action of MeHg and PCBs. This study aimed to assess the influence of separate or combined perinatal exposure to MeHg and PCB 153 on brain catecholamine contents in maturity. The subjects were adult (90-94 days of age) rats, progeny of mothers exposed to methylmercury (MeHg, CH3HgCl) or 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), or MeHg and PCB 153, from day 7 of gestation to day 21 post partum. MeHg was administered with drinking water at daily doses of 0.5 mg/kg b.w. /day.PCB 153 was administered by gavage at daily doses of 5 mg/kg b.w. /day. The concentrations of adrenaline (A), noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were determined by HPLC in homogenates of the following brain regions: olfactory bulb, hippocampus, striatum, occipito-temporal cortex, diencephalon, mesencephalon and cerebellum. The results suggest some exposure-related alterations in amine contents and point to the significant role of gender in their development. In the female MeHg-exposed progeny, the content of NA, DA and DOPAC in the mesencephalon was significanrtly elevated (by 43.1, 68.9 and 65.1%, respectively) while in the male progeny no differences were noted in any region of the brain. On the other hand, in the progeny exposed to PCB 153, some differences, i.e. increased NA concentration in the olfactory bulb (by 59.9%) and hippocampus (by 124.5%) and increased DA (by 75.0%) in the striatum were found in males, whereas in females significant differences were not found. In the case of combined exposure, the data suggest some effects in the female progeny only: a decreased concentration of A in the hippocampus (by 40.9%) but increased in the stratum (by 53.1%) and an increased DA concentration in the mesencephalon (by 78.9%). Summing up, the results confirm that gender may be an important determinant of the rat's vulnerability to MeHg and PCB153. They provide no evidence, however, of a synergism in the action of these neurotoxicants when given perinatally on the brain catecholaminergic systems in adulthood. A rough analysis of the obtained data allows one to suspect an antagonistic rather than synergistic type of interaction.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which belong to the class of brominated flame-retardants, are widely used in industrial products. PBDEs have been detected in varied environmental matrices and they can induce various toxicities such as neurotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and endocrine-disrupting effects in animals. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 2,2’,4,4’,5,5’-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153), 2,4-dibromophenol (2,4-DBP), and their mixtures on the endocrine system, including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of brain, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of liver in crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Fish were exposed to BDE-153 (0.2-100 mg/kg in food), 2,4-DBP (0.2-100 mg/kg in food), and their mixture for seven days. BDE-153 alone or in combination with 2,4-DBP significantly reduced brain AChE activity and increased liver EROD activity while no significant effects were observed for 2,4-DBP alone. The simultaneously elevated GST and SOD activities were found at higher doses of BDE-153 and 2,4-DBP (alone and in combination), and exhibited obvious positive correlation (0.76<R<0.89). With regards to the induction fold of biomarker responses, 2,4-DBP has a lower toxicity than its parent compound BDE-153. However, the joint effects of BDE-153 and 2,4-DBP were not enhanced with regard to the four enzymatic activities.