Policy Futures in Education

Published by SAGE Publications
Online ISSN: 1478-2103
Publications
Chapter
From today’s perspective, the work of the Frankfurt School thinkers can be considered the last grand modern attempt to offer transcendence, meaning, and religiosity, rather than “emancipation” and “truth”. In the very first stage of their work, up to World War II and the Holocaust, Theodor W. Adorno and Max Horkheimer interlaced the goals of Critical Theory with the Marxian revolutionary project. The development of their thought led them to criticize orthodox Marxism and it ended with a complete break with that tradition (Gur-Ze’ev, 1996, p. 115), as they developed a quest for a religiosity of a unique kind, connected with the Gnostic tradition and emanating, to a certain extent, from Judaism. This religiosity offers a reformulated negative theology within the framework of what I call “Diasporic philosophy” (Gur-Ze’ev, 2003; Gur-Ze’ev 2004, p. 3).
 
Chapter
Manuscripts, archives, and early printed books contain a documentary record of the foundations of human knowledge. Many elements restrict access to this corpus, from preservation concerns to censorship. On the assumption that the widespread availability of knowledge benefits the human condition more than the restriction of knowledge, elements restrictive to the dissemination of manuscripts, archives, and early printed books should be overcome, and the intellectual content of such items should be available to as wide an audience as possible through the digital library equivalent of the medieval scriptorium, termed here the “virtual scriptorium.”
 
Chapter
From its very beginning sports activity became – already within the framework of the modern nation-building project, establishing national ethos, and constituting effective colonization of the Other – a central element of the effort of the modern system to create, represent, and consume the modern body and soul and to create the healthy-conquering national ‘we’. And yet, when true to its essence, sport represents the impetus of Love of Life. As Love of Life it raises the human from lower levels of existence to their supreme goal within the forms of constant self-elevation. Sport as a global commodity is manufactured and consumed locally, serving and representing both ethnocentrism and false universalism in the form of globalization. It is of vital importance for sport's success as a worldwide commodity to function in the service of local passions and as a manifestation of the negation of the otherness of the Other. Without local rivalries, hate, and chauvinism, the worldwide reception and production of sport would not have been so successful.
 
Chapter
Fifty-two years ago, Eugene Garfield envisioned the potential powerful function of citation indexing in science, and developed the theory and application of citation analysis with the evaluative index of impact factor. With the creation of Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, and Arts and Humanities Citation Index, citation analysis has become a widely used tool for retrospective and up-todate literature research, identification of visible scholars in a specific subject and mapping of intellectual structures of a discipline, and measurement of impact for justifying tenure and funding decisions in the academic and scientific community. With the development of information technology, all three citation indexes were incorporated into the Web-based citation database Web of Science (WoS). Prior to the Internet age, WoS has been the sole research tool for citation tracking.
 
Chapter
The possibilities for Diasporic nomadism and counter-education are ontologically grounded yet they are historically realized. They are historically advanced and threatened within rich enduring conflicting relations between Eros and Thanatos; between the transcendence from nothingness and a quest for “homereturning” to the totality of thingness. This dialectics between immanence and transcendence, homogeneity and heterogeneity, stand-still and movement is today gravely deconstructed. After such a long and dramatic struggle between the God of creation and the Gnostic god it seems that we have finally reached the triumphant moment of the quest for “homereturning”: nothingness, finally, having the upper hand (Gur-Ze’ev, 2009).
 
Chapter
The Israeli condition has already begun to display this hard truth: after more than a hundred years of Israeli-Palestinian coexistence the Jews cannot avoid paying in the coin of worthy life to safeguard their mere existence. In other words, even if the structure of the State of Israel survives it will endure, most probably, only in the form of Sparta of the wicked (Gur-Ze’ev, 1998, pp. 73–80). It is so painful and hard for me to face this reality, as I am as much the grandson of Keyla Goldhamer, who barely survived the 1903 Pogrom of Kishiniev, and whose stories and lessons are so meaningful for me until this day, as the son of Robert Vilcek, who lost almost all his family in the Holocaust and was spared the Nazi death industry only after being thrown into the mass grave from which he literally emerged all on his own, and the son of Hanna Vilcek, who lost her marriage to her first husband as her share in the Holocaust; all these experiences are formative for my Diasporic horizons. Yet I think all of us, even the Zionists among us, should today rethink our old conceptions about Jewish life and the Jewish mission in Israel and in the Diaspora. Perhaps a good beginning would be to rethink central conceptions such as “Diaspora”, “homeland”, and “homecoming”. Such an elaboration presents us with nothing less than the present day Jewish telos and our responsibility toward its fulfillment as well as toward the overcoming of its fulfillment and of what we presently are. It is of vital importance to conceive Diasporic human possibility as rooted in Judaism only as part of richer and deeper roots of human possibilities that transcend Judaism and overcome Monotheism, Western concepts of light-truth and triumphant patriarchalism, even in the form of radical feminist alternatives in the McWorld. In the Israeli-Palestinian context, to my mind, the current historical moment already enables us critically to summarize the last hundred years’ attempt to turn away from the Diasporic Jewish goal by the Zionist barbarization of the Jewish Spirit within the projects of “annihilating the Diaspora”, “homecoming”, and “normalization”.
 
Chapter
Cities, and particularly mega-cities like London or Barcelona, are nowadays dustbins into which problems produced by globalization are dumped. They are also laboratories in which the art of living with those problems (though not of resolving them) is experimented with, put to the test, and (hopefully, hopefully…) developed. Most seminal impacts of globalization (above all, the divorce of power from politics, and the shifting of functions once undertaken by political authorities sideways, to the markets, and downward, to individual life-politics) have been by now thoroughly investigated and described in great detail. I will confine myself therefore to one aspect of the globalization process—too seldom considered in connection with the paradigmatic change in the study and theory of culture: namely, the changing patterns of global migration.
 
Chapter
The term “Digital Knowledge Resources” is used in a wider perspective to include all sources where the information is available in electronic formats and accessible with a help of computers. These sources are variously termed as automated library, electronic library, virtual library, paperless library, networked library, library without walls, and multimedia library and all of them are used interchangeably and synonymously. The term digital library has however become the preferred term due to growing interest and marries the missions, techniques, and cultures of physical libraries with the capabilities and cultures of computing and telecommunications. The advantages of digital information are well established and understood – it can be delivered direct to the user; multiple simultaneous use is possible with no degradation from use and with minimal storage costs; sophisticated searching techniques are available and retrieval is fast.
 
Chapter
Environmentalism, an ethical imperative to preserve and protect nature, has become in the last decade a central ethical and political theme. A rising attention to humankind’s responsibility over nature, environmentalism echoes today’s dreads of global warming and its catastrophic ecological implications. These current, post-modern, environmental apprehensions contend that nature has to be shielded from modern technological and industrial destructive progress; they oppose to the modernist approach that contended that nature is to be exploited for the benefit of humankind. At the same time, one can say that in contemporary environmental fears, ‘Annihilation’ as a fundamental component of postwar memory culture, is transformed into anxiety vis-à-vis “Ecocide”, meaning an ecological catastrophe that signifies the end of human civilization.
 
Article
This article provides an introduction to fundamental issues in the development of new knowledge-based economies. After placing their emergence in historical perspective and proposing a theoretical framework that distinguishes knowledge from information, the authors characterize the specific nature of such economies. They go on to deal with some of the major issues concerning the new skills and abilities required for integration into the knowledge-based economy; the new geography that is taking shape (where physical distance ceases to be such an influential constraint); the conditions governing access to both information and knowledge, not least for developing countries; the uneven development of scientific, technological (including organizational) knowledge across different sectors of activity; problems concerning intellectual property rights and the privatization of knowledge; and the issues of trust, memory and the fragmentation of knowledge. This monograph is concerned with the nature of the process of macroeconomic growth that has characterized the U. S. experience, and manifested itself in the changing pace and sources of the continuing rise real output per capita over the course of the past two hundred years. A key observation that emerges from the long-term quantitative economic record is that the proximate sources of increases in real GDP per head in the century between 1889 and 1999 were quite different from those which obtained during the first hundred years of American national experience. Baldly put, the economy's ascent to a position of twentieth century global industrial leadership entailed a transition from growth based upon the interdependent development and extensive exploitation of its natural resources and the substitution of tangible capital for labor, towards a the maintenance of an productivity leadership through rising rates of intangible investment in the formation and exploitation of technological and organizational knowledge.
 
Article
This article examines the broad scope of systemised learning (e-learning) in post-statutory education. Issues for discussion include the origins and forms of learning systems, including technical and educational concepts and approaches, such as distributed and collaborative learning. The VLE (Virtual Learning Environment) is defined as the prevalent form of e-learning, including the use of related systems within the MLE (Managed Learning Environment) such as CMS (Content Management Systems) and learning repositories. Challenges in the delivery of systems and software to facilitate learning in a digital context are described, including system selection issues, system configuration, project deployment, system management and integration with other library systems; consideration is also given to user support and training. Accessibility requirements within VLEs are briefly described, including a definition of web standards required for accessibility compliance. Trends in e-learning are also explored, including future technologies such as m-learning (mobile learning). The article concludes with a discussion on the emergence of the global market in education and critical perspectives on learning systems.
 
Article
In this paper I address the difference between knowledge-inquiry and wisdom-inquiry (concepts introduced by N. Maxwell) in nuclear physics education, specifically in senior-level textbooks for first-degree physics students. Following on from an earlier study of 57 such textbooks, I focus here on a remarkable use of literary quotations in one of them. The nuclear physics textbook Particles and Nuclei: an Introduction to the Physical Concepts, by B. Povh et al opens with a (German) quotation from Max und Moritz which has been rendered, in the celebrated translation by C. T. Brooks, as "Not alone to solve the double/ Rule of Three shall man take trouble;/ But must hear with pleasure Sages/ Teach the wisdom of the ages." What the student gets however is technical material followed abruptly at the very end by the advice (from The Book of Jeremiah) "And it shall be, when thou hast made an end of reading this book, that thou shalt bind a stone to it, and cast it into the midst of Euphrates". From a study of these and other quotations and other features of this book I infer a strong desire to express something important about wisdom, which is however even more powerfully suppressed by the ideology of knowledge-inquiry. At the end of this paper I discuss briefly wisdom of the ages and wisdom for our age.
 
Chapter
An essay on writing and exile should, I believe, be prefaced by a double apology. First, for the inevitable exclusivity of a perspective which shuts out the pain of millions of voiceless exiles, those described by Joseph Brodsky in a talk on “The Condition We Call Exile”: Turkish Gastarbeiters, Vietnamese boat people, Mexican wetbacks, Ethiopian refugees—those millions of uncountable and silent migrants, whose suffering, Brodsky says, makes it “very difficult to talk about the plight of the writer in exile with a straight face” (Brodsky, 1995, pp. 22–3). Taking our clue from this honest admission, we should say at the outset that writing about literature, identity, and exile requires a great deal of humility in the face of the real, concrete condition of deprivation, homelessness and longing. We must not idealize exile.
 
Chapter
This chapter summarizes a few key results of a workshop, held in the University of California Berkeley in June 2006, organized by the Center for New Media and supported by Elsevier, the leading publisher of scholarly journals. The workshop focused on the following questions: How will scientific publishing be affected by New Media? How will the new means of production, dissemination, and consumption of information impact scientific publishing? How will they affect the social, cultural, legal, and economic modalities of its practice? How will they affect the practitioners and the institutions that rely on it? How will they affect society at large? The chapter discusses the results of the workshop in terms of how New Media affect personal information behavior, research group behaviour, and issues affecting scholarly communication generally.
 
Chapter
This article examines the public services component of digital and virtual libraries, focusing on the end-user experience. As the number and types of ‘places’ where library users access library collections and services continue to expand (now including cell phones, iPods, and three-dimensional virtual reality environments populated by avatars), librarians and educators need to examine the key components of these experiential environments, then establish and deploy service programs and underlying policies and procedures that exploit the affordances offered by these new usage environments. Several of the characteristics of these new service environments (e.g. the competition – or conflation – between learning and entertainment, the competition between various libraries and information services in the same space, the read–write participatory nature of many of these environments, and the arrival in a big way of multimedia – both concurrent and serial) are explored.
 
Article
Improving education systems is an elusive goal. Despite considerable investment, international studies such as the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) project and the McKinsey Report How the world’s best performing schools come out on top indicate that improving teacher quality is more important than increased financial investment. Both reports challenge governments, academics and practitioners to adopt new ways of sharing and building knowledge. This paper makes the case for national education systems to adopt tried and tested knowledge management and web 2.0 tools used by other sectors and highlights the neglected potential of teacher educators as agents for improvement.
 
Years 11 and 12 enrolment numbers in the Board subject Information Processing and Technology from 1997 to 2006.  
Symbolic representation of variable distribution within cluster groups.  
Comparisons of clusters in response to question C6, item 1 (derived with permission from Griffiths & Moore, 2006).  
Comparisons of clusters in response to question C6, item 2 (derived with permission from Griffiths & Moore, 2006). The statistical comparison between the clusters on the bank of non-numerical items is represented in Table VII.  
Article
This article reports findings of a national online survey of Australian women employed in Information and Communication Technology (ICT)-related careers. The Women in ICT Industry Survey was the culminating stage of a larger Australian Research Council Linkage Grant project investigating factors associated with low and declining female participation rates in professional-level ICT pathways. The survey comprised a mix of forced-choice and open-ended short-response items, and was completed by 272 Australian women. Application of K-means cluster analysis to forced-choice item responses revealed three discrete groupings of female ICT professionals. Overall, respondents reported that their ICT career was rewarding, provided opportunities and challenges, and was beneficial to society. Respondents generally disagreed with Queensland high school girls' perceptions that ICT is boring, sedentary, and not relevant to their future career directions. They also disagreed that the industry fits the prevailing negative stereotype of being populated by 'geeks' and 'nerds'. Divergent opinions centered mainly around participants' confidence in their own technical ability, whether they would encourage young women to enter the ICT industry, and how they perceived and responded to industrial issues of equality and management approachability. These findings support suggestions for a range of policy and curriculum initiatives designed to enable more positive experiences of computing in school, and to optimize ICT career pathways in tandem with furthering wider educational ends. Yes Yes
 
Article
Management of intellectual property and in particular copyright is one of the most challenging issues in an increasingly digital world. The rise of the Open Access (OA) movement provides a new model for managing intellectual property in educational and research environments. OA aims to promote greater and more efficient access to educational and research materials and has an international profile. This article will overview the basic charter of OA and explain how it proposes to transform academic communication and publishing in an online world. Importantly, this article will also overview the legal issues that surround the move towards OA and the concept of Open Content Licensing (including the Creative Commons Project).
 
Article
A cornerstone of my pedagogy as a teacher educator is to help students analyse how their culture and socialisation influence their role as teachers. In this paper, I share the reflections of my Australian students on their culture. As part of their coursework in a 4th Year B.Ed. elective subject, Cultural Diversity and Education, students reflect on and address questions of how they have been socialised to regard Anglo-Australian, Indigenous and non-British migrant cultures in their society. Some recall that their early conditioning cultivated a deep fear of Aborigines, and a tokenistic understanding of ethnicity. Others talk of their confusion between the pulls of assimilation into mainstream ‘whiteness’ and of maintaining a minority identity. This, combined with an often Anglocentric education, has left them with a problematic foundation with regard to becoming teachers who can overcome prejudice and discrimination in the classroom and the curriculum. My paper argues that in grappling with the negative legacies of neo-colonialism and its 'race' ideologies, teachers need as a first step to analyse discourses of ethnicity and how these discourses construct 'white', 'ethnic' and Indigenous Australians. This groundwork is necessary for the further steps of honouring the central role of Indigenous people in Australian culture, recognizing how interacting cultures restructure each other, contributing to initiatives for peace and reconciliation, and promoting the study of cultural diversity in the curriculum – all essential components of an intercultural pedagogy.
 
Article
This article focuses on global trends in education policy during the current epoch of imperializing, militaristic, neo-liberal global capital. It is based on an analysis that global capital, in the form of dominant US multinational capital, together with its client governments, uses the repressive and ideological apparatuses of the state to advance its interests, and to marginalize, terrorize, weaken, or kill those who stand in its way. What we are seeing is class war from above – war by national and global capitalist classes against national and global working classes. The author identifies global and national characteristics of the ideological and repressive state apparatuses that impose (broadly neo-liberal) educational and wider social, cultural, economic, and fiscal policy as part of the hegemonic activity of US-led global neo-liberal capital. In particular, he examines the repression of critical thought and oppositional activity within the sites of teacher education, schooling, and university/higher education – the compression and repression of critical space in education today
 
Article
This article starts by reviewing the negative account of utopian thinking in dominant liberal western political theory, through the positing of a link between utopianism and totalitarianism, as present in the writings of liberal writers like Hayek, Popper, Berlin and others. As such, this article constitutes a critique of the liberal theories of utopianism and totalitarianism as well as positing alternative conceptions. It uses Michel Foucault’s views to advance beyond the liberal mind-set in order to rehabilitate the concept of utopia as both a substantive and methodological conception for both democratic and educational theory, and argues for a revival of utopian thinking as necessary for extending and deepening democracy in the world post 9/11.
 
Article
The first part of this article contextualises ‘education reform’ – the restructuring of education and teacher education – within the global and national requirements and demands of Capital in the current epoch of global neoliberalism and neoconservatism. The second part analyses developments in teacher education in England and Wales under both Conservatives (1979‑97) and New Labour (1997‑2006) and the extent of continuities between the two. These developments have resulted in the detheorised, non-egalitarian and technicist state of teacher education in England and Wales, with its marginalisation of issues of the social contexts of education, and issues of equality/inequality. These silences work to produce teachers more fit to develop children and young adults fit for the purposes of Capital. The third part sets out a series of progressive egalitarian policy principles and proposals that constitute an egalitarian manifesto for education and for critical teacher education and critical pedagogy, very distinct from both the Conservative and New Labour policies, and calls for critical transformative egalitarian education.
 
Article
Research evidence has demonstrated that pedagogical techniques variously known as discovery learning, problem-based learning and constructivism are less effective than explicit instruction, especially when applied to the teaching of novice learners. Nonetheless these ineffective techniques have many devotees and re-enter the educational arena 're-badged' after each empirical revelation of their deficiencies. This article argues that constructivism and its pedagogical relatives are continually 'rediscovered' because they accord with deeply held beliefs about the nature of human beings. The origins of these ideas are traced to the writings of Rousseau and the Progressivist thinkers of the nineteenth century and the ways in which the misreading of theorists, such as Piaget, provide 'scientific support' for these is explored.
 
Article
This article describes the impact of an innovative higher education initiative called the Learning City Classroom, a project based on the presupposition that the classroom can raise awareness, foster solidarity and construct a collective identity consistent with being part of the sustainability movement. The Learning City Classroom is portrayed as an organizing, designing and implementation entity and as having all the qualities of an emerging social movement organization. The Learning City acts as a social movement organization by identifying shared objectives as critical to the sustainability movement. The outcome of this research shows not only that the university can support the sustainability social movement in concrete and tangible ways, but also, that it can do this in ways that are empowering for grassroots community groups as well as for students. (Contains 2 tables and 3 notes.)
 
Article
This article analyses the Communication of the European Commission (EC) devoted to efficiency and equity of European education systems. It shows the Commission's difficulties in integrating the multiple dimensions of education equity and the confusion between pedagogical and economical notions of efficiency. The authors also analyse the means proposed by the Commission to foster equity and efficiency at different education levels. Under the guise of a specific interest in pre-schooling, the arguments concerning compulsory education were rather lightweight and incomplete, and those on higher education worrying. This article raises the concerns and questions that remain after the reading of this Communication.
 
Article
Globalisation is a dynamic process which has major implications for many domains of activity. The field of comparative education is one of these domains. Yet this is not just a passive, one-way influence; comparative educationists can themselves promote and shape elements of globalisation. The field of comparative education is arguably more closely related to globalisation than most other fields of academic enquiry. Comparative education is naturally concerned with cross-national analyses, and the field encourages its participants to be outward looking. At the same time, the field responds to globalisation. Cross-national forces of change are reflected in dominant paradigms, methodological approaches, and foci of study. In order to provide a context for subsequent discussion, this article begins by considering some of the meanings of globalisation. The article then turns to the nature of the field of comparative education, noting dimensions of evolution over the decades and centuries. Moving to relatively recent times, the article focuses on the World Council of Comparative Education Societies (WCCES), which was created in 1970 and which currently has 30 constituent societies. As its name suggests, the WCCES is a global body – with all the positive features and tensions that that implies. The article notes some characteristics of the global field of comparative education, while also commenting on distinctive features in some countries and regions. The article highlights some specific domains in which globalisation has changed the agenda in which comparativists can and should work.
 
Article
This article discusses whether utopian thinking in education has really disappeared, as is often argued. The argument is here made that while overtly utopian thinking has lost its legitimacy among social sciences and education theorists and practitioners, the influence of various utopian discourses on educational policies and practices remains strong. The first part of this article contextualises the present state of utopian thinking by overviewing its historical development. The second part discusses this in the context of education. The third part raises the issue of hegemonic utopias that present as ‘realist’ discourses about the future. The fourth section brings into discussion marginalised utopias, and asks the question if there are any spaces left for utopias that most deeply challenge patriarchal and Western assumptions about what constitutes knowledge, history, future and ideal education. The article concludes by arguing that all ‘regimes of educational truths’ whether labelled ‘realistic’ or ‘utopian’ draw their inspiration from a particular image of the future, an image that always includes at least some elements of the utopian.
 
Total value of trade in royalties arising from imports and exports of cinema films, TV content and videos, 1987/88 to 2003/04. Source: Complied from Australian Bureau of Statistics data by the Australian Film Commission (2005).
Article
This article addresses concerns about the role of education policy in the context of knowledge-related public policy. Specifically, it raises concerns about how the technocratic and anti-social tendencies already observed in knowledge-related policy discourse may adversely influence the intellectual and cultural life of communities. A key goal of this article, then, is to stimulate debate about how we might, through education policy, slow the relentless and socially impoverishing drive towards a more commercially and technologically centred society; a society that is savant-like in its technical capacities yet fails to measure up on basic social and cultural imperatives such as the pursuit of knowledge and cultural expression for their own sakes. The article draws on two complementary theories, the relational theory of knowledge and the balance theory of wisdom, to set out a novel framework for deciding what the goals of education in a knowledge society might be. Finally, the article will make a case study of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development’s 2003 Education Policy Analysis document to demonstrate how this relational and balance theory of knowledge can be used to evaluate and improve education policy for its contribution to achieving a knowledge society.
 
Article
This article uses Foucauldian theories of governmentality to examine ways in which intellectual property rights regimes are embedded within broad spectrums of global and globalising discourses and yet are enacted through changing subjectivities at the local level. Using the 2004 Australia–United States Free Trade Agreement as a case in point, it shows how culture, education, free trade, foreign policy, and national security intersect and have the potential to limit access to cultural knowledge and textual resources for young people and educators.
 
Article
Education is characterised by marked and damaging schisms among its specialties, especially between classroom practitioners and academic members of the profession. While many or most commentators accept this rift as arising from real and significant differences between the groups, this article argues that the schism can be seen as the consequence of the reduced status of education as an institution. Mary Douglas's cultural theory is utilised to explore ways in which low status pushes any institution, education included, towards the world-view of a cult or sect. The origins of aspects of contemporary educational thought that attract considerable criticism from 'outside' are traced to thought styles that are typical of a cult. The suggestion is made that continuing criticism that further erodes education's status will not lead to desired change but instead entrench practitioners' stance of resistance to demands that originate from outside the profession.
 
Article
'Democracy thrives because it helps individuals identify with the society of which they are members and because it provides for legitimate decision-making and exercise of power.' With this statement, the Council of Europe raises for us some fundamental questions: what is the practice of democracy, its merits and its limitations? A phenomenological insight into democracy as it displays itself indicates that its essence is decision making by vote. The strength of this mechanism is that it operates without a requirement for rationality on the part of the participants, and its imperative is always to achieve a decision - any decision. Thus, the mechanism enables decisions in situations of incommensurable choice. The history of the engagement of Maori with local government in Aotearoa New Zealand makes apparent the limitations of democracy and challenges democracy itself. Maori have no tradition of democracy and they aspire to the exercise of their traditional decision-making practices. As a minority in a democratic country, Maori find themselves always at the mercy of the vote. Democracy is a tool of colonization. The situation of Maori provides lessons for those who would applaud the Council of Europe and their belief in coexistence by way of democratic decision making.
 
Article
This research was carried out using the survey method in an attempt to find out the relationship between the life satisfaction and socio-economic status (SES) of adolescents. The research was conducted among 275 young Turkish people chosen by the random sampling method. The research findings determined that there was a significant difference between the life satisfaction and SES of the respondent students. On the other hand, contrary to expectations, there was no significant difference according to the gender variable. (Contains 3 tables.)
 
Article
This article focuses on the contributions from the emerging positivist epistemological approach, endorsed by the economics of language and the economics of education, to study the returns to language skills, assuming that language competencies constitute key components of human capital. It presents initial results from a study on economic returns to language skills in eight countries enrolled in the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) – Chile, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Italy, Norway and Italian-speaking Switzerland. The study shows commonalities between countries in terms of language skills valuing, beyond the type of language policy applied at the national level. In each of the eight countries compared, skills in a second language are estimated to be a major factor constraining affecting wage opportunities.
 
Article
This article focuses on the spatial clustering dimension of new information and communications technology (ICT)-driven economic activity based on knowledge industries and especially the tacit knowledge synergies to be achieved through networking in geographical space. The article first details the new knowledge economy, reviewing claims made for its distinctiveness and its role in raising levels of productivity before turning to a brief study of the clustering effects of new ICT-driven economic activity and the development of policies designed to enhance regional development. The remainder of the article details a case study - Univercities: the Manchester Knowledge Capital Initiative - in the North-west of the United Kingdom based on recent research into the attempt to create a 'Knowledge Capital' within the Greater Manchester conurbation, which is designed to position Manchester at the heart of the knowledge economy.
 
Article
With reference to Karl Marx’s writings on education, this article outlines the education of the future as anti-capitalist education. In starting out from a conception of communism as the ‘real movement which abolishes the present state of things’ (Marx), it is argued that the anti-capitalist education of the future consists of three moments: critique, addressing human needs and realms of freedom. It is also argued that all three moments are essential for an anti-capitalist education of the future, but the emphasis on particular moments changes (a movement from moment one to three) as capitalist society and education are left behind through social transformation. In the light of this framework, Marx’s views on the relation between labour and education, and his views on education run by the state, are critically examined. In the light of the preceding analysis, the article ends with a consideration of two trends that are gaining strength in contemporary education in England: the social production of labour-power and the business takeover of education. Political responses to these are briefly explored.
 
Article
This paper considers how postcolonial rethinking might lead educators and students to change traditional contexts and conservative, Eurocentric curricula. The paper discusses multicultural contexts such as those in Australia, and how postcolonial curricula would extend conventional multicultural education by challenging the colonial legacies of European-derived discourses of education. Postcolonial theory is explored as a valuable approach for thinking through not only these goals of change, but also different ways of conceptualising intercultural education and the difficulties of changing the Western-derived models of schools and universities which have become global.
 
Article
In the field of library and information science, also known as information studies, critical theory is often not included in debates about the discipline’s theoretical foundations. This paper argues that the critical theory of Herbert Marcuse, in particular, has a significant contribution to make to the field of information studies. Marcuse’s focus, for instance, on ‘technical rationality’ as a tool of domination in modern capitalist society is a useful construct for understanding how discourses of information technology are being used to perpetuate modernist notions of information and capitalist logics of consumption. It is argued here that critical theory theory and critical theory of technology have a particular relevance and salience to the study of information, and that any discipline that claims to study the creation, use, classification, and access of information simply cannot ignore the larger socio-political critiques of modern, technological society that Marcuse proposes.
 
Article
Media literacy studies traditionally have been the domain of the English and Language Arts classrooms. Cultural studies has not made significant inroads into school-based media studies although, like media studies, it too is concerned with the politics of image/text representations. Information literacy, which also passes as computer or technology literacy, has focused principally on the teaching of operational ‘how-to’ skills. In the last decade, consumers have abandoned newspapers, magazines and network television en masse in favour of cable and Internet news and entertainment sources. Fast news and 24/7 coverage – of 9/11, the US presidential 2004 campaign, world soccer, the 2003 Bali bombings, or the Boxing Day 2004 tsunami in South-east Asia – are global spectacles watched by billions. Given the rapid drift towards media convergence, and consumer shifts from ‘old’ to ‘new’ media, it is argued that media literacy studies, cultural studies, information or technology studies can no longer be taught independently of each other.
 
Article
This article is inspired by Gilles Deleuze's philosophical nomadology and stresses the idea of subjectivity. It stresses the non-unitary, complex and inter-relational structure of the process of subject-formation and explores some of the implications of this structure for ethical relations, politics and for pedagogical practice. As for ethical relations, the emphasis falls on the ethics of affirmation and the extent to which they inform the practice of nomadic, transversal subjectivities. Great value is given to anti-nationalism, anti-racism and resistance to fixed and essentialized cultural or national identities. The article then explores the methodological implications of nomadic subjectivity: the rejection of the classical equation between rational consciousness and universal values; extensive transdisciplinarity and the practice of non-linearity. The main argument is that, by defending an open-ended and relational vision of the subject, philosophical nomadic thought contributes to cosmopolitan community building against narrow nationalistic practices and it sustains multiple ecologies of belonging.
 
Article
This paper provides a brief overview of the history of Universal Design for Learning (UDL), its prominence in the literature, and its use within the educational community. It then provides a critical analysis of the literature base linked to UDL checkpoint 1.2 by examining the relevance to the current trends in education and technology and alignment with checkpoint 1.2 and/or UDL as a whole. Using these criteria, the paper reports how much of the literature base was out-of-date or disconnected to UDL. Given UDL’s prominent position in educational policy, further research into its effectiveness is necessary. Implications are discussed.
 
Article
This article discusses the ideal of education in relation to the pursuit of alternative perspectives in education, beyond its currently dominant subordination to the needs of the market. It presents the philosophical traditions of paideia, Bildung and liberal education, with special emphasis on the element they all share — namely, the perception of education as a self value, as an end in itself. At the same time, the article adopts a critical approach to the detachment of the ideal of education, put forward by the above traditions, from issues pertaining to man's material, productive activity, and the alienating relations developing within it. In order to present an alternative perspective, the ideal of education is seen in the light of the Marxist social ideal, with a focus on identifying the educational content of the prospect of labour emancipation. Finally, the article touches upon the future of education, which is presented in association with the possibility of transforming labour into cultural activity.
 
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This article investigates the governmentality in the pedagogical systems through theteachers' mission and the corresponding teachers' education in Greece from the construction of the nation/state and for about a century, according to the socio-economical conditions that emerged. It does so in order to analyse the relation of society, the educationalsystem and teachers' education. To this end, it decodes, through discourse analysis amongother means, the state's official texts, the pedagogy applied, the teachers' tasks and position in teaching, and the impact of the above on teachers' education. It discerns threereform periods of teachers' education in Greece from the nineteenth to the mid-twentieth centuries, and explores how teachers were prepared in the Didaskalio (teachers' educationinstitution) in each period. It concludes that power relations determine the constructionof the teacher's soul in order to construct the child's soul.
 
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This article analyzes the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Brazilian context and highlights the impacts of internationalization of higher education in the country. Qualitative in nature, the article is characterized as an exploratory-descriptive research, carried out from a bibliographic and documentary examination. Analysis: it was revealed that Latin America and the Caribbean are parts of the global regions most affected by the pandemic that experienced severe negative aggravation in their economies. In particular, in Brazil, findings reveal that the repercussions of the crisis impacted the public resources for education through budget cuts, while the private institutions suffered from an increase in defaults and evasion. Internationalization as a transversal dimension of higher education also suffered from the effects of the pandemic, and in Brazil, information and communication technologies were used to maintain international and intercultural learning and academic cooperation. This made it possible to increase the number of students benefited and to print out an equitable perspective on internationalization of higher education. For the future, it will be necessary to consolidate strategies that include information and communication technologies and promote the strengthening of cooperation networks, with the development of policies that support a more symmetrical relationship in the South–South and South–North, even in unfavorable scenarios.
 
Level of visual impairment of the respondents.
Areas where the respondents are living during the pandemic.
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This article problematizes the status of the visually impaired students in Bangladesh under the COVID-19 global pandemic. We inquire into two inter-related questions: (a) what level and quality of technological access does a visually impaired student have in their higher education institution (e.g. a university or government-affiliated college operating under a university)? And, (b) how are these students coping academically under the pandemic? Our preliminary study employed mixed methods for data collection, encompassing a quantitative survey questionnaire followed by qualitative phone interviews. We reached out to approximately 15 male and female students enrolled in public and private higher educational institutions in the country. The findings will be instrumental to initiate a collaborative discussion among academics and practitioners in the government, non-government and private sectors in the country and around the Global South.
 
Top-cited authors
Henry Armand Giroux
  • McMaster University
Qiang Zha
  • York University
Simon Marginson
  • University College London
Paul A. David
  • Stanford University
Dominique Foray
  • École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne