Policing An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management

Published by Emerald
Online ISSN: 1363-951X
Publications
Annual Arrests for Marijuana in Public View in NY State Source: Computed from New York State arrest databases by Andrew Golub 2007.  
Race/Ethnicity Disparity Ratios (as compared to whites) in Criminal Justice Experiences among Adult MPV Arrestees in NYC in 2000-03 (computed from Golub et al 2007) Arrest = ratio of estimated risk of MPV arrest for black (or Hispanic) vs. white adult NYC residents, based on 2000 census Detention = ratio of estimated risk of detention among black (or Hispanic) vs. white adult males arrested for MPV in Manhattan 2000-2003 Conviction = ratio of percent of black (or Hispanic) vs. white adult MPV arrestees convicted More Jail = ratio of black (or Hispanic) vs. white adult MPV arrestees sentenced to additional time in jail  
Article
During the 1990s, the New York Police Department (NYPD) instituted a policy of arresting and detaining people for minor offenses that occur in public as part of their quality-of-life (hereafter QOL) policing initiative. The number of NYPD arrests for smoking marijuana in public view (MPV) increased from 3,000 in 1994 to over 50,000 in 2000, and have been about 30,000 in the mid 2000s. Most of these arrestees (84%) have been minority; blacks have been 2.7 more likely and Hispanics 1.8 times more likely to be detained than whites for an MPV arrest. Minorities have been most likely to receive more severe dispositions, even controlling for demographics and prior arrest histories.This paper examines the pros and cons of the current policy; this is compared with possible alternatives including the following: arrest and issue a desk appearance ticket (DAT); issue a non-criminal citation (violation); street warnings; and tolerate public marijuana smoking. The authors recommend that the NYPD change to issuing DATs on a routine basis. Drug policy reformers might wish to further pursue changing statutes regarding smoking marijuana in public view into a violation (noncriminal) or encourage the wider use of street warnings. Any of these policy changes would help reduce the disproportionate burden on minorities associated with the current arrest and detention policy. These policies could help maintain civic norms against smoking marijuana in public.
 
Article
Purpose - To assess whether a programme of "crackdown and consolidation" could lead to measurable and sustainable reductions in domestic burglary. Design/methodology/approach - In 1998 the Home Office reducing burglary initiative was launched in England and Wales. Phase I comprised 63 projects; the evaluation of one such project based on crackdown and consolidation is considered here. The aim was to crack down on known burglary recidivists, and then consolidate any gains by engaging the local community and implementing various prevention measures. The article considers the background to the project, the history of the method and how it was applied in this instance. The plausibility of the view that this action led to reductions in offending is examined. Findings - The project did not follow its original plan of a continuous cycle of crackdown and consolidation. However, the approach undoubtedly has the potential to work, although in this instance the consolidation served only to prolong the impact of the initial crackdown, rather than offer a sustainable solution. Practical implications - There are financial and staffing implications of adopting a cycle of crackdown and consolidation. There also needs to be neighbourhood buy-in - especially for the crackdown element - and early warning of changes in the burglary trend. Originality/value - Whilst the concept of crackdown and consolidation has existed for some years, published accounts of it are limited. This article goes some way towards filling that gap by providing an evaluation of the method within an operational police setting.
 
Article
The United States Supreme Court in the City of Canton v. Harris (1989) held failing to train police officers may be the basis for managerial liability under Title 42 United States Code Section 1983. Using a content analysis, 1,525 Section 1983 lawsuits alleging failure to train were reviewed from 1989 to 1999. The research revealed ten frequent topic areas where the plaintiff regularly identifies police administrators as defendants. Emerging trends of this litigation and recommendations for police administrators are discussed.
 
Article
Purpose - This study aims to assess the direct and indirect impact of stress on police use of force among a sample of male South Korean frontline officers ( n =574). Design/methodology/approach - Largely drawing on a methodological approach adopted by Manzoni and Eisner the paper employs a structural equation modeling approach. Findings - The study discovered a direct positive influence of operational stress on use of force frequency, even while controlling for police routine activities and police victimization. Originality/value - The findings of this study and their implications are discussed in depth against the unique South Korean background where frontline officers are routinely victimized by suspects and citizens.
 
Article
Explores the debate over the safety and efficacy of police use of force tactics in general, and pepper spray in particular. Introduces the force continua, checklists employed by US police forces to prescribe levels of force to be used in particular situations. Reviews the literature, discusses two recent studies and the legal and ethical issues involved. Suggests further research in less-than-lethal weapons.
 
Article
This paper examines the implementation of new management techniques it Australian police services since the late 1980s, within an international context of demands for greater public sector efficiencies and accountability. Through an examination of police organisations in Queensland and New South Wales, the paper demonstrates that the impetus for organisational change, particulary in the context of employment practices has largely been driven by revelations of entrenched corruption and police misconduct. As a result, organisational goals of accountability and cultural change have been the critical influence on the restructuring agenda. The paper argues that management strategies should be suited to the specific organisational settings within which they are being applied. It suggests that the process of restructuring and the emphasis on changing employment practices have led to greater potential for conflict between management and police officers.
 
Article
This study examined aspects of the work environment, which may impact on individual police officers' risk of harm from alcohol consumption. A self report survey containing demographic questions, the AUDIT and questions relating to perceived control over the job, overtime, pressure, boredom and job satisfaction was completed by 67 per cent of officers in an Australian state police service. The results of the current study indicate that gender, age and marital status, are individual risk factors for problem drinking, as has been shown in previous research. Within the policing context, years of service, job satisfaction, perceived control within the job and being an operational officer, also emerged as significant predictors of at risk alcohol consumption patterns. Findings further suggest that there is a strong norm of drinking at work or after a shift, which suggests a culture of acceptance of drinking within the workplace. This acceptance is strongly predictive of both risk of alcohol dependency and negative consequences from drinking within the police service. This study suggests directions for future research, which may lead to the introduction of informed interventions within the police service that could reduce officers' risk of harm from alcohol consumption.
 
Article
Purpose – Since 1987, the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) has periodically collected data from police agencies in the USA and disseminated these data as the Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) series. The purpose of this paper is to outline LEMAS's impact on criminal justice scholarship by describing the nexus between policing scholarship and LEMAS, and by analyzing the LEMAS constructs and variables used by researchers in refereed journal articles. Design/methodology/approach – A systematic review of the literature is undertaken to better comprehend how scholars use LEMAS variables and constructs. In total, 114 peer-reviewed journal articles were analyzed to parcel out variables and constructs derived from LEMAS data. Findings – The paper's analysis reveals that LEMAS is the second-most used BJS data series and the majority of authors use LEMAS to measure elements of organizational structure but not organizational behaviors, outcomes, or outputs. Originality/value – The study is the first to systematically identify all peer-reviewed journal articles that utilize LEMAS data. Police organizational research is unique in the fact that most authors agree on the operationalization of variables and constructs.
 
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to examine the impact of resources, accountability, management practices and organisational culture on the implementation of a policy (in this case, a domestic violence policy/program) within an Australian state police department. The paper argues that successful implementation requires a synergy between the established goals and beliefs, the level of resources and accountability provided to support the implementation process, and a performance-based rather than process-oriented type of management practice. Design/methodology/approach – A mixed methods approach was used. Findings – The findings suggest that successful implementation of policies requires that senior and lower managers must be in congruence in relation to the stated goals and objectives of a new policy. This is because the role of senior managers is to determine the goals and resources that accompany a new policy. On the other hand, if first-level managers perceive a lack of synergy between a written policy and the supporting implementation variables (funding), then it is likely that, to the extent that they have power, they will use it to maintain the status quo. Research limitations/implications – A limitation of the study is that the implementation of only one program was examined and it is hoped that future research is able to further generalise these findings. Practical implications – The implication of these findings for police management is that the past method of increasing accountability to ensure the successful implementation of an under-resourced policy is unlikely to be successful. This is because of the unwritten cultural messages (about the real agenda of a policy) that flow through the hierarchy when a new policy is not accompanied by adequate resources – especially if the police culture is unsympathetic to the goals of the policy. Originality/value – This paper adds to the body of knowledge about what factors affect implementation outcomes within a police context. Yes Yes
 
Article
Objective: To examine the prevalence of alcohol-related incidents attended by operational police within three of the largest cities of Queensland e.g., Brisbane, Gold Coast and Townsville (N = 7398). There have been only a relatively small proportion of Australian studies that have examined the prevalence and characteristics of alcohol-related incidents requiring police attention and most are based on small sample sizes that are representative of specific populations. Method: Participants in the current study were first response operational police officers who completed a modified activity log over a 5 week period, identifying the type, prevalence and characteristics of alcohol-related incidents that were attended (N = 31090). Results: Overall, approximately one in four incidents attended by police during the study period, involved alcohol while only 3% were drug related. The most common incidents police attended were vehicle and/or traffic matters, disturbances and offences against property. A closer examination revealed that disturbances and vehicle/traffic type incidents were almost twice as likely to be alcohol-related as compared to the overall percentage of incidents. Similar findings were evident between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas which highlights the consistent impact of alcohol on police resources. Offenders were more likely to be young males, while victims consisted of a relatively even number of males and females. Conclusions: The findings highlight the pervasive nature of alcohol across a range of criminal incidents, demonstrating the tremendous impact alcohol-related incidents have on police resources and can potentially contribute to the development of more effective, problem-oriented strategies to address alcohol-related crime.
 
Article
Purpose – To prospectively investigate the alcohol consumption and health‐related behaviours of Australian police officers. Design/methodology/approach – Demographic, work environment, general health and wellbeing, and alcohol consumption measures were obtained from 100 Australian police officers at two time points; the first as they underwent initial training before the commencement of operational policing duties (time 1), and the second after they had completed 12 months of operational duties (time 2). Findings – Results indicated a significant increase in the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption over time. The number of female officers, but not male officers, who reported drinking at harmful levels increased between time periods. Overall, there were no changes in the number of officers who reported risk of harmful drinking or alcohol dependency. Alcohol consumption measure scores were not associated with age, marital status, education level, general health and wellbeing, or work‐environment variables. Smoking was associated with harmful drinking behaviour at time 1, but not at time 2. The number of officers who reported smoking increased significantly over time. Originality/value – This paper builds on findings of previous studies by examining the within‐groups reported drinking behaviours of a sample of Australian police officers for changes over time associated with exposure to police work and the police environment.
 
ShotSpotter computerized map screen
Article
Using a quasi-experimental design methodology, this paper reports the results from a controlled field evaluation of the ShotSpotter gunshot location technology in Redwood City, California. Results from this field test indicate that overall, the ShotSpotter system was able to annunciate (detect) gunshots in 81 percent of the field trial events (N = 25 of 31 shooting events) and triangulate (locate) gunshots in 84 percent of the field trial events (N = 26 of 31 shooting events) within an average margin of error of 41ft. We conclude this paper with a discussion of the policy implications associated with using gunshot detection technology as a problem-solving tool to detect, reduce and prevent incidences of random gunfire. Yes Yes
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to determine whether police use of force and suspect resistance are more likely to occur in arrest encounters involving suspects with mental health problems. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses data from interviews with 942 individuals recently arrested by officers in more than a dozen different police departments in Maricopa County, Arizona in 2010. Both logistic and ordinal regression analyses are used to predict two models of suspect resistance (resistance in the current arrest, resistance in a previous police contact) and three models of police use of force (any force in the current arrest, ordinal measure of force in the current arrest, and any force in a previous contact). Findings – The results provide empirical support for a link between mental illness and increased resistance against the police. With regard to arrestee mental illness and use of force, the results are mostly consistent with prior research suggesting a null relationship, with an important caveat involving greater use of higher level, weapon force. Research limitations/implications – The study suffers from the traditional limitations associated with self-report data, and the generalizability of the findings beyond arrest encounters in Maricopa County is not known. The explanatory power of the multivariate models was relatively weak, suggesting a good degree of unexplained variance. Practical implications – The non-significant relationship between arrestee mental illness and use of force is consistent with efforts by police to improve their response in these complex encounters. The significant weapon-force finding may suggest that police respond to the affronts of mentally ill suspects differently than affronts from other suspects. The non-significance of key extra-legal factors suggests that police decisions to use force were not influenced by arrestee race/ethnicity, age, or social standing. Originality/value – Unlike previous studies, the current research uses self-reported measures of mental health problems. The current study also examines arrests from more than a dozen different police departments.
 
Article
Purpose – Little information on dissemination of publications on policing issues in East Asia in which one-fifth of the world's population lives is available. The research questions for the paper are: how extensive is the coverage of papers focussing on policing in East Asia; on which East Asian countries have the papers covered during the 14-year period from 2000 to 2013; what are the topics/primary issues of policing in East Asia covered across the journals; and what are the affiliations represented of authors who have published papers on policing in East Asia. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – This study is a content analysis of major policing specialty journals listed in the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) in terms of the number and focus of studies on East Asian police papers. Data came from 1,123 papers published in three policing journals of Police Quarterly, Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, and Policing and Society: An International Journal of Research and Policy during the period of 2000-2013. Findings – Only 3.4 percent (n=38) of the 1,123 articles published in the three journals were on policing issues in East Asia nations. The vast majority (76.3 percent) were published in Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management. Staff issue was the most frequently researched topic. In total, 42 percent of the papers were on South Korean policing issues, followed by 31 percent on Chinese policing topics. Finally, about 45 percent of the papers were written by only US-affiliated authors, 40 percent by authors affiliated with institutions in East Asia, and only 16 percent were written in collaboration between authors associated with USA and East Asian institutions. Originality/value – The main intent of this study is to provide information seekers with a guide to what research on policing in East Asia is being published.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to critique contemporary tools for assessing and managing the risk of police misconduct and suggest directions for their improvement. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on extant literature, synthesizing several lines of inquiry to summarize what the authors know about patterns of police misconduct, and what the authors know about assessing and managing police misconduct. Then the paper draws from the literature on offender risk assessment in criminal justice to draw lessons for assessing and managing the risk of police misconduct. Findings – The authors found that there is good reason to believe that the tools used to assess the risk of misconduct make suboptimal predictions about officer performance because they rely on limited information of dubious value, but also that the predictive models on which the tools are based could be improved by better emulating procedures for assessing offenders’ risk of recidivism. Research limitations/implications – Future research should examine cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of misconduct and associations between risk-related outputs and enforcement activity, develop better measures of criterion variables, and evaluate the predictive accuracy of risk assessment tools. Practical implications – Police managers should make better use of the information available to them, improve the quantity and quality of information if feasible, and cooperate in the necessary research. Originality/value – This paper offers a new synthesis of extant research to demonstrate the limitations of contemporary provisions for assessing the risk of police misconduct, and potential avenues for useful research and improved practice.
 
Article
Purpose - Contemporary policing and the control of (organised) crime involve priority setting, strategic planning and the use of strategic planning tools. The purpose of this paper is to make a contribution to the fast-growing body of literature on intelligence-led policing, and explore new concepts and methods to aid the strategic decision making of actors involved in policing organised crime. Design/methodology/approach - This paper argues that priority setting and strategic planning in the field of organised crime is inherently characterised by uncertainty. The authors examine to what extent policymakers can plan and anticipate coming organised crime threats. It is argued that, while predicting such issues is impossible, policymakers can prepare for them. It is suggested that the field of scenario studies can provide tools that can support strategic planning and the assessment of security challenges in the field of organised crime control. A scenario study is presented on the vulnerability of economic sectors to illustrate and develop this claim. Findings - Scenario studies do not predict the future of organised crime, nor do they replace information-gathering methodologies and crime intelligence applications that support concrete criminal investigations. Scenario studies are sensitising tools that force strategic planners to examine the assumptions and knowledge base on which they base their decisions. To that end, scenario studies combine the analysis of law enforcement data and scientific analysis of organised crime with analysis of issues most vital to societies, regions, cities, etc. The analytical focus shifts from targeting concrete offenders to detecting opportunities and weaknesses in structural processes that may not always be visible to police organizations, but pose significant security risks if left unattended. The scenario study that is presented on the vulnerability of economic sectors in the EU illustrates that scenario studies can amend traditional crime intelligence in this manner. Research limitations/implications - The paper is limited to a conceptual study and a concrete scenario study. Future research might shed more light on implementation/evaluation issues of scenario-based planning. Practical implications - The paper offers a conceptual and methodological framework for scenario-based strategic planning. Originality/value - The paper intends to advance the debate on organized crime assessments in light of the development towards intelligence-led policing strategies. To that end, new concepts and a different methodological framework are suggested.
 
Examples of External Bollards  
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of Strike Force Piccadilly, a New South Wales Police initiative to address an upsurge in ram raids targeting automatic teller machines (ATMs). Also, the aim is to understand the apparent success of the project in terms of a public-private partnership, involving primarily police and the retail and banking sectors. Design/methodology/approach – The New South Wales Police provided data showing the numbers of attempts and successful ATM ram raids on a monthly basis from August 2005 to April 2008. The preventive interventions are set against these data in a time series format. The paper is limited to within-group data, with consideration of displacement effects by reference to recorded crime data and police intelligence. Interviews about the project process are also conducted with three key participants: the police manager leading the project (public sector), the security manager of a major retail shopping centre chain (private sector) and the commercial security operations manager of a major bank (private sector). Findings – The increase in ATM ram raids is halted, and the number is reduced from 69 in the 12 months before the intervention to 19 in the final 12 months of the post-intervention period – a 72 per cent reduction. For the same periods, successful raids are reduced from 30 down to two – a 93 per cent reduction. The research indicates that the main influences on the decrease are: the creation of a police priority alarm response system and the installation of situational prevention measures, including special bollards. The larger context for success is the partnership formed between police and industry. The interventions are developed through consultation, co-operative research and commitment from all parties. Originality/value – The paper demonstrates the potential significant crime prevention benefits of public-private partnerships, especially when they are well organised and include research and information sharing. Additionally, the findings challenge the often pessimistic literature about police response times by demonstrating how rapid response can be highly effective in certain circumstances. Yes Yes
 
Article
Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to compare the social background of Norwegian and Swedish police students. Are there differences in the students' social background, and if so, are such differences reflected in different attitudes and career plans among the students? Design/methodology/approach ‐ The questions are explored on the basis of survey data on all Norwegian and Swedish police students who started their education in 2009 (n=737). The methods employed are cross-tabular analysis and multivariate linear regression. Findings ‐ The results show that a larger proportion of Norwegian police students have highly educated parents, compared to the Swedish. However, students' social background does not seem to be important for their orientation towards theory and knowledge or their plans for doing operational police work. Practical implications ‐ An important question for the future's police educators is whether a study with a formal bachelor status will attract a different type of students. These results show that the Norwegian police education with a formal bachelor degree attracts more students with highly educated parents, but the importance of attracting students with a given social background to the police profession seems to be limited. Originality/value ‐ There are no previous comparative studies on recruitment to police education, or studies of police recruitment that focus especially on the importance of social background.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to compare Taiwanese male and female cadets’ attitudes toward women in policing. Specifically, this study assesses whether female and male recruits differ in: their assessment of women in policing; and their preferred roles of women in policing. Design/methodology/approach – Surveys were conducted with 438 cadets (229 males and 209 females) who received recruitment training at the Taiwan Police College in 2011. This methodology provided a rich sample to explore police recruits’ attitudes toward women in policing. Findings – Although male cadets had reservations about females’ capability and physical strength in handling certain aspects of police work, they supported women being assigned to equal or similar duties as men upon entry into the police force. Compared to male cadets, female cadets were more likely to perceive females as being competent as males and thus adequate for police work. Nevertheless, female cadets were reluctant to embrace women's integration into police work, which might require them to perform duties similar to or the same as those of men, such as patrol. Research limitations/implications – It should be noted that the survey in the current study was conducted while recruits were going through training at the police college. The authors cannot rule out the possibility that surveys conducting under this type of circumstances may result in socially desirable responses. Future study should include surveys with cadets at different stages of their training (before, between, and at the end of the training) to further examine if the levels of recruits’ receptiveness to gender integration change over time. Practical implications – This finding highlights the importance of equipping female recruits with mental preparation and physical skills. The training at the academy should prepare cadets with the required skills to serve as patrol officers to boost their confidence. Equally important is to provide suitable training to help cadets raise stress awareness and develop coping mechanisms. Originality/value – Most studies conducted in the past have mainly focussed on police officers’ perceptions of women in policing. Only a handful of studies examine future police recruits’ attitudes toward women in policing, and most of these studies are conducted in western countries. A better understanding of police recruits’ attitudes toward women in policing in a non-western cultural setting can provide insight into theoretical and policy perspectives related to these issues.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of juvenile attitudes toward the police (JATP) in Chinese social settings. More specifically, this study borrows from the wisdom of social bond theory and relevant literature developed in the USA to explain juvenile ratings of the police on specific job functions. Design/methodology/approach – The data were collected from a multi-stage cluster sample of 2,704 high school students in a city with a population of 3.8 million located in the southwest region of China. The analysis includes variables derived from social bond theory as well as traditional models commonly employed in US studies, such as demographic background and contact with the police. Findings – The findings suggest that both social bonds and traditional models have their respective utility to explain the variation in juvenile evaluations of the police. Originality/value – This study expands the scope of the investigation on JATP in China, a distinctively different cultural environment from the USA. More specifically, it explores the utility of the respective explanatory power of the social bond model and traditional models in relation to juveniles’ ratings of the police in China.
 
Article
A question is posed; have audit and control of information in a high security environment, such as law enforcement, improved or not in the transition from manual to electronic processes? This paper attempts to elucidate this question by a thorough examination of information collection, control of processing and audit in manual processes used by the Queensland Police Service, Australia, during the period 1940-1980. It assesses those processes against current electronic systems essentially introduced to policing in the decades of the 1980s and 1990s. The results of this assessment show that electronic systems provide for faster communications with centrally controlled and updated information readily available for use by large number of users connected across significant geographical locations. It is clearly evident that the price paid for this is a lack of ability and/or reluctance to provide improved audit and control processes. Thus, the claim can be made that audit and control processes may be considered to have been downgraded in the electronic world where standard commercial systems are used.
 
An illustration of kernel density estimation 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of user-defined parameters settings (e.g. interpolation method, grid cell size, and bandwidth) on the predictive accuracy of crime hotspot maps produced from kernel density estimation (KDE). Design/methodology/approach – The influence of variations in parameter settings on prospective KDE maps is examined across two types of interpersonal violence (e.g. aggravated assault and robbery) and two types of property crime (e.g. commercial burglary and motor vehicle theft). Findings – Results show that interpolation method has a considerable effect on predictive accuracy, grid cell size has little to no effect, and bandwidth as some effect. Originality/value – The current study advances the knowledge and understanding of prospective hotspot crime mapping as it answers the calls by Chainey et al. (2008) and others to further investigate the methods used to predict crime.
 
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide information on the activities of police bicycle patrols. Design/methodology/approach - A participant/observation research design was used. A five-city, 32-shift study on the output of police bicycle patrols was conducted. Same and similar ride-alongs were conducted with bicycle and automobile patrols. All contacts (n=1,105) with the public were recorded and coded. These data included: number of people, tenor, seriousness and origination for each contact. Findings - Analysis of these data provides evidence that bicycle patrols result in over twice as much contact with the public compared with automobile patrols. The field observation perspective revealed clear tactical advantages to bicycle patrols. Research limitations/implications - With a limited prior study of a police bicycle patrol's activities, this study is a significant initial step. Practical implications - With evidence of tactical and numerical public contact advantages, more attention and resources aimed at deployment of police bicycle patrols appear to be warranted. Originality/value - With large US cities and other departments using bicycle patrols, preliminary information on effectiveness appears to be both original and of value.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the distribution of police response time to in-progress burglaries differ according to the level of social disorganization across different neighborhoods. Design/methodology/approach – Using 2006 calls for service data collected from the Dallas and Houston Police Departments and from the 2000 US Bureau of Census statistics, the effects of social disorganization on police performance were examined through multilevel analysis of the distribution of police response time patterns across different neighborhoods in Dallas and Houston. Findings – The analysis of the DPD and HPD in-progress calls produced somewhat consistent findings on the relationship between the level of social disorganization and police response time. Concentrated disadvantage, immigrant concentration, and residential stability are important predictors of the distribution of police response time patterns in Dallas and Houston. Practical implications – Neighborhood social disorganization is related to the distribution of agency response time patterns. Detailed response time analysis is crucial for agencies to improve police performance and the community-police relationship. Originality/value – In the policing literature, researchers have tended to neglect rapid response when examining many aspects of policing. The present study expands on existing research by examining the theoretical link between the level of neighborhood social disorganization with the distribution of rapid police response to in-progress burglary in two cities.
 
Article
Purpose - This paper aims to explore the strategy of police harnessing the crime control capacities of third parties and to relate this to problem-oriented policing. Design/methodology/approach - Harnessing the crime control capacities of third parties requires police to act as effective brokers of public safety by improving the spheres of influence that third parties assert over relevant locations, systems or conditions that facilitate crime. This process is often termed redistribution, leveraging or third-party policing. Research from the fields of illicit synthetic drug control and regulation is reviewed to highlight a number of key implementation issues. Findings - The term "harnessing capacity" provides a strong conceptual basis by which to analyse police efforts to facilitate the co-production of public safety, with terms such as third-party policing being conceptually imprecise. To effectively engage third parties in crime prevention police need to use a range of compliance-seeking mechanisms. In harnessing the crime control capacity of third parties police need to consider a range of issues: existing deficits in capacity, competency to act against crime, existing incentives to act, and the costs of co-production. Practical implications - Relevant implementation challenges are canvassed, as well as issues relating to third parties bearing the costs in return for co-producing crime prevention. Originality/value - The paper further expands theory and practical implications related to police harnessing the crime prevention potential of third parties.
 
Article
Social capital is used as a theoretical framework to reveal the importance of relationships between officers and their supervisors for performing community policing. It is expected that officers with higher levels of social capital will accomplish more community policing than their peers who have lesser amounts of trust, cooperation, group cohesion, and social support in their work relationships. Using data from the Project on Policing Neighborhoods, two measures of community policing were developed. Results from negative binomial and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models did not support the premise that police social capital is related to officer performance of community policing. Instead, officer performance varied significantly according to the department in which the officer worked, whether officers were assigned to be community policing specialists, and their levels of tenure. Implications of these findings are discussed in terms of organizational factors that promote or hinder the implementation of community policing.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to challenge the traditional placement of CCTV within the realm of crime prevention technologies and to propose a conceptualisation of surveillance cameras that takes into account how different elements interact to shape how these are understood, defined and used in the day-to-day practices of the police. Design/methodology/approach – Methodologically, the research draws on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in two medium-sized Italian cities where open-street CCTV systems have been recently implemented and is based on a combination of non-participant observations and interviews with police officers in both forces. Findings – Overall, two main findings emerge from the fieldwork. First, cameras are rarely used and not for reasons pertaining to crime control; rather, they have become a tool for the efficient management of scarce policing resources, with particular emphasis on the co-ordination and real-time tracking of patrolling personnel. Second, this shift is understood in radically different ways by officers in the two cities, so that what is experienced as a benign form of peer-to-peer co-ordination in Central City becomes a form of undue surveillance on the part of higher ranks in Northern City. Originality/value – The value of the present work is twofold. On one hand, it provides relevant information to police practitioners on how organisational and structural factors impact on the use of surveillance cameras in policing. On the other, embracing the idea that CCTV is constructed through the interaction of several distinct, yet related, processes can explain why the same technology is implemented, defined and used in different ways in comparable organisations.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore police officers’ perceptions of the challenges and work stressors of working in Internet Child Exploitation (ICE) investigation. Design/methodology/approach – Participants were a heterogeneous sample of 32 ICE investigators across nine Australian jurisdictions. Officers’ perceptions of ICE work were elicited via individual, open-ended, anonymous, telephone interviews, which focused on both the nature and impact of work-related stressors and challenges. Findings – Thematic analysis revealed that viewing ICE material was not perceived to be a major stressor or particularly traumatic facet of ICE investigation. Rather, the challenges related to three areas; work relationships, workload and resources and the physical environment. Participants also suggested some improvements to their work environment which could reduce the impact of these challenges. Practical implications – The stressors identified by ICE investigators in this study place physical, psychological and social restrictions on investigative capacity. Modifications to the workplace environment that facilitate more effective professional collaboration, reduce workload and enhance investigator efficiency and functionality of the physical work environment would likely reduce the potential for harm associated with ICE investigation and improve ICE investigators’ capacity to perform their role. Originality/value – This is the first study to use a broad research framework to examine the full range of stressors that ICE investigators face (both organisational and operational). The findings are important for developing comprehensive theories regarding workplace traumatisation as well as holistic intervention models to assist the prevention and management of stress related to ICE investigation.
 
Location of Kinmen Island  
Conceptual model of police service quality and performance  
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perceptions and satisfaction between police officers and citizens on Kinmen Island (of Taiwan), using an analytical framework that combines five primary dimensions and 25 corresponding determinants. Design/methodology/approach – It considers recent developments in the application of performance measures and management to public and, particularly, police services. It goes on to assess comparative rural police performance which suggests that the application of targets could ultimately serve to provide the overall satisfaction with police services. Findings – The findings of the study suggest that perceptions and satisfaction of both citizens and police staff may result in the success of the policing management, and that police managers have to satisfy their citizens with a high level of service quality based on different localities. Practical implications – From managerial perspectives, police managers should consider both the service quality and customer satisfaction constructs as determinants of behavioural intentions, based on the fact that satisfaction can be a strategic key to maintain long term relationship with citizens as it is found of significant impact on the intentional behaviour. Originality/value – This research adds empirical support to this vein of literature and has identified the five main dimensions and the 25 sub-dimensions as important constructs for police service quality.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the correlates of job satisfaction among civilian employees of law enforcement agencies, to assess how features of the policing workplace influence employee morale. Design/methodology/approach – The data for this study were drawn from surveys conducted as part of the National Police Research Platform. In total, 472 civilians from 19 police agencies completed the survey. Findings – The findings indicate that contentment with pay and benefits, lower levels of work-related stress, equality in the workplace, and feelings of acceptance were associated with civilian employee satisfaction. Research limitations/implications – The analyses presented here focusses on factors more unique to policing and did not include all of factors correlated with job satisfaction in past literature. Future research should address this as well as control for the effect of organizational-level factors. Practical implications – The research identifies key factors in each of those categories that inhibit the effective incorporation of civilians into the workforce. It indicates that reaping the full advantages of civilianization is complex and requires attention to fundamental aspects of police organizations. How administrators deal with this reality will impact the efficiency and effectiveness of their organizations in important ways. Originality/value – To date, much of what has been written about the place of civilians in policing consists of descriptions of their numeric representation and discussions of the presumed advantages of hiring them in larger numbers. Less is known about how well civilians have been integrated into the policing workforce.
 
Article
This article has no abstract
 
Article
"Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of Queensland Police Service's version of COMPSTAT, known as “Operational Performance Reviews” (OPRs), on reported crime. Design/methodology/approach – The paper employed interrupted time series analytic techniques to examine the impact of OPRs on various categories of reported crime in Queensland. The analyses assessed the extent to which OPRs were associated with crime reductions across the 29 police districts in Queensland. Findings – The introduction of OPRs was found to be associated with a significant decrease in the total number of reported offences in Queensland. OPRs were found to have their strongest effect on reported unlawful entries into dwellings and unlawful entries into other properties. The overall finding was that OPRs appeared to be a cost-effective approach to controlling crime, resulting in an overall saving of AUD$1,162,175. Practical implications – The current study suggests that COMPSTAT generally – and Queensland's OPRs in particular – can be an effective police management mechanism, which results in observable reductions in reported crimes. Moreover, OPRs appear to be most effective at reducing property-related crime. Modifications of this performance management process may help to generalize its effects to other types of crime. Originality/value – This study was the first to provide a systematic examination of the impact of OPRs on a relatively large number of offence categories." Yes Yes
 
Article
Purpose – The study of police use of force remains a primary concern of policing scholars; however, over the course of the last several decades, the focus has shifted from deadly and excessive force to a broader range of police behaviors that are coercive in nature, but not necessarily lethal, violent, or physical. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the critical disjuncture between the conceptualization of police use of force and operationalizations of the construct throughout policing literature. Design/methodology/approach – The current study provides a thorough, systematic review of 53 police use of force studies published in peer-reviewed outlets. These manuscripts were reviewed to determine whether authors cited a conceptualization of use of force and explained how the construct was operationalized, as well as the police behaviors captured in measures of force across studies, and how the data were collected. Findings – The findings suggest that police use of force is conceptually ambiguous, as 72 percent of the studies failed to cite a conceptual definition of the construct. Moreover, there is little consistency in the types of police behaviors operationalized as force across studies. Originality/value – The authors illustrate that problems associated with poorly conceptualized constructs make it more difficult for researchers to interpret empirical findings. That is, conceptual ambiguity has resulted in a line of literature that includes inconsistent and contradictory findings, making it difficult to summarize in a meaningful way and inform policy.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine key factors responsible for unwillingness of Russian respondents to contact police in life-threatening situations. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a survey data ( n =5,088) collected during 1998-2007 in Volgograd, Russia. The multivariate regression is employed for data analysis. Findings – Findings of this study suggest that pervasive public distrust and dissatisfaction of police institution coupled with fear of police abuse and negative previous experiences with crime reporting are responsible for citizens’ unwillingness to contact Russian police. Research limitations/implications – The findings imply that both instrumental and normative approaches to the police legitimacy are useful when explaining the issues of public-police cooperation in Russia. Practical implications – Paper also has practical implications pertinent to the 2011 police reform in Russia. Originality/value – The study also provides an original empirical research in previously under-research area of public-police cooperation in Russia and advances the understanding of Russian police by using the process-based model of policing.
 
Article
Presents a simulation study of the costing of police custody operations at a UK police force. The custody operation incorporates the arrest, booking-in, interview, detention and court appearance activities. The Activity Based Costing (ABC) approach is used as a framework to show how costs are generated by the three “drivers” of cost, activity and resource. These relate to the design efficiency of the process, the timing and mix of demand on the process and the cost of resources used to undertake the process respectively. The use of discrete-event simulation allows the incorporation of dynamic (time-dependent) and stochastic (variability) elements in the cost analysis. This enables both the amount and timing of the use of capacity and the generation of cost to be established. The concept of committed and flexible resources directs management decisions to the redeployment of unused capacity or alternatively the identification of additional capacity requirements.
 
Article
Purpose – The aim of this paper is to review common methods used by English lawyers when questioning police witnesses, and to identify training issues for preparing officers for giving evidence in court. Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire was administered to 48 police detectives concerning the last time they gave evidence in court, the types of questions they were asked during cross-examination, lawyers' tactics, and what they believed to be personal attacks. Findings – The findings indicated that detectives perceived they were questioned in a consistent manner, and asked questions that they felt at times were difficult to understand, difficult to answer, upsetting, and distorted their evidence. Nevertheless, they were generally satisfied with their experiences in court. Research limitations/implications – The current study in this paper uses self-report methodology that may be less objective than independent observation. A potentially fruitful avenue of research might be the study of court cases where police officers give evidence to measure the influence of lawyers' questions directly. Practical implications – The results indicate a number of training issues for preparing police officers to give evidence in court. Officers should be trained to deal with confusing or constraining questioning, and to thoroughly prepare. Officers should also be trained concerning how to deal with inconsistencies in evidence, mistakes, and having their character attacked. Originality/value – This is the first survey, to the authors' knowledge, of police officers' experiences of giving evidence in court and suggests some ways of improving the overall accuracy of police witnesses' accounts in court. Yes Yes
 
Article
The rapid expansion of computer connectivity has provided opportunities for criminals to exploit security vulnerabilities in the on-line environment. Most detrimental are malicious and exploit codes that interrupt computer operations on a global scale and along with other cyber-crimes threaten e-commerce. Cyber-crime is often traditional crime (e.g. fraud, identify theft, child pornography) albeit executed swiftly and to vast numbers of potential victims, as well as unauthorised access, damage and interference to computer systems. The cross-national nature of most computer related crimes have rendered many time-honoured methods of policing both domestically and in cross-border situations ineffective even in advanced nations, while the ‘digital divide’ provides ‘safe havens’ for cyber-criminals. In response to the threat of cyber-crime there is an urgent need to reform methods of mutual legal assistance and to develop trans-national policing capability. The international response is briefly outlined in the context of the United Nations Transnational Organised Crime Convention (in force from September 2003) and the Council of Europe’s innovative Cybercrime Convention (in force from July 2004). In addition the role of the United Nations, Interpol, other institutions and bi-lateral, regional and other efforts aimed a creating a seamless web of enforcement against cyber-criminals are described. The potential for potent global enforcement mechanisms are discussed.
 
Article
Purpose – Extant literature resoundingly praises Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) programs for the multitude of benefits they provide for law enforcement agencies and individuals with mental illnesses. The majority of CIT research is based on perceived benefits of this approach. Most of the goals of CIT programs are readily amenable to empirical study, yet there are few outcome evaluations of the programs. The purpose of this paper is to examine why empirical studies examining the effectiveness of CIT programs are nominal. Design/methodology/approach – Structural and practical impediments to the collection of empirical data for CIT programs were identified through including examinations of the types of data routinely collected, interviews with CIT participants, and the researchers’ own observations of hindrances to the data collection processes. By triangulating these methods, the authors were able to observe a number of impediments to the collection of empirical data on this topic. Findings – The multi-jurisdictional CIT program under review had several data problems. First, there was a lack of official data concerning CIT calls. Second, it was virtually impossible to follow a person with mental illness throughout the system from first contact to final disposition. Third, data sharing was hindered by a lack of memorandums of understanding. Fourth, important information was not being properly recorded. Originality/value – This manuscript provides recommendations to address data concerns for CIT evaluations. Suggestions are intended to help facilitate more robust data for analysis and evaluation purposes, helping to grow the literature on the effectiveness and efficiency of CIT programs.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to outline a strategy for research development focused on addressing the neglected role of visual perception in real life tasks such as policing surveillance and command and control settings. Approach – The scale of surveillance task in modern control room is expanding as technology increases input capacity at an accelerating rate. The authors review recent literature highlighting the difficulties that apply to modern surveillance and give examples of how poor detection of the unexpected can be, and how surprising this deficit can be. Perceptual phenomena such as change blindness are linked to the perceptual processes undertaken by law-enforcement personnel. Findings – A scientific programme is outlined for how detection deficits can best be addressed in the context of a multidisciplinary collaborative agenda between researchers and practitioners. The development of a cognitive research field specifically examining the occurrence of perceptual “failures” provides an opportunity for policing agencies to relate laboratory findings in psychology to their own fields of day-to-day enquiry. Originality/value – The paper shows, with examples, where interdisciplinary research may best be focussed on evaluating practical solutions and on generating useable guidelines on procedure and practice. It also argues that these processes should be investigated in real and simulated context-specific studies to confirm the validity of the findings in these new applied scenarios.
 
Article
Purpose – Law enforcement special operations teams (e.g. Special Weapons and Tactics Teams, Swift, HRT, and Strategic Response Teams) are charged with resolving difficult situations that pose a threat to all involved. Recent tragedies strengthen the idea that law enforcement special operations teams play a critical role in the maintenance of public safety. Despite the importance of police special operations teams, there is virtually no empirical research specifically addressing leadership within these teams. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – A review of literature was first conducted, identifying authentic leadership, emotional intelligence, and self-efficacy to deal with potentially life threatening situations as being core concepts underlying effective leadership in law enforcement special operations teams. The Authentic Leadership Questionnaire, Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, and the Crisis Leader Efficacy in Assessing and Deciding Scale were then administered to US local, state, and federal special operations team members and leaders (n=99). Results were analyzed according to formal team roles. Findings – Findings reveal members and leaders differ in regards to scale scores representing relational transparency, moral and ethical, sociability, and disaster self-efficacy. Originality/value – Much research on special operations teams is highly theoretical and does not seek to understand team leadership in a testable manner. This is especially true of the relationships between the formal roles of leaders and members. This study is the first to use established leadership instruments to assess the differences between team members and leaders. It provides a starting point for future research and reinforces the idea that there are identifiable differences between special operations teams and members.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of sergeants’ less lethal force policy perceptions on subordinate officers’ policy perceptions. Sergeants are a critical level of supervision in police departments with respect to policy administration, particularly in regard to the use of force. Little empirical research, however, has been conducted on either officer policy perceptions or this aspect of the supervisory role. Design/methodology/approach – Surveys of 765 patrol officers and 146 patrol sergeants served as the data source. Multilevel modeling procedures were used to test for supervisory influences on officer force policy perceptions while controlling for relevant officer-level variables. Additional analyses were conducted to examine potential moderating effects for this sergeant-officer attitudinal relationship. Findings – Findings revealed that sergeant policy perceptions, views of top management, and their level of support had a significant impact on officers’ force policy perceptions. Furthermore, post hoc analyses revealed that sergeant support moderated the sergeant-officer force policy perception relationship. Research limitations/implications – The results indicate that officers’ force policy perceptions are associated with the attitudinal dispositions of sergeants. Future work could expand the focus on administrative attitudinal outcomes beyond less lethal force policies as well as other perceptions of the work environment. Practical implications – For police leaders, the findings illustrate the need to pay attention to mid-management levels and the organizational climate, as negative orientations can impact additional domains (i.e. policies and procedures) and other organizational members (i.e. subordinates). Originality/value – The study adds to the limited body of research on two accountability mechanisms of departments: administrative rulemaking and frontline supervision.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine transformational and transactional leader behavior influence on the leader/follower dyad with respect to organizational commitment (OC) and satisfaction with leader in military setting. Design/methodology/approach – The research is quantitative, where multiple regressions assessed the hypothesized relationships between the transformational leadership, transactional leadership and laissez-faire leadership as the independent variables and the subordinates’ satisfaction with their leader, and organization commitment as the dependent variables. The sample studied includes 154 police members in two Middle East (ME) countries. Findings – The results indicated that there were positive linear relationship between some dimensions of transformational and transaction leadership and satisfaction with leadership. There was a negative linear relationship between laissez-faire leadership and satisfaction with leader. The leaders-outcome correlations showed higher scores between transformational leadership style and OC than between transactional leadership style and OC. Research limitations/implications – Because of the chosen research approach, the research results may lack generalizability on military institutions in other countries, and/or private institutions. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the proposed propositions further. The research includes implications for the development of a satisfaction with leaders, and development of organization commitment in military organizations in the ME. Originality/value – This research fulfills an identified need to study how military organization commitment can be enabled in ME countries.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors which contribute to, or mitigate against, both the likelihood and timing of the onset of police misconduct. Design/methodology/approach – Research hypotheses were tested examining the first personnel complaint filed against officers, using both all complaints and only substantiated complaints, from data collected on a large cohort of officers followed over a substantial portion of their careers. Findings – Black officers and those exhibiting poor academy performance were at an increased likelihood of onset when compared to white and Hispanic officers and those who did better in the academy, while having a college degree lowered this likelihood. Officers whose first complaints were filed by citizens, and officers working certain patrol zones had quicker onset times. Those officers whose first complaint was related to service, as well as officers with prior military service, had longer onset times. Research limitations/implications – This study relies on personnel complaints to measure onset, was conducted in a very large police department, and does not include arrest data on officers over time. Practical implications – Onset occurs early in officers’ careers. Some factors are consistent across complaint types, while others depend on whether all complaints or only substantiated complaints are used to measure onset, which suggests that future research should consider carefully which measure they employ. Originality/value – This study employs a longitudinal data set which follows a cohort of officers from the start of their careers, and is thus ideal for exploring the onset of misconduct.
 
Article
Purpose – Police high-speed pursuits present a difficult area for police managers and policy makers because of the important need to balance public safety with the mandate to enforce laws. The issue of police pursuits has been relatively under-researched in Australia. The overall purpose of the paper is to provide a descriptive analysis of the characteristics surrounding police pursuits in Queensland, Australia. Design/methodology/approach – Considers recent events involving high speed pursuit-related fatal accidents and research into police pursuits which has illuminated clearly the significant risks for both community and police organisations associated with pursuits. Uses data collected in Queensland over a five-year period. Findings – The results show that approximately 630 pursuits occur per year in Queensland across the study period, and that half of all pursuits are initiated for traffic offences while an additional quarter are initiated for stolen cars. A total of 29 per cent of pursuits involved a collision, 11 per cent resulted in some sort of injury, and 11 people were killed during the five-year study period. In relation to an issue that appears to justify the initiation of some police pursuits – that fleeing drivers provide opportunities for police to apprehend serious offenders – examination of the charges data against the fleeing driver showed that very few apprehended drivers were charged with crimes more serious than what was known at the time the pursuit was initiated. Originality/value – The findings in this study illuminate the importance of adopting more restrictive police pursuit policies.
 
Research groups in which there are the authors who have published more than one article  
Institutional collaboration networks in which are the institutions that have been published more than one article  
Network of collaboration among countries and number of works at national collaboration 780
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the production and global scientific collaboration of research in police training from 1987 until 2011. Design/methodology/approach – Selecting databases, design of search strategy, download of bibliographic records, treatment of the bibliographic information, bibliometric analysis, identification of research groups and collaborative networks of institutions and countries has been the used methodology. Findings – Of all 1,928 papers reviewed by experts, 155 articles were related directly with police training with an average of 2.59 signatures per work, with 66.45 percent of articles signed in coauthorship. It is noted that in recent years there has been an increase in signatures and works. Articles published are distributed in journals of heterogeneous character associated to police training such as criminology, psychology, psychiatry, health or education. A significant amount of research is captained from a university scope, sometimes in collaboration with police institutions. Collaboration between members of the same institution and between institutions in the same country are predominant. Originality/value – To characterize the scientific production of the journals, authors, institutions and countries in the area of police training, as well as to identify the collaboration networks of authors, institutions and countries within the area.
 
Article
b>Purpose - This study aimed to identify the nature and prevalence of workplace stressors faced by interviewers of child sexual assault victims. Design/methodology/approach - Sixty-eight professionals (police and child protection workers) were invited to anonymously post their perceptions of workplace stressors on an internet forum as part of an investigative interviewing online training course. Specifically, participants were asked to reflect on salient sources of stress encountered in their role of interviewing sexually abused children. Findings - Three key stressors were identified across the study’s professional groups: (1) inadequate recognition of specialised skills; (2) high workload demands; and (3) interagency tensions. Consistent with previous research, exposure to child abuse reports was not raised as a stressor. Research limitations/implications - Our study generated suggestions for modifying management practices; however, future research should identify and trial strategies for improving workplace climate in child abuse investigation. Practical implications - As the stressors isolated by participants related to workplace climate rather than exposure to victims’ accounts of child abuse, minimising negative consequences of work stressors requires changes to workplace culture and practice. Workplace climates need to be modified so that the demands are offset by resources. Originality/value - Because of its online, anonymous nature, this was the first study to offer participants the opportunity to honestly disclose primary sources of stress in child abuse investigation. The research also makes a much-needed contribution to an area of police practice that is vital yet often overlooked.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to better understand the institutional and external factors associated with African-American and Latino representation in policing at the line and managerial ranks. Line representation analyses utilize new data sources and a full range of theoretically informed covariates. Managerial representation analyses provide the first comprehensive attempt to understand the dynamics behind minority promotion. Design/methodology/approach – Portions of the 2000 US Census of Population and Housing Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Tabulation, Division of Governmental Studies, and Services (DGSS) survey and Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) survey were combined to produce a sample of 180 cities/municipal departments for analysis. Findings – Results indicate that the representation of minorities in political office and their presence in police leadership positions are among the most influential predictors of line officer diversity. Proportions of minorities in administrative police roles are greater in larger departments paying higher salaries. There is also evidence that the career advancement of minorities can be limited when multiple minority groups compete for the same promotional opportunities. Originality/value – This study provides a thorough examination of minority officer line representation and the first multivariate examination of minority representation in managerial positions using a national sample.
 
Article
Purpose ‐ The purpose of this study is to re-examine the nature of the sergeant-officer attitudinal relationship. Using person-environment fit as a framework, the current study tests the influence that sergeant-officer attitudinal congruence concerning role orientations has on officer role ambiguity. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The study uses survey data from 765 patrol officers and 146 sergeants across five police departments. Polynomial regression, calculated values, and response surface plots were used to examine the effect of sergeant-officer attitudinal congruence on role ambiguity. Findings ‐ First, there was modest empirical evidence that the relationship between sergeant and officer views toward order maintenance and role ambiguity was nonlinear. Second, role ambiguity was lowest for officers supervised by sergeants who highly accepted order maintenance activities. Finally, role ambiguity was higher when both officers and sergeants failed to view order maintenance and law enforcement as important functions of the police role. Research limitations/implications ‐ The findings highlight the need to incorporate additional research approaches that capture differences in officer and sergeant views toward police work. Such differences might impact other attitudinal outcomes or officer discretionary behaviors. Practical implications ‐ When looking at attitudinal congruence, the results show that sergeants have the capacity to attenuate or amplify officer role ambiguity. This emphasizes the need for police administrators to ensure that sergeants communicate job expectations to their subordinate officers that are in line with the department's values. Originality/value ‐ The study adds to the limited body of research on frontline supervision by examining the nature of the sergeant-officer attitudinal relationship from an alternative theoretical approach.
 
Article
Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between global and specific attitudes of unfair police treatment towards Mexican Americans and how attitudes towards the police vary with socio-demographic characteristics, victim status, linguistic barriers, group consciousness and socially disorganized contexts. Design/methodology/approach ‐ Data from the 2006 National Latino Survey, which is a representative random sample of 1,815 self-identified persons of Mexican-origin born in the USA were used to investigate three research questions: What is the prevalence in which Mexican-Americans claim to be treated unfairly by the police?; What is the prevalence in which Mexican-Americans perceive unfair treatment toward their ethnic group?; and Do cultural factors and/or heightened group consciousness and identity contribute to Mexican-Americans perceptions of either specific or more generalized unfair police treatment? A structural equation model was developed to explore the relationship between global and specific measures of unfair police treatment and variables measuring socio-demographic and linguistic characteristics, as well as socially disorganized contexts, group consciousness and identity. Findings ‐ Mexican-Americans residing in socially disorganized contexts are significantly more likely to have positive global assessments of the police. The relationship between both social disorganization and specific and global attitudes was statistically significant. Individuals who have a strong sense of linked fate, possess a shared sense of common purpose and interest, and identify strongly with their ethnic group are significantly more likely to perceive that the police treat their group unfairly. Research limitations/implications ‐ The current investigation is limited by the nature of the data, which is based wholly on self-report. In addition, while the frequency and nature of police contact plays a role in influencing negative perceptions of police encounters, it was not possible to assess those influences here. Finally, the current analysis is limited by the cross-sectional nature of the data and no inferences regarding causality can be made. Practical implications ‐ This study has implications for the legitimacy of the criminal justice system and will help criminal justice actors understand the broader implications of police-citizen interactions. Social implications ‐ The paper shows how social interactions are affected by group membership. Originality/value ‐ No study to date explores the relationship between group-based identity, group consciousness and perceptions of unfair treatment by the police. These studies are usually limited to the political science literature.
 
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Gregory S. Anderson
  • Thompson Rivers University
Darryl Plecas
  • University of the Fraser Valley
John Violanti
  • University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
Michael Reisig
  • Arizona State University
James Frank
  • University of Cincinnati