Police Practice and Research

Published by Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Print ISSN: 1561-4263
The New York City Police Department (NYPD) has made enforcement of laws against disorder and quality-of-life offenses a central part of their policing strategy. Concomitantly, New York City (NYC) experienced a renaissance in orderliness, cleanliness, tourism, real estate value, and crime reduction, although other problems such as poverty, unemployment, drug abuse, racial tensions and homelessness persist. This paper examines quality-of-life policing practices in NYC, describes the philosophical underpinnings, explores the critical response to the program and presents lessons of potential relevance to other policing organizations in the U.S. and around the world.
Police integrity is an important subject for both police theory and practice. This paper presents the results of survey research on the perceptions of police officers in the Netherlands and the USA on two specific aspects of integrity. First, their views on the seriousness of types of integrity violations and, second, the willingness to report deviant behavior (and to break the so-called 'wall of silence'), are examined. The Dutch police appeared in their response to be stricter in norms and values ('awareness') and more willing to report colleagues for violations ('alertness') than their American counterparts. These perceptions of seriousness have, however, changed in the Netherlands and an attempt is made to explain those changing perceptions and also the changes in the willingness to report (based on 47 in-depth interviews with police officers). This paper has led to a provisional model that will be tested in future research.
This report provides the views of Lieutenant General Dhahi Khalfan Tamim, Commander-in-Chief of the Dubai Police, United Arab Emirates, on several issues of contemporary policing. In his statements, Tamim comments on the recent developments in the Dubai Police. Among the issues discussed by him are human rights, specialization, technology, cultural diversity, management, and international cooperation as they relate to policing in general and especially to policing in Dubai.
This paper explores the danger that young people may be exposed to when using the Internet. The first part sets out the context by considering new developments in UK and international legislation and then explores educational moves to protect children. Focus is upon findings from research undertaken on behalf of the London Metropolitan Police Service in evaluating the Safer Surfing programme designed to enable young people’s safe Internet use. In the final part of this paper it is argued that more must however be done internationally both to protect children online and to curb the growing trade in indecent child images.
A M-TAM (Anonymous, 2011; adapted from Lin, Hu, Schroeder, & Chen, 2002). 
Experts used within the Research Design. 
Technology acceptance in policing is under-researched, yet mobile devices are widely implemented across UK police forces. The paper validates a mobile technology acceptance model (M-TAM) developed in a single police force. It shows that the M-TAM is transferrable to other UK police forces, and potentially worldwide. The influence of local supervision and fit of technology to roles and tasks are shown to be the most influential factors. Factors beyond the technology itself, such as the influence of peers and involvement of operational officers in technology investment decisions, must be considered to accommodate the strong cultural barriers in policing.
This article focuses on police accountability from the perspective of police officers in Costa Rica. With the Public Force as a case study, it unravels police officer perceptions of the accountability process. By concentrating on internal and external police accountability mechanisms, it contributes to debates on human rights implementation within police systems. This is part of a larger effort to reform public security in Latin America. On the basis of empirical research the article reflects how police officers in San José experience being held accountable.
Researcher-practitioner success. 
This paper describes a recent researcher–practitioner partnership designed to address the challenges faced by law enforcement agencies when implementing crime control and prevention strategies. Using an action research methodology, the project embedded a group of trained students within the law enforcement community to assist with local crime problems and supplement existing crime analysis and research capabilities in six agency units. Results of this case study offer several implications for future researcher–practitioner partnerships focused on crime analysis and present an enhanced set of metrics for evaluating success.
The prospects of engaging police unions in a process of police reform is conditioned by the political context and organisational culture that characterises those unions. Understanding the historical formation of unions and the changing nature of their aspirations and interests is critical to appreciating such prospects. The history of Australian police unions, long established and privileged by high levels of acceptance in their political environment, suggests the need for optimism about police union engagement in police reform to be balanced by a realism about the limitations imposed by their primary purpose, to serve the interests of their members Yes Yes
Sexual assault is recognised as among the most challenging problems facing criminal jurisdictions. Of concern is the deficiency in response to this crime by criminal justice institutions. Police responses to reported sexual assault are crucial to the overall criminal justice response. However, sexual offences are vastly under-reported to police, with victims reporting lack of confidence in police and the criminal justice system. Concomitant to this is the high attrition rate of reported sexual offences from the criminal investigation process. The paper explores aspects of these problems, identifying a number of predictors. It argues, inter alia, that at least one avenue to constructive reforms lies in collaborative research involving police and academic researchers, as currently modelled in Australia by Victoria Police.
Police investigation as a 'value shop' activity.
The purpose of this paper is to articulate a set of interlinked research propositions about knowledge management systems in relation to police investigations and in particular the possibilities of capturing the investigative knowledge inherent in how experienced police understand the investigative process. Moreover, the paper addresses missing links in the literature between 'know-what' and 'know-how' relationships between knowledge management systems and police investigations. A series of policy recommendations are also outlined in relation to this research agenda.
Percentage of alcohol-related incidents before and after the changes to the liquor trading hours by time of day.  
Percentage of alcohol-related incidents before and after the changes to the liquor trading hours by time of day. A more detailed analysis was implemented to determine the prevalence of incidents between 3 and 6 a.m. (the period during which the lockout policy was operational). This revealed that following the introduction of the lockout policy the number of alcohol-related incidents requiring police attendance was significantly reduced by 12.3% [χ 2 = 11.9, p = 0.0005, odds ratio = 1.7] (see Table 2). A subsequent analysis did not reveal an overall displacement affect of alcohol-related incidents to other time periods, as a significantly  
This paper reports on the impact of a lockout policy on levels of alcohol-related offences in and around licensed premises. The lockout policy prevents patrons from entering or re-entering late night trading licensed premises for a specific period prior to closure. A modified police activity log was utilised by all first response operational police to record their attendance at incidents in and around licensed premises. Chi-square analyses of the prevalence of incidents before and after implementation of the lockout policy demonstrated that the number of alcohol-related offences requiring police attention was significantly proportionally lower following the liquor trading changes. Alcohol-related offences, particularly those related to disturbances and sexual offences were significantly reduced following the introduction of the lockout policy. However, while offences related to property, stealing and assault experienced a reduced trend, these did not reach significance. In contrast, traffic offence rates were unchanged. The findings of the study provide supportive evidence that lockout initiatives have potential as a major crime prevention technique to reduce specific types of alcohol-related offences.
Correlations between attitudinal measures and individual characteristics. 
Attitudinal measures by work experience. 
Utilizing survey data collected from 127 male Bosnian police officers, this study examines the impact attitudes toward women, individual characteristics, and work experiences have on officers’ perceptions of their female colleagues. It is hypothesized that officers who hold more traditional, patriarchal attitudes toward women will view females as incapable of effectively carrying out police work, regardless of their own work experiences, or demographic characteristics. Results suggest that a majority of Bosnian policemen believe that women are equally as effective as men in all aspects of policing, however, many still cling to stereotypical views of policing and continue to view female officers negatively.
In 2001, Christine Nixon made history by becoming Australia's first female police commissioner, 85 years after the appointment of the first female police and following decades of extreme discrimination against women in police work. She is now Chief Commissioner of the Victoria Police Force, which has 12,800 personnel, including 9,700 sworn officers, in a state with a population of 4.6 million. Christine joined the New South Wales (NSW) Police in 1972, and rose through the ranks in a period when NSW police were looked to as the most progressive and innovative in the country, and also derided as the most corrupt. Her time in NSW as Assistant Commissioner covered the period of the Wood Royal Commission (1994-97), which revealed extensive police misconduct and entrenched pockets of corruption. It was widely believed that she would eventually become the first female commissioner in NSW; but there was surprise all round when she took the top post in Victoria, which for the preceding decade had been amongst the most misogynist forces in the country. The prospects were that she would face resistance and opposition at every turn, as an outsider and a woman. But she quickly developed an extraordinary popularity right across Victorian society and within the Victoria Police (Chulov 2002). Yes Yes
Qualitative interviews were undertaken with 53 Australian police officers with specialist expertise in liquor law enforcement to ascertain their perspectives concerning the liquor licensing legislation in Australia’s eight states and territories. Respondents generally indicated that current arrangements favoured the interests of the alcohol industry and did not sufficiently empower them to reduce alcohol-related harms. Other key themes included: ambiguity surrounding the police role in liquor licensing; difficulties in enforcing drunkenness-related offences; partnerships; strategies to enhance enforcement; data/intelligence gathering; and the separation of Ministerial responsibilities for liquor licensing and policing. Overall, police in Australia are not currently being given the tools they require to effectively reduce alcohol-related harms.
This study examines the relationships between resilience, coping style, psychological functioning and the demographic variables of gender, age, rank and length of service in a sample of 285 Western Australian Police officers. Regression analysis indicated that resilience was predicted by greater use of rational coping and less use of emotional coping, but not psychological functioning. Increased age, rank and length of service were all correlated with significantly lower resilience scores. Significant differences in coping styles were found for all demographic variables. Implications of these findings and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Reforming the police is one of the biggest challenges facing post-Soviet states and in particular reducing the gulf in levels of mistrust between the police and the public. Using quantitative and qualitative data collected from Ukraine, this paper looks at the attitudes of the public towards the police and seeks to review the obstacles to future closer collaboration between them. It highlights existing differences between demographic and socio-economic groups in terms of their attitude and willingness to collaborate with the police in the future. It also looks at the explanations for both negative and positive attitudes towards the police expressed by the members of the public and at possible barriers to closer collaboration between them.
A crime reduction initiative of increased police foot patrol was implemented in a relatively low-crime community, 09 June 2010–30 September 2010. This study analyzes police incident data from January 2007 to September 2010 to evaluate this initiative. Overall, there was a drop in calls for police service in 2010, 16–17%. Moreover, the results of the evaluation indicate a statistically significant reduction in mischief and commercial burglary. The results also suggest that increasing police foot patrol does not lead to crime displacement. Overall, this evaluation adds to the police foot patrol literature by showing that police foot patrol does have a positive effect on crime in relatively low-crime areas and on property crimes.
This article is Restricted Access. It was published in the journal, Police, Practice and Research [© Taylor & Francis] and is available at http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/15614263.asp Various police and partnership schemes claim to address vulnerability, either as an end in itself, or as a means of crime reduction. However, project staff do not articulate always what is meant by ‘vulnerability,’ or relate it necessarily to victimization risk. This paper considers what the notions of ‘vulnerability’ and ‘risk’ mean, and how they are tackled and prioritized. Some lessons are provided from the UK Reducing Burglary Initiative. The paper argues that un-evidenced assumptions of vulnerability and risk need to be avoided. Additionally, a decision to focus on vulnerability is, mostly, one to reduce disadvantage rather than crime. Restricted access
The paper describes the plans for, and outcomes of, police organizational reforms in the Scandinavian countries. The reforms share a number of similarities, among them drastic reductions in the number of police districts, more Governmental oversight, increased reliance on performance indicators, and claims that these reforms are to be understood as decentralizations that will increase police ability to service citizens and meet the demands of local communities. The paper argues that the reforms are primarily to be understood as examples of centralization, and that local policing has suffered as a result.
This study compares the careers of female and male police officers using the common criteria of career success: education, experience, rank, and earnings. The data come from the Police Personnel Barometer 2010-survey, which targeted the entire Finnish police force (N/population = 7350/11,028). The accumulation of work experience (by age) appears to be slower among female than among male police officers. Female police officers acquire their higher police degrees slightly later during their career than male police officers. Towards the end of the career, male police officers are ahead of females in both rank and earnings. Using comprehensive data from one of the most equal societies in the world, and robust statistical methods, the current paper thus demonstrates that it is very difficult the get rid of the career bias between female and male police officers.
Descriptive statistics. 
Unstandardized coefficients for regression of citizen satisfaction with police on explanatory variables. 
The current political and economic climate in the USA has rekindled interest in the consolidation of police services. The current study explores the relationship between type of police coverage (local, consolidated, State Police) and citizen satisfaction with the police by analyzing a sample of adult residents from four distinct regions of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Findings indicate that respondents with State Police-provided coverage are less satisfied with the police, compared to respondents in municipalities with local and consolidated police forces. In contrast, respondents with consolidated police forces exhibited similar, or even higher, levels of satisfaction with the police. Implications of this research suggest that municipal policy-makers more strongly consider the consolidation of local police services while cautioning against the use of State Police coverage.
This interview explores the career and philosophies of one of the most powerful police commanders in the world, the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police. Sir John Stevens, as the head of this Service, has some innovative and often controversial ideas about how London can be made the "safest capital city in the world". In the following "conversation" he explains the underlying approach to his work and future plans for improving the lives of the people who live in the city and its surroundings.
Clifford Shearing’s pioneering scholarship on policing has been driven by his quest to understand the nature of power and the ways in which human beings both reflect and reify its modalities. Connecting his works are concerns about altering power relations such that they enhance the self-direction of poor and vulnerable populations. The question of what are we not seeing that we should – the invisible that is overlooked – has also been pivotal throughout Clifford’s career. He has advanced the field by expanding the focus of criminology to practices of social ordering beyond government institutions and to non-state institutions that scholars have commonly refused to acknowledge. Beyond his ground-breaking work on policing cultures, Clifford’s concepts of “nodal policing” and the “governance of security” are now part of the lexicon in a growing body of explanatory and normative work on developments across the world and at different geographies of analysis.
Cognitive Interviews are recognised as best practise for investigative interviews of witnesses across relevant jurisdictions worldwide; though police officers’ perceptions of the usefulness of some Enhanced Cognitive Interview (ECI) components sit awkwardly with empirical findings. This paper examines 33 ECI specialist trained police officers’ views which showed ‘build rapport’ and ‘report everything’ perceived as most useful. Furthermore, the study identified longer time-served officers as more confident in conducting the ECI than shorter service officers. Adult witnesses were perceived as most reliable with the ECI most useful for these witnesses while children Keywords: evidence; interview; police; specialist Document Type: Research Article DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15614263.2013.819616 Affiliations: 1: Department of Psychological Sciences, Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, Witness Research Group, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK. 2: School of Health, Psychology and Social Care, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK. Publication date: November 2, 2014 $(document).ready(function() { var shortdescription = $(".originaldescription").text().replace(/\\&/g, '&').replace(/\\, '<').replace(/\\>/g, '>').replace(/\\t/g, ' ').replace(/\\n/g, ''); if (shortdescription.length > 350){ shortdescription = "" + shortdescription.substring(0,250) + "... more"; } $(".descriptionitem").prepend(shortdescription); $(".shortdescription a").click(function() { $(".shortdescription").hide(); $(".originaldescription").slideDown(); return false; }); }); Related content In this: publication By this: publisher In this Subject: Political Science By this author: Wheatcroft, Jacqueline M. ; Wagstaff, Graham F. ; Russell, Katie GA_googleFillSlot("Horizontal_banner_bottom");
Degree Holders and Non-degree Holders and Separation
Significant Results for the Analyses of Variance
This study investigated the effects of tertiary education on police turnover (separations) and job attitudes. It is sometimes argued that tertiary education will reduce the commitment of police to staying in the job because they will experience frustrated promotional aspirations and they possess greater employment mobility. In a case study of Queensland police officers with between five and nine years of service, human resource data showed no significant differences in turnover rates for degree holders and non-degree holders. A survey of serving police compared job attitudes, withdrawal cognitions, and intention to leave for degree holders and non-degree holders. Results revealed few differences of significance between the two groups. In combination, these results suggest that fears that higher education will reduce police commitment to the job are not well founded—at least in large police departments with numerous career development opportunities and a system of promotion based on merit. Yes Yes
This study examines the effects of sex offender registration and community notification on law enforcement agencies that maintain publicly provided Internet pages of registered sex offenders who are subjected to community notification. The data in the present study were derived from telephone interviews and from electronically administered surveys. The respondents (n = 21) were law enforcement officials responsible for posting and maintaining publicly accessible Internet pages of registered sex offenders subjected to community notification. Findings suggest that law enforcement officials perceive community members as being grateful of the role that law enforcement agencies have been obligated to fulfill.
How officers spend their time between activities and encounters. 
How officers spend their time during activities.
How officers are mobilized: number of encounters per shift by initiation source. 
Officer responsiveness to non-controlling requests. 
The ongoing fiscal crisis has resulted in substantial challenges for many police departments, not only in terms of how administrators staff and manage operations, but with respect to how street-level officers go about handling their daily tasks. Using data collected as part of an observational study (i.e. the Flint Twenty-first Century Policing Project), the present inquiry assesses how street-level officers deliver service to the public and respond to citizen requests in a city experiencing substantial socioeconomic challenges. While concerns regarding the changing reality of policing have merit, the findings indicate that the basic nature of street-level policing, in terms of service delivery and responsiveness, can still be achieved with substantial success. The implications of these findings and potential future research avenues are discussed.
In recent years a coercive criminal justice policy has been promoted as the appropriate response to control and deter perpetrators of domestic violence. In varying degrees, across western democracies, pro-arrest and mandatory arrest policies, mandatory prosecution, and tougher penalties have been proposed and implemented. However, recent literature and research on domestic violence has questioned the underlying assumption that the criminal justice system is always the most effective and appropriate response to domestic violence. This research raises two serious challenges, not only for the criminal justice system, but also for women's advocates, policy makers and researchers. First, how can the criminal justice system acknowledge and respond to the heterogeneous nature of domestic violence perpetrators? Second, whose goals should be paramount in police response to domestic violence, the system's or the victim's? This paper examines each of these two challenges and considers their implications for the policing of domestic violence. Yes Yes
Many security-related roles that were customarily the responsibility of governments and public police agencies have become commercialized, devolved, or otherwise dispersed. This phenomenon has been described as 'multilateralization.' The paper sets out to analyse the multilateralization of policing as it applies to strategies of supply reduction in the area of illicit synthetic drugs, focusing in particular upon amphetamine type substances. Supply reduction can constitute interventions not ordinarily thought of as drug law enforcement and entail a range of technologies underpinned by regulatory theory. Various strategies of engaging external institutions in furtherance of reducing the supply of illicit synthetic drugs are canvassed. The authors provide an analytical framework for understanding how illicit synthetic drugs can be governed through strategies of co-production and the possible barriers and issues that need to be considered when attempting to engage the crime control capacities of external institutions.
Police interviews are high-stakes activities that bear legal consequences when the cases move to court proceedings. A wide range of literature exists on police interviewing strategies aiming to obtain complete information from the interviewee; however, this literature focuses primarily on monolingual settings only. This paper reports on an empirical study examining the word choices made by interpreters of 11 selected languages in three scripted police interview excerpts. The study found that considered verbal strategies deliberately employed by police in investigative interviewing may be interfered with by the interpreter in a bilingual setting. The authors discuss the implications of such linguistic intervention for police interview outcomes and propose improvements for the training of interpreters and police.
Recent political polarization in Venezuela has exacerbated longer term tensions over the organization and control of the police. Additionally, there is ongoing and widespread public dissatisfaction with the nature of policing. The patrimonial and authoritarian nature of much policing and the heterogeneity of training programs and resource provision pose considerable challenges to reform. Nevertheless, today’s police officers are right to wonder who they will be working for, what rank they will have, and what kind of work they will be given in 2018.
Themes relating to police actions and procedures. 
Themes relating to violence or harm. 
Themes relating to the mentally ill person. 
During the course of their duties, police regularly have contact with mentally ill persons who are experiencing psychiatric crisis and require some form of mental health transfer. This study examined 2611 unique mental health transfers completed by police in the Australian state of Victoria over an eight-month period in 2009–2010. The overwhelming majority of mental health transfers performed by police during this period were the result of unplanned calls for assistance. Although police frequently requested assistance from other services, these were often not available. The study findings support a substantial body of anecdotal evidence from police citing lengthy involvement with people experiencing mentally illness, with the average mental health transfer consuming 2.5 h of police time. The frontline responses of police to people in psychiatric crisis need to be more formally acknowledged and creative solutions need to be sought with health and welfare services to better meet the needs of those who are falling between the cracks of community mental health care services.
The use of license plate recognition technology (LPR) by police is becoming increasingly common. LPR may be used for many purposes, ranging from stolen vehicle enforcement to more complex surveillance and predictive functions. Existing research does not examine community support for this technology, despite its potential to impact police legitimacy. Results from the first community LPR survey are presented and multinomial logistic regression models of citizen support for the technology are developed. Regression results suggest that a number of factors significantly predict citizen support for LPR use, including increased trust in police and the belief that LPR information is public information.
Research summarizes the construction of a Police Officer’s Tacit Knowledge Inventory (Inventory), a situational judgment test comprised of knowledge gained on-the-job by experienced police officers, and examines if it can play a role in the development of expertise. Correlation and regression analysis was done to establish the Inventory’s ability to predict post-Academy graduation performance. Results show that Inventory response patterns correlate with Supervisor ratings; and the Inventory responses correctly predict significant differences between novice patrol officers and experienced police officers.
Percentage of police staff working from home prior to and during lockdown.
Percentage agreeing/agreeing strongly about quality of work during lockdown by work location.
Demographic and occupational detail by work location.
Frequency of provision of safety equipment and 4 Es training for staff with public interaction roles.
Linear regression measuring stress for three different work locations.
This online survey (N = 2365) examined the experiences of (non-sworn/non-warranted) staff serving in police forces in England and Wales during the March to July COVID-19 virus lockdown in the UK. Particular attention was paid to staff working from home, those able to partially work from home and those who remained at work in their usual police location. Home working staff were generally less stressed than those remaining partially or totally at their work location. Public interacting staff were particularly stressed. Regression analyses found that for all staff, irrespective of location, tiredness and finding work more difficult were implicated in increased stress. For those remaining at their place of work homeschooling and lacking preparedness for another lockdown were additional stressors. The importance of feeling valued is discussed. Some recommendations are offered in the light of these findings including the concept of moral injury repair.
Figure 1. 7-Day Rolling Average of Infection Rate per 100 Employees November 1st, 2020 -February 12th, 2021.
Figure 2. 7-Day Rolling Average of Infection Rate per 100 Persons March 9th, 2020 -Jan 5th, 2021.
Figure 3. Significant Decrease in Positive Cases Following Vaccinations.
Causal Impact Posterior Inference.
COVID-19 has created tremendous operational difficulties for law enforcement agencies, with substantial portions of their staff quarantined for either exposure or infection. With the rollout of a vaccine beginning in early 2021, there is hoped for relief on the horizon. However, to date, no study has reported the vaccine’s effect on infection rates within the law enforcement workforce. We address that gap with a report on a single large agency’s experience, using data on officer positivity rates gathered over 341 days. During the immunization period, employees accepted vaccination at over 70% uptake. Results show the vaccine eliminated new cases of COVID-19 among the agency’s nearly 700 employees within weeks. As other agencies consider their vaccination programs, they should consider communicating early and often about the impact of the pandemic on operations and the efficacy of vaccination, including the results reported here.
Top-cited authors
Jerry H. Ratcliffe
  • Temple University
Boaz Ganor
  • Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) Herzliya
David L. Weisburd
  • Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Martine B. Powell
  • Griffith University
Jennifer Wood
  • Temple University