Point Veterinaire

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Research has been carried out at the abattoir on cattle carrying the O157 : H7 serotype, as well as contamination of the environment and equipment used, in comparison with the presence and diffusion of Listeria monocytogenes. The results show that cattle arriving at the abattoir may be carriers of Escherichia coli O 157 and of Listeria monocytogenes. Carriers of verotoxinogen strains of E. coli, affects 4 isolates out of 84 cattle tested. This study confirms the possibility of diffusion of contamination at the abattoir via the environment and the tools used (1 photo, 1 figure, 2 tables, 1 box, 7 references).
 
Equine viral arteritis is due to an RNA virus It is characterized by hyperthermia, anorexia, depression and oedema. It may cause abortion and a temporary sub-fertility in the stallion. The virus may be transmitted either by air or sexually. Some stallions may be asymptomatic carriers. Prevalence in the different European countries is very heterogenous. In France, a survey which took place in 1996 and 1997, showed a prevalence of 3 to 4%, with very large variations between the different establislments. No significant differences have been found where breed is concerned. Only the French saddle stallions seem the most affected. No vaccination is authorized at present in France.
 
Four dairy herds presented cases of uveitis m the winter of 1997. The cows affected had ocular lesions and photo pho-bia. Samples taken from the eye revealed the presence of Listeria monocyiogenes. Local treatment with penicillin, streptomycin, dexamethazone and chlorphemramin lead fairly rapidly to a remission of symptoms. The contamination source seems to be the grass silage, A study carried out on a non affected herd questions the means of distribution of this silage.
 
A primiparous Holstein cow, two and a half years of age and more than five months pregnant, was presented for consultation at Davis University (Califomia, USA). Traumatic reticuloperitonitis complicated with exudative pericarditis and pleurisy was diagnosed. Treatment, by pericardiostomy, produced rapid regression of the symptoms of cardiac insufficiency, Despite complications arising from wound healing and an unexpected left abomasal displacement, the animal made a favourable recovery and can continue milking until term.
 
In the bitch, accurate determination of the date for reproduction is capital for the success of serving or artificial insemination. Cervical smear and progesterone dosage in the blood are two further examinations easily carried out. A study concerning 202 bitches shows that fresh semen artificial insemination alters neither fertility nor prolificity in bitches. Artificial insemination should be advised if natural serving seems impossible. Finally, it seems that the end of the summer is less favorable to reproduction. That period should be avoided in poorly fertile animals (5 figures, 1 box, 10 références).
 
-Aims To understand of the role of enucleation and placement of an intraocular volume implant (ImpIOV) in the treatment of ocular diseases in dogs - -Method Study Of 227 cases of enucleation or ImpIOV -Results Medical conditions are the most common indications for surgery. The sex of the animal does not influence the choice of enucleation or ImpIOV. The average age of dogs that had an enucleation was higher than dogs with ImpIOV. Complications following enucleation are rare. In about one third of cases the lacrimal secretion is reduced after placement of an ImpIOV. - -Conclusion The number of cases of enucleation or ImpIoV is reduced after appropriate medical treatment for uveitis and glaucoma. Enucleation is recommended for tumour conditions. It is necessary to monitor cases of ImpIoV in order to treat complications arising from inflammation and/or lacrimal insufficiency.
 
The main clinical signs of Aleutian disease in ferrets are gradual weight loss and neurological disorders. Other reported symptoms are related to the formation of immune complexes in organs. Transmission of the virus from ferret to ferret occurs mainly via aerosols, urine, saliva or faeces. The diagnosis relies on the presence of consistent clinical signs and hypergammaglobulinemia. It is confirmed by serology or PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Seroprevalence in healthy ferrets is variable (10-60 %) in the literature. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of Aleutian disease virus in ferrets using real-time PCR in blood, rectal swab and a saliva swab in healthy ferrets. Twenty-nine French ferrets were tested and the virus was detected in 2 of these animals. This study confirms the existence of a healthy carrier state of Aleutian disease in ferrets and shows a low rate of carriage in French ferrets.
 
The study of cases of ovarian remanence seen at Toulouse Veterinary School included 8 ferrets, 14 cats and 19 bitches. The average age for sterilisation of the ferrets was 7.3 months and the signs of ovarian persistence occurred on average at 1.8 years after surgery. Ultrasonography was the only test used for investigation of the origin of clinical signs and allowed the identification of ovarian residue in all cases. All the ferrets were reoperated. The average age for sterilisation of the cats was 1.9 years and the signs of ovarian persistence took place within an average of 3 months. Ultrasonography, hormonal assays and vaginal smears were used equally to objectify and investigate the origin of the clinical signs. Ultrasonography used for 4 cats allowed the identification of an ovarian residue. Seven cats were reoperated at the Veterinary School. The appearence of oestrus signs in bitches is within an average of 5.3 months. The bitches are usually of large format. Ultrasonography, hormonal assays and vaginal smears were used to objectify and investigate the origin of the clinical signs. All the bitches were found to have ovarian residue and were re-operated at the Veterinary School. In all cases, the diagnosis must include two steps: objectivation of steroid impregnation followed by search for its origin. The results of this study, with its limitations of the number of cases, show that the essential origin of the ovarian remanence is surgical error although there are rare alternative causes including congenital anomalies, adrenal tumour (especially in the ferret) or exogenous causes.
 
An 18-month old Brittany fawn basset hound was presented for correction of a radioulnar incongruence associated with a left radius curvus causing intermittent lameness. Real size rapid prototyping of the left radius and ulna was performed to evaluate the angular anomalies and prepare corrective osteotomies. A distal ulnar ostectomy, a proximal ulnar osteotomy and a wedge distal radial ostectomy allowed adequate reduction of the incongruence and bone deformities present. The bones were stabilised using a locking plate. The radiographic follow-up was excellent. Rapid prototyping is a technique that is becoming increasingly developed in veterinary medicine.
 
A nine year-old miniature schnauzer is presented with signs of diabetes mellitus and severe cranial abdominal pain. Echography associated with an echoguided punction enables a diagnosis of hepatic abscess. Hepatic abscesses have a poor prognosis. However, a broad spectrum antibiotherapy associating bactericidal antibiotics and a surgical, drainage can be considered. The immunosuppression caused by the diabetes mellitus favours infections, and in the present case, the development of an hepatic absces. In parallel, the infections cause an insulinoresistence which complicates the treatment of the diabetic patient. Efficient antibiotherapy is essential in such cases to stabilise the diabetes (4 photos, 2 figures, 3 tables, 2 boxes, 14 references).
 
A 12-year old crossbreed Lhassa Apso was referred for chronic dyschezia that developed over a period of 3 years. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed two hypoechoic cavities in the prostate area associated with enlargement of the medial iliac lymph node. Echoguided drainage of the cavities was undertaken and, after ancillary tests, these were found to be prostatic abcesses with bacterial adenitis. An 8-week course of antibiotic treatment was instigated. The condition recurred 3 weeks later. Two anechoic prostatic cavities were visualised and treated in the same manner as previously. There was complete resolution of clinical signs after the second echoguided drainage.
 
The first priority for the "acute abdomen" is fluid therapy (treatment of shock). The case history should be taken at the same time if possible. Clinical examination should not be limited to simple abdominal palpation but must be as complete as possible. Blood and urine samples are taken on admission. Two radiographic views are indicated when trauma is suspected, arrest of intestinal transit or suspected hydrothorax. Ultrasonography is indicated to study causes including infection, inflammation, hydrothorax, torsion, a mass, or to guide paracentesis. Abdominal puncture is a useful technique for detection of gastro-intestinal and urinary lesions. Medical treatment includes fluid therapy, antibio-therapy and nutritional support the administration of corticosteroids is controversial.
 
• Like in any other critical situation, a sensible approach to abdominal pain is necessary. It includes assessing priorities, stabilising the patient, choosing complementary examination from the history and the clinical examination. Further investigation techniques should give as much information as possible without being harmful to the patient. Therapy should, first of all, be conservatory then, if possible, treat the cause. Surgical cases can be divided in two groups those requiring intensive care, and those needing further investigation. As well as treating surgically and medically, one must control pain and feeding of the patients (8 photos, 6 tableaux, 18 références).
 
Top-cited authors
François Schelcher
  • École Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse
Michel PEPIN
  • VETAGROSUP, CAMPUS DE LYON
Sylvie Chastant
  • École Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse
Jacques Guillot
  • École Nationale Vétérinaire, Agroalimentaire et de l'Alimentation Nantes-Atlantique
Hervé Hoste
  • French National Institute for Agriculture, Food, and Environment (INRAE)