Planning Practice and Research

Published by Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Online ISSN: 1360-0583
Print ISSN: 0269-7459
Publications
It is an ambitious project to review the extent to which New Labour governments in the UK, first under Tony Blair and then more recently under Gordon Brown, have changed planning in a country where Thatcherite policies in the late 1970s, 1980s and early 1990s dominated public policies. Such a review of successes and failures of planning during these years, I believe, can only be done in the motherland of planning, and this venture documents the leading role that British academic writing has in the field of planning. The outcome is a very broad reflection of what has been going on in Britain under more then two terms of New Labour government, although some dimensions are missing in this assessment. While local government is covered quite extensively, and housing and environment are treated, the implications for local economic development and for transport have not been covered. This is unfortunate as any account of the impacts of Labour policies on local economic development and mobility would have added a valuable facet to the very competent contributions to this venture. This is especially so in the common argument that New Labour has more or less followed what the Conservative governments under Thatcher and Major had started: this is particularly true when viewing from an economic perspective. Nevertheless I have learnt much from reading the various accounts of New Labour policies in the field of planning, and wish a similar venture would be undertaken in my home country Germany.
 
A case study of a redevelopment project in Halifax, Nova Scotia illustrates the way in which creative governance facilitated collaboration and innovation in a region with a history of poor inter-governmental relations and traditional urban-rural rivalries. Influential civic entrepreneurs took advantage of the pervasive aura of the 'creative cities' discourse and the thick connections among local social networks to bring the resources of three levels of government together to support the planning and development of a 'cultural district' on the Halifax waterfront.
 
Melbourne and Vancouver share many similarities, but there are significant differences in the content and outcomes of transport and urban planning policies since 1970. Melbourne has built a large urban freeway network and is struggling to create a coherent transit network from its large but fragmented transit system. Vancouver has achieved some enviable successes in urban planning, but is still facing significant car-dependence in its outer suburbs. This paper provides a conceptual theoretical model that asserts the centrality of local politics as the source of reasons for particular urban transport policy trajectories. It describes the political and institutional context for the development of transport policies and the behaviour of key actors in the two cities, and identifies some of key factors behind transport and planning outcomes.
 
This paper looks at the growth of web based communication for planning practice in local government over a three year period. Despite communication with the community being an integral part of local government functions, the types of communication being used are rarely monitored or analyzed. This paper provides a longitudinal comparison of the types of web based communication, including social media and smart-phone applications being employed by Local Government in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, and investigates the activity and sentiment of twitter accounts for a sample of local government agencies. The paper concludes with a discussion of the growth of social media.
 
Use of 'planning and affordable housing': general gain/obligations approach
Planning and affordable housing: the exceptions approach
Average incomes and house prices 2000 (selected English regions and Wales)
Date of most recent HNA
The focus of this paper is on the local factors that help explain variations in the use of affordable housing policy. We have attempted to identify first some of the key factors that inhibit the use of planning policy aimed at delivering affordable housing across both England and Wales. This discussion, whilst revealing problems common to rural areas in both countries, also indicated that certain barriers (e.g. negative attitudes towards social housing) either manifest themselves in different ways in England and Wales or, in the case of information on housing needs, may be a greater barrier in one country than the other. In the light of survey data suggesting different levels of policy usage in England and Wales, a more focused discussion of national contrasts was offered, albeit grounded in local attitudes, values and economic circumstances (and case-study evidence) rather than an analysis of the policy context. Some differences in context (including grant rates and support strategies) were noted, but despite the arrival of devolution in Wales, the framework for negotiating planning agreements remains identical to that operated in England. In the final part of this paper, our aim is to turn these various barriers to policy usage around and offer some possible means to increase the usage of affordable housing policy.
 
The need to integrate adaptation efforts into land-use planning policies has been only recently recognized in Ho Chi Minh City. The city's latest planning guidance addresses both flooding resilience and mitigation of urban heat. This paper outlines the development contexts and the current barriers for adapted land-use planning within the city. The key challenge for land-use planning is communicating the important functions and services of open and natural urban spaces and effectively guiding the mainly individual developer-driven development. As the realization of non-structural adaptation measures is in strong contrast to the current market-driven private and short-term developer interests, the main development trajectories are questioned and synergies identified.
 
Introduction: The objective of this article is to contribute to the analysis and conceptualization of one element among the variety of practices that shape the development of a new European spatial policy field, i.e. the process of transnational cooperation between local and regional actors within the framework of INTERREG programmes. INTERREG is the only European Union (EU) funding instrument which explicitly deals with territorial development and spatial planning and has often been presented as one of the key operational mechanisms for the application of the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) (Committee on Spatial Development - CSD, 1999). Although INTERREG programmes do not constitute a big share of the Structural Fund budget (only 2.5% of the total Structural Funds Budget for 2007 - 2013), territorial cooperation across national borders is expected to bring about a real European added value in pursuing the goal of territorial cohesion and balanced spatial development of the European territory. In the context of the mainstream Structural Funds, the European Commission defines 'added value' as 'value resulting from the Community assistance that is additional to that which would have been secured by national and regional authorities and the private sector' (Commission of the European Communities - CEC, 2001, in Mairate, 2006). The added value of transnational cooperation for European spatial planning can occur as a result of two processes: cooperation across borders can help is expected to tackle specific strategic spatial development issues at a new scale and in a better way than without cooperation, and solve spatial planning problems which were previously addressed in an inefficient way. A good illustration of this is cooperation in transnational river basins to improve the planning of land uses in flood-prone areas and tackle the management of flood risk. Such a process is relatively rare (Duumlhr & Nadin, this issue 2007). Secondly, cooperation across borders can help individual actors to improve their local/regional spatial development policies by learning from the 'good practices', innovative policies and technologies used by other partners in the transnational network. In that case added value is primarily of a local nature. If the sum of local impacts is considered, one may argue that a form of European added value emerges through the gradual 'emulation' between policies and practices leading to increased effectiveness and efficiency. In both cases, the (potential) added value of transnational cooperation for European spatial planning is a result of organizational and policy learning. Actors learn how to work at new scales and in new types of networks in order to address certain issues of transnational importance better, or they learn from other actors to address specific local or regional issues. In order to demonstrate the added value of transnational cooperation (or lack thereof) and to discuss the contribution of INTERREG to the 'Europeanization of spatial planning', researchers consequently have to shift the focus of their empirical and conceptual analyses towards the nature of transnational cooperation processes and the learning that occurs (or not) as a result. As argued by Dabinett (2006, p. 289), 'INTERREG may appropriately be seen as a transnational learning model that needs further exploration in the context of policy and institutional learning and communicative planning practices'. Whilst there has been much academic interest in the ESDP's influence on planning in EU member states, INTERREG programmes have been less researched to date, in spite of the significant growth in cooperation on spatial development issues across national borders involving thousands of professionals (Duumlhr & Nadin, this issue 2007) and the increase in knowledge exchanges within transnational expert networks of European planners at the level of cities (De Jong & Edelenbos, 2007). Existing research tends to suggest that INTERREG has contributed to the emergence of transnational spatial planning practices and the diffusion of certain spatial ideas across European regions (Janin Rivolin, 2003; Pedrazzini, 2005; Giannakourou, 2005; Dabinett & Richardson, 2005; Dabinett, 2006), thereby contributing to the 'Europeanization of spatial planning'. However, very few studies have actually proposed a concrete methodological approach to substantiate this claim with empirical evidence. This can be partly explained by the fact that evaluating the impact of INTERREG on domestic planning practices as well as assessing its European 'added value' is a difficult task. This article makes the following arguments: first, traditional understandings of 'policy transfer' provided by political science are not appropriate to conceptualize the specific processes of cooperation and learning at stake within INTERREG, although recent research on cognitive mechanisms of Europeanization offers a useful tool for the reconceptualization of such processes. Second, current evaluation methodologies used by both evaluation professionals and academic researchers to analyse the impact of Structural Funds programmes and Community Initiatives are inadequate to investigate processes of transnational cooperation and learning and the changes that may arise as a result. This dual challenge is explored in the first part of the article. The second part of the article then seeks to address the following questions: how to modify evaluation methodologies in order to be able to capture learning processes? How to reconceptualize the study of transnational cooperation in order to put 'learning' at the heart of analyses of 'policy impacts' and 'added value'? The article proposes the first elements of a conceptual and empirical framework for the evaluation of the cooperation and learning processes within transnational projects. At a more theoretical level, it is hoped that the article can contribute to the ongoing academic debates on new horizontal mechanisms of Europeanization, in particular in the spatial policy field. The article draws from the author's dual experience as a (previous) practitioner in project development within an INTERREG IIIB programme, later as an academic researcher performing evaluation work for INTERREG projects. This contribution focuses on the transnational cooperation strand of INTERREG (Strand B, formerly IIC), which specifically supports cooperation in spatial planning and territorial development at the scale of large transnational groupings of countries and regions. However, the issues discussed in the article can be of relevance to other programmes and forms of transboundary cooperation within the EU - under the new Territorial Cooperation Objective of EU Regional policy, the Seventh Framework Programme for Research, or the ESPON programme.
 
This article reviews the nature and content of planning education in Sub-Saharan Africa, and raises the question of how appropriate it is, given the dramatic and diverse changes which have occurred in both urban and rural areas. The central argument is that while the primary formative influences on most academic planning programmes in Africa can be traced to either inherited colonial systems of planning and land management, or the influence of 'First-World' donor organisations, the context within which planning graduates in Africa have to operate is significantly different from that in the resource-rich countries. The arguments in this article are based on the experience of the authors in three countries in Sub-Saharan Africa: Tanzania, Ghana and South Africa. While it is difficult to generalise from these countries to the rest of the sub-continent, we feel that the three cases (which include the wealthiest and one of the poorest countries) offer a wide range of experience and thus help to raise issues, which can frame inquiry in other specific cases. The article first highlights those dynamics of African urban and rural areas which particularly now demand the skills of planners, recognising the great diversity of circumstances across the sub-continent. The next section reviews the nature of planning practice in the three countries and how in some instances it is responding to new demands, but how, in other respects, there are strong continuities with the past. It then considers current systems of planning education in the three cases and reflects on the extent to which practising planners, the products of this education, have been able to respond to these new dynamics.
 
Introduction: Since 1997 the UK New Labour government has put cities at the core of its agenda, launching new initiatives in neighbourhood renewal to address social exclusion as well as championing a new agenda for the 'Urban Renaissance' of British cities. The 'Urban Renaissance' agenda is a positive step change following decades of negative political and media discourse on the inner city and a long history of English 'anti-urbanism' (Amin et al., 2000; Gordon, 2004). It has, however, been critically analysed for its potentially ambiguous effects on urban communities, in particular in terms of gentrification and the transformation of public space. This contribution aims to critically analyse the 'Urban Renaissance' agenda from the perspective of its long term capacity to address the sociospatial polarization of British cities. It is based on a comprehensive review of recent research by geographers, sociologists, planners and political scientists who have analysed New Labour's discourse and practices of urban policy from different disciplinary perspectives. The key themes, arguments and concepts underpinning the policy documents forming the discursive framework of the 'Urban Renaissance', as well as the contradictions, tensions and ambiguities shaping this agenda, will be discussed. As a practice review piece, the article sets the framework for further empirical studies of urban regeneration projects under New Labour, based on the premise that a careful examination of the ambiguities of the Urban Renaissance policy discourse is a necessary prelude to empirical investigations of the ways in which this agenda is being played out and implemented in practice. Throwing light on the assumptions and principles embedded in the discourse allows us to 'challenge the rhetoric of apparent diversity, density and sustainability' (Atkinson, 2004, p. 126) and unpack the potential practical implications of this agenda for future sociospatial trends in British cities. The first part of the article will briefly set out the socioeconomic and political context in which the Urban Renaissance agenda emerged. In the second part, four key themes structuring the narrative of the Urban Renaissance policy agenda will be considered in turn. These themes have been identified through a comprehensive review of recent UK research as well as a critical reading of key policy documents. The third part of the article will provide a critical analysis of some of the practical implications of the Urban Renaissance agenda for UK cities on the basis of emerging research evidence. The article will conclude that in the context of current debates on the 'Renaissance' of British cities (and the creation of more 'sustainable communities'), the need for more empirical research on the practical outcomes of urban regeneration strategies derived from this agenda is pressing, in order to assess their socially sustainable character and their long term capacity to address the sociospatial polarization of British cities.
 
Social systems evolve dynamically in any environmental domain, either regions or neighbourhoods, with cooperation - but also with conflict - among multiple agents and cultures. New plans aim at building discourses and visions related to evolving situations where stakeholders locate their behaviours, meanwhile learning about themselves and surrounding environments. Expert and non-expert agents accessing forums belong to specific social contexts, which are only partially explorable because of incomplete information available. Therefore, a crucial role is played by communication architectures, able to support the exchange of the knowledge of the agents. Therefore, a new multi-knowledge and multi-agent feature affects planning processes, and the paper explores such subjects, with reference to the structural plan of a province in southern Italy. In this planning process public forums are used to build future environmental scenarios.
 
The node±place model.
The Amsterdam and Utrecht regions, or thèNorth Wing' of the Randstad. Existing situation in 1997 and situation in 2005, showing matching and mismatching of public transport and urban development. Source: author' s own elaboration of Metz & P¯ ug (1997).
(a) Compact city policy: build in or next to the existing city. (b) Public transport-oriented development: build within walking/cycling distance of station. Legend: s , existing urban area; d , future urban area; Ð , railway; Ð , motorway.
The node-place model introduced in this article offers a conceptual framework for the exploration of the (re)development potential of station areas in an urban region and thus improves the chances for public transport-oriented development. The model requires further refinement, broadening of the empirical base, and inclusion of future plans. A thorough consideration of the more qualitative aspects of station area (re)development strategies has to be added, and a complementary, in-depth analysis of each specific situation, including process and context factors is also necessary (see, for some steps along this way Bertolini, 1996, 1998; Bertolini and Spit, 1998). In spite of these limits the application of the node-place model to the Amsterdam and Utrecht agglomerations already provides material for reflections of a more general nature. I would like to conclude with some, still exploratory and deliberately provocative, remarks in this direction. The node-place model helps identify opportunities for intensification and/or differentiation of urban activities around (strengthened) public transportation nodes. These might be central stations in the historical cores, but also public transport nodes in the urban periphery (as the stations along the Amsterdam railway and motorway ring) or in secondary regional centres (in the application these are places such as Hoofddorp and Weesp south of Amsterdam, or Woerden west of Utrecht). The city is an increasingly open system. Increasingly people live, work and spend their free time independently of municipal borders. The same applies to the activity patterns of firms and other organisations. A traditional 'compact city' policy is possibly still sensible in situations where this structural openness of the urban system is limited. Elsewhere an urban development strategy, geared to the accessibility of urban-regional networks of transportation nodes and activity places, appears more adequate. Some will say that this strategy reminds them of the 'clustered deconcentration' policies of the past. Maybe. I would prefer to use a term like 'deconcentrated clustering'. It might seem just playing with words, but there is a fundamental difference in the focus: in the past at stake was a particular way of deconcentrating, today urban deconcentration is a fact, the point is how to cluster!.
 
During the last third of the 20th century, citizens throughout North America and Europe organized protests against urban highway projects, influencing urban transport planning in ways that shape its evolution to this day. With the globalization of car-centred urban planning models, some similar movements have emerged in developing countries. What, if anything, can they tell us about citizens' role in innovation to achieve more socially just, good and livable cities? Using a multidisciplinary approach grounded in planning theory and a local adaptation of participatory action research methods, this study explores lessons from an anti-highway movement in Santiago, Chile (1997). This study contributes citizens' perspective on crucial issues within the philosophy and history of city planning, examining shifts in governance that can significantly influence the potential for change in planning and city systems, even under adverse conditions. Is improving participation just a matter of ‘getting the process right’? This experience indicates that it requires re-formulating frameworks to encompass democratization, fostering multi-scalar, self-generating civil society organizations, and focusing on the role of organized citizens, rather than individuals, as they act on policy ecologies. The evidence from this Santiago case supports Portugali's argument that planning is both a profession, exercised by especially trained ‘experts’, and a skill exercised by citizens working from their everyday expertise. This example explores the mechanisms through which, even in a relatively hostile environment, self-generated citizen organizations may play a significant role in contesting business-as-usual debates and achieving innovative policies favouring greater equality and sustainability.
 
For the foreseeable future, landfilling will remain the primary means of waste disposal in the UK. This is alarming as improper siting of landfill sites can affect air and water quality, land use and public health. Increasing environmental awareness and concerns in recent years have been supported by changes in national and European laws and policies. In this context, the pressures placed on decision-makers have increased, as they now have to make decisions taking into consideration public satisfaction, environmental safety and economic practicality. This situation has created a need for more consistent and objective methods for making decisions, improved access to, and better management of, environmental information. Geographic information systems (GIS) have the capability to handle and simulate the necessary economic, environmental and political constraints. They can play an important role as a decision support tool regarding optimum waste site locations. The present paper aims to: 1) develop simplified GIS-assisted landfill location constraints criteria for the UK based on criteria used by other countries and international organisations, current national and European legislation and policies, and current legislation and policies followed by various public and private sectors in locating landfill sites in the UK; and 2) present the usefulness of the criteria through identifying sites suitable for locating a landfill site in the South Warwickshire area using GIS.
 
South Eastern Queensland.  
Basic characteristics of privately owned caravan parks in Brisbane 2006
Planning both facilitates the activities of the market and addresses areas of market failure. It can also remain aloof from intervention in either direction. There are potential tensions inherent in these various roles and their expectations, which are exacerbated by the fact that many planning policies rely on the market for their actual implementation. The provision of housing, especially low-cost housing, is a case in point. This paper reports on research in Brisbane, Australia that explored the role of privately-owned caravan parks as providers of low-cost housing. Their vulnerability to redevelopment pressures, partly through market forces and partly as a consequence of public policies, is used to explore the tensions that can arise in urban governance between public goals and private interests.
 
Over recent years, a significant change to decision-making structures has occurred within several planning jurisdictions in Australia. Administrative bodies generically described as ‘planning panels’ have, to varying degrees, assumed the planning decision-making responsibilities of traditional executive groups such as state government ministers and departments, and elected representatives and managers within local government. This phenomenon of the ‘panelization’ of planning decision-making represents a significant change to planning practice and arguably constitutes a fundamental paradigm shift in urban and regional governance in that country. Planning panels adopted in four states — South Australia, Western Australia, Victoria and New South Wales are examined in this paper.
 
This paper discusses a recentralization of spatial planning in Australia since 2000, during which Labor governments have been predominant. The new planning initiatives have primarily reflected an imperative to improve capital city competitiveness and development levels in general. A second driver has been a desire to make development more ecologically sustainable. The paper demonstrates this recentralization in state plans, state infrastructure strategies, metropolitan and regional strategies, new specific purpose authorities, development control system changes, and Commonwealth government intervention. While the fluid and dynamic nature of these changes resonate with UK planning characterized by soft spaces and fuzzy boundaries, they have not resulted in new multiple scales of governance but, rather, reassertion of state government primacy in spatial planning.
 
The 'neighbourhood' holds an iconic position in planning, yet there has been long-standing empirical criticism and debates about both the use and intellectual underpinnings of the concept. Despite this, it continues to provide a focus for local area planning, local policy interventions and urban design approaches, including in 'new urbanism'. Neighbourhoods may be given physical dimensions so the boundaries that distinguish what is within and what is outside each neighbourhood can be defined. This paper asks what we can learn about such localities through a better understanding of how residents themselves actually identify these boundaries. It derives a series of questions that are addressed through analysis of resident perceptions of neighbourhood boundaries in an inner-city fringe suburb in Brisbane, Australia. The research confirmed many previous concerns about defining neighbourhood boundaries and that many residents were uncertain of the physical boundaries of their neighbourhood. Yes Yes
 
Proposed Alignments of Ring 5 Motorway 
Projected Growth of the Finger Plan based on public transport
Location of the proposed Columbia River Crossing
Proposed New Interstate 5 Bridge 
The central focus of this paper is to highlight the ways in which path dependencies and increasing returns (network effects) serve to reinforce carbon lock-in in large-scale road transportation infrastructure projects. Breaking carbon lock-in requires drastic changes in the way we plan future transportation infrastructure projects, and documentary evidence presented here from the metropolitan regions of Copenhagen, Denmark and Portland, USA, indicate that there may be a discontinuity in the system of automobility (Urry, 2004), thereby increasing the likelihood that such drastic measures may in fact be successfully realized.
 
This paper discusses the outcome of a survey of US planners working in local governments with a population of over 25,000. The survey asked in which of 72 action areas ostensibly linked to sustainability had their government enacted policy, of these which did they explicitly link to sustainability and if they associated implementation with political conflict. We also considered the geographical variation of policies. We wished to find out if policy-makers more frequently associate sustainability with some policies over others. We hypothesized that between regions there would be significant variation in the number of policies pursued and in which were linked to sustainability, and that political conflict may explain this geographical variation. However, our findings were more limited: we found that planners are more likely to explicitly link policies pertaining to environmental goals with sustainability, and that there is geographical variation in what policies local governments pursue, although in only a few cases we found variations of statistical significance.
 
AbstractPerth has seen strong investment in public transport infrastructure compared with its pastapproach of a city designed for mobility by car. Designing a transport system to compete with thecar in a low-density city has raised significant challenges. The planning and routing of Perth?snewest passenger railway has been strongly grounded in land use planning with active pursuit ofopportunities for transit-oriented development (TOD). This has resulted in different models ofintegration from TODs designed around walk-on patronage, to TODs designed to calm hostilecar-based environments, to transit-transfer stations relying on state transit agency coordinationbetween transport modes to maximize the attractiveness of the public transport travel. This paperexamines the opportunities and constraints presented by each model.
 
This paper focuses on scope of public participation and stakeholder engagement in the coastal planning process in Queensland, Australia. The aim is to understand how conflicts among different resource users and associated political issues influence decisions surrounding coastal zone planning. Effectiveness of participation is assessed against relevant Integrated Coastal Zone Management governance criteria, using document analysis and semi-structured interviews of key stakeholders. Queensland's coastal planning framework has used participation approaches just to meet the legal requirement or circumvent stakeholders' dissent, rather than to foster a legitimate, transparent and active participation process for bringing the stakeholders into an authentic dialogue over complex coastal issues.
 
Conceptual characteristics of NPM and Governance 
Managerial roles in Dutch and UK private sector-led urban development projects.  
Organizational and managerial roles 
Project characteristics of the Dutch and UK case studies 
Dutch planning practice in recent decades witnesses the emergence of private sector-led urban development projects. Such projects are ‘led’ by property developers and ‘facilitated’ by local planning authorities aimed to realize both planning and market objectives. However, remarkably little academic attention has been paid to how public and private actors decisively organize and manage these projects in practice. This paper explores the roles planners and developers perform by generating empirical lessons from Dutch and UK planning practices. The findings are of importance to planners and planning theory, as the current social-economic circumstances require them to redefine their roles in urban development.
 
Researchers investigating human settlements from an archaeological perspective have long recognized that the urban landscape provides a particular set of challenges and demands. Building on the formative Arup study [Ove Arup and Partners (1991) York Development and Archaeology Study (London: English Heritage)], urban deposit modelling as a heritage planning tool has been developed for some time; however, its use has not become widespread. There are however recent intellectual and technical developments that enhance integrated deposit modelling and reveal potential as a curatorial tool for the management of the historic environment. These relate to three key developments: the improvement and enhancement of 3D modelling and visualization techniques, conceptual changes around categories such as ‘made ground’ and the formation of research agendas for the urban historic environment. This paper will explore an example of the difficulties inherent in combining differently scaled datasets whilst also outlining the potential and the significance of urban deposit modelling in, often deeply stratified, historic northern European cities.
 
Legislation and practice are two arms of public policy planning. Legislation empowers or enables; practice is the articulation and implementation of legislative principle. In New Zealand there has been widespread debate in recent years about the relative importance of practice versus legislation in achieving planning outcomes under its key planning legislation, the Resource Management Act 1991. This paper proposes that the effectiveness and efficiency of planning practice may depend on a range of factors, some of which are beyond the control of planners, and outside of legislation. They include political priorities and the countervailing administrative responsibilities of the public agencies involved. This is an author’s version of an article published in the journal: Planning Practice and Research, (c) 2008 copyright Taylor & Francis; Planning Practice and Research is available online at http://www.informaworld.com.
 
A settled, well-kept part of Moyross in 2004. Note: Note the horses which are commonly kept by residents. Source: Photo by Brenda Fitzsimons, supplied by The Irish Times. 
Fatima Mansions in 2004, prior to its demolition and reconstruction. Source: Photo by Matt Kavanagh, supplied by The Irish Times. 
Fatima Mansions following its demolition and reconstruction in 2004-2008. Source: Photo by Matt Kavanagh, supplied by The Irish Times. 
This article employs two tranches of qualitative research conducted in 1997–1998 and 2007–2009 on five low income social housing estates in three Irish cities to explore the trajectories they followed in terms of their ability to attract and retain residents. Four factors are identified as particularly significant in this regard: social order and disorder, community cohesion, neighbourhood life cycle and institutional strategies and capacities. Whereas the quality of the built environment and disadvantage had no clear primary impact on demand, the conclusions identify the implications of the analysis for the literature on neighbourhood change and for planning, housing and neighbourhood regeneration policy in Ireland and internationally.
 
Based on the example of Metropolitan Cork, this paper looks at strands of planning thinking as they apply to the city-region: economic and political arguments about the scale of a city; landscape arguments about identity and place; spatial arguments about urban form and environmentally grounded arguments about nature, ecology and the city. Bringing together the different theoretical contexts and disciplinary frameworks of these interrelated approaches and relating them both to the often contradictory principles of sustainable development and to the challenge of achieving appropriate systems of governance at this scale, it explores an initial argument for how holistic and mutually reinforcing approaches to the spatial resilience of a city region might re-emerge.
 
This is the fourth in a series of articles on the debate about the skills required to address the ‘new urban agenda’. The previous articles and the editions in which they were published are: Nick Bailey, The Great Skills Debate: Defining and Delivering the Skills Required for Community Regeneration in England (20.3); Deborah Peel, Training Citizens for a Management Role in Regeneration (20.4); and Simon Pemberton, Skills to Deliver Regeneration—Building and Releasing Capacity (21.2).
 
Political context, SCOT 202 and SD 2000 planning boundaries, regional nature parks, EPCI (grayscale) and municipalities. Note: EPCI as of 2010, perimeters change frequently. Source: Author's map, based on data from DREAL Rhône-Alpes, IGN, FPNRF and Corine Land Cover.  
Geographical context, land use, SCOT perimeter and implementation sectors. Source: By courtesy of the Grenoble urban planning agency 2012, author's translation.  
Spatial planning across European city regions is undergoing substantial changes. The paper draws on the framework of territorial re-scaling, strategic spatial planning and the emergence of new governance modes in order to analyse strategic planning episodes in Grenoble urban region (France). The paper aims at showing how strategic planning processes by means of new governance arenas call into question local planning cultures, especially by reshaping planning perimeters, territorial identities and actors' roles. In particular, it shows the importance of path dependency for strategic planning, the effects of power imbalances between local actors and the crucial role planners play in spatial policy-making.
 
Introduction: In this paper we focus on the shift in British urban policy from the crudely authoritarian imposition of Urban Development Corporations (UDCs) upon poor localities in the 1980s to an apparently more devolved, localist strategy in the 1990s. This new approach offered to re-empower local government and respect local priorities in the framework of local ‘partnerships’ between government (central and local), business interests and the voluntary and ‘community’ sectors. Newham in East London was chosen for study in this context because it was prominent in both periods and appeared to have achieved, under the new regime, results which are regarded by government and by others as ‘success’.
 
Anticipatory governance is emerging in the literature and practice as a form of decision-making which attempts to deal with climate change complexities and uncertainties. Underpinning the anticipatory governance approach to decision-making is a three-step process which includes future analysis, flexibility of strategies and monitoring and action. This paper adopts the anticipatory governance and its three-step approach as a framework to investigate two Australian local government adaptation initiatives. It discusses the challenges local governments face in taking the lead through anticipatory governance to address climate change adaptation in their planning efforts. The paper aims to contribute analytical insights into adaptation planning at the local scale through anticipatory governance.
 
Study site map.  
Newport Quays waterfront master plan of the Port Adelaide inner harbour. Source: Port Renewal Project (2012).  
Road signage for the inner harbour (author's photograph).  
The Port Adelaide inner harbour, like other waterfront developments nationally and internationally, reflects the bringing together of a range of elements—ideas, policies, people, capital and strategies—in reconfiguring the built form. This preliminary study investigates the utility of applying a concept of critical urban assemblage to understand the planning, processes and delivery of this Australian waterfront redevelopment. The aim is to go beyond situating the redevelopment as a ‘model’ of success or failure, or the sole result of a neo-liberalized urban regeneration paradigm.
 
This study uses Geographic Information System analysis to measure the land potential for urban agriculture in four sub-urban neighbourhoods in Waterloo, Ontario. Findings show that 49–58% of land measured has potential to support urban agriculture. In older post-war sub-urban neighbourhoods, the land potential is primarily in the form of private yards. Contrary, newer sub-urban neighbourhoods, incorporating new urbanist ideals, have smaller yards but more public green space. Challenges and opportunities for urban agriculture will differ between new and older sub-urban areas due to differences in neighbourhood design. The findings have implications for planning practice in terms of linkages between neighbourhood design and urban agriculture potential. Promotion of urban agriculture could be beneficial in post-war sub-urban neighbourhoods, which experienced decline in several North American cities. Conceptually, consideration of sub-urban agriculture opens up the possibility of exploring a novel dimension of the now internally diverse sub-urban landscape and the changing functions of suburbs within metropolitan areas.
 
Development plans are central tools in spatial planning practice. They create a vision of how places should develop and prescribe how desired patterns of development will be realized. However, development plans are increasingly regarded as inflexible and even rigid when confronted by changes in their context. Conceptualizing urban districts in terms of complex adaptive systems (CAS), this paper identifies ways in which more flexible development plans can be designed. This is investigated through a case study of a development plan for Blauwestad in the Netherlands, which enabled sources of rigidity to be analysed. The paper concludes with the view that from a CAS perspective, development plans are part of the structures necessary to facilitate self-organization, and if designed with certain principles in mind, can play a key role in assisting the endogenous evolution of spatial developments.
 
An increasing role for the market is an important issue in The Netherlands at the present time, as it has been in the UK since the end of the 1970s. To understand how planning policy and processes adapt to changes in these two countries this paper will address the following questions: how, and why, does planning differ between the two countries? What are the main policy changes in The Netherlands and why are they occurring? How do the changes affect the implementation of Dutch physical planning at national, provincial and municipal level? To what extent do objectives and implementation of planning differ in the two countries? The way in which physical planning in The Netherlands is adapting to the changing policy agenda raises several questions which can be addressed in the context of planning in the UK. -from Authors
 
This initial quest took the form of a survey focused on women graduates' experiences and perceptions of their working lives, and the implications for planning education. We believe that gender impacts planning education and professional practice as it does in other traditionally male fields, such as surveying. We think that women often engage in planning with an epistemological approach different from that of their male counterparts, and predicted that survey respondents would cite these differences in describing their approach to their work. We also expected some women to express uneasiness or disappointment about the ways in which their male colleagues engage in planning processes. While these represent our investigative 'hunches', we were also prepared for results which might challenge our assumptions. In this respect, a comparison with male graduates would challenge our assumptions. In this respect, a comparison with male graduates would have been useful. However, we did not include men in this initial survey, and consequently have comparative data only on enrolments and areas of specialisation. By sharing our findings with planning students, educators and profesionals, we hope to encourage similar analyses. Not only is there a need for further and more comparative research, but it is our objective to provoke interest and debate about the role of planning education, and the planning profession, in fostering gender equity and social justice more broadly.
 
Resilience is a concept incorporating a vast range of contemporary risks and over recent years has become increasingly important to our understanding of contemporary planning policy and practice. This paper examines the changing nature of resilience strategies since 2000 and highlights how planners increasingly are asked to contribute to this agenda. Drawing on the emerging theories of urban resilience, this paper charts the emergence of different ‘styles’ of resilience over the last decade in the UK, with an emphasis on a range of policies associated with designing safer spaces. Emerging lessons are then deployed to highlight how a new generation of urban resilience practice is now emerging associated with embedding resiliency into local place-making activities. This paper concludes by reflecting upon the multiple uses of resilience in planning practice.
 
This article examines, reflects on, and discusses remote planning studio pedagogy through reflection on the author’s instruction in two remote planning studios during the COVID-19 period and through assessment of student learning outcomes in these studios. Using a document review and staged critical reflection, the article discusses the difficulties and opportunities that many planning educators would face if they were to deliver the course curriculum remotely, as well as the implications for improving remote studio design and instruction in light of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
 
Participants noted dispersion could be achieved through creating a series of 'urban villages within our larger existing urban areas, separated by networks of natural & usable open space networks, which also provide the major public transport networks to the main business and community nodes.'
Many respondents supported the view that 'future healthy cities will have more POS per capita.' Some respondents felt this could be provided by freeing up land controlled by government agencies and golf clubs.
One suggestion was that hospitals be adjacent to 'adaptable, large community spaces . . . that governments can commandeer as extra hospital bed space.'
By the end of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic had exceeded 83 million cases worldwide. Given the shared origins of planning and public health, new living and social conditions have prompted an interest in how urban planning could respond to the pandemic’s associated implications. In 2020, a national online survey Plan My Australia was conducted among planning experts (n = 161), in part, to identify new challenges facing urban planning and design due to the pandemic. The findings reported here revealed that many experts identified better planning for future pandemics in Australia could require some reconsideration of city size, urban density, self-sufficiency, public transport use, open space provision and housing design.
 
The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on working, travel and residential location patterns have attracted much commentary from scholars and practitioners interested in the future of cities and regions. Focusing on Europe, we discuss how pandemic-fuelled remote working and tourism practices have increased the demand for short-term rentals and second homes in rural/coastal areas as well as a number of desirable cities. The pandemic has accelerated pre-existing counter-urbanisation trends, with implications for housing availability and affordability in various parts of Europe. The policy challenges of regulating the use of privately-owned housing are discussed, followed by proposals for future research avenues.
 
This study analyzed policy change through policy design across three phases of Florida concurrency policy. Six policy design elements were used: problem, goal, intervention strategy, planning tool, implementation tool and implementation process. Policy change links by specific elements were delineated from one phase to the next. They demonstrated changes in legislation, regulation and enforcement. Across the phases, policy problems, goals and intervention strategies appeared compatible with planning tools. The main design deficiency was the linkage between flexible implementation tools and bottom-up implementation processes. This decentralized state–local implementation process, reinforced by fiscal hardships and economic conditions, resulted in multiple compliance variations in communities. Statewide policy direction was lost and led to policy breakdown in 2011.
 
The modernization of governance systems continues to heavily impact the practice of planning in the UK, as in many countries. The UK Coalition government has moved quickly to introduce a programme of planning reform, particularly in plan-making. Yet this was also a focus for major reforms introduced by the previous Labour government, namely, the local development framework (LDF) system which was meant to encapsulate a shift to a spatial planning approach in England. This paper draws on extensive empirical material to consider the views of frontline local authority planners to the new system as it was put into place. Drawing on implementation theory and highlighting differing conceptions as to where the cause of problems enacting the new system lay, I argue that detailed consideration of the frontline is vital if we are to better understand the contours of modernization.
 
This article examines the development of green infrastructure policy-making in the North West region of the UK 2005–2010, through the articulation of three phases. Drawing on a conceptualisation of discourse coalitions, it is argued that this instance of the green infrastructure policy-making process became a way of bringing together various stakeholders around a shared goal. The activities that took place and how green infrastructure was conceptualized ensured that a range of policy interests was represented, and consequently, a stable discourse coalition was formed around economic priorities.
 
Top-cited authors
Andreas Faludi
Dominic Stead
  • Aalto University
Carol Kambites
  • University of Gloucestershire
Nick Gallent
  • University College London
Mark Baker
  • The University of Manchester