Published by Magnolia Press
Online ISSN: 1179-3163
Print ISSN: 1179-3155
Maximum likelihood tree of nuclear ITS sequences of Orobanche, using the genus Diphelypaea as outgroup. Some clades with more sequences per species and/or several closely related species are collapsed to aid legibility. Orobanche krylowii is indicated in bold larger font. Numbers above branches are maximum likelihood, those below maximum parsimony bootstrap support values above 60%.  
Photos of Orobanche krylowii from Albania with its host Thalictrum minus.  
Distribution of Orobanche krylowii based on the examined herbarium material and photos (big dots) as well as literature data (small dots). The locality in Albania is marked with a triangle.  
We report on the occurrence of Orobanche krylowii in the Alpet Shqiptare (Prokletije, Albanian Alps) mountain range in northern Albania (Balkan Peninsula). The species was previously known only from eastern-most Europe (Volga-Kama River in Russia), more than 2500 km away, and from adjacent Siberia and Central Asia. We used morphological evidence as well as nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences to show that the Albanian population indeed belongs to O. krylowii and that its closest relative is the European O. lycoctoni, but not O. elatior as assumed in the past. Both Orobanche krylowii and O. lycoctoni parasitize Ranunculaceae (Thalictrum spp. and Aconitum lycoctonum, respectively). We provide an identification key and a taxonomic treatment for O. krylowii, and suggest the IUCN category CE (critically endangered) for the highly disjunct Albanian population.
Geographical location of Highlands Hammock State Park, Highlands County, Florida, USA. Asterisk: drill site of sediment core HHA3.
Aulacoseira coroniformis. Figs 2-10: LM images, all in girdle view apart from Figs 5, 6 & 9 which are in valve face view. Figs 2-6: Specimens from the holotype slide. Figs 2 & 3: Two spine-linked valves belonging to two frustules shown in two different foci. Arrows in Fig. 3 indicate the sulci of both valves. Figs 5 & 6: Two different foci of a valve in face view. Fig. 5 emphasizes the marginal ring of spines, Fig. 6 the areolae on the valve face periphery. Figs 4 & 7: Two complete frustules in girdle view. Fig. 8: Chain of four valves in girdle view, the middle two forming one frustule, with clearly visible, closely spaced pervalvar striae. Figs 11-16: SEM images documenting variation of discus areolation and spine morphology. The arrows in Figs 12, 14 & 15 indicate the border between discus areolae and peripheral striae belonging to the mantle. Scale bars: Figs 2-10: 10 µm; Figs 11-15: 5 µm; Fig. 16: 2 µm.
Aulacoseira coroniformis. SEM images, all in girdle view. Figs 17-25: variability of habitus, size and height-to-diameter ratio in selected valves. The black arrow in Fig. 18 points to the sulcus. White arrows in Figs 18, 22 & 25 point to possible external rimoportula openings. Figs 26-28: close-ups of Figs 23-25, respectively, showing the spine linkages between two valves of two different frustules. Scale bars: Figs 17, 19, 21, 23, 24, 25: 5 µm; Figs 18, 20, 22, 26, 27, 28: 2 µm.
Aulacoseira coroniformis. SEM images. Figs 29-31: size and position of the ringleiste (arrows in Figs 29 & 30). Figs 32-34: position of the rimoportula near the inner ringleiste (arrows). Figs 35-37: close-ups of Figs 32-34, respectively, showing the shape, size and positioning of the rimoportula (arrows). Scale bars: Figs 29-34: 5 µm; Figs 35-37: 1 µm.
Aulacoseira coroniformis sp. nov. is described from a short peat core recovered in Highlands Hammock State Park, Florida, U.S.A. The morphology of the new diatom species is documented by light and scanning electron micrographs and discussed in detail, including a comparison with related species in the genus Aulacoseira.
A new species, Chamaeanthus averyanovii is described from Vietnam. It resembles C. brachystachys in many features but can be differentiated on the basis of leaves and morphological details of flower. The manuscript presents description, illustrated color plate and data on its phenology, ecology, and distribution. Morphological resemblance of the new species with allied species is also discussed. Additionally, two names, Biermannia canhii and B. longicheila are transferred to Chamaeanthus.
Three novel species of Bacillariophyta (diatom) are described from the sediments of Paleolake Lorenyang, a large lake that existed in the Turkana Basin, Kenya during the Gelasian age of the Pleistocene Epoch. Sediment cores extracted as part of the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) were sampled to provide a diatom-based paleoecological record of Paleolake Lorenyang. Preliminary results of the paleoecological analysis unearthed three novel species of diatoms belonging to Surirella and Thalassiosira in the Natoo Member of the Nachukui Formation. Comparisons of Surirella from Paleolake Lorenyang are made to previous reports of Surirella from modern lakes in East Africa and comparisons of Thalassiosira species from the paleolake are made to modern and fossil species reported from East Africa. This is a first report of diatoms in the Natoo Member, which has previously been described as a floodplain deposit, and thus provides evidence of the last occurrence of Paleolake Lorenyang within the Turkana Basin. Herein we describe a new species of Surirella and two Thalassiosira with remarks on morphology and evolution of East African Surirella and Thalassiosira.
In our recent paper, we noticed a mistake concerning figure 2 (Di Pietro et al. 2021: 93). According to the caption, figure 2 should represent the sheet FI051890 (a lectotype of Sesleria nitida var. tenoreana f. visianii). In fact, in the place of the sheet FI051890, a figure containing two herbarium specimens deposited in PAD (PAD-HD00955 and PAD-HD00956) was erroneously published. These two PAD specimens were discussed in the paper (Di Pietro et al. 2021: 94) where it was highlighted that these could not be considered with certainty as original material for Sesleria nitida var. tenoreana f. visianii Pampanini (1917: 4).We here, correct the mistake and publish the image of lectotype of Sesleria nitida var. tenoreana f. visianii (FI051890, Fig. 1).
Eurya Thunberg (1783: 67) is a genus of Pentaphylacaceae and it contains about 130 species distributed widely in tropical and subtropical Asia and the Pacific Islands; 83 species (63 endemic) are known from China (Ming & Bartholomew 2007). The genus was assigned to Theaceae in FRPS (Ling, 1966), while molecular studies (e.g., Tsou & Vijayan, 2016) placed it in Pentaphylacaceae and resolved it as a monophyletic group which is recognized here. Notably, paraphyletic groups are sometimes advocated by some authors (e.g., Brummitt, 2014; Ehrendorfer & Barfuss, 2014; George, 2014; Horandl, 2014; Stuessy & Horandl, 2014; Stuessy et al. , 2014). Species of Eurya often have unisexual flowers. In an effort to update the online version of Flora of China (, we found that two gatherings were designated as types for each of 11 names of Eurya published in a same article by Chang (1954). Here we lectotypify these 11 names by choosing one of the two gatherings designated as the lectotype of each name so that the application of these names can be stabilized.
A new species, Urophyllum malayense (Rubiaceae) is described, endemic to the Malay Peninsula (Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore). It has resemblances to Urophyllum trifurcum but differs notably in the extent of inflorescence branching and flower size.
After the publication of our Update on the systematics of Benstonea (Pandanaceae): When a visionary taxonomist foresees phylogenetic relationships (Callmander, Booth, Beentje & Buerki 2013), an error was brought to our attention:
Stigmatodactylus dalagangpalawanicum (from Robinson AR002 and living material studied in situ). A. Flowering plant; B. Flower from front; C. Flower from side; D. Labellum from front; E. Oblique view of column; F. Dorsal sepal; G. Petal; H. Leaf; I. Tubers, previous and current season. Drawing by A. S. Robinson.  
Stigmatodactylus aquamarinus (from Robinson AR003 and living material studied in situ). A. Flowering plant; B. Flower from front; C. Flower from side; D. Labellum from front; E. Fruit; F. Oblique view of column; G. Petal; H. Dorsal sepal; I. Leaf. Drawing by A. S. Robinson.  
Stigmatodactylus aquamarinus growing in situ in the Mount Victoria massif.  
Cryptostylis carinata growing in moss on a rotting tree trunk.  
Two new species of Stigmatodactylus from Palawan Island in the Philippines are described and illustrated. The taxa, which represent the first records for the genus Stigmatodactylus in the Philippines, are restricted to the ultramafic peaks of central Palawan. Cryptostylis carinata, originally described from New Guinea, is also documented, representing a first record for this species in Palawan. Buod (Pilipino) Inilarawan at iginuhit sa artikulong ito ang dalawang bagong species ng Stigmatodactylus mula sa isla ng Palawan sa Pili-pinas. Ito ang pinakaunang tala ng genus Stigmatodactylus sa Pilipinas at matatagpuan lamang sa ultramafic na bundok sa gitnang Palawan. Ang ultramafic na bundok ay may mataas na mga sangkap na Magnesium at Iron. Inihayag rin sa sulating ito ang unang tala sa Palawan ng 1 species na Cryptostylis carinata, na unang naitalâ sa bansang New Guinea.
Phylogenetic relationships among 40 species from 17 genera of Desmodieae based on the combined data set of chloroplast matK and rbcL. The tree was constructed using the Maximum likelihood method. Numbers near the nodes are posterior probabilities and bootstrap percentages (PP, BP) from Bayesian analysis and Maximum likelihood, respectively. A dash (--) indicates the bootstrap <50% for ML tree. The new species in this study is shown in bold type.
Pseudarthria panii. A. abaxial side of leaflet (revolved margin), B. fruiting branch, C. petiole clothed with small hooked hairs, D. flower, E. stamens, F. pistil, G. calyx, H. standard, I. wing, K. keel, L. habit. Illustrations by Bo Pan, from the holotype-CHINA. Yunnan: Xishuangbanna, Menghai County, Xiding, 13 December 2014, Barcode 1262264, Bo Pan XD001 (KUN).
Geographical distribution of Pseudarthria panii. Prepared by Dr. Rui-Wu Zhou.
A new trifoliolate shrub, Pseudarthria panii (Fabaceae: Desmodieae), is described and illustrated. It resembles Pseudarthria viscida, but differs by its taller height, upright habit, late flowering, leaflets with an acuminate apex, longer light purple flowers, longer glabrous fruits, and more seeds. It occurs in the montane forest of China (Yunnan), Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. Molecular evidence from the concatenated chloroplast fragments of rbcL and matK confirms its placement in Pseudarthria, which is a newly recorded genus from China, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam. The first collection of the new species can be dated back to ca. 120 years ago, i.e. Augustine Henry’s collection in Yunnan during 1896–1899. A key to Pseudarthria is also presented.
The authors of paper “Two new species of Pestalotiopsis from Southern China” regret that the affiliation of Bin Zhang is incorrect. His affiliation is “Plant Protection and Quarantine Station, Guiyang City, 550081, People’s Republic of China”, thus the superscript of his name should be changed from “1” to “3”.
Thirteen names in three families based on material at the herbaria NAS and NF are lectotypified. These names include: Acronema chienii Shan & Liou, A. chienii Shan & Liou var. dissectum Shan & Liou, Angelica omeiensis Yuan & Shan, A. tianmuensis Pan & Zhuang, Arcuatopterus filipedicellus Sheh & Shan, A. linearifolius Sheh & Shan, A. thalictrioideus Sheh & Shan, Ostericum maximowiczii Kitagawa var. alpinum Yuan & Shan, Peucedanum rubricaule Shan & Sheh, P. wulongense Shan & Sheh, Photinia dabeishanensis Deng & Yao, Pternopetalum caespitosum Shan, and Tilia hupehensis Cheng ex H.T.Chang.
Stomatocyst 131 Pang & Wang was described from the sedge mires and puddles in the Aershan Geological Park, China and it has not been reported from other localities since its description. We recorded stomatocyst 131 from a shallow lake Zhurmankol in South Urals, Russia. Morphological variability of this morphotype was studied using scanning electron microscopy. We showed that the width of hexagonal pattern as well as the height of the mesh edges significantly varied depending on the maturation stage of the stomatocyst. An amended diagnosis of this stomatocyst is provided.
Minnesota diatomists. Fig. 1: Herb Wright, Jr. in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, 2006 (photo Brigitt Amman). Fig. 2: Elizabeth Haworth and Bob Bright (photo Roger Woo). Fig. 3: J. Platt Bradbury, 1974 North American Diatom Symposium (NADS), Hocking Hills, Ohio (photo E.F. Stoermer). Fig. 4: Dick Brugam, 2005 NADS, Mobile, Alabama (photo M. Edlund). Fig. 5: John Kingston, 2003 NADS, Isle Morada, Florida (photo M. Edlund). Fig. 6: Sheri Fritz, Nebraska Sand Hills (photo J. Schmieder). Fig. 7: John Koppen, 1976 NADS, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (photo E.F. Stoermer). Fig. 8: David Czarnecki, 1997 NADS, Douglas Lake, Michigan (photo M. Edlund).  
Minnesota boasts over 12,000 lakes, most of glacial origin, three major continental drainage systems (Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico, Lake Superior via the other Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean, and the Red River of the North via the Nelson River, to Hudson Bay), and a diversity of landforms comprising seven major ecological regions. Such landscape and aquatic variability hosts a high diversity of diatoms, which have been studied for over 150 years. Diatom communities range from saline and eutrophic in the southwest agricultural lands, to oligotrophic and endemic forms in the cold waters of Lake Superior. Early diatom collections were distributed to reknowned diatomists such as C.G. Ehrenberg and H.L. Smith. Other botanists and phycologists, including Tilden, Eddy, and Drouet, were active in Minnesota but only rarely included diatoms in their studies. Interest in Minnesota diatoms increased in the latter half of the 20th century with taxonomic and floristic surveys (e.g., Czarnecki, Koppen, and Kingston) and the inclusion of diatoms in applied research efforts that set the groundwork for understanding post-glacial ecology, effects of Euroamerican settlement, impacts of climate, and the effects of acid precipitation. Important to these latter developments were the efforts of Dr. Herb Wright Jr., who invited several European diatomists (e.g., Florin, Battarbee, and Haworth) to work on paleoecological projects in and near Minnesota. Although not a diatomist per se, Wright's subsequent efforts to promote diatom research included the appointment of Platt Bradbury as a research associate and later John Kingston, Dick Brugam, and Brian Cumming. Students Sheri Fritz, Kate Laird, and Virginia Card completed diatom research for their doctoral degrees. These workers and others have left a legacy that continues to fuel several active labs in Minnesota that have used diatoms to develop water quality standards, assess and restore impaired waters, and understand the impacts of climate, management, and landuse change across the state.
Part 5(1) of this monographic series of papers on the genus Hypericum contains treatments of Section 10. Olympia and its relatives (Sections 11. Campylopus-16. Crossophyllum), which form a Euro-Mediterranean group centred in southwestern Turkey and extending in area from the Caucasus to Macaronesia, north to Scotland, Denmark and southern Sweden, east to Belarus and the Ukraine and south to north-west Africa and Israel. Section 15. Thasia has been included in Section 16. Crossophyllum. Two new species are described in Section 12. Origanifolium (H. laxiflorum N. Robson, sp. nov. and H. ichelense N. Robson, sp. nov.) and five changes of rank are made; in Section 10. Olympia: H. lycium( N. Robson & Hub.-Mor.) N. Robson, stat. nov. and H. auriculatum (N. Robson & Hub.-Mor.) N.Robson, stat. et nom. nov.; in Section 12. Origanifolia: H. origanifolium var. depilatum (Freyn & Bornm.) N. Robson, stat. nov., H. bourgaei (Boiss.) N. Robson, stat. nov. and H. albiflorum (Hub.-Mor.) N. Robson, stat. nov. In addition, in Section 14. Oligostema, Druce's name for the hybrid H. linariifolium x humifusum has been validated (H. x caesariense Druce ex N. Robson, hybr. nov.); and H. leprosiforme O.Schwartz has been moved from Section 12. Origanifolia to Section 27. Adenosepalum.
The authors present new knowledge on the biology and distribution of the poorly known Orobanche alba f. cuprea (= O. cuprea ) and suggest its reclassification as a subspecies. Furthermore, the authors present recent data on biology and distribution of Orobanche alba subsp. xanthostigma . Distribution maps are shown for both taxa. Thymbra capitata and Thymus integer are recorded as new hosts for O. alba subsp. cuprea and Clinopodium vulgare s. l. for O. alba subsp. xanthostigma . Further information on the taxonomic assessment of other infraspecific taxa of O. alba are given as follows: O. alba f. maxima (= O. alba subsp. major ) is promoted to the rank of variety based on a discovered earlier valid name; O. alba subsp. alba var. bidentata is rejected as an autonomous taxon and incorporated in the variability of the species.
Lectotypifications of 16 names in Rubus subg. Idaeobatus (Rubus adenophorus, R. alnifoliolatus, R. austro-tibetanus, R. cockburnianus, R. coreanus var. nakaianus, R. croceacanthus, R. delavayi, R. idaeopsis, R. innominatus var. kuntzeanus, R. megalothyrsus, R. polytrichus, R. pileatus, R. sachalinensis, R. tephrodes, R. trianthus, R. wilsonii), 12 names in R. subg. Malachobatus (R. calycacanthus, R. doyonensis, R. feddei, R. flagelliflorus, R. forrestianus, R. hemithyrsus, R. malifolius, R. rufus var. palmatifidus, R. setchuenensis, R. ourosepalus, R. polyodontus, R. viburnifolius), and one name in R. subg. Chamaebatus (R. calycinus) are proposed and discussed. Two new names, R. neomultisetosus and R. neovicarius, are proposed to replace for the illegitimate names, R. multisetosus Yü & Lu and R. vicarius Focke ex Sargent, a later homonym of R. multisetosus Progel and R. vicarius Sudre.
Silene marschallii subsp. guicciardii: (A) inflorescence with nodding flowers, (B) flower (face view), (C) flower (side view), (D) vegetative shoots with leaves, (E) immature capsule, showing the ciliate petal claws and the hirsute filaments and styles, (F) seed.
Main morphological differences among the subspecies of Silene marschallii.
Distribution map of Silene marschallii subsp. marschallii (grey area), S. marschallii subsp. sahendica (red area), S. marschallii subsp. anamasi (diamonds) and S. marschallii subsp. guicciardii (circle).
Silene guicciardii (Caryophyllaceae) was rediscovered after field surveys carried out on Mt. Parnassos (Sterea Ellas, Greece), 160 years after the type collection made by J.B. Samaritani and J. Guicciardi in 1857. Since its first collection, it has been considered either as a distinct species, a variety or a mere synonym of the SW-Asiatic S. marschallii. We provide a revised description of the species and we re-evaluate its taxonomic position and that of the related species. We propose to treat the taxon guicciardii at the subspecific rank of S. marschallii. A color plate of S. marshallii subsp. guicciardii and a distribution map for all subspecies of S. marschallii are also provided. The name Silene guicciardii was lectotypified on a specimen preserved at G-BOIS, while isolectotypes are at G-BOIS, B, BR, C, GOET, JE, K and WU.
Phylogenetic analysis of Pleurotus species inferred from Maximum Likelihood (ML) analysis of ITS sequences. Bootstrap values (ML, > 50%) are shown above or beneath individual branches. Bayesian posterior probabilities (BI, > 0.90) are indicated with thick  
Basidiomes of Pleurotus placentodes in situ. a. HKAS 57781; b. HKAS 57145. Bars = 2 cm Photos by B. Feng and G. Wu. 
Microscopic characters of Pleurotus placentodes. a. Basidia at different stages of development and subhymenium elements (HKAS 57781); b. Basidiospores (HKAS 57781); c. Broadly clavate to subcylindrical cheilocystidia (HKAS 57781); d. Mucronate cheilocystidia (HKAS 94410); e. Pileipellis (HKAS 57781); f. Basidiospores (HKAS 57145); g. Mediostratum of lamellar trama (HKAS 57781). Bars 1, 3, 4, 5 and 7 = 20 µm, 2 and 6 = 10 µm. Drawings by Zhu L. Yang.  
Taxa used in molecular phylogenetic analyses and their GenBank accession numbers of ITS sequences
Although many species of Pleurotus are commonly known to be important edible mushrooms, the species delimitation of the genus is often controversial due to phenotypic plasticity and morphological stasis. In the present paper, Pleurotus placentodes, a conspicuous species originally described from Sikkim by M.J. Berkeley in 1852 and so far known only from the type collection, is documented based on specimens recently gathered in the eastern Himalayas and Hengduan Mountains, southwestern China. The morphological and molecular phylogenetic data indicate that this species is an independent taxon, and accordingly the previously proposed synonym of Pleurotus djamor is rejected. Pleurotus placentodes differs from the majority of other related species assigned to Pleurotus by the ellipsoid to subovoid basidiospores with a lower ratio of length/ width and the geographical distribution in the subalpine habitat of the Himalayan Mountains.
Lobelia macrocentron (Campanulaceae) was rediscovered when conducting floristic sampling for the Flora inventory of Santuario El Palmito, a natural protected area in the municipality of Concordia, Sinaloa, Mexico. The species was discovered 169 years ago by B.C. Seemann between 1849 and 1850, as part of one of the inland explorations of the Herald’s voyage. Seemann’s specimens served as the type and only known collection of the species. The locality of Seemann’s collections is imprecisely described, so that any search attempt would require an extensive exploration in portions of the states of Durango, Nayarit and Sinaloa, covering more than 350 km of Seemann’s route. Also, morphological variation of L. macrocentron was poorly understood as restricted by the only two available specimens. Consequently, we provide an extended description of the species, color plates with the first available photographs, and discussions about relationships, habitat and conservation status.
Angola is a large south-tropical African country with a rich plant diversity of over 7000 species. The vast majority of the plants collected in the country for deposition in preserved collections was obtained while Angola was under Portuguese rule. An historical analysis is presented of plant collecting in the country from the earliest times until the end of the 20th century. We also reflect on connections between biodiversity science and slavery; only recently have these links been acknowledged and receiving attention. The social environment prevalent in Angola at the time of its historical botanical exploration is discussed to enable an improved understanding of connections between scientific endeavour, colonialism, and slavery in the country. Gender- and ethnic group-based aspects are analysed and discussed.
Part 5(2) of this monographic series of papers on the genus Hypericum contains treatments of the remaining sections: Sections 17. Hirtella, 18. Taeniocarpium and 19. Coridium, which form a related group centred in eastern Turkey and Transcaucasia and extending in area from Morocco, Portugal and Ireland to western Xinjiang and the Altai and southern Angara-Sayan regions of Siberia. One new series, one new species and one new subspecies are described in Section 17. Hirtella (Series Scabra N.Robson, ser. nov., H. hedgei N.Robson, sp. nov., H. hyssopifolium subsp. acutum N.Robson, subsp. nov.), and two new species and one new subspecies in Section 18. Taeniocarpium (H. pseudorepens N.Robson, sp. nov., H. vaccinioides N.Robson, sp. nov., H. armenum subsp. iranicum N.Robson, subsp. nov.). Four new combinations or changes of rank are made, three in Section 17 (H. elongatum var. lythrifolium (Boiss.) N.Robson, comb. nov., H. elongatum var. racemosum (Kuntze) N.Robson, comb. nov., H. elongatum var. antasiaticum (Grossh.) N.Robson, stat. nov.) and one in Section 18: H. linarioides subsp. alpestre (Steven) N.Robson, stat. et comb. nov.
FIGURE. Consensus tree (50% majority-rule) from Bayesian inference of the combined ITS + psbA-trnH dataset. Posterior probability values (PP) are indicated along branches (values below 0.50 are not shown). Colours of branches indicate tribal classification of the taxa. Phylogenetic placement of Anacyclus core species (Western Mediterranean species, WM) and Eastern Mediterranean (EM) species is highlighted in grey. 
FIGURE S. Consensus trees (50% majority-rule) from Bayesian inference of the ITS and psbA-trnH regions analysed separately. 
Using DNA barcoding markers, we inferred the phylogenetic relationships of the genus Anacyclus including for the first time the three Eastern Mediterranean species, A. anatolicus, A. latealatus and A. nigellifolius. Our results conclusively reveal the polyphyletic condition of this genus in its current circumscription. The molecular data show that A. anatolicus, A. latealatus and A. nigellifolius do not belong to Anacyclus. According to the current knowledge of the Anthemideae systematics, these three species should be placed within the genus Cota and thus the new combinations Cota anatolica, Cota latealata, and Cota nigellifolia are proposed. Such a taxonomic placement is congruent with the achene morphology and biogeography although the circumscription of Cota itself requires further studies.
A summary of the species of Cyathea sensu strictu with pinnate to pinnate-pinnatifid fronds is presented. All species are strictly Neotropical and are found throughout the entire range of the genus in the Western Hemisphere, but most species occur in the mountainous regions of northern South America and Central America. This artificially delimited group includes the species formerly recognized as the segregate genus Cnemidaria, which form a monophyletic group within Cyathea together with some species previously not recognized as Cnemidaria. This group is characterized by a general lack of hairs, cartilaginous laminar texture, petiole scales that have white margins or that are completely white, and large sori with diameter ≥ 1 mm and 30–40 sporangia per sorus. Cnemidaria-type spores with at least three large equatorial pores dominate in this group but are neither omnipresent nor exclusive to it. The remainder of the pinnate to pinnate-pinnatifid species of Cyathea includes predominantly exindusiate species that have moderately to densely pilose laminae and relatively small sori with diameter ≤ 1 mm and ± 20 sporangia per sorus. Twelve new combinations are made and the following three new names are proposed: Cyathea cnemidaria (= Cnemidaria tryoniana), C. glandulifera (= Cn. glandulosa), C. suprapilosa (= Cn. suprastrigosa). A key to all species of Cyathea with pinnate to pinnate-pinnatifid fronds is provided. Hybrids are not treated.
We have noticed an inadvertent error in our article entitled “Overlooked diversity in Brazilian Cypella (Iridaceae: Iridoideae): four new taxa from the Río de la Plata grasslands” (Phytotaxa 174 (1): 25–42).
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