Published by Pensoft Publishers
Online ISSN: 1314-2003
Print ISSN: 1314-2011
PrefaceThis is the official Report on the deliberations and decisions of the ten sessions of the Nomenclature Section of the XVII International Botanical Congress held in Vienna, Austria, from 12–16 July 2005. The meetings of the Section took place on these five consecutive days prior to the Congress proper. The Section meetings were hosted by the Institute of Botany, University of Vienna, Austria. Technical facilities included full electronic recording of all discussion spoken into the microphones. Text of all proposals to amend the Code was displayed on one screen allowing suggested amendments to be updated as appropriate. The team at the University of Vienna (Christopher Dixon, Jeong-Mi Park, Ovidiu Paun, Carolin A. Redernig and Dieter Reich) ensured that the proceedings ran smoothly and enjoyably for all.A report of the decisions of the Section was published soon after the Congress (McNeill & al. in Taxon 54: 1057–1064. 2005). It includes a tabulation of the preliminary mail vote on the published proposals, specifying how the Section acted on each and detailing amendments and new proposals approved upon motions from the floor. It also includes the report of the Nominating Committee as well as the Congress resolution ratifying the Section’s decisions, neither reproduced here. The main result of the Section’s deliberations is the Vienna Code, which was published as Regnum Vegetabile 146, on 20 Sep 2006 (McNeill & al. in Regnum Veg. 146. 2006). It was also published online, on the same date (see present report of the proceedings of the Vienna Nomenclature Section conveys, we believe, a true and lively picture of the event. It is primarily based on the MP3 electronic recordings, with, where necessary, supplementation by the comment slips submitted by most speakers and by reference to parallel tape-recording, particularly where there were gaps in the MP3 record. With these sources combined, and with all motions and voting results double-checked through the soundtrack and published preliminary report of the Section meeting based on two parallel series of notes by the Rapporteur and the Recorder, we are confident that the record published hereunder is accurate and complete as possible. The delayed production of the report has, however, meant that it has not been possible to include the text of some of the proposals made from the floor, particularly those that were unsuccessful, as no permanent electronic record was made and it was not possible to locate written records for some of these.Before it was cast into its present, final form, this Report went through a succession of phases. The Vienna Section was, as already noted, recorded electronically. One day of each recording was then transcribed by Fred Barrie (Wednesday), Dan Nicolson (Thursday), Nicholas Turland (Friday), and David Hawksworth (Saturday). For the remaining day, Tuesday 12 July, part of the first session was transcribed by John McNeill but the remainder was professionally transcribed by Pacific Transcription, Queensland, Australia and cross-checked and edited by Anna Monro. Apart from some initial editing of the Acacia debate and other small portions of text by John McNeill, the entire work of converting the partially edited version of the transcript to report format was accomplished by Christina Flann. At that time some portions were rearranged to ensure that the Report reflects the sequence of relevant provisions in the Code even when the order of the debates differed. Deviations from the chronology of events are indicated in the text by italicized bracketed notes. John McNeill then undertook the completion of some missing portions from the tape-recordings and from other sources, but, otherwise, these first two authors took an equal share in proof-reading the final version of the text.As in the case of previous nomenclature reports, which the present one faithfully follows in style and general layout, the spoken comments had to be condensed and partly reworded, rarely rather drastically. For this reason, indirect speech has been used consistently. Additions by the authors of this Report are placed between square brackets; they include explanatory or rectifying notes, records of reactions of the audience (to illustrate the sessions’ emotional background) and reports on procedural actions, unless they form a paragraph of their own. As in previous reports, the index to speakers has been integrated with the list of registered Section members.The Section in Vienna attracted 198 registered members carrying 402 institutional votes in addition to their personal votes, making a total of 600 possible votes (detailed by McNeill & al. in Taxon 54: 1057, Table 1. 2005). There were seven card votes, including one pertaining to the controversial Acacia issue. The Vienna Congress was fairly conservative in nomenclatural matters in comparison with some earlier Congresses. Relatively few changes were accepted, but a small number of significant ones and many useful clarifications and improvements were adopted. Perhaps the most important decision regarded the publication status of theses submitted for a higher degree. The Congress took the unusual step of accepting a retroactive change in the Code by deciding that no independent non-serial publication stated to be a thesis submitted for a higher degree on or after 1 January 1953 would be considered an effectively published work without a statement to that effect or other internal evidence. Several proposals on criteria for valid publication of names were considered and clarifications were accepted. Article 33 on new combinations was also further clarified. Three important sets of changes were accepted applying to names of fossil plants, pleomorphic fungi and fungi that had previously been named under the ICZN. Further details and other changes are outlined in the Preface to the Vienna Code itself.The inclusion for the first time of a Glossary is a notable achievement of the Vienna Code. It is very closely linked to the wording of the Code and only nomenclatural terms defined in the Code can be included. Paul C. Silva initiated the project, prepared the first draft for consideration by the Editorial Committee and worked over several subsequent ones, ensuring precision and consistency.It is worth noting that, despite the series of highly charged articles relating to the Acacia issue preceding the meeting, all debate on the issue was undertaken in a positive atmosphere, focussing on finding a solution to the dissatisfaction, and the results were graciously accepted by most.Thanks for that are due to Dan Nicolson as President of the Section, who with the other members of the Bureau of Nomenclature, made it all run smoothly. We also thank Pensoft Publishing for agreeing to publish this Report as an issue of PhytoKeys. Our thanks also go to the International Association for Plant Taxonomy for contributing to the costs of producing this Report.Christina Flann & John McNeill
The Kew sheet K000634697 and K000634446 with the mixed collection of two species of Cucumis collected by Ferdinand von Mueller in Australia. The stem with the deeply lobed yellowish leaves and the attached fruit is the lectotype of Cucumis picrocarpus F. Muell., while the branch with the more green and much less lobed leaves is the lectotype of Cucumis jucundus F. Muell.
a Habit of Luffa saccata F.Muell. ex I.Telford b Old fruits. Photos taken near the type locality, Gregory National Park, Northern Territory, by A. Rodd.
Typical herbarium specimens of Luffa saccata: Sands 4499 (L).
As a result of his botanical explorations in northern Australia, Ferdinand von Mueller named several Cucurbitaceae that molecular data now show to be distinct, requiring their resurrection from unjustified synonymy. We here describe and illustrate Luffa saccata F. Muell. ex I.Telford, validating a manuscript name listed under Luffa graveolens Roxb. since 1859, and we lectotypify Cucumis picrocarpus F. Muell. and Cucumis jucundus F. Muell. The lectotype of the name Cucumis jucundus, a synonym of Cucumis melo, is mounted on the same sheet as the lectotype of Cucumis picrocarpus, which is the sister species of the cultivated Cucumis melo as shown in a recent publication.
The Nomenclature Section held just before the 18th International Botanical Congress in Melbourne, Australia in July 2011 saw sweeping changes to the way scientists name new plants, algae, and fungi. The changes begin on the cover: the title was broadened to make explicit that the Code applies not only to plants, but also to algae and fungi. The new title will now be the International Code of Nomenclature of algae, fungi, and plants. For the first time in history the Code will allow for the electronic publication of names of new taxa. In an effort to make the publication of new names more accurate and efficient, the requirement for a Latin validating diagnosis or description was changed to allow either English or Latin for these essential components of the publication of a new name. Both of these latter changes will take effect on 1 January 2012. The nomenclatural rules for fungi will see several important changes, the most important of which is probably the adoption of the principle of "one fungus, one name." Paleobotanists will also see changes with the elimination of the concept of "morphotaxa" from the Code.
A critical review of the Ecuadorian species of Acalypha L. (Euphorbiaceae) is presented; 20 of the 38 previously recognized species are accepted, 9 are considered synonyms and 9 are based on misidentifications. Comprehensive nomenclatural information is supplied and 13 lectotypes are designated. An identification key is also provided.
Solanum neei. A Inside view of spread open corolla B Glandular trichome of the ovary C  Glandular trichome of the stem D Calyx E Stellate short-stalked trichome from the lower leaf surface F–G Ventral and dorsal view of the anther, respectively H Gynoecium I Flower J Branch with fl owers and fruits K Unicellular trichome from the upper leaf surface L Multicellular uniseriate trichome from the upper leaf surface M Seed N Glandular trichome from the upper leaf surface O Fruit. I from Tressens et al. 6749; the rest from Subils & Moscone 4160 . Drawn by P. Peralta. 
Fruiting branch of Solanum neei in Misiones, Argentina ( Keller 3922, CTES). 
Photograph of the holotype of Solanum neei ( Tressens et al. 6749 , CORD 00006750) . 
A new species of Solanum belonging to section Acanthophora (subgenus Leptostemonum) from Argentina and Brazil is described. Solanum neei Chiarini & L.A.Mentz, sp. nov. is found in clearings of semideciduous forests and in secondary formations, from the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina in Brazil to the Misiones province in Argentina. It is morphologically similar to Solanum incarceratum Ruiz & Pav. from Peru, Bolivia and Western-Central Brazil, differing mainly by its pedunculate inflorescences. A key to related species is provided, as well a photograph of the holotype, a distribution map and illustration.
PhytoKeys was established less than a year ago in response to four main publication challenges of our time: (1) the appearance of electronic publications as amendments or even alternatives to paper publications; (2) Open Access (OA) as a new publishing model; (3) the linkage of electronic registers, indices, and aggregators, which summarize information on biological species through taxonomic names or their persistent identifiers; and (4) Web 2.0 technologies, which permit the semantic markup of, and semantic enhancements to, published biological texts. The appearance of the journal was concomitant with lively discussions on the validity of nomenclatural acts published electronically (Knapp and Wright 2010, Knapp et al. 2010, Penev et al. 2010, Chapman et al. 2010). At the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne in July 2011 (IBC 2011) these discussions culminated in the decision to amend the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature to allow electronic-only publishing of new taxa. Even before the end of the Congress and formal acceptance of the changes PhytoKeys was able to publish a report on the main outcomes of the Nomenclature Section on electronic publishing (Miller et al. 2011).
The most recent critical checklists of the Cucurbitaceae of India are 30 years old. Since then, botanical exploration, online availability of specimen images and taxonomic literature, and molecular-phylogenetic studies have led to modified taxon boundaries and geographic ranges. We present a checklist of the Cucurbitaceae of India that treats 400 relevant names and provides information on the collecting locations and herbaria for all types. We accept 94 species (10 of them endemic) in 31 genera. For accepted species, we provide their geographic distribution inside and outside India, links to online images of herbarium or living specimens, and information on publicly available DNA sequences to highlight gaps in the current understanding of Indian cucurbit diversity. Of the 94 species, 79% have DNA sequences in GenBank, albeit rarely from Indian material. The most species-rich genera are Trichosanthes with 22 species, Cucumis with 11 (all but two wild), Momordica with 8, and Zehneria with 5. From an evolutionary point of view, India is of special interest because it harbors a wide range of lineages, many of them relatively old and phylogenetically isolated. Phytogeographically, the north eastern and peninsular regions are richest in species, while the Jammu Kashmir and Himachal regions have few Cucurbitaceae. Our checklist probably underestimates the true diversity of Indian Cucurbitaceae, but should help focus efforts towards the least known species and regions.
Total number of submitted manuscripts, published articles and pages per year in PhyltoKeys.  
Total number of submitted manuscripts, published articles, issues, and printed pages for the fi rst two years of PhytoKeys. 
New taxa published in PhytoKeys from 1 st November 2009 to 6 th December 2012 that have been registered in the International Plant Name Index (as per 6 th December 2011, data provided by Christine Barker, IPNI). 
Other nomenclatural novelties published in PhytoKeys for the entire period of its existence (data provided by Christine Barker, IPNI). 
PhytoKeys was launched on the 1st of November 2010 as a novel, peer-reviewed, open-access outlet for plant biodiversity research and since then the journal quickly gained the support of the international botanical community and has been showing a continuous to growth in reputation and volume. This Editorial describes how PhytoKeys continues to evolve its editorial workflow, constantly implementing new and improved publishing and dissemination technologies, thus always being on point for digital biodiversity science.
Lactuca denaensis – A habit, acaulescent form B–F capitula, all to the same scale, before flowering (B–D), with faded flowers (E), after flowering (F); G details of synflorescence, one capitulum at fruiting. – All from Remaudière, 5252E (IRAN 10625)
Lactuca hazaranensis – A habit, left plant of holotype sheet B–G capitula, all to the same scale, before flowering (B–C), at fruiting (D–E), after fruiting (F–G); H plant in natural habitat A–G from the holotype H plant in the natural habitat at the type locality; photograph by M. Eskandari, 10 Aug 2010.
Achenes of the Lactuca rosularis group and Cicerbita polyclada – A, F–I
Lactuca hazaranensis; complete achene (A); achene after loss of easily detachable beak, dorsal view (F); ventral view (G); longitudinal section of achene showing two segments, proximal large segment with embry, distal small segment solid with yellow tissue (H); embryo (I); B
Lactuca rosularis
Lactuca denaensis
Cicerbita polyclada, complete achene (D) and longitudinal section of distal portion showing apical cavity (E). – A–D and F–H each to the same scale A, F–I from the holotype at IRAN B from Rechinger 55980 B, C from Kotschy 662 (B 100426936) D–E from Strauss 14091 (B 100312952)
Distribution of Lactuca hazaranensis (circles) and the related species Lactuca rosularis (squares) and Lactuca denaensis (rhomb, actucal position as indicated by arrow), as well as of Cicerbita polyclada (triangles). – Georeferenced map based on the known collections (see Appendix and supplemented by collection cited in Kirpicznikov 1964 and Tuisl 1977) and generated with DIVA-GIS (Hijmans 2011) using an adaptation of the SRTM 90 m digital elevation data (CGIAR-CSI 2004).
It is shown that the concept of the Iranian endemic Lactuca polyclada in the sense of both its original author Boissier and its current use actually admixes two entirely different species, as was first noted by Beauverd a hundred years ago but has been neglected by later workers. One is a putative relative of Lactuca rosularis, the other was recognised by Beauverd as a member of the genus Cicerbita. The name Lactuca polyclada Boiss. is lectotypified here, maintaining its use as established by Beauverd for the Cicerbita species. Both species are morphologically delimited and mature achenes of Cicerbita polyclada are illustrated for the first time. The putative relative of Lactuca rosularis, a rare local endemic of the summit area of Kuh e-Dena, which has remained without a valid name by now, is described as a new species, Lactuca denaensis N. Kilian & Djavadi, and illustrated. A third member of the Lactuca rosularis group, Lactuca hazaranensis Djavadi & N. Kilian, discovered among a recent collection and apparently being a rare chasmophyte of the Hazaran mountain massif in the province of Kerman, Iran, is described as a species new to science, illustrated and delimited from the other two species. This new species has peculiar achenes representing a hitherto unknown variant: the body of the beaked achenes is divided into two segments by a transversal constriction in the distal third. The proximal segment contains the embryo, the distal segment is solid with a lipid-containing yellow tissue. The easily detachable pappus and the equally easily detachable beak potentially obstruct dispersal by wind. Since detachment of the beak also exposes the lipid-containing tissue of the distal segment, its potential as an elaiosome and myrmecochory as a possible mode of dispersal are discussed.
Pilea matthewii. A Habit of pistillate plant; note the sessile unequal leaf laminae at each node B Branchlet of staminate plant; note the unequal leaf laminae at each node C Leaf detail (upper surface of minor lamina) showing cystoliths D Staminate infl orescence E Staminate fl ower F Staminate fl ower showing anthers G Pistillate infl orescence H Pistillate fl ower. (A-C, G, H from L.J. Dorr et al. 4994 (US); D-F from B. Stergios et al. 20080 (US)). 
Diagnostic characters that distinguish Pilea miguelii and several similar species. 
Pilea miguelii. A Habit; note the unequal leaf laminae at each node B Leaf detail (major lamina upper surface) showing cystoliths C Staminate infl orescence D Detail of staminate infl orescence. E Staminate fl ower showing tepals covering anthers F Pistillate infl orescence G Pistillate fl ower H Pistillate fl ower with tepals teased apart to show mature ovary. (A from B. Stergios & M. Niño 16028 (PORT); B-E from B. Stergios & M. Niño 16028 (US); F-H from J.A. Steyermark 55767 (US)). 
Pilea nicholasii. A Habit; note the unequal leaf laminae at each node B Leaf detail (major lamina upper surface) showing cystoliths C Stipules, stem, and petiole bases with cystoliths D Staminate infl orescence E Staminate fl ower ± in bud F Staminate fl ower showing stamens G Infructescence H, I Pistillate fl owers with developing achenes. (A, D-F from B. Stergios et al. 20074 (US); B, C from B. Stergios & R. Caracas 19671 (US); G-I from B. Stergios 19986 (US)). 
Pilea nidiae. A Habit; note the unequal leaf laminae at each node B Leaf detail (major lamina upper surface) showing cystoliths C Stipules and stem covered with cystoliths D Staminate infl orescence E Infructescence F, G Pistillate fl owers with developing achenes. (A, D from J.L. Luteyn & E. Cotton 
Four new species of Pilea (Urticaceae) from the Andes of Venezuela are described and illustrated: Pilea matthewii sp. nov., Pilea miguelii sp. nov., Pilea nicholasii sp. nov., and Pilea nidiae sp. nov. The affinities of these species and their positions within the informal classifications of Pilea proposed by Weddell and Killip are discussed. Notes on other species of Pilea found in Venezuela also are presented.
Systematic investigations and phylogenetic analyses of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae) have indicated that Topobea should be synonymized under Blakea, and Huilaea under Chalybea. Presented here is a detailed description of the Blakeeae, a key to its two accepted genera, and a listing of 62 new combinations, including 3 new names, necessitated by the transfer of Topobea as follows: Blakea acuminata (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea adscendens (E.Cotton & Matezki) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea albertiae (Wurdack) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea amplifolia (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea arboricola (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea asplundii (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea barbata (Gleason) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea brenesii (Standl.) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea brevibractea (Gleason) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea bullata (E.Cotton & Matezki) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea calcarata (L.Uribe) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea calophylla (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea calycularis (Naudin) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea castanedae (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea clavata (Triana) Penneys & Judd, nom. nov., Blakea cordata (Gleason) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea cuprina Penneys & Judd, nom. nov., Blakea cutucuensis (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea dimorphophylla (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea discolor (Hochr.) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea dodsonorum (Wurdack) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea eplingii (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea ferruginea (Gleason) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea fragrantissima (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea gerardoana (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea glaberrima (Triana) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea henripittieri (Cogn.) Penneys & Almeda, comb. et nom. nov., Blakea hexandra (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea horologica Penneys & Judd, nom. nov., Blakea induta (Markgr.) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea inflata (Triana) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea insignis (Triana) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea intricata (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea killipii (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea lentii (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea longiloba (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea longisepala (Gleason) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea macbrydei (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea maguirei (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea maurofernandeziana (Cogn.) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea mcphersonii (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea modica (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea mortoniana (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea muricata (Lozano) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea pascoensis (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea pluvialis (Standl.) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea sessilifolia (Triana) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea setosa (Triana) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea standleyi (L.O.Williams) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea stephanochaeta (Naudin) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea steyermarkii (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea suaveolens (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea subbarbata (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea subscabrula (Triana) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea subsessiliflora (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea superba (Naudin) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea tetramera (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea tetroici (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea toachiensis (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea trianae (Cogn.) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea verrucosa (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea watsonii (Cogn.) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov.
A new species of Psoralea is described. Psoralea karooensis C.H. Stirt., Muasya & Vlok is endemic to mountain streams in the Klein Karoo region of the Western Cape Province, South Africa. The new species is characterised by its flexuose habit of many stiff bare stems with the seasonal shoots arising apically in clusters and its greenish cream flowers borne at the apex of 10-12 mm long peduncles each ending in a trifid cupulum.
Nothovernonia purpurea (Sch.Bip. ex Walp.) H. Rob. and V.A. Funk: habit. [Illustration by Alice Tangerini (US)]
A phylogeny of the subtribes of the Vernonieae, with a detailed look at the subtribe Centropalineae. This tree is the strict consensus tree from a PAUP analysis that produced 28 trees. The data included were ITS, ndhF, trnL-F, and matK . The analysis included all known sequenced genera of the Centropalineae and is part of a larger analysis of the subfamily Cichorioideae. 
Images of Nothovernonia purpurea (Sch.Bip. ex Walp.) H. Rob. and V.A. Funk A Habitat B  Head before flowering with outer bracts tightly appressed C Fully flowering head showing well developed bracts D Head with only a few flowers but showing the well developed bracts. [Photographs by A. Thiombiano, M. Schmidt, and K. Schumann] 
Nothovernoniagen. nov., is described as a new genus for the tropical African Vernonia purpurea Sch.Bip. ex Walp. and Vernonia amblyolepis Bak, having cymiform inflorescences, pedunculate heads with differentiated foliiform bracts at the base, apiculate involucral bracts with scarious lateral margins, spiculiferous corolla lobes, and strongly spinose, sublopohate tricolporate pollen with the colpi meeting at the poles. The new genus belongs to the subtribe Centrapalinae and a key to the known DNA-sequenced genera of the subtribe is provided. The new species names are Nothovernonia purpurea (Sch.Bip. ex Walp.) H.Rob. and V.A.Funk, comb. nov., and Nothovernonia amblyolepis (Baker) H.Rob. & V.A.Funk, comb. nov.
Maximum likelihood phylogeny for Coccinia based on nuclear DNA sequences from the LEAFY-like 2 nd intron analyzed under the GTR+Γ model of substitution. The tree is based on 505 nucleotides (56 parsimony-informative sites). Numbers below branches represent bootstrap support ≥ 80% from 100 replicates. Dots on branches and behind brackets refer to uniquely shared insertions or deletions. Species names follow Holstein and Renner (2011) except for the new species C. intermedia.
a Coccinia intermedia leaf basis and node with flowers b seeds from late, but immature fruit c node with young fruit and male flower bud with sinuate anthers; all from J.B.Hall & J.M.Lock GC46016 (K). 
Habitus of Coccinia intermedia as reconstructed from J.B.Hall & J.M.Lock GC46016 (K). 
Male inflorescence of Coccinia intermedia from C.Geerling & J.Bokdam 662 (WAG). 
Map of West African Coccinia species. Pale yellow circles = C. intermedia , cyan circles = C. grandis , dark blue circles = C. barteri , pale blue squares = C. keayana , bright blue triangles = C. longicarpa . Thick dark grey lines are phytochoria drawn after White (1983), I = Guineo-Congolian regional center of endemism, III = Sudanian regional center of endemism, XI = Guinea-Congolia/Sudania transition zone, XVI = Sahel regional transition zone. Thin dark grey lines (after White (1983)) differentiate between White’s vegetation types of zone III: 27 = Sudanian woodland with abundant Isoberlinia ; 29a = undif- ferentiated Sudanian woodland. Location of C. intermedia in Ivory Coast estimated (only the department is given on the herbarium sheet). 
Nuclear and plastid sequences from two individuals of a suspected new species of Coccinia from West Africa were added to an available molecular phylogeny for the remaining 27 species of the genus. Phylogenetic analyses of these data indicate the new species' monophyletic status and closest relatives. Based on four fertile collections, we here describe and illustrate Coccinia intermedia Holstein. We also provide a key to the Coccinia species of West Africa and map their distributions.
Dioscorea buchananii Benth. subsp. undatiloba vegetative and reproductive morphology A  Habit of male plant with axillary infl orescences B Apical part of male infl orescence showing tepal shape and habit and bud shape C Rehydrated male fl ower with apical part of pedicel showing stamen morphology (NB tepal and stamen habit infl uenced by specimen preparation) D Fully opened out rehydrated male fl ower from above showing tepal shape, torus and pistillode E Female fl ower with ovary at late anthesis, tepals ascending F Female fl ower with 3 tepals removed showing torus, staminodia and gynoecium G  Immature capsule with pedicel, fl oral bract and persistent tepals at apex H Leaf of KwaZuluNatal form of Dioscorea buchananii Benth. subsp. undatiloba. Scale bar: A , H 3 cm; B 7 mm; C , D , E 5 mm; F  3 mm; G 2 cm. From Breyer in TM 23387 ( A ), Junod 2182 ( B , G ), Medley Wood 11673 ( C , D ) Gerrard & McKen 1617 ( E , F ) Medley Wood 12969 ( H ). Drawn by Lucy Smith. 
Dioscorea multiloba Kunth vegetative and reproductive morphology. A Habit of male plant with axillary infl orescences B Apical part of male infl orescence showing tepal shape and habit and bud shape habit C Lobed leaf showing venation of upper surface and forerunner tip D Male fl ower from above showing fi lament habit E Male fl ower with 3 tepals and part of torus removed showing torus shape, pistillode and associated concavities in torus surface F Female fl ower with 3 tepals and part of torus removed showing torus shape, staminodia and gynoecium G Female infl orescence showing tepal habit and ovaries H  Infructescence showing some submature capsules with persistent tepals J Seed showing wing shape. Scale bar: A , C 3 cm; B 7 mm; D , E 4 mm; F 3 mm; G , H 2.5 cm; J 2 cm. From Ward 3076 ( A ,  B ,  D ,  E ), Medley Wood 329 ( F , G ), Gueinzius s.n. ( H , J ) and a photograph ( C ). Drawn by Lucy Smith. 
The Dioscorea buchananii complex is shown to comprise three species, one of which is divided into two subspecies, based on morphological data. Two species, Dioscorea rupicola Kunth and Dioscorea multiloba Kunth, are endemic or subendemic to South Africa and of widespread occurrence in KwaZulu Natal. They differ markedly from each other in inflorescence and floral morphology and appear to be ecologically differentiated. The third species, Dioscorea buchananii Benth., is primarily found in southeastern tropical Africa, but a small number of specimens collected in South Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries are placed in an endemic subspecies, Dioscorea buchananii subsp. undatiloba (Baker) Wilkin. The latter taxon is a high priority in terms of rediscovery and conservation. Keys, descriptions, supporting information and illustrations are provided and made available online through eMonocot biodiversity informatics tools. Three nomenclatural acts are undertaken: two names are placed in synonymy and a new combination made.
Garcinia obliqua: A Flowering twig B Leaf from below C Idem, detail D Male flower E Idem, 1 sepal and 2 petals removed F Fruit. (A: Breteler et al. 8993 B, C, F: Dauby et al. 1570; D, E: Breteler et al. 8738). Drawing by Hans de Vries, NCB Naturalis (section NHN) ©.
Garcinia gabonensis: A Flowering twig B, C Leaves, showing the variation D Male flower E Idem, open and three petals removed F Androecium G Stamen H Pistillode I Female flower J Gynoecium and disk K Fruit. (A, D–H: Leeuwenberg & Persoon 13683; B, K: Arends et al. 510; C, I, J: Wieringa et al. 4546). Drawing by Hans de Vries, NCB Naturalis (section NHN) ©.
Distribution of the two new species endemic to Gabon: (a) Garcinia obliqua, (b) Garcinia gabonensis.
Garcinia has some 260 species and is often regarded as a genus with a difficult taxonomy. No recent treatment is available for the botanically rich Lower Guinea phytogeographical region. This study aims at partly filling this gap. First, several taxonomic problems are solved. Garcinia chromocarpa is reduced to a variety of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia gnetoides and Garcinia granulata are both synonyms of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia zenkeri is a synonym of Garcinia densivenia and lectotypes are being designated for both names. Garcinia brevipedicellata is a synonym of Garcinia afzelii, as is Garcinia antidysenterica for which a lectotype is designated. Second, two new species endemic to Gabon are described: Garcinia gabonensis Sosef & Dauby and Garcinia obliqua Sosef & Dauby. Finally, an identification key to all species present in the Lower Guinea region is provided. A few remaining West African species names could not be placed with certainty, because the type material was lost or not traced yet. One is a Rutaceae while the remaining three are provisionally to be regarded as synonyms of Garcinia smeathmannii.
A new species of spiral ginger (Costus: Costaceae) from Gabon, Africa is described. Costus loangensis H. Maas & Maas is found in the coastal region on white sand soils under a tropical rain forest canopy. It is morphologically distinct from all other African species of Costus but shows some similarities in floral form with the savanna-inhabiting Costus spectabilis (Fenzl) K. Schum. and similarities in vegetative form with Costus ligularis Baker. Only one population of the new species is documented. Photographs of the new species are included as is a preliminary phylogeny indicating its position within the African Costaceae.
Psoralea margaretiflora C.H. Stirton & V.R. Clark A Standard petal - abaxial view (x9) B  wing and keel petals viewed abaxially showing androecial fenestration at the base (x9) C keel petal (x9) D  standard petal: abaxial and side views in reflexed position, showing raised callosities at the base above the claw (x9) E wing petal (x11) F leaf from seasonal shoot (x3.5) G paired stipules fused across their base (x30) H flower viewed from the front (x10) I trifid cupulum (x14) J flower subtended by a filiform peduncle terminating in a trifid cupulum of fused bracts (x14). Line drawing by Charles Stirton from voucher V.R. Clark, C.H. Stirton, & P. Weston 91 (GRA). 
Distribution of Psoralea margaretiflora C.H. Stirton, & V.R. Clark. 
A new species of Psoralea is described. Psoralea margaretiflora C.H. Stirton & V.R. Clark is endemic to the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Eastern Cape, South Africa. This resprouter is characterised by its small greenish-white flowers with a small trifid purple nectar patch and translucent veins; 5(-7)-pinnate leaflets; multi-branching erect short seasonal flowering shoots; and tall habit of many stiff bare stems with the seasonal shoots massed at the apex. It is most similar to Psoralea oligophylla Eckl. & Zeyh., a widespread species found in the Eastern Cape. The reseeder Psoralea oligophylla differs in its lax virgate spreading habit with numerous long glaucous seasonal shoots; single stem, 1(-3)- glaucous leaflets; more numerous white flowers; and standard petals with a purple ring surrounding a bright yellow nectar patch.
Herbarium specimen of Lettowia nyassae (Oliv.) H. Rob. & Skvarla ( A. Stolz 103 , US). 
A-F SEM of pollen. A-B Lettowia nyassae (Oliv.) H. Rob. & Skvarla ( A. Stolz 103 , US) A View with a pore B Surface lacking pores C-F Vernoniastrum nestor (S. Moore) H. Rob. (Burundi, Prov. Burundi, Gihofi (Mosso), 20 May 1980, Reekmans 9185 , US) C View with a pore D Surface lacking pores E Closer view of lacuna with a pore F Closer view of surface without pores showing extra rows of baculae. 
A new genus, Lettowia H. Rob. & Skvarla is named for the single East African species originally described as Vernonia nyassae Oliv. Its pollen is lophate and triporate, with a perforated tectum restricted to the muri. The new genus is placed near Vernoniastrum in the subtribe Erlangeinae.
Solanum umtuma . A Habit with pronounced secondary leaf lobes and sparse prickles B Habit with few secondary leaf lobes and dense prickles C Calyx of a long-styled fl ower at anthesis D Fruiting branch E Porrect stellate trichome from the adaxial surface of a leaf. Scale bar: A, B, C = 3 cm; C = 1.5 cm; E = 0.5 mm. A, E from Gerrard 295 ; B-D from Arnold 35934 . Drawn by Lucy T. Smith. 
Photograph of the holotype of Solanum umtuma ( J.L. Gordon-Gray 1017 , NU-40255). 
A new andromonoecious species related to the eggplant and belonging to Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum from southern Africa is described. Solanum umtuma Voronts. & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is found in the eastern part of South Africa, and is sympatric with its close relative Solanum linnaeanum Hepper & P.M-L.Jaeger. It is morphologically very similar to Solanum cerasiferum Dunal of northern tropical Africa. A comparison table with similar and closely related species is provided, as are a distribution map and illustration of Solanum umtuma.
Two new monotypic genera, Bergbambos and Oldeania are described for African temperate bamboo species in the tribe Arundinarieae, after a comparison of their morphological characteristics with those of similar species from Asia. Morphological differences are supported by their isolated geographical distributions. Molecular evidence does not support the inclusion of these species in related Asian genera, recognising them instead as distinct lineages. New combinations Bergbambos tessellata and Oldeania alpina are made.
The genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae) is restricted to continental Africa and is characterized by sepals with folded margins, few carpels and numerous stamens. The genus is mainly found in the tropical lowland rain forests of Africa, with one species growing in a drier woodland habitat. The species name Uvariastrum pynaertii De Wild is reduced into synonymy with Uvariastrum zenkeri Engl. & Diels. Uvaraistrum neglectum Paiva and Uvariastrum modestum Dielsare transferred to the genus Uvaria leading to two new combinations: Uvaria modesta (Diels) Couvreur, comb. nov. and Uvaria paivana Couvreur, nom. nov. Five species are currently recognized in Uvariastrum. The present revision, the first of the genus for over 100 years, provides an overview of previously published information and discussions on morphology, taxonomy and palynology. Preliminary conservation status assessments are provided for each species, as well as diagnostic keys for fruiting and flowering material as well as detailed species descriptions. Furthermore, all species are illustrated by line drawings and all species are mapped.
Polyspatha oligospatha Faden, sp. nov. 1. Habit. 2. Spathe with open flower, side view. 3. Flower, front view. 4. Flower, side view. 5. Stamen and staminode filaments, showing basal fusion. 6. Dehisced capsule. 7. Seed, dorsal view. 8. Seed, ventral. All from Poulsen 1275 (originally from Uganda; cultivated at the Smithsonian Institution). Illustration by A. R. Tangerini. 
Distribution of Polyspatha oligospatha Faden, sp. nov. The arrow indicates the location of the collection Letouzey 11465, which is atypcial for the species (see text). 
Polyspatha oligospatha Faden, the third species in a small African endemic genus of Commelinaceae, is described. It is widespread but has been overlooked because of its small stature and resemblance to small plants of Polyspatha paniculata. It differs from both Polyspatha paniculata and Polyspatha hirsuta, the two other species, by its leaf pubescence, fewer, more widely spaced and usually patent spathes, deeply ridged seeds with numerous knobby, transversely interrupted ridges, and morning anthesis. It occurs throughout the Congolian forests from Cameroon to Uganda, but it is also disjunct in Ivory Coast, across the Dahomey gap.
The current investigation was carried out to examine how palm anatomy may coincide with the current molecular analysis including the three recognized clades of Syagrus Mart. and to justify the splitting of acaulescent Syagrus species (e.g. Syagrus petraea (Mart.) Becc.) into several species. Free-hand cross-sections of leaflets were made and the comparison of these verifies the relationships suggested by the molecular data. Free-hand leaflet sections were also found to be useful in the identification of otherwise difficult-to-identify acaulescent Syagrus species. The result and conclusion is that anatomical data is valuable in helping to verify molecular data and that splitting the acaulescent species of Syagrus is justified by the differences discovered in their field habit and anatomy. These differences were used to produce an identification key that is based on the anatomy. NOBLICK NOTE: Figure 7 is wrong in this pdf version. For the correct figure, please see:
Alatococcus siqueirae A Branch with detail of petiolules B Sub-cincinnus C Staminate fl ower bud D Staminate fl ower E Petal with appendage, adaxial and lateral views F Portion of staminate fl ower showing unilateral nectary disc and stamens, staminate fl ower with removed petal showing nectary disc, stamens and pistillode G Pistillode, top and lateral views H Fruit, two lateral views I Dissected fruit showing wing, locule, mesocarp and seed, seed basal view. A, H–I from Folli 1761 (K); B–G from Siqueira and Magnago 639 (US). 
Pollen of Alatococcus siqueirae . A Equatorial view showing colpus and pore B Polar view showing three colpi and striate ornamentation. All from Siqueira & Magnago 639 (US). 
The new genus Alatococcus (Sapindaceae) is described from Espirito Santo, Brazil. Alatococcus seems to be closely related to Scyphonychium of northeastern Brazil, as they both share similar vegetative morphology, flowers with zygomorphic calyx, fruits with indehiscent mericarps, and isopolar, tricolporate pollen grains. They however differ by the shape of the nectary disc, petal appendages, mericarps, and pollen shape and ornamentation. The new species Alatococcus siqueirae is described and illustrated.
The name Albuca caudata Jacq. has been widely misunderstood or even ignored since its description in 1791. After studying herbarium specimens and living populations in South Africa, plants fitting Jacquin´s concept of that species are found to be widely distributed in the Eastern Cape, mainly in the Albany centre of Endemism. Furthermore, some divergent specimens matching Baker´s concept of Albuca caudata are described as a new related species: Albuca bakeri. Data on typification, morphology, ecology, and distribution are reported for both taxa. Affinities and divergences with other close allies are also discussed.
Holotype of Pyropia plicata sp. nov. (WELT A A032582). Scale bar = 5 cm. 
Pyropia plicata exposed at low tide on upper intertidal rocks (ca 5 cm high). 
3 (left): Vegetative region of the blade showing the margin with small pale cells. (WELT A032593) 4 (right): Fertile region of the blade with packets of developing zygotosporangia (larger, darkercoloured clusters), single sterile cells (between zygotosporangia) and packets of spermatangia (smaller, paler-coloured clusters) releasing at the blade margin. (WELT A032593). Scale bar = 50 μm. 
5 Cross section of monostromatic blade showing square sterile cells and spindle-shaped developing carpogonia. (WELT A032593) 6 Cross section view of mature zygotosporangia. (WELT A032593) 7 Cross section view of mature spermatangia. (WELT A032593). Scale bar 5 : 50 μm, 6-7 : 20 μm. 
A commonly found red alga of the upper intertidal zone of New Zealand rocky coasts is described for the first time as Pyropia plicata sp. nov. This species has been incorrectly known as Porphyra columbina Mont. (now Pyropia columbina (Mont.) W.A.Nelson) for many years. Pyropia plicata is widespread and common, and it is readily distinguished from other species of bladed Bangiales in New Zealand by its distinctive morphology, with pleated blades attached by a central rhizoidal holdfast.
Distribution of Harperocallis.  
Habit and habitats of Harperocallis. H. fl ava. A Flower (note the peduncular bract, pronounced connective, and tuberculate ovary) B Habitat. H. robustior. C Infl orescence D Habit and habitat . H. schomburgkiana. E Flower F Leaves. (A, unvouchered, photograph A.R. Schotz; B, photograph G. Anglin, C, D B. Stergios et al. 20368 (PORT), photograph K.J. Wurdack; E, F K.J. Wurdack et al. 5636 (US), photograph K.J. Wurdack).  
Harperocallis robustior. A Habit B Leaf (detail of parallel veins and tomentose margins) C Infl orescence (detail showing peduncular and calycular bracts subtending fl owers) D Peduncular bracts (detail) E Flower F Tepal (adaxial view) G Ovary (note the tuberculae) H Ovary (cross-section showing axile placentation and ovules) I Capsule (carpels separating distally). (A, I from L.J. Dorr et al. 4967 (US); B–H from B. Stergios et al. 17327 (PORT).  
Ten new combinations from Asagraea, Isidrogaliva, and Tofieldia are proposed in the previously monospecific genus Harperocallis (Tofieldiaceae, Alismatales). As circumscribed here, the genus is restricted to the Americas. The majority of species occur in the Andes or the Guayana region of northern South America; more than half have restricted distributions, and Harperocallis flava is narrowly endemic in the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States. A key to species, synonymies, distributions, representative specimens, and salient notes are presented. Populations of the species are mapped and Harperocallis robustior is illustrated. A neotype is selected for Tofieldia frigida, here considered a synonym of Harperocallis falcata. Several recent records of Harperocallis longiflora, previously known only from the type collected in 1902, are reported.
Allium formosum . A habit. B inner side of the perianth with stamina. C flower. D basal part of the umbella. Drawn from the type (H 1750496). 
Allium formosum . A outer tepal B inner tepal. Drawn from the type (H 1750496). Allium spathulatum C outer tepal D inner tepal. Drawn from Lazkov s.n. (H 1750506). 
Distribution areas of Allium formosum and Allium spathulatum . 
Allium formosum Sennikov & Lazkov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This species is the second member of Allium sect. Spathulata F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch, being different from Allium spathulatum F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch in larger, broader, obtuse and more intensely purple-coloured tepals, and in a more robust habit. It is a local endemic of Babash-Ata Mt. Range situated east of Fergana Valley in Kyrgyzstan, recommended for legal protection as Endangered because of the very small population size in its only locality.
Allophylastrum frutescens. A Flowering branch B Detail of branch with leaf subtending a single flower, detail of a raceme C Pre-anthesis staminate flower and l.s. of same D Detail of staminate flower nectary disc, stamens, and pistillode e Staminate flower at anthesis, showing nectary disc and stamens F l.s. of staminate flower G Stamen, frontal and lateral views h Pistillode I Fruiting branch J Fruit with two monocarps and detail of monocarp insertion K Fruit showing fully developed monocarp with seed, and an undeveloped monocarp l Embryo, lateral and frontal views. A-h from Silva and Lima 5828 (NY); I-l from Lima 812 (NY). 
Pollen of Allophylastrum frutescens. A Equatorial view showing pore B Oblique polar view of 4-angular grain showing 2 pores C Oblique equatorial view of a 5-angular grain showing 3 pores D Polar view of 5-angualr grain (top), oblique equatorial views of a 5-angular grain showing 3 pores. All from R.H. Schomburgk 336 (W). 
The new genus Allophylastrum (Sapindaceae) is described from Roraima, Brazil and Guyana. Allophylastrum resembles the genus Allophylus in its vegetative morphology but differs by its apetalous flowers with a cupular nectary disc, 5-6 unequal stamens, and 4- to 5- porate pollen grains. A key is provided to differentiate Allophylastrum from Allophylus. The new species Allophylastrum frutescens is described and illustrated.
Holotype of M. peregrinus Vallejo-Marin [11-LED-seed-2-14; barcode E00570050].
Flowers of M. peregrinus and closely related taxa. A M. guttatus B M. × smithii (M. luteus luteus × M. luteus variegatus) C M. × robertsii (M. guttatus × M. luteus), and D M. peregrinus. Each taxon is represented by fl owers from two individuals from a single locality to illustrate within-population variability: M. guttatus = Dunblane, Perthshire; M. × smithii = Coldstream, Scottish Borders; M. × robertsii = Nenthall, Cumbria; M. peregrinus = Leadhills, South Lanarkshire. Scale bar = 1cm.
Holotype of Mimulus peregrinus Vallejo-Marin [11-LED-seed-2-14; barcode E00570050].
Flowers of Mimulus peregrinus and closely related taxa. A
Mimulus guttatus
Mimulus × smithii (Mimulus luteus luteus × Mimulus luteus variegatus) C
Mimulus × robertsii (Mimulus guttatus × Mimulus luteus), and D
Mimulus peregrinus. Each taxon is represented by flowers from two individuals from a single locality to illustrate within-population variability: Mimulus guttatus = Dunblane, Perthshire; Mimulus × smithii = Coldstream, Scottish Borders; Mimulus × robertsii = Nenthall, Cumbria; Mimulus peregrinus = Leadhills, South Lanarkshire. Scale bar = 1cm.
Flow-cytometry estimates of 2C DNA content (DAPI-stained) of British Mimulus. Error bars represent standard errors when multiple individuals per taxon were tested. Sample sizes as follows (chromosome numbers for each population are given in parenthesis when available). Mimulus guttatus: N = 4 individuals from Dunblane, Perthshire (2n = 28); and 2 individuals from Muckle Roe, Shetland; Mimulus × robertsii (= Mimulus guttatus × Mimulus luteus): N= 1 individual from Nenthall, Cumbria (2n = 44, 45); Mimulus × smithii (= Mimulus luteus var. luteus × Mimulus luteus var. variegatus): N = 2 individuals from Coldstream, Scottish Borders (2n = 59, 60, 61, 62); Mimulus peregrinus: N = 6 individuals from Leadhills, South Lanarkshire (2n = 92).All chromosome counts kindly provided by J. Bailey.
Polyploidization plays an important role in species formation as chromosome doubling results in strong reproductive isolation between derivative and parental taxa. In this note I describe a new species, Mimulus peregrinus (Phrymaceae), which represents the first recorded instance of a new British polyploid species of Mimulus (2n = 6x = 92) that has arisen since the introduction of this genus into the United Kingdom in the 1800's. Mimulus peregrinus presents floral and vegetative characteristics intermediate between Mimulus guttatus and Mimulus luteus, but can be distinguished from all naturalized British Mimulus species and hybrids based on a combination of reproductive and vegetative traits. Mimulus peregrinus displays high pollen and seed fertility as well as traits usually associated with genome doubling such as increased pollen and stomata size. The intermediate characteristics of Mimulus peregrinus between Mimulus guttatus (2n = 2x = 28)and Mimulus luteus (2n = 4x = 60-62), and its close affinity with the highly sterile, triploid (2n = 3x = 44-45) hybrid taxon Mimulus × robertsii (Mimulus guttatus × Mimulus luteus), suggests that Mimulus peregrinus mayconstitute an example of recent allopolyploid speciation.
Holotype of Hieracium maccoshiana (NMW). 
Middle stem leaves. A-C possible H. maccoshiana. A-B Ben Loyal (NMW 28.131.5185). C Ben Loyal (BM). D-N H. maccoshiana. D-F Rhiconich gorge (NMW V.2005.1.159). G-h Foinaven (CGE). I-l Rhiconich (CGE). M-N Craig na H'Uidhe (CGE). O-U H. dovrense, Drivstua, Dovrefj, Norway (S). O-Q S09-16213. r S09-16217. S S09-16224. t-U S09-16222. Scale bar 5 cm.
Distribution of Hieracium maccoshiana in Scotland.
A new species of hawkweed Hieracium maccoshiana T.C.G.Rich sp. nov. is described. It is related to the Norwegian Hieracium dovrense Fr., but differs in the shape and toothing of the stem leaves and in having glabrous-tipped ligules. It is endemic to the county of Sutherland, Scotland where it has been recorded from four sites. A lectotype of Hieracium dovrense is designated.
Phylogenetic relationships of Altingiaceae based on maximum likelihood analyses of combined cpDNA data. Phylogram is one of 14 trees (-InL=9927.72) derived from maximum likelihood analyses showing rates of substitution under K81uf+I model of substitution evolution (Modified from IckertBond and Wen 2006). Note: Break in branch lengths for the OG at left, and Semiliquidambar taxa with green shaded boxes, clades that include Liquidambar taxa have green outline boxes.
Morphological variation in Altingiaceae. A Liquidambar gracilipes with obconical flattened infrutescences and short styles. Leaves are simple, entire, choriaceous, and show a characteristic drip tip at the apex B Liquidambar siamensis also shows obconical flattened infructescences with simple leaves that have a serrate margin and lack of a drip tip C Liquidambar chingii showing variation in leaf morphology from palmately three-lobed leaves at left, to two-lobed leaves and simple leaves on the same branch. Infructescences are globose with long styles D Liquidambar styraciflua showing palmately five-lobed, chartaceous leaves, and globose infructescences with long styles. 
Pollen diversity in Altingiaceae. A–D Liquidambar excelsa E–H Liquidambar gracilipes 
A taxonomic synopsis of the Altingiaceae is presented, including the taxonomic enumeration and distribution of 15 recognized species based on studies of 1,500 specimens from 24 herbaria throughout the distributional range of the taxa. Previous phylogenetic analyses based on several molecular markers have shown that Altingia and Semiliquidambar are nested within Liquidambar. All Altingia and Semiliquidambar species are now formally transferred to Liquidambar, which has the nomenclatural priority. The following nine new combinations are herein made: Liquidambar cambodiana(Lecomte) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar caudata (H. T. Chang) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar chingii (Metcalf) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar gracilipes (Hemsl.) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar multinervis(Cheng) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar obovata (Merrill & Chun) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar poilanei (Tardieu) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar siamensis (Craib) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, and Liquidambar yunnanensis (Rehder & Wilson) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen.
Two new species in the Matelea stenopetala complex (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) are described from the Guiana Shield and Amazonian Brazil: Matelea brevistipitata Krings & Morillo, sp. nov. and Matelea trichopedicellataKrings & Morillo, sp. nov. The new species belong to a small group of adaxially-pubescent-flowered taxa within the complex, including Matelea hildegardiana and Matelea pakaraimensis. The new species are described and a dichotomous key is provided.
The correct name for the Cuban species of Trichospermum Bl. (Malvaceae: Grewioideae) also found in Mexico and Central America is Trichospermum lessertianum (Hochr.) Dorr, comb. n. The name Trichospermum mexicanum (DC.) Baill., incorrectly applied to this Cuban species, should be restricted to a species endemic to western and southern Mexico.
Images of representative species of Nekemias Raf. A–B Nekemias arborea (L.) J. Wen & Boggan, voucher specimen: J. Wen 12005 (US), collected from Montgomery Co., Texas, USA C–D N. cantoniensis (Hook. & Arn.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, voucher specimen: J. Wen 10613 (US), collected from Xichou Xian, Yunnan province, China E–F N. celebica (Suess.) J. Wen & Boggan, voucher specimen: J. Wen 10242 (US), collected from SE Sulawesi, Indonesia. 
The genus Nekemias (Vitaceae) was first recognized by Rafinesque in 1838. It has been treated as a synonym of Ampelopsis Michx. Recent phylogenetic studies suggest that Ampelopsis as traditionally delimited is paraphyletic. To maintain the monophyly of each of the genera of Vitaceae, we herein segregate the Ampelopsissect.Leeaceifoliae lineage from Ampelopsis and recognize these taxa in Nekemias Raf., which has a disjunct distribution in eastern to southeastern Asia and eastern North America. Nomenclatural changes are made for nine species and one variety: Nekemiasarborea (L.) J. Wen & Boggan, Nekemiascantoniensis (Hook. & Arn.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemiascelebica (Suess.) J. Wen & Boggan, Nekemiaschaffanjonii (H. Lév. & Van.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemiasgongshanensis (C.L. Li) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemiasgrossedentata (Hand.-Mazz.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemiashypoglauca (Hance) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemiasmegalophylla (Diels & Gilg) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemiasmegalophyllavar.jiangxiensis (W.T. Wang) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, and Nekemiasrubifolia (Wall.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie. A taxonomic key is provided for the genus to facilitate identification.
Four new species of “non-spiny” Solanum from South America are described. Solanum longifilamentum Särkinen & P.Gonzáles, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is widespread from Ecuador to Bolivia and is most similar to Solanum macrotonum Dunal from Central and northern South America. Solanum antisuyo Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is found on the eastern Andean slopes in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia and is most similar to the widespread lower elevation species Solanum polytrichostylum Bitter. Solanum arenicola Särkinen & P.Gonzáles, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is found in low elevation habitats on the eastern Andean slopes and in Amazonia of Peru and Bolivia and is most similar to the higher elevation species Solanum aloysiifolium Dunal of Bolivia and Argentina. Solanum mariae Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Potato clade) is endemic to Cajamarca Department in Peru, and is most similar to the widespread Solanum caripense Dunal. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given.
Solanum falciforme Farruggia.Image of Isotype [S.A. Mori et al. 16658 (MO)]. Detail of falcate hairs (inset).
A-B Solanum falciforme Farruggia. Images of type collection [S. Mori et al. 16658]. A Staminate flower with pubescent anthers and falcate hairs on axes B Mature fruit showing powdery pubescence and expanded calyx tube. Photos by S. Mori. C-E Solanum pseudosycophanta Farruggia [L. Bohs et al. 3784]. C Staminate flower D Cross-section of trunk showing abundant secondary xylem and spongy pith E Mature fruits showing knobby calyx with thickened lobes reduced to points. Photos by F.T. Farruggia.
Solanum pseudosycophanta Farruggia.Image of isotype[S. Stern et al. 178 (NY)].
Two new species of Solanum section Crinitum are described here. Solanum falciforme Farruggia, sp. nov., closely resembles Solanum crinitum and Solanum lycocarpum, but differs by the presence of falcate trichomes on the young growth. It is endemic to the cerrado and adjacent woodlands of Distrito Federal, Bahia, Goiás and Minas Gerais, Brazil. The other species, Solanum pseudosycophanta Farruggia, sp.nov., has close affinities to Solanum sycophanta butdiffers from the latter in having prominent long-stalked stellate hairs along the stem, calyx, petiole and the adaxial surface of the leaf, in contrast to Solanum sycophanta which is glabrous or pubescent with sessile to short-stalked multangulate hairs. This species is narrowly distributed in tropical montane forests of northern Peru and southern Ecuador.
Habit of Solanum rigidum on the Cape Verde Islands. Photograph courtesy of MC Duarte. 
Solanum rigidum . A habit with dense prickles and small deeply lobed leaves B habit with sparse prickles and larger more shallowly lobed leaves C infl orescence with a single lowermost hermaphroditic long-styled fl ower at the base D infl orescence with distal functionally male short-styled fl owers E immature fruit and fruiting calyx with attenuate calyx lobe tips F seed G stellate trichome from the stem H, I stellate trichomes from the lower surface of the leaf. A , C , G–I drawn from Martins et al 468 B, F drawn from Barbosa & Silva 14072 D, E drawn from photographs of MC Duarte. Drawn by Lucy T. Smith. 
Distribution map of S. rigidum . A global distribution in the Caribbean and the Cape Verdes 
A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum, a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provide a detailed description, illustration and distribution map. The preliminary conservation status of Solanum rigidum is Least Concern, but needs to be reassessed in light of its endemic rather than introduced status.
Amomum nilgiricum A a part of leafy shoot B ligule C inflorescence D bract E bracteole F flower G calyx H corolla lobes I stamen J labellum K ovary with epigynous glands and style L stigma M c.s. of ovary N fruit O seed.
Amomum nilgiricum A habit B ligules C inflorescence D rhizome with inflorescences E bract F bracteole G flower with a bract H calyx I corolla lobes J stigma K ovary with epigynous glands and style L stamen M labellum N infructescence.
A new species of Amomum Roxb. from Western Ghats of Kerala is illustrated and described. Amomum nilgiricum VP.Thomas & M.Sabu, sp. nov. shows similarity with Amomum masticatorium Thwaites in having long drying ligule with an acuminate apex, pubescent anther and echinate capsules, but differs in clump forming habit with non-stoloniferous rhizomes, tomentose lamina beneath, long corolla tube, obovate to rhomboid labellum with clefted apex and without any colour design, emarginate anther crest and reduced staminodes. Detailed description, illustration, photographs, conservation status, and distributional details are provided.
Two new species of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum from southern Ecuador and northern Peru are described here. Solanum rubicaule S. Stern, sp. nov., is a member of sect. Torva and is characterized by a festooning, scandent growth form and fruits held horizontally on recurved pedicels. Solanum achorum S. Stern, sp. nov., is a member of sect. Erythrotrichum and is characterized by 4-12-flowered inflorescences, small seeds, and a small calyx. Both species are distributed in the Amotape-Huancabamba Zone of the Andes in northern Peru and southern Ecuador.
Image of the holotype of Ampelocissus asekii J.Wen, R.Kiapranis & M.Lovave. 
Ampelocissus asekii J.Wen, R.Kiapranis & M.Lovave. A Close-up of an infl orescence branch 
Micromorphology of Ampelocissus asekii J.Wen, R.Kiapranis & M.Lovave. A Floral bud showing sepals and petals B An opening fl oral bud C Trichomes on adaxial leafl et surface near a veinlet D Cuticle on adaxial leafl et surface E Trichomes on abaxial leafl et surface F Cuticle and a stoma on abaxial leafl et surface. 
A new species Ampelocissus asekii J.Wen, R.Kiapranis & M.Lovave of Vitaceae is described from Morobe Province of Papua New Guinea. It is a close relative of Ampelocissus muelleriana Planch., another endemic of New Guinea and differs from the latter by its densely woolly tomentose lower leaflet surface and much thicker leaflets. The new species is from the mid montane forests, whereas Ampelocissus muelleriana occurs in the lowland rain forests.
Herbaria and natural history collections (NHC) are critical to the practice of taxonomy and have potential to serve as sources of data for biodiversity and conservation. They are the repositories of vital reference specimens, enabling species to be studied and their distribution in space and time to be documented and analysed, as well as enabling the development of hypotheses about species relationships. The herbarium of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa (WELT) contains scientifically and historically significant marine macroalgal collections, including type specimens, primarily of New Zealand species, as well as valuable exsiccatae from New Zealand and Australia. The herbarium was initiated in 1865 with the establishment of the Colonial Museum and is the only herbarium in New Zealand where there has been consistent expert taxonomic attention to the macroalgae over the past 50 years. We examined 19,422 records of marine macroalgae from around New Zealand collected over the past 164 years housed in WELT, assessing the records in terms of their spatial and temporal coverage as well as their uniqueness and abundance. The data provided an opportunity to review the state of knowledge of the New Zealand macroalgal flora reflected in the collections at WELT, to examine how knowledge of the macroalgal flora has been built over time in terms of the number of collections and the number of species recognised, and identify where there are gaps in the current collections as far as numbers of specimens per taxon, as well as with respect to geographical and seasonal coverage.
Murdannia saddlepeakensis A Habitat (a view of Saddle Peak National Park) B Habit C Flower, ventral view. 
Murdannia saddlepeakensis A Habit B Inflorescence C Flower, ventral view D Flower, lateral view E Stamen F Rudimentary stamen G Staminode H Pistil I Capsule J Seed, lateral view K Seed, ventral view. All from M V Ramana 0550 . Drawn by Mayur Nandikar 
Murdannia saddlepeakensis (Commelinaceae), a new species from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, is described and illustrated. The new species is remarkable for its narrowly linear leaves, two fertile stamens, single seeded locule and scorbiculate seeds.
Cuatrecasanthus is native to Ecuador and Peru and although several unusual characters define the genus, such as single flowered heads and corolla throat (limb) divided to the base with lobes that are thickened at the margins, the members of the genus were not recognized as especially closely related until relatively recently. All six species are described, including two new to science (Cuatrecasanthus kingii H. Rob. & V.A. Funk, sp. nov. and Cuatrecasanthus lanceolatus H. Rob. & V.A. Funk, sp. nov.), and one new combination is recognized (Cuatrecasanthus giannasii (Stutts) H. Rob. & V.A. Funk, comb. nov.). A key is provided along with images of the types, SEM photographs of the leaf surfaces, a distribution map, and illustrations of the two new species. All species are given a preliminary conservation status of Data Deficient in regard to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Potential habitat distribution map of Solanum pseudoamericanum . Th e potential habitat areas refl ect the cumulative output of the MAXENT model produced using 11 climatic variables with the original four collection localities from 2012 from southern Peru shown as grey squares on the map (see Methods for details). Areas identifi ed as highly suitable (above 40% cumulative probability) in central and northern Peru were visited in 2013 during the second fi eld season, and 17 new collection localities were found as a result (black squares). Five additional collections were identifi ed amongst herbarium loans (purple triangles). 
Distribution map of Solanum pseudoamericanum . Th e potential habitat areas refl ect the logistic output of the MAXENT model produced using 11 climatic variables with all current known occurrence records (N=26; Model 2). 
Illustration of Solanum pseudoamericanum . A Habit B Adaxial leaf surface C Abaxial leaf surface D Bud E Half fl ower F Fruit ( A–F Knapp 10351). Illustration by Rosemary Wise. 
Photos of Solanum pseudoamericanum . A Habit B Ridged stem C Flowers with small anthers c. 1.5 mm long, strongly exserted styles and with capitate stigmas D Developing fruits which turn purple- black when fully ripe with calyx appressed to the fruit. ( A Särkinen et al. 4640 ; B Knapp et al. 10357 ; C, D   Knapp et al. 10300 ) Scale bars = 1 mm. 
A new species of Solanum sect. Solanum from Peru is described here. Solanum pseudoamericanum Särkinen, Gonzáles & S.Knapp sp. nov. is a member of the Morelloid clade of Solanum, and is characterized by the combination of mostly forked inflorescences, flowers with small stamens 2.5 mm long including the filament, and strongly exerted styles with capitate stigmas. The species was first thought to be restricted to the seasonally dry tropical forests of southern Peru along the dry valleys of Río Pampas and Río Apurímac. Results from species distribution modelling (SDM) analysis with climatic predictors identified further potential suitable habitat areas in northern and central Peru. These areas were visited during field work in 2013. A total of 17 new populations across the predicted distribution were discovered using the model-based sampling method, and five further collections were identified amongst herbarium loans. Although still endemic to Peru, Solanum pseudoamericanum is now known from across northern, central and southern Peru. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of SDM for predicting new occurrences of rare plants, especially in the Andes where collection densities are still low in many areas and where many new species remain to be discovered.
Isotype specimen of Brunfelsia plowmaniana N. Filipowicz & M. Nee: M. Nee 37571 (NY).
Distribution of Brunfelsia plowmaniana N. Filipowicz & M. Nee based on the voucher specimens listed in Taxonomic treatment and in Appendix 1.
Maximum likelihood phylogram (GTR + Gamma) for a reduced dataset consisting of 41 accessions of Brunfelsia and 8 outgroup genera and based on the analysis of combined plastid and nuclear sequences (3784 aligned nucleotides). Numbers above branches refer to ML bootstrap support ≥70%. Placements of Brunfelsia plowmaniana N.Filipowicz & M.Nee and Brunfelsia uniflora (Pohl) D.Don (both represented by two accessions) in the tree are marked in red. Main clades are marked in different colors. For the full tree and alignment see TreeBase under acc. no. 12245.
Brunfelsia plowmaniana N.Filipowicz & M.Nee sp. nov., a species from humid and cloud forests of the Bolivian and Argentinean Andes, is described and provided with a molecular diagnosis, using provisions available in the recently approved International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. Specimens belonging to the new species were previously placed in the polymorphic Brunfelsia uniflora (Pohl) D.Don, which a molecular phylogeny revealed as polyphyletic. Revision of numerous collections revealed clear morphological differences between the new species and Brunfelsia uniflora, the type locality of which is in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.
Weinmannia marquesana var. angustifolia Lorence & W. L. Wagner. A habit (Perlman 14911, S. Perlman photo), B branchlets with male flowers (Perlman 14911, K. Wood photo). 
Weinmannia marquesana var. angustifolia Lorence & W. L. Wagner (Perlman et al. 15992, holotype US ). 
Weinmannia marquesana F. Br. var. angustifolia Lorence & W. L. Wagner, var. nov., a new variety with narrow, simple leaves endemic to Tahuata, Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia) is described and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is similar to the other two varieties of this species by having simple leaves, but this new variety has much narrower leaf blades, and it resembles Weinmannia tremuloides in having narrow leaf blades but differs by having simple, not trifoliolate leaves.
Goniothalamus palawanensis , sp. nov. A Flowering branch B Flower C Sepal (ab‐ and adaxial) D Outer petal (ab- and adaxial) E Inner petal (ab- and adaxial) F Stamen (ab- and adaxial) G Carpel. Scale bars: A = 5 cm; B, D, E = 1 cm; C = 5 mm; F = 2 mm, G = 1 mm; A from C.C. Tang 10 (HKU); B–G  from C.C. Tang 14 (HKU); drawing by Caren Pearl Shin. 
Goniothalamus palawanensis , sp. nov. A Habit (mature individual with flowers) B Branch with leaves (abaxial) C Branch with leaves (adaxial) D , E Flower F Sepals (abaxial) G Very mature flower with two outer petals and one inner petal removed, showing stamens and stigmas H Perianth parts (abaxial; left to right: sepal, inner petal, outer petal) I Perianth parts (adaxial; left to right: sepal, inner petal, outer petal). Scale bars: H, I = 1 cm; A, D from C. C. Tang 09 (HKU); B, C, F, G from C.C. Tang 06 (HKU); E, H , I from C.C. Tang 14 (HKU). Photos by C.C. Tang. 
Distribution of Goniothalamus palawanensis, sp. nov., in Palawan.
A new species, Goniothalamus palawanensis C.C.Tang & R.M.K.Saunders, sp. nov. (Annonaceae), is described from Palawan, Philippines. Goniothalamus palawanensis is most closely related to Goniothalamus amuyon (Blanco) Merr., but differs in its shorter inner petals, hairy ovaries, and funnel-shaped stigmas. A new nomenclatural combination, Goniothalamus angustifolius (A.C.Sm.) B.Xue & R.M.K.Saunders, comb. nov., is furthermore validated to reflect the phylogenetic affinities of a Fijian species previously assigned to Polyalthia.
Tetrameranthus umbellatus Westra A Young fl ower (Tunquí 62, U) B Androecium and gynoecium of same. Tetrameranthus duckei R. E. Fr. C Two-seeded monocarp (Rodrigues & Coêlho 3835, U) D One-seeded monocarp (Morawetz et al. 21-9883, U). Tetrameranthus pachycarpus Westra E, F Twoseeded monocarp cut open and seen from outside (Foster 4271, NY). Tetrameranthus umbellatus Westra G Two-seeded monocarp (Huashikat 613, U). 
Tetrameranthus duckei R. E. Fr. A Two-fl owered infl orescence B Flowers at early anthesis C Flower at late anthesis, liberation of pollen (Webber, 1981) D Fruit. Tetrameranthus laomae D.R.Simpson E Ripe fruit, also sectioned to show seeds. Note articulation at base of fruiting stalk. Tetrameranthus umbellatus Westra F Flowers G Young infl orescence, detail of herbarium specimen (Morawetz & Wallnöfer 14-81085, U). A, E-F Photos by W. Morawetz, B-D Photos by A. C. Webber. 
Tetrameranthus guianensis Westra & Maas A Single-fl owered infl orescence after shedding of perianth and stamens B A twig C Ripe fruit, also sectioned to show seed. Tetrameranthus globuliferus Westra D, E Twig with infl orescences (Pérez C. & Santillán 4404, QCA) F, G Flower seen from the side and from above (same). A-C Photos by D. Sabatier, D-G Photos by A. J. Pérez C. 
The taxonomic revision of the infrequently collected genus Tetrameranthus by Westra (1985) is updated. A new species is described from French Guiana and Amapá, Brazil, increasing the number of species in this genus to seven.
Top-cited authors
Jochen Heinrichs
  • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
Matt von Konrat
  • Field Museum of Natural History
Barbara Crandall-Stotler
  • Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Juan Larraín
Jiri Vana
  • Charles University in Prague