PrefaceThis is the official Report on the deliberations and decisions of the ten sessions of the Nomenclature Section of the XVII International Botanical Congress held in Vienna, Austria, from 12–16 July 2005. The meetings of the Section took place on these five consecutive days prior to the Congress proper. The Section meetings were hosted by the Institute of Botany, University of Vienna, Austria. Technical facilities included full electronic recording of all discussion spoken into the microphones. Text of all proposals to amend the Code was displayed on one screen allowing suggested amendments to be updated as appropriate. The team at the University of Vienna (Christopher Dixon, Jeong-Mi Park, Ovidiu Paun, Carolin A. Redernig and Dieter Reich) ensured that the proceedings ran smoothly and enjoyably for all.A report of the decisions of the Section was published soon after the Congress (McNeill & al. in Taxon 54: 1057–1064. 2005). It includes a tabulation of the preliminary mail vote on the published proposals, specifying how the Section acted on each and detailing amendments and new proposals approved upon motions from the floor. It also includes the report of the Nominating Committee as well as the Congress resolution ratifying the Section’s decisions, neither reproduced here. The main result of the Section’s deliberations is the Vienna Code, which was published as Regnum Vegetabile 146, on 20 Sep 2006 (McNeill & al. in Regnum Veg. 146. 2006). It was also published online, on the same date (see http://www.iapt-taxon.org/nomen/main.php).The present report of the proceedings of the Vienna Nomenclature Section conveys, we believe, a true and lively picture of the event. It is primarily based on the MP3 electronic recordings, with, where necessary, supplementation by the comment slips submitted by most speakers and by reference to parallel tape-recording, particularly where there were gaps in the MP3 record. With these sources combined, and with all motions and voting results double-checked through the soundtrack and published preliminary report of the Section meeting based on two parallel series of notes by the Rapporteur and the Recorder, we are confident that the record published hereunder is accurate and complete as possible. The delayed production of the report has, however, meant that it has not been possible to include the text of some of the proposals made from the floor, particularly those that were unsuccessful, as no permanent electronic record was made and it was not possible to locate written records for some of these.Before it was cast into its present, final form, this Report went through a succession of phases. The Vienna Section was, as already noted, recorded electronically. One day of each recording was then transcribed by Fred Barrie (Wednesday), Dan Nicolson (Thursday), Nicholas Turland (Friday), and David Hawksworth (Saturday). For the remaining day, Tuesday 12 July, part of the first session was transcribed by John McNeill but the remainder was professionally transcribed by Pacific Transcription, Queensland, Australia and cross-checked and edited by Anna Monro. Apart from some initial editing of the Acacia debate and other small portions of text by John McNeill, the entire work of converting the partially edited version of the transcript to report format was accomplished by Christina Flann. At that time some portions were rearranged to ensure that the Report reflects the sequence of relevant provisions in the Code even when the order of the debates differed. Deviations from the chronology of events are indicated in the text by italicized bracketed notes. John McNeill then undertook the completion of some missing portions from the tape-recordings and from other sources, but, otherwise, these first two authors took an equal share in proof-reading the final version of the text.As in the case of previous nomenclature reports, which the present one faithfully follows in style and general layout, the spoken comments had to be condensed and partly reworded, rarely rather drastically. For this reason, indirect speech has been used consistently. Additions by the authors of this Report are placed between square brackets; they include explanatory or rectifying notes, records of reactions of the audience (to illustrate the sessions’ emotional background) and reports on procedural actions, unless they form a paragraph of their own. As in previous reports, the index to speakers has been integrated with the list of registered Section members.The Section in Vienna attracted 198 registered members carrying 402 institutional votes in addition to their personal votes, making a total of 600 possible votes (detailed by McNeill & al. in Taxon 54: 1057, Table 1. 2005). There were seven card votes, including one pertaining to the controversial Acacia issue. The Vienna Congress was fairly conservative in nomenclatural matters in comparison with some earlier Congresses. Relatively few changes were accepted, but a small number of significant ones and many useful clarifications and improvements were adopted. Perhaps the most important decision regarded the publication status of theses submitted for a higher degree. The Congress took the unusual step of accepting a retroactive change in the Code by deciding that no independent non-serial publication stated to be a thesis submitted for a higher degree on or after 1 January 1953 would be considered an effectively published work without a statement to that effect or other internal evidence. Several proposals on criteria for valid publication of names were considered and clarifications were accepted. Article 33 on new combinations was also further clarified. Three important sets of changes were accepted applying to names of fossil plants, pleomorphic fungi and fungi that had previously been named under the ICZN. Further details and other changes are outlined in the Preface to the Vienna Code itself.The inclusion for the first time of a Glossary is a notable achievement of the Vienna Code. It is very closely linked to the wording of the Code and only nomenclatural terms defined in the Code can be included. Paul C. Silva initiated the project, prepared the first draft for consideration by the Editorial Committee and worked over several subsequent ones, ensuring precision and consistency.It is worth noting that, despite the series of highly charged articles relating to the Acacia issue preceding the meeting, all debate on the issue was undertaken in a positive atmosphere, focussing on finding a solution to the dissatisfaction, and the results were graciously accepted by most.Thanks for that are due to Dan Nicolson as President of the Section, who with the other members of the Bureau of Nomenclature, made it all run smoothly. We also thank Pensoft Publishing for agreeing to publish this Report as an issue of PhytoKeys. Our thanks also go to the International Association for Plant Taxonomy for contributing to the costs of producing this Report.Christina Flann & John McNeill
As a result of his botanical explorations in northern Australia, Ferdinand von Mueller named several Cucurbitaceae that molecular data now show to be distinct, requiring their resurrection from unjustified synonymy. We here describe and illustrate Luffa saccata F. Muell. ex I.Telford, validating a manuscript name listed under Luffa graveolens Roxb. since 1859, and we lectotypify Cucumis picrocarpus F. Muell. and Cucumis jucundus F. Muell. The lectotype of the name Cucumis jucundus, a synonym of Cucumis melo, is mounted on the same sheet as the lectotype of Cucumis picrocarpus, which is the sister species of the cultivated Cucumis melo as shown in a recent publication.
The Nomenclature Section held just before the 18th International Botanical Congress in Melbourne, Australia in July 2011 saw sweeping changes to the way scientists name new plants, algae, and fungi. The changes begin on the cover: the title was broadened to make explicit that the Code applies not only to plants, but also to algae and fungi. The new title will now be the International Code of Nomenclature of algae, fungi, and plants. For the first time in history the Code will allow for the electronic publication of names of new taxa. In an effort to make the publication of new names more accurate and efficient, the requirement for a Latin validating diagnosis or description was changed to allow either English or Latin for these essential components of the publication of a new name. Both of these latter changes will take effect on 1 January 2012. The nomenclatural rules for fungi will see several important changes, the most important of which is probably the adoption of the principle of "one fungus, one name." Paleobotanists will also see changes with the elimination of the concept of "morphotaxa" from the Code.
A critical review of the Ecuadorian species of Acalypha L. (Euphorbiaceae) is presented; 20 of the 38 previously recognized species are accepted, 9 are considered synonyms and 9 are based on misidentifications. Comprehensive nomenclatural information is supplied and 13 lectotypes are designated. An identification key is also provided.
A new species of Solanum belonging to section Acanthophora (subgenus Leptostemonum) from Argentina and Brazil is described. Solanum neei Chiarini & L.A.Mentz, sp. nov. is found in clearings of semideciduous forests and in secondary formations, from the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina in Brazil to the Misiones province in Argentina. It is morphologically similar to Solanum incarceratum Ruiz & Pav. from Peru, Bolivia and Western-Central Brazil, differing mainly by its pedunculate inflorescences. A key to related species is provided, as well a photograph of the holotype, a distribution map and illustration.
PhytoKeys was established less than a year ago in response to four main publication challenges of our time: (1) the appearance of electronic publications as amendments or even alternatives to paper publications; (2) Open Access (OA) as a new publishing model; (3) the linkage of electronic registers, indices, and aggregators, which summarize information on biological species through taxonomic names or their persistent identifiers; and (4) Web 2.0 technologies, which permit the semantic markup of, and semantic enhancements to, published biological texts. The appearance of the journal was concomitant with lively discussions on the validity of nomenclatural acts published electronically (Knapp and Wright 2010, Knapp et al. 2010, Penev et al. 2010, Chapman et al. 2010). At the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne in July 2011 (IBC 2011) these discussions culminated in the decision to amend the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature to allow electronic-only publishing of new taxa. Even before the end of the Congress and formal acceptance of the changes PhytoKeys was able to publish a report on the main outcomes of the Nomenclature Section on electronic publishing (Miller et al. 2011).
The most recent critical checklists of the Cucurbitaceae of India are 30 years old. Since then, botanical exploration, online availability of specimen images and taxonomic literature, and molecular-phylogenetic studies have led to modified taxon boundaries and geographic ranges. We present a checklist of the Cucurbitaceae of India that treats 400 relevant names and provides information on the collecting locations and herbaria for all types. We accept 94 species (10 of them endemic) in 31 genera. For accepted species, we provide their geographic distribution inside and outside India, links to online images of herbarium or living specimens, and information on publicly available DNA sequences to highlight gaps in the current understanding of Indian cucurbit diversity. Of the 94 species, 79% have DNA sequences in GenBank, albeit rarely from Indian material. The most species-rich genera are Trichosanthes with 22 species, Cucumis with 11 (all but two wild), Momordica with 8, and Zehneria with 5. From an evolutionary point of view, India is of special interest because it harbors a wide range of lineages, many of them relatively old and phylogenetically isolated. Phytogeographically, the north eastern and peninsular regions are richest in species, while the Jammu Kashmir and Himachal regions have few Cucurbitaceae. Our checklist probably underestimates the true diversity of Indian Cucurbitaceae, but should help focus efforts towards the least known species and regions.
PhytoKeys was launched on the 1st of November 2010 as a novel, peer-reviewed, open-access outlet for plant biodiversity research and since then the journal quickly gained the support of the international botanical community and has been showing a continuous to growth in reputation and volume. This Editorial describes how PhytoKeys continues to evolve its editorial workflow, constantly implementing new and improved publishing and dissemination technologies, thus always being on point for digital biodiversity science.
It is shown that the concept of the Iranian endemic Lactuca polyclada in the sense of both its original author Boissier and its current use actually admixes two entirely different species, as was first noted by Beauverd a hundred years ago but has been neglected by later workers. One is a putative relative of Lactuca rosularis, the other was recognised by Beauverd as a member of the genus Cicerbita. The name Lactuca polyclada Boiss. is lectotypified here, maintaining its use as established by Beauverd for the Cicerbita species. Both species are morphologically delimited and mature achenes of Cicerbita polyclada are illustrated for the first time. The putative relative of Lactuca rosularis, a rare local endemic of the summit area of Kuh e-Dena, which has remained without a valid name by now, is described as a new species, Lactuca denaensis N. Kilian & Djavadi, and illustrated. A third member of the Lactuca rosularis group, Lactuca hazaranensis Djavadi & N. Kilian, discovered among a recent collection and apparently being a rare chasmophyte of the Hazaran mountain massif in the province of Kerman, Iran, is described as a species new to science, illustrated and delimited from the other two species. This new species has peculiar achenes representing a hitherto unknown variant: the body of the beaked achenes is divided into two segments by a transversal constriction in the distal third. The proximal segment contains the embryo, the distal segment is solid with a lipid-containing yellow tissue. The easily detachable pappus and the equally easily detachable beak potentially obstruct dispersal by wind. Since detachment of the beak also exposes the lipid-containing tissue of the distal segment, its potential as an elaiosome and myrmecochory as a possible mode of dispersal are discussed.
Four new species of Pilea (Urticaceae) from the Andes of Venezuela are described and illustrated: Pilea
sp. nov., Pilea
sp. nov., Pilea
sp. nov., and Pilea
sp. nov. The affinities of these species and their positions within the informal classifications of Pilea proposed by Weddell and Killip are discussed. Notes on other species of Pilea found in Venezuela also are presented.
A new species of Psoralea is described. Psoralea karooensis C.H. Stirt., Muasya & Vlok is endemic to mountain streams in the Klein Karoo region of the Western Cape Province, South Africa. The new species is characterised by its flexuose habit of many stiff bare stems with the seasonal shoots arising apically in clusters and its greenish cream flowers borne at the apex of 10-12 mm long peduncles each ending in a trifid cupulum.
Nothovernoniagen. nov., is described as a new genus for the tropical African Vernonia purpurea Sch.Bip. ex Walp. and Vernonia amblyolepis Bak, having cymiform inflorescences, pedunculate heads with differentiated foliiform bracts at the base, apiculate involucral bracts with scarious lateral margins, spiculiferous corolla lobes, and strongly spinose, sublopohate tricolporate pollen with the colpi meeting at the poles. The new genus belongs to the subtribe Centrapalinae and a key to the known DNA-sequenced genera of the subtribe is provided. The new species names are Nothovernonia purpurea (Sch.Bip. ex Walp.) H.Rob. and V.A.Funk, comb. nov., and Nothovernonia amblyolepis (Baker) H.Rob. & V.A.Funk, comb. nov.
Nuclear and plastid sequences from two individuals of a suspected new species of Coccinia from West Africa were added to an available molecular phylogeny for the remaining 27 species of the genus. Phylogenetic analyses of these data indicate the new species' monophyletic status and closest relatives. Based on four fertile collections, we here describe and illustrate Coccinia intermedia Holstein. We also provide a key to the Coccinia species of West Africa and map their distributions.
buchananii complex is shown to comprise three species, one of which is divided into two subspecies, based on morphological data. Two species, Dioscorea
rupicola Kunth and Dioscorea
multiloba Kunth, are endemic or subendemic to South Africa and of widespread occurrence in KwaZulu Natal. They differ markedly from each other in inflorescence and floral morphology and appear to be ecologically differentiated. The third species, Dioscorea
buchananii Benth., is primarily found in southeastern tropical Africa, but a small number of specimens collected in South Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries are placed in an endemic subspecies, Dioscorea
undatiloba (Baker) Wilkin. The latter taxon is a high priority in terms of rediscovery and conservation. Keys, descriptions, supporting information and illustrations are provided and made available online through eMonocot biodiversity informatics tools. Three nomenclatural acts are undertaken: two names are placed in synonymy and a new combination made.
Garcinia has some 260 species and is often regarded as a genus with a difficult taxonomy. No recent treatment is available for the botanically rich Lower Guinea phytogeographical region. This study aims at partly filling this gap. First, several taxonomic problems are solved. Garcinia chromocarpa is reduced to a variety of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia gnetoides and Garcinia granulata are both synonyms of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia zenkeri is a synonym of Garcinia densivenia and lectotypes are being designated for both names. Garcinia brevipedicellata is a synonym of Garcinia afzelii, as is Garcinia antidysenterica for which a lectotype is designated. Second, two new species endemic to Gabon are described: Garcinia gabonensis Sosef & Dauby and Garcinia obliqua Sosef & Dauby. Finally, an identification key to all species present in the Lower Guinea region is provided. A few remaining West African species names could not be placed with certainty, because the type material was lost or not traced yet. One is a Rutaceae while the remaining three are provisionally to be regarded as synonyms of Garcinia smeathmannii.
A new species of spiral ginger (Costus: Costaceae) from Gabon, Africa is described. Costus loangensis H. Maas & Maas is found in the coastal region on white sand soils under a tropical rain forest canopy. It is morphologically distinct from all other African species of Costus but shows some similarities in floral form with the savanna-inhabiting Costus spectabilis (Fenzl) K. Schum. and similarities in vegetative form with Costus ligularis Baker. Only one population of the new species is documented. Photographs of the new species are included as is a preliminary phylogeny indicating its position within the African Costaceae.
A new species of Psoralea is described. Psoralea margaretiflora C.H. Stirton & V.R. Clark is endemic to the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Eastern Cape, South Africa. This resprouter is characterised by its small greenish-white flowers with a small trifid purple nectar patch and translucent veins; 5(-7)-pinnate leaflets; multi-branching erect short seasonal flowering shoots; and tall habit of many stiff bare stems with the seasonal shoots massed at the apex. It is most similar to Psoralea oligophylla Eckl. & Zeyh., a widespread species found in the Eastern Cape. The reseeder Psoralea oligophylla differs in its lax virgate spreading habit with numerous long glaucous seasonal shoots; single stem, 1(-3)- glaucous leaflets; more numerous white flowers; and standard petals with a purple ring surrounding a bright yellow nectar patch.
A new genus, Lettowia H. Rob. & Skvarla is named for the single East African species originally described as Vernonia nyassae Oliv. Its pollen is lophate and triporate, with a perforated tectum restricted to the muri. The new genus is placed near Vernoniastrum in the subtribe Erlangeinae.
A new andromonoecious species related to the eggplant and belonging to Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum from southern Africa is described. Solanum umtuma Voronts. & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is found in the eastern part of South Africa, and is sympatric with its close relative Solanum linnaeanum Hepper & P.M-L.Jaeger. It is morphologically very similar to Solanum cerasiferum Dunal of northern tropical Africa. A comparison table with similar and closely related species is provided, as are a distribution map and illustration of Solanum umtuma.
Two new monotypic genera, Bergbambos and Oldeania are described for African temperate bamboo species in the tribe Arundinarieae, after a comparison of their morphological characteristics with those of similar species from Asia. Morphological differences are supported by their isolated geographical distributions. Molecular evidence does not support the inclusion of these species in related Asian genera, recognising them instead as distinct lineages. New combinations Bergbambos tessellata and Oldeania alpina are made.
The genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae) is restricted to continental Africa and is characterized by sepals with folded margins, few carpels and numerous stamens. The genus is mainly found in the tropical lowland rain forests of Africa, with one species growing in a drier woodland habitat. The species name Uvariastrum pynaertii De Wild is reduced into synonymy with Uvariastrum zenkeri Engl. & Diels. Uvaraistrum neglectum Paiva and Uvariastrum modestum Dielsare transferred to the genus Uvaria leading to two new combinations: Uvaria modesta (Diels) Couvreur, comb. nov. and Uvaria paivana Couvreur, nom. nov. Five species are currently recognized in Uvariastrum. The present revision, the first of the genus for over 100 years, provides an overview of previously published information and discussions on morphology, taxonomy and palynology. Preliminary conservation status assessments are provided for each species, as well as diagnostic keys for fruiting and flowering material as well as detailed species descriptions. Furthermore, all species are illustrated by line drawings and all species are mapped.
Polyspatha oligospatha Faden, the third species in a small African endemic genus of Commelinaceae, is described. It is widespread but has been overlooked because of its small stature and resemblance to small plants of Polyspatha paniculata. It differs from both Polyspatha paniculata and Polyspatha hirsuta, the two other species, by its leaf pubescence, fewer, more widely spaced and usually patent spathes, deeply ridged seeds with numerous knobby, transversely interrupted ridges, and morning anthesis. It occurs throughout the Congolian forests from Cameroon to Uganda, but it is also disjunct in Ivory Coast, across the Dahomey gap.
The current investigation was carried out to examine how palm anatomy may coincide with the current molecular analysis including the three recognized clades of Syagrus Mart. and to justify the splitting of acaulescent Syagrus species (e.g. Syagrus petraea (Mart.) Becc.) into several species. Free-hand cross-sections of leaflets were made and the comparison of these verifies the relationships suggested by the molecular data. Free-hand leaflet sections were also found to be useful in the identification of otherwise difficult-to-identify acaulescent Syagrus species. The result and conclusion is that anatomical data is valuable in helping to verify molecular data and that splitting the acaulescent species of Syagrus is justified by the differences discovered in their field habit and anatomy. These differences were used to produce an identification key that is based on the anatomy.
NOBLICK NOTE: Figure 7 is wrong in this pdf version. For the correct figure, please see: http://www.pensoft.net/J_FILES/3/articles/5436/export.php_files/PhytoKeys-026-075-g007.jpg
The new genus Alatococcus (Sapindaceae) is described from Espirito Santo, Brazil. Alatococcus seems to be closely related to Scyphonychium of northeastern Brazil, as they both share similar vegetative morphology, flowers with zygomorphic calyx, fruits with indehiscent mericarps, and isopolar, tricolporate pollen grains. They however differ by the shape of the nectary disc, petal appendages, mericarps, and pollen shape and ornamentation. The new species Alatococcus siqueirae is described and illustrated.
The name Albuca caudata Jacq. has been widely misunderstood or even ignored since its description in 1791. After studying herbarium specimens and living populations in South Africa, plants fitting Jacquin´s concept of that species are found to be widely distributed in the Eastern Cape, mainly in the Albany centre of Endemism. Furthermore, some divergent specimens matching Baker´s concept of Albuca caudata are described as a new related species: Albuca bakeri. Data on typification, morphology, ecology, and distribution are reported for both taxa. Affinities and divergences with other close allies are also discussed.
A commonly found red alga of the upper intertidal zone of New Zealand rocky coasts is described for the first time as Pyropia plicata
sp. nov. This species has been incorrectly known as Porphyra columbina Mont. (now Pyropia columbina (Mont.) W.A.Nelson) for many years. Pyropia plicata is widespread and common, and it is readily distinguished from other species of bladed Bangiales in New Zealand by its distinctive morphology, with pleated blades attached by a central rhizoidal holdfast.
Ten new combinations from Asagraea, Isidrogaliva, and Tofieldia are proposed in the previously monospecific genus Harperocallis (Tofieldiaceae, Alismatales). As circumscribed here, the genus is restricted to the Americas. The majority of species occur in the Andes or the Guayana region of northern South America; more than half have restricted distributions, and Harperocallis flava is narrowly endemic in the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States. A key to species, synonymies, distributions, representative specimens, and salient notes are presented. Populations of the species are mapped and Harperocallis robustior is illustrated. A neotype is selected for Tofieldia frigida, here considered a synonym of Harperocallis falcata. Several recent records of Harperocallis longiflora, previously known only from the type collected in 1902, are reported.
Allium formosum Sennikov & Lazkov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This species is the second member of Allium sect. Spathulata F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch, being different from Allium spathulatum F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch in larger, broader, obtuse and more intensely purple-coloured tepals, and in a more robust habit. It is a local endemic of Babash-Ata Mt. Range situated east of Fergana Valley in Kyrgyzstan, recommended for legal protection as Endangered because of the very small population size in its only locality.
The new genus Allophylastrum (Sapindaceae) is described from Roraima, Brazil and Guyana. Allophylastrum resembles the genus Allophylus in its vegetative morphology but differs by its apetalous flowers with a cupular nectary disc, 5-6 unequal stamens, and 4- to 5- porate pollen grains. A key is provided to differentiate Allophylastrum from Allophylus. The new species Allophylastrum frutescens is described and illustrated.
Polyploidization plays an important role in species formation as chromosome doubling results in strong reproductive isolation between derivative and parental taxa. In this note I describe a new species, Mimulus peregrinus (Phrymaceae), which represents the first recorded instance of a new British polyploid species of Mimulus (2n = 6x = 92) that has arisen since the introduction of this genus into the United Kingdom in the 1800's. Mimulus peregrinus presents floral and vegetative characteristics intermediate between Mimulus guttatus and Mimulus luteus, but can be distinguished from all naturalized British Mimulus species and hybrids based on a combination of reproductive and vegetative traits. Mimulus peregrinus displays high pollen and seed fertility as well as traits usually associated with genome doubling such as increased pollen and stomata size. The intermediate characteristics of Mimulus peregrinus between Mimulus guttatus (2n = 2x = 28)and Mimulus luteus (2n = 4x = 60-62), and its close affinity with the highly sterile, triploid (2n = 3x = 44-45) hybrid taxon Mimulus × robertsii (Mimulus guttatus × Mimulus luteus), suggests that Mimulus peregrinus mayconstitute an example of recent allopolyploid speciation.
A new species of hawkweed Hieracium maccoshiana T.C.G.Rich sp. nov. is described. It is related to the Norwegian Hieracium dovrense Fr., but differs in the shape and toothing of the stem leaves and in having glabrous-tipped ligules. It is endemic to the county of Sutherland, Scotland where it has been recorded from four sites. A lectotype of Hieracium dovrense is designated.
A taxonomic synopsis of the Altingiaceae is presented, including the taxonomic enumeration and distribution of 15 recognized species based on studies of 1,500 specimens from 24 herbaria throughout the distributional range of the taxa. Previous phylogenetic analyses based on several molecular markers have shown that Altingia and Semiliquidambar are nested within Liquidambar. All Altingia and Semiliquidambar species are now formally transferred to Liquidambar, which has the nomenclatural priority. The following nine new combinations are herein made: Liquidambar cambodiana(Lecomte) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar caudata (H. T. Chang) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar chingii (Metcalf) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar gracilipes (Hemsl.) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar multinervis(Cheng) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar obovata (Merrill & Chun) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar poilanei (Tardieu) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar siamensis (Craib) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, and Liquidambar yunnanensis (Rehder & Wilson) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen.
Two new species in the Matelea stenopetala complex (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) are described from the Guiana Shield and Amazonian Brazil: Matelea brevistipitata Krings & Morillo, sp. nov. and Matelea trichopedicellataKrings & Morillo, sp. nov. The new species belong to a small group of adaxially-pubescent-flowered taxa within the complex, including Matelea hildegardiana and Matelea pakaraimensis. The new species are described and a dichotomous key is provided.
The correct name for the Cuban species of Trichospermum Bl. (Malvaceae: Grewioideae) also found in Mexico and Central America is Trichospermum lessertianum (Hochr.) Dorr, comb. n. The name Trichospermum mexicanum (DC.) Baill., incorrectly applied to this Cuban species, should be restricted to a species endemic to western and southern Mexico.
The genus Nekemias (Vitaceae) was first recognized by Rafinesque in 1838. It has been treated as a synonym of Ampelopsis Michx. Recent phylogenetic studies suggest that Ampelopsis as traditionally delimited is paraphyletic. To maintain the monophyly of each of the genera of Vitaceae, we herein segregate the Ampelopsissect.Leeaceifoliae lineage from Ampelopsis and recognize these taxa in Nekemias Raf., which has a disjunct distribution in eastern to southeastern Asia and eastern North America. Nomenclatural changes are made for nine species and one variety: Nekemiasarborea (L.) J. Wen & Boggan, Nekemiascantoniensis (Hook. & Arn.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemiascelebica (Suess.) J. Wen & Boggan, Nekemiaschaffanjonii (H. Lév. & Van.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemiasgongshanensis (C.L. Li) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemiasgrossedentata (Hand.-Mazz.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemiashypoglauca (Hance) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemiasmegalophylla (Diels & Gilg) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemiasmegalophyllavar.jiangxiensis (W.T. Wang) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, and Nekemiasrubifolia (Wall.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie. A taxonomic key is provided for the genus to facilitate identification.
Four new species of “non-spiny” Solanum from South America are described. Solanum
longifilamentum Särkinen & P.Gonzáles, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is widespread from Ecuador to Bolivia and is most similar to Solanum
macrotonum Dunal from Central and northern South America. Solanum
antisuyo Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is found on the eastern Andean slopes in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia and is most similar to the widespread lower elevation species Solanum
polytrichostylum Bitter. Solanum
arenicola Särkinen & P.Gonzáles, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is found in low elevation habitats on the eastern Andean slopes and in Amazonia of Peru and Bolivia and is most similar to the higher elevation species Solanum
aloysiifolium Dunal of Bolivia and Argentina. Solanum
mariae Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Potato clade) is endemic to Cajamarca Department in Peru, and is most similar to the widespread Solanum
caripense Dunal. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given.
Two new species of Solanum section Crinitum are described here. Solanum falciforme Farruggia, sp. nov., closely resembles Solanum crinitum and Solanum lycocarpum, but differs by the presence of falcate trichomes on the young growth. It is endemic to the cerrado and adjacent woodlands of Distrito Federal, Bahia, Goiás and Minas Gerais, Brazil. The other species, Solanum pseudosycophanta Farruggia, sp.nov., has close affinities to Solanum sycophanta butdiffers from the latter in having prominent long-stalked stellate hairs along the stem, calyx, petiole and the adaxial surface of the leaf, in contrast to Solanum sycophanta which is glabrous or pubescent with sessile to short-stalked multangulate hairs. This species is narrowly distributed in tropical montane forests of northern Peru and southern Ecuador.
A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum, a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provide a detailed description, illustration and distribution map. The preliminary conservation status of Solanum rigidum is Least Concern, but needs to be reassessed in light of its endemic rather than introduced status.
A new species of Amomum Roxb. from Western Ghats of Kerala is illustrated and described. Amomum nilgiricum VP.Thomas & M.Sabu, sp. nov. shows similarity with Amomum masticatorium Thwaites in having long drying ligule with an acuminate apex, pubescent anther and echinate capsules, but differs in clump forming habit with non-stoloniferous rhizomes, tomentose lamina beneath, long corolla tube, obovate to rhomboid labellum with clefted apex and without any colour design, emarginate anther crest and reduced staminodes. Detailed description, illustration, photographs, conservation status, and distributional details are provided.
Two new species of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum from southern Ecuador and northern Peru are described here. Solanum rubicaule S. Stern, sp. nov., is a member of sect. Torva and is characterized by a festooning, scandent growth form and fruits held horizontally on recurved pedicels. Solanum achorum S. Stern, sp. nov., is a member of sect. Erythrotrichum and is characterized by 4-12-flowered inflorescences, small seeds, and a small calyx. Both species are distributed in the Amotape-Huancabamba Zone of the Andes in northern Peru and southern Ecuador.
A new species Ampelocissus asekii J.Wen, R.Kiapranis & M.Lovave of Vitaceae is described from Morobe Province of Papua New Guinea. It is a close relative of Ampelocissus muelleriana Planch., another endemic of New Guinea and differs from the latter by its densely woolly tomentose lower leaflet surface and much thicker leaflets. The new species is from the mid montane forests, whereas Ampelocissus muelleriana occurs in the lowland rain forests.
Herbaria and natural history collections (NHC) are critical to the practice of taxonomy and have potential to serve as sources of data for biodiversity and conservation. They are the repositories of vital reference specimens, enabling species to be studied and their distribution in space and time to be documented and analysed, as well as enabling the development of hypotheses about species relationships. The herbarium of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa (WELT) contains scientifically and historically significant marine macroalgal collections, including type specimens, primarily of New Zealand species, as well as valuable exsiccatae from New Zealand and Australia. The herbarium was initiated in 1865 with the establishment of the Colonial Museum and is the only herbarium in New Zealand where there has been consistent expert taxonomic attention to the macroalgae over the past 50 years. We examined 19,422 records of marine macroalgae from around New Zealand collected over the past 164 years housed in WELT, assessing the records in terms of their spatial and temporal coverage as well as their uniqueness and abundance. The data provided an opportunity to review the state of knowledge of the New Zealand macroalgal flora reflected in the collections at WELT, to examine how knowledge of the macroalgal flora has been built over time in terms of the number of collections and the number of species recognised, and identify where there are gaps in the current collections as far as numbers of specimens per taxon, as well as with respect to geographical and seasonal coverage.
Murdannia saddlepeakensis (Commelinaceae), a new species from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, is described and illustrated. The new species is remarkable for its narrowly linear leaves, two fertile stamens, single seeded locule and scorbiculate seeds.
Cuatrecasanthus is native to Ecuador and Peru and although several unusual characters define the genus, such as single flowered heads and corolla throat (limb) divided to the base with lobes that are thickened at the margins, the members of the genus were not recognized as especially closely related until relatively recently. All six species are described, including two new to science (Cuatrecasanthus kingii H. Rob. & V.A. Funk, sp. nov. and Cuatrecasanthus lanceolatus H. Rob. & V.A. Funk, sp. nov.), and one new combination is recognized (Cuatrecasanthus giannasii (Stutts) H. Rob. & V.A. Funk, comb. nov.). A key is provided along with images of the types, SEM photographs of the leaf surfaces, a distribution map, and illustrations of the two new species. All species are given a preliminary conservation status of Data Deficient in regard to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
A new species of Solanum sect. Solanum from Peru is described here. Solanum pseudoamericanum Särkinen, Gonzáles & S.Knapp sp. nov. is a member of the Morelloid clade of Solanum, and is characterized by the combination of mostly forked inflorescences, flowers with small stamens 2.5 mm long including the filament, and strongly exerted styles with capitate stigmas. The species was first thought to be restricted to the seasonally dry tropical forests of southern Peru along the dry valleys of Río Pampas and Río Apurímac. Results from species distribution modelling (SDM) analysis with climatic predictors identified further potential suitable habitat areas in northern and central Peru. These areas were visited during field work in 2013. A total of 17 new populations across the predicted distribution were discovered using the model-based sampling method, and five further collections were identified amongst herbarium loans. Although still endemic to Peru, Solanum pseudoamericanum is now known from across northern, central and southern Peru. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of SDM for predicting new occurrences of rare plants, especially in the Andes where collection densities are still low in many areas and where many new species remain to be discovered.
Brunfelsia plowmaniana N.Filipowicz & M.Nee sp. nov., a species from humid and cloud forests of the Bolivian and Argentinean Andes, is described and provided with a molecular diagnosis, using provisions available in the recently approved International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. Specimens belonging to the new species were previously placed in the polymorphic Brunfelsia uniflora (Pohl) D.Don, which a molecular phylogeny revealed as polyphyletic. Revision of numerous collections revealed clear morphological differences between the new species and Brunfelsia uniflora, the type locality of which is in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.
Weinmannia marquesana F. Br. var. angustifolia Lorence & W. L. Wagner, var. nov., a new variety with narrow, simple leaves endemic to Tahuata, Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia) is described and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is similar to the other two varieties of this species by having simple leaves, but this new variety has much narrower leaf blades, and it resembles Weinmannia tremuloides in having narrow leaf blades but differs by having simple, not trifoliolate leaves.
A new species, Goniothalamus palawanensis C.C.Tang & R.M.K.Saunders, sp. nov. (Annonaceae), is described from Palawan, Philippines. Goniothalamus palawanensis is most closely related to Goniothalamus amuyon (Blanco) Merr., but differs in its shorter inner petals, hairy ovaries, and funnel-shaped stigmas. A new nomenclatural combination, Goniothalamus angustifolius (A.C.Sm.) B.Xue & R.M.K.Saunders, comb. nov., is furthermore validated to reflect the phylogenetic affinities of a Fijian species previously assigned to Polyalthia.
The taxonomic revision of the infrequently collected genus Tetrameranthus by Westra (1985) is updated. A new species is described from French Guiana and Amapá, Brazil, increasing the number of species in this genus to seven.