To evaluate the distribution of allometric exponents for relationship of total plasma clearance of 54 extensively metabolized drugs, with wide-ranging linear clearance values, between humans and rats, to provide a rationale for the observed data, and to discuss potential significance of the findings.
Human and rat plasma clearance values of 54 drugs with markedly different physicochemical properties were obtained from the literature. Standard allometric analysis was performed for each drug using both rat and human data. Unbound vs. total plasma clearances were obtained for 15 out of 54 drugs and their correlations between humans and rats were compared.
The mean+/-SD of the allometric exponent for the 54 drugs studied is 0.660+/-0.190. The median clearance ratio based on unit body weight is 7.41 and the median exponent is 0.645. Excluding two outliers the correlation coefficient of plasma clearance between humans and rats was 0.745 (p < 0.0001). For the 15 drugs, use of unbound plasma clearance approach seems to significantly improve the correlation coefficient compared to total plasma clearance (0.940 vs. 0.841).
The present study indicates that on average, humans and rats may eliminate extensively metabolized drugs at a rate similar to that expected from the allometric or body surface area relationship of basal metabolic rate between the two species. A simple statistical distribution hypothesis is used to rationalize the species difference in plasma drug clearance. Rat may serve as an useful animal model to predict (unbound) plasma clearance of drugs in humans.
To investigate the factors that contribute to the exceptionally high affinity binding of UCN-01 to human alpha1-acid glycoprotein (hAGP).
Interactions between UCN-01, UCN-02, and staurosporine with native and chemically modified hAGPs were examined using ultracentrifugation and spectroscopic analysis.
The binding affinity of staurosporine, as well as UCN-02, to hAGP was lower than that of UCN-01 by 20- and 100-fold respectively. The percentage of UCN-01 that binds to hAGP was low at acidic pH but increased with increasing pH, reaching a maximum at pH 7.4. The binding of UCN-01 to desialylated hAGP was comparable to that of hAGP. No significant difference was found for the binding of UCN-01 to F1*S and A variants of hAGP. Chemical modification of the His, Lys, Trp, and Tyr residues caused a decrease in percentage of bound UCN-01. Trp-modified hAGP showed the largest decrease in binding. Tryptophanyl fluorescence quenching results indicate that Trp residues play a prominent role in the binding of UCN-01 to hAGP.
A substituent at position C-7 of UCN-01 appeared to influence the binding specificity of the drug, and Trp residues in hAGP play a prominent role in the high affinity binding of UCN-01 to hAGP.
N-0437 is a recently developed dopamine (D2) agonist, theoretically attractive in the therapy of Parkinson's disease and glaucoma. Since its high potency allows small doses of the compound in clinical use and as extensive metabolism occurs in animals, a highly sensitive assay method was required for drug-monitoring purposes. To this end we developed a radioreceptor assay (RRA), a sensitive tool for the assessment of the sample's (dopaminergic) bioactivity. The RRA is based on competition between N-0437 and its tritium-labeled analogue for binding to dopamine receptors. The assay has been optimized for the preparation of the receptor suspension and the incubation conditions. Direct application of the assay for biological samples was impossible because of matrix interferences. Therefore, a solid-phase extraction method was developed in which the combination of a polar Si column and dichloromethane as eluent resulted in an effective elimination of the interferences. Recoveries were better than 90 and 95% for plasma and urine, respectively, even at concentrations at the determination limit of the method (300 pg/ml). Relative standard deviations were less than 15%. Because RRAs are stereoselective, the method discriminates between active and inactive species.
The safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of intravenous *i.v.) montelukast sodium (Singulair, MK-0476), and the oral bioavailability of montelukast sodium in healthy males and healthy females were studied.
This was a two-part study. Part I was a four-period study in males of rising i.v. doses of montelukast sodium (3, 9, and 18 mg) administered as 15-minute constant-rate i.v. infusions (Periods 1-3), followed by a 10-mg oral tablet dose of montelukast sodium (Period 4) under fasting conditions. Part II was a four-period study in females of i.v. montelukast sodium (9 mg) infused over 15 and 5 minutes (Periods 5 and 6, respectively) or injected as a bolus over 2 minutes (Period 7), followed by a 10-mg oral tablet dose of montelukast sodium (Period 8). Plasma samples were collected and analyzed by HPLC.
In males (N = 6), as the i.v. dose of montelukast sodium increased from 3 to 18 mg, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of montelukast sodium from time 0 to infinity (AUC) increased proportionately. The mean values of plasma clearance (CL), steady-state volume of distribution (Vss), plasma terminal half-life (t1/12), and mean residence time in the body (MRTi.v.) of montelukast sodium were 45.5 ml/min, 10.5 1, 5.1 hr, and 3.9 hr, respectively, and remained essentially constant over the i.v. dosage range. Following oral administration of a 10-mg tablet of montelukast sodium, the AUC, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), time when Cmax occurred (Tmax), apparent t1/12, mean absorption time (MAT), and bioavailability (F) of montelukast sodium averaged 2441 ng.hr/ml, 385 ng/ml. 3.7 hr, 4.9 hr, 3.4 hr, and 66%, respectively. Following i.v. administration of 9 mg of montelukast sodium to females (N = 6), the values of CL, Vss, t1/2, and MRT i.v. averaged 47.6 ml/min, 9.6 1, 4.5 hr, and 3.6 hr, respectively. Following oral administration of a 10-mg tablet to females, the mean AUC, Cmax, Tmax, apparent t1/2, MAT and F were 2270 ng.hr/ml, 350 ng/ml, 3.3 hr, 4.4 hr, 2.6 hr, and 58%, respectively. These parameter values were similar to or slightly smaller than those in healthy males receiving the same i.v. and oral doses.
The disposition kinetics of montelukast sodium were linear. Gender had little or no effect on the kinetics of montelukast sodium. Safety results from this study indicate that intravenous doses of montelukast sodium from 3 to 18 mg and a 10-mg oral dose are well tolerated.
Polymeric quick-dissolving films were developed as a solid dosage topical microbicide formulation for the vaginal delivery of the highly potent and non-toxic, dual-acting HIV nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) pyrimidinedione, IQP-0528.
Formulated from approved excipients, a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based film was manufactured via solvent casting methods. The film formulations were evaluated based upon quantitative physicochemical evaluations defined by a Target Product Profile (TPP) RESULTS: Films dosed with 0.1% (w/w) of IQP-0528 disintegrated within 10 min with over 50% of drug released and near 100% total drug released after 30 min. The IQP-0528 films were found to be non-toxic in in vitro CEM-SS and PBMC cell-based assays and biologically active with sub-nanomolar efficacy against HIV-1 infection. In a 12 month stability protocol, the IQP-0528 films demonstrated no significant degradation at International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) recommended standard (25°C/65% relative humidity (R.H.)) and accelerated (40°C/75% R.H.) environmental conditions.
Based on the above evaluations, a vaginal film formulation has been identified as a potential solid dosage form for the vaginal delivery of the topical microbicide candidate IQP-0528.
The hydrolysis of ICRF-187 and two model compounds, 4-methylpiperazine-2,6-dione (4-MP) and 3-methylglutarimide (3-MG), was investigated over the neutral to alkaline pH range at 25°C and an ionic strength of 0.5 (sodium chloride). The purpose of the study was to correlate the influence of molecular changes to the reactivity of these imides. Additionally, an improved chromatographic resolution of all the components of the degradation and NMR confirmation of the identity of the degradation products are presented. Based on the study of 4-MP, which is essentially half of an ICRF-187 molecule, and 3-MG, which has a carbon in place of the piperazine nitrogen, several conclusions can be drawn with regard to the stability of ICRF-187. The tertiary piperazine nitrogen/s of 4-MP and ICRF-187 contributed to the base-catalyzed hydrolysis of these compounds above pH 7 and caused a significant decrease in the pK
a values of the imide moiety of ICRF-187 and 4-MP compared with 3-MG. One 2,6-piperazinedione ring of ICRF-187 was shown to affect only minimally the rate of hydrolysis of the second ring. ICRF-187 hydrolyzes by parallel consecutive pathways forming two monoacids with one ring opened and, subsequently, the diacid with both rings hy-drolyzed._________________________________
This work examines the lipophilic behavior of various zwitterions and shows how distribution profiles in biphasic systems and ionic partition diagrams may improve our understanding of pH-absorption profiles of drugs.
The lipophilicity of various zwitterionic drugs was examined by potentiometry and cyclic voltammetry in the 1,2-dichloroethane/water system to study the intramolecular interactions and conformational effects affecting absorption and activity of zwitterions, as well as to draw their theoretical and experimental ionic partition diagrams.
Different theoretical partition diagrams are reported according to the tautomeric constant of the zwitterion. Shifts of apparent PKa are obtained in the ionic partition diagrams of raclopride and eticlopride and compared to the deviations from pH-absorption profile described in the literature for lipophilic drugs. The physicochemical origin of these shifts is discussed.
The comparison between pH-absorption profiles and ionic partition diagrams of zwitterions is shown here to be of value for a better mechanistic understanding of absorption processes, thus opening new perspectives in studying pH-absorption profiles of ionizable drugs.
Combination of the acronycine pharmacophore with various sugar units appeared of interest, since numerous anticancer agents possess a sugar moiety, which strongly influence both their bioavailability and their selective toxicity towards tumor cells.
A series of 2-hydroxy-1,2-dihydroacronycine glycosides were synthetized, by condensation of the racemic aglycone with appropriate glycoside donors. Their effect on the inhibition of L1210 cell proliferation were evaluated.
Compounds 6a, 6b, 11a, 11b, and 12a, 12b, including a halogenated sugar moiety displayed activities of the same order of magnitude as acronycine itself. Compounds 7a, 7b, and 8a, 8b, bearing a 2.3.6-trideoxy-3-azido-L-lyxo- and L-arabino-hexopyranose unit respectively, were significantly more potent than acronycine in inhibiting cell proliferation.
The activity of 2-hydroxy-1,2-dihydroacronycine glycosides seems to be related to the lipophilicity of the sugar unit.
To estimate experimental log P values of formerly described 5-formyl- and 5-acyl-dithiole-3-thiones (DTT) and -dithiole-3-ones (DTO) and to check the validity of five log P calculation programs via experimental log P for a database of 68 DTT and DTO.
Experimental log P values were measured by means of octanol/water partitioning; for determining solute concentrations in water, RP-HPLC with spectrophotometric detection was used. For calculating log P, the fragmental methods ACD/log P, CLOGP, and KOWWIN, the atom-based approach XLOGP, and the whole-molecule approach QLOGP were applied.
Quality of calculations significantly differs depending on the subset under consideration. For database compounds 01-48, comprising alkyl and aryl substitution in 4- and 5-position, the fragmental methods ACD/log P, CLOGP, and KOWWIN perform significantly better than the atom-based approach XLOGP and the whole-molecule method QLOGP. For database compounds 49-68, comprising formyl and acyl substitution in 4- and 5-position, superiority of the whole-molecule method QLOGP over the substructure-based approaches is observed. The strong underestimation of log P for compounds 49-68 probably indicates hidden physicochemical phenomena resulting from the juxtaposition of the acyl and dithiole moieties.
All calculation methods included in this study need a thorough refinement to adequately cope with particular solvation behavior suspected to prevail in formyl- or acyl-DTT and DTO, which represent a chemical class of high pharmacological interest.
Two polymorphs of 1,2-dihydro-6-neopentyl-2-oxonicotinic acid have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermal (hot-stage) microscopy (HSM). In batch-scale preparation, form I was crystallized in ethanol-water (3:1), while form II was obtained by recrystallization from acetone-water (2:1). The melting points for forms I and II are 193 and 196 degrees C, respectively. Thermal studies (DSC and HSM) showed that form II melts at 196 degrees C, while form I melts at 193 degrees C, immediately followed by a resolidification and remelt at 196 degrees C. The conversion of form II to form I was accomplished by recrystallization from ethanol or methanol, and the form I-to-form II transition was obtained by controlled heating of form I around 194 degrees C. Quantitative XRD was used to determine the polymorphic composition, with a detection limit of less than 1% of the minor form and a linearity of 0-10% form I in form II (correlation coefficient of 0.999).
The activity of N-alkyl-1,2-diphenylethanolamines against CaCl2-induced cardiac arrhythmia was evaluated in the rat. The potencies of the compounds were compared with that of the established calcium ion-channel blocker, verapamil. The N-methyl, N-ethyl, and N-isobutyl derivatives as well as verapamil at doses of 2-8 mumols kg-1 protected the animals against the induced arrhythmia. The potency order was verapamil greater than N methyl greater than N-ethyl greater than N-isobutyl derivatives. The N-isopropyl and N-butyl derivatives were inactive. The antiarrhythmic activity of the compounds was not due to local anesthetic activity but may be caused by calcium-channel inhibition.
A series of N-alkyl-1,2-diphenylethanolamines were synthesized and their pharmacological activities evaluated on various mammalian organs and systems. All compounds produced a generalized inhibitory effect on smooth and cardiac muscles and an increase in coronary flow as well as a brief reduction in rabbit blood pressure. The latter effect was not prevented by pretreatment of the animals with atropine, propranolol, or metoprolol. The compounds were devoid of local anesthetic activity and their inhibitions of the contraction of the isolated rabbit intestine and perfused heart were reversed by exogenous calcium ions. It is proposed that the compounds produce their effects through calcium-channel blockade. The inhibitory effects of some of these compounds were comparable to those of a known calcium-channel blocker.
The hydrolysis of the cardioprotectant and anticancer agent, ICRF-187 (or ADR-529) and the structurally similar model compound, 4-methylpiperazine-2,6-dione (4-MP), was investigated in the acid to neutral pH range at 25 degrees C and an ionic strength of 0.5 (sodium chloride). Their solution stability was shown to be compromised compared to 3-methylglutarimide (3-MG) and other imides. It appears that the tertiary piperazine nitrogens of ICRF-187 and 4-MP significantly contributed to the instability of these compounds over this pH range. Unexpectedly, bell-shaped curves were observed in the pH-rate profiles. A change in the rate-determining step from tetrahedral intermediate formation in the weakly acidic pH region to breakdown of the tetrahedral intermediate in the more acidic pH regions was proposed as an explanation for the bell-shaped curves. The piperazine nitrogen was implicated in the hydrolytic pathways that occur within these pH regions; the mechanism of involvement was dependent on the state of ionization of the parent molecule and the tetrahedral intermediate.
Hepatobiliary excretions of drugs from the blood to the bile include two essential transmembrane processes: uptake into hepatocytes and secretion from hepatocytes. The purpose of this study was to clarify the transport mechanisms underlying these processes for a new non-peptide endothelin antagonist, (+)-(5S,6R,7R)-2-butyl-7-[2((2S)-2-carboxypropyl)-4-methoxyphenyl]-5-(3,4-methylenedioxy-phenyl)cyclopentenol[1,2-b]pyridine-6-carboxylic acid (J-104132).
Biliary excretion of J-104132 was assessed in rats after intravenous injection. To evaluate the hepatic uptake process, J-104132 was incubated with freshly isolated rat hepatocytes and the uptake of J-104132 was calculated. To evaluate the biliary secretion process, the uptake of J-104132 into rat canalicular membrane vesicles that were isolated from normal Sprague-Dawley rats or Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats was measured.
After intravenous injection, J-104132 was recovered from the bile quantitatively (99.7 +/- 1.3%) as its intact form. J-104132 was taken up by isolated rat hepatocytes in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. The uptake was saturable with Km and Vmax of 5.7 microM and 564 pmol/min/10(6) cells, respectively. The uptake was Na+ independent and was reduced in the presence of ATP depleters (rotenone and carbonyl cyanide-p-(trifluoromethoxy)-phenylhydrazone), organic anions (dibromosulfophthalein, indocyanine green, BQ-123, and pravastatin), and bile acids (taurecholate and cholate). In Sprague-Dawley rats, J-104132 was taken up by canalicular membrane vesicle ATP-dependently with Km and Vmax values of 6.1 microM and 552 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively. However, ATP-dependent uptake disappeared in Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats.
These data suggest that energy-dependent and carrier-mediated transport systems play important roles in hepatobiliary excretion of J-104132 (both uptake and secretion processes), which is the main excretion route in rats. As for the secretion process of J-104132, an involvement of mrp2 was demonstrated.
Several chemical delivery systems (CDS) were synthesized for the cholinesterase inhibitor 9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine (THA). The derivatives prepared were substituted with a 1,4-dihydropyridine in equilibrium pyridinium salt redox system at the amino functionality. These compounds were synthesized by acylation of the 9 amino group of THA with nicotinic anhydride under forced conditions, followed by a selective N-alkylation of the pyridine ring and regioselective reduction of the resulting quaternary salts. Lipophilicity parameters indicated increased lipophilic indices for various CDS's compared to the THA. Oxidation studies showed that dihydronicotinamides readily converted to the quaternary salt, both chemically and enzymatically. The transport forms of THA were also shown not to interact with acetylcholinesterase in vivo. In vivo distribution studies in the rat indicated that high and sustained levels of the pyridinium quaternary ion derivative were present in the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, THA was produced in the CNS from the quaternary salt precursor in low concentrations, indicating a slow but sustained release. The CDS for THA were found to be less acutely toxic than THA.
Radioligand binding affinities of seven muscarinic receptor ligands which possess an oxadiazole ring side chain have been determined in rat heart, rat brain, and m1- or m3-transfected CHO cell membrane preparations to determine the selectivity for subtypes of muscarinic receptor. The ratios of binding constants in brain membranes were measured as an indicator of potential agonist activity against [3H]QNB and [3H]Oxo-M. These muscarinic ligands did not discriminate the subtypes of muscarinic receptors. Six muscarinic ligands which have a 3-amino- or 3-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl groups attached to the 8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-2-ene or 8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane head group show binding constants between 2.04 x 10(-6) and 1.79 x 10(-5) M in rat heart, rat brain, and m1- or m3-transfected CHO cell membrane preparations. 1-Methyl-2-[3-amino-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]piperidine shows low binding constants of approximately 10(-4) M in rat heart and rat brain. (1R,5S)-2-[3-Amino-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo- [3.2.1]oct-2-ene [(1R,5S)-17] was the most active compound.
The present research describes the preparation of an additional phosphinyl compound and the results from testing it, and two previously reported agents of this nature, for analgesic, hypoglycemic, and hyperglycemic properties. For purposes of comparison, three analogous carbonyl compounds, which were reported to have these activities, were resynthesized and similarly tested
Various diesters of 9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)-methyl]guanine (DHPG) were screened in order to identify a derivative with improved oral absorption. The solubilities and dissolution rates decreased with increasing chain length and branching of the ester group. However, the dipropionate ester showed an anomalously faster dissolution rate. The rates of hydrolysis to DHPG in the presence of intestinal homogenates were found to increase with increasing carbon number for the straight-chain alkyl esters and decreased with branching. The shorter-chain alkyl esters were relatively more stable in intestinal homogenates than in liver homogenates. Therefore they may have a better membrane permeability than DHPG due to their intact ester group. The hydrolysis rates in human blood increased with increasing carbon number for the straight-chain alkyl esters. The dipropionate ester appeared to be the most promising derivative because of its rapid dissolution rate, slower hydrolysis in the intestine, and rapid conversion to DHPG in liver and blood.
The distribution of [(3)H]BCNU following release from polymer implants in the rat brain was measured and evaluated by using mathematical models.
[(3)H]BCNU was loaded into p(CPP:SA) pellets, which were subsequently implanted intracerebrally in rats; [(3)H]BCNU was also directly injected into the brains of normal rats and rats with intracranially transplanted 9L gliomas. Concentrations of [(3)H]BCNU on coronal sections of the brain were measured by autoradiography and image processing. For comparison, the kinetics of [(3)H]BCNU release from the p(CPP:SA) polymer discs into phosphate-buffered saline were also measured.
High concentrations of BCNU (corresponding to 1 mM) were measured near the polymer for the entire 30-day experiment. The penetration distance, defined as the distance from the polymer surface to the point where the concentration of [(3)H]BCNU in the tissue had dropped to 10 percent of the maximum value, was determined: penetration distance was 5 mm at day 1 and 1 mm at days 3 through 14. Local concentration profiles were compared with a mathematical model for estimation of the modulus phi (2), an indicator of the relative rate of elimination to diffusion in the brain. From day 3 to 14, phi(2) was 7, indicating that BCNU elimination was rapid compared to the rate of diffusive penetration into tissue. The enhanced penetration observed on day 1 appears to be due to convection of extracellular fluid caused by transient, vasogenic edema, which disappears by day 3.
Polymer implants produce very high levels of BCNU in the brain, but BCNU penetration into brain tissue is limited due to rapid elimination.
Structured lipids (1,3-specific triglycerides) are new chemical entities made by enzymatic transesterification of the fatty acids in the 1,3 positions of the triglyceride. The purpose of this study is to characterize structured lipids with either short chain fatty acids or medium chain fatty acids in the 1,3 positions with regard to their hydrophobicity, and investigate the in vivo fate in order to evaluate the potential of structured lipids as core material in fat emulsions used as parenteral drug delivery system.
The lipids were characterized by employing reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. The biodistribution of radioactively labeled emulsions was studied in rats.
By employing high performance liquid chromatography a rank order of the hydrophobicities of the lipids could be given, with the triglycerides containing long chain fatty acids being the most hydrophobic and the structured lipid with short chain fatty acids in the 1,3 positions the least. When formulated as fat emulsions, the emulsion based on structured lipids with short fatty acids in the 1,3 positions was removed slower from the general blood circulation compared to emulsions based on lipids with long chain fatty acids in the 1,3 positions.
The type of core material influences the in vivo circulation time of fat emulsions.
The pharmacokinetics and urinary recoveries of four isomeric mononitrates, L-isoidide mononitrate (L-IIMN), isosorbide-2-mononitrate (IS-2-MN), isomannide mononitrate (IMMN), and isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN), were investigated at an intravenous dose of 2 mg/kg in rats. All four compounds exhibited monoexponential kinetics at this dose. The volumes of distribution were similar for all four isomers and were estimated at about 1.0 liter/kg. The systemic clearances of L-IIMN, IMMN, IS-2-MN, and IS-5-MN were 65.1 +/- 13.0, 32.7 +/- 12.0, 11.0 +/- 2.3, and 8.23 +/- 1.82 ml/min/kg, respectively (P < 0.05, all pairwise comparisons). Free mononitrate in the urine accounted for 0.306 to 4.56% of the administered dose, while the recovery in conjugated forms (after glusulase hydrolysis) accounted for 42.8% of the IMMN dose and 7.70 to 14.5% of the dose of the remaining three isomers. The dose-dependent pharmacokinetics of three of the mononitrates were explored at selected higher doses which cause equivalent vasodilator responses, L-IIMN (22 mg/kg), IS-2-MN (100 mg/kg), and IS-5-MN (300 mg/kg). The clearances of L-IIMN, IS-2-MN, and IS-5-MN at these higher doses were 42.3 +/- 5.7, 6.38 +/- 0.59, and 3.33 +/- 0.62 ml/min/kg, respectively, all significantly less than those found at the 2 mg/kg dose. Typical Michaelis-Menten-type curvatures were observed in the concentration-time curves after IS-2-MN and IS-5-MN dosing. The pharmacokinetics of L-IIMN were also dose dependent, but they could not be described by simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics.
Unsymmetrical aryl(heteroaryl)methyl isopropyl ester analogues of nifedipine, in which the 2-nitrophenyl group at C-4 is replaced by a 2- or 3-pyridyl substituent, were synthesized and evaluated as calcium-channel antagonists using guinea pig ileal longitudinal smooth muscle. The point of attachment of the C-4 pyridyl substituent was a determinant of activity where the relative potency order was 2-pyridyl greater than 3-pyridyl. Within the C-4 2-pyridyl series of compounds, and electronegative substituent such as a trifluoromethyl or bromo at the 4 position of the benzyl ester substituent or a nitrogen atom at the 1 position of a 4-pyridylmethyl ester substituent, enhanced activity relative to the unsubstituted benzyl ester analogue. In contrast, in the C-4 3-pyridyl class of compounds, a variety of aryl(heteroaryl)methyl ester substituents did not alter potency to any significant extent. A number of compounds in the C-4 2-pyridyl series possessing 4-pyridylmethyl, 4-trifluoromethylbenzyl, 4-bromobenzyl, and 3-pyridylmethyl ester substituents were approximately equipotent to nifedipine. The aryl(heteroaryl)methyl ester and C-4 2-pyridyl substituents therefore appear to provide important interdependent contributions to calcium-channel antagonist activity.
To study the reactivity of C4-substituted 1,4-dihydropyridines (1,4-DHP), with either secondary or tertiary nitrogen in the dihydropyridine ring, toward SIN-1-derived peroxynitrite in aqueous media at pH 7.4.
Reactivity was followed by changes in the absorptivity of the UV-Vis bands corresponding to 1,4-DHP. Gas Chromatography/ Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spin trap techniques were used to characterize the final product and the intermediates of the reaction, respectively.
1,4-DHPs significantly reacted toward peroxynitrite at varied rates, according to the calculated kinetic rate constants. By EPR spectroscopy, a carbon-centered radical from the 1,4-DHP was intercepted with N-tert-butylamine-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN), as the intermediate for the reaction with peroxynitrite. Likewise, the oxidized derivative (i.e., the pyridine) was identified as the final product of the reaction by GC-MS. By using the technique of deuterium kinetic isotope effect, the participation of the hydrogen of the 1-position on the 1,4-DHP ring was shown not to be the rate-limiting step of the reaction.
The direct participation of the 1,4-DHP derivatives in the quenching of SIN-1-derived peroxynitrite has been demonstrated. Kinetic rate constant of tested 1,4-DHP toward peroxynitrite showed a direct relationship with the oxidation peak potential values; that is, compounds reacting faster were more easily oxidized.