This article uses meta-analysis to develop a model integrating research on relationships between employee perceptions of general and work-family-specific supervisor and organizational support and work-family conflict. Drawing on 115 samples from 85 studies comprising 72,507 employees, we compared the relative influence of 4 types of workplace social support to work-family conflict: perceived organizational support (POS); supervisor support; perceived organizational work-family support, also known as family-supportive organizational perceptions (FSOP); and supervisor work-family support. Results show work-family-specific constructs of supervisor support and organization support are more strongly related to work-family conflict than general supervisor support and organization support, respectively. We then test a mediation model assessing the effects of all measures at once and show positive perceptions of general and work-family-specific supervisor indirectly relate to work-family conflict via organizational work-family support. These results demonstrate that work-family-specific support plays a central role in individuals' work-family conflict experiences.
Accident severity and frequency were correlated with each of 75 other variables in 147 factories in the automotive and machine shop industry, as listed in the membership rolls of the Automotive and Machine Shop Section of the National Safety Council.
1. Accident frequency is associated with seasonal layoffs rate, poor attitude of co-workers toward high producers, small plants, easy access to prostitutes, other plants about, frequent handling of heavy materials, blighted living conditions, and garnisheed wages.
2. Accident severity is associated with non-equalitarian eating, national union strength, no stated penalty for tardiness, no employee profit-sharing plan, extreme workplace peratures, and “dirty-sweaty” work.
3. Many of these significant correlates seem to show in common the operation of persistent threat to, or undermining of, the status or comfort of the individual as an individual (seasonal layoffs, rivalry-hostility among ability-unmatched workers, extreme social distance in eating practices, dominance of the national organization in collective bargaining, no incentive of sharing in profits, heavy and dirty work). The loss of, or threat to, individuality may produce preoccupation which in turn is unsafe behavior.
4. Another group of correlates of unsafe behavior relate to morality and urban sociology (prostitution, congestion, and, frequently, ugliness of other plants about, ugliness and bad living conditions of blighted neighborhoods, garnisheed wages). The mechanics of these associations are unclear but may in- volve excessive loading of guilt feelings, excessive instability of human, especially family, relationships, and related preoccupying frustrations.
Some of these relations probably bear a causal significance for accidents whereas for others the apparent relationship merely artifactual of some more underlying cause. Many these relationships are here investigated for the first time, it is hoped that confirmatory studies by other researchers be forthcoming.
The effects of correcting a personality measure for faking were evaluated within an organizational context. Two possible repercussions of score correction were studied using the 16PF personality inventory: the effect on criterion-related validity and the effect on individual hiring decisions (i.e., which applicants would or would not be hired). Results indicated that correction for faking had little effect on criterion-related validity. However, depending on the selection ratio, correction of scores would have resulted in different hiring decisions than those that would have been made on the basis of uncorrected scores. Implications for organizations using personality measures for selection and recommendations regarding the use of faking corrections are discussed.
Review and metaanalyses of published validation studies for the years 1964-1982 of Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology were undertaken to examine the effect of (1) research design; (2) criterion used; (3) type of selection instrument used; (4) occupational group studies; and (5) predictor-criterion combination on the level of observed validity coefficients. Results indicate that concurrent validation designs produce validity coefficients roughly equivalent to those obtained in predictive validation designs and that both of these designs produce higher validity coefficients than does a predictive design which includes use of the selection instrument. Of the criteria examined, performance rating criteria generally produced lower validity coefficients than did the use of other more “objective” criteria. In comparing the validities of various types of predictors, it was found cognitive ability tests were not superior to other predictors such as assessment centers, work samples, and supervisory/peer evaluations as has been found in previous metaanalytic work. Personality measures were clearly less valid. Compared to previous validity generalization work, much unexplained variance in validity coefficients remained after corrections for differences in sample size. Finally, the studies reviewed were deficient for our purposes with respect to the data reported. Selection ratios, standard deviations, reliabilities, predictor and criterion intercorrelations were rarely and inconsistently reported. There are also many predictor-criterion relationships for which very few validation efforts have been undertaken.
Summarizes research under 3 headings (microanalytic studies, macroanalytic studies, and related research), and recommends (a) more macroanalytic study of the structured interview, (b) development of a multidisciplinary model, and (c) computer analysis of the decision process in selection. (53 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Practitioners are not adequately prepared to handle concerns related to the acceptability of the online survey medium from the worker's viewpoint because the literature has only begun to address this issue. This study assessed reactions to Web-based questionnaires while moving an organization's climate survey online. Initial questions, posed via a paper-and-pencil instrument, gathered opinions concerning online surveys (n= 437). A Web-based climate survey was then created and piloted (n = 98). Afterwards, die finalized instrument was administered (n= 403), and a follow-up questionnaire was disseminated (n= 175) to further gauge workers' reactions. Despite some initial anonymity concerns, most personnel were amenable to online surveying, and the Web-based medium did not appear to discourage participation from any subgroup (based on gender, race, military versus civilian classification, and workgroup size comparisons). This article, which is intended for practitioners considering the transition to Web-based surveys as well as those interested in evaluating and improving current Web-based survey processes, outlines issues regarding online survey implementation, offers a tool for evaluating survey software, and concludes with lessons learned and avenues for future research/practice.
This comment shows that the conclusion of Schmitt, Gooding, Noe, and Kirsch (1984) that their meta-analytic findings are inconsistent with earlier validity generalization work is in error. The findings in their study that less variance than previously reported was due to sampling error are a result of their larger average sample sizes. Their claim that, after sampling error variance was accounted for, much unexplained variance remained, is incorrect. This error is demonstrated to be a result of their exclusive concentration on percentages and consequent failure to examine amount of observed and residual variance.
Tett, Jackson, and Rothstein (1991) recently presented a meta-analysis of the relationship between personality and job performance. Many of their findings, particularly those pertaining to the Big Five personality dimensions, are at odds with one other large scale meta-analytic study (Barrick & Mount, 1991) investigating the relation between personality and performance. In order to reconcile these new results with previous findings, we examined differences in the sample sizes used, the process for assigning pre-existing scales to personality dimensions, and the nature of the jobs investigated. In addition, we found four technical errors in the Tett et al. moderator meta-analyses in computing sampling error, the bias correction, sampling error for bias corrected correlations, and computing sampling error variance across studies. These errors raise serious questions about the interpretation of their results for various moderators of the personality-job performance relationship.
Tett, Jackson, and Rothstein's (1991) meta-analysis identified higher average correlations for personality in predicting job proficiency than did Barrick and Mount's (1991). Ones et al. suggest that discrepancies between the two studies involving the Big Five personality dimensions are due to certain procedural differences. In this reply, we show that their arguments do not adequately explain the noted discrepancies. We also show that, because personality traits correlate significantly with job performance both positively and negatively beyond chance levels, use of absolute values, contrary to Ones et al., is important in meta-analyses involving personality. Addressing all of Ones et al.3 statistical concerns, re-analysis of Tett et al.k main data set results in slightly lower mean validities (e.g., .24 vs.29 for fully corrected values based on confirmatory estimates), and renders non-significant the job analysis/no job analysis distinction found to be significant in the original study. Tett et al.'s main conclusions, however, remain unchanged. We suggest that Barrick and Mount's lower mean validities may be due to their averaging signed correlations, pooling exploratory and confirmatory findings, and to the use of different inclusion criteria for selecting source studies.
Despite widespread and growing acceptance that published personality tests are valid predictors of job performance, Morgeson et al. (2007) propose they be abandoned in personnel selection because average validity estimates are low. Our review of the literature shows that Morgeson et al.'s skepticism is unfounded. Meta-analyses have demonstrated that published personality tests, in fact, yield useful validity estimates when validation is based on confirmatory research using job analysis and taking into account the bidirectionality of trait–performance linkages. Further gains are likely by use of narrow over broad measures, multivariate prediction, and theory attuned to the complexities of trait expression and evaluation at work. Morgeson et al. also suggest that faking has little, if any, impact on personality test validity and that it may even contribute positively to job performance. Job applicant research suggests that faking under true hiring conditions attenuates personality test validity but that validity is still sufficiently strong to warrant personality test use in hiring. Contrary to Morgeson et al., we argue that the full value of published personality tests in organizations has yet to be realized, calling for programmatic theory-driven research.
Although popular interest in whistle-blowing continues to increase, little is known about why some employees who observe wrongdoing report it, while others do not. In the present study, we analyze archival survey data from individuals who observed wrongdoing in any of 22 organizations. Results are generally consistent with predictions based on a model of whistle-blowing as a type of prosocial behavior. Whistle-blowing was more likely when observers of wrongdoing (1) held professional positions, (2) had more positive reactions to their work, (3) had longer service, (4) were recently recognized for good performance, (5) were male (though race was unrelated to whistle-blowing), (6) were members of larger work groups, and (7) were employed by organizations perceived by others to be responsive to complaints. Implications for research and practice are described.
Although 360-degree feedback programs are rapidly increasing in popularity, few studies have examined how well ratings from these programs predict an independent criterion. This study had 2 main aims: First, to examine the validity of ratings from a 360-degree feedback program using assessment center ratings as an independent criterion and to determine which source (i.e., self, supervisor, peers, or subordinates) provided the most valid predictor of the criterion measure of competency. Second, to better understand the relationship between self-observer discrepancies and an independent criterion. The average of supervisor, peer, and subordinate ratings predicted performance on the assessment center, as did the supervisor ratings alone. The self-ratings were negatively and nonlinearly related to performance with some of those who gave themselves the highest ratings having the lowest performance on the assessment center. Supervisor ratings successfully discriminated between overestimators but were not as successful at discriminating underestimators, suggesting that more modest feedback recipients might be underrated by their supervisors. Peers overestimated performance for poor performers. Explanations of the results and the implications for the use of self-ratings in evaluations, the design of feedback reports, and the use of 360-degree feedback programs for involving and empowering staff are discussed.
The purpose was to evaluate methods for selecting respondents who would respond accurately to items on a job-analysis questionnaire. One general method involved obtaining from employees measures that assessed background, performance, and organizational information. This information could be used to identify respondents who were knowledgeable about the job and, therefore, able to rate the job accurately. A second general method involved collecting job-analysis data from all potential job-analysis respondents and, on the basis of indices computed on these data, selecting a subsample from them. Two indices were investigated: (1) the D index, which assessed similarity between an individual's ratings and the population's mean ratings, and (2) the carelessness index, which measured an individual's tendency to rate tasks known to be unrelated to the focal job as important. Both methods were applied to a sample of 343 mental-health workers. Four general postulates for job analysts were proposed on the basis of the results: (1) Different selection measures yield somewhat different job-analysis respondents. (2) Respondents are not equally accurate and, with the use of the carelessness index, may be screened for the tendency to make errors. (3) In some applications, the number of sampled respondents needs to be greater than three in order to obtain reliable results. (4) To the degree that the job is ill-defined and unstable, the selection of job-analysis respondents assumes greater importance and is riskier.
A highly structured employment interviewing technique is proposed, which includes the following steps: (1) develop questions based on a job analysis, (2) ask the same questions of each candidate, (3) anchor the rating scales for scoring answers with examples and illustrations, (4) have an interview panel record and rate answers, (5) consistently administer the process to all candidates, and (6) give special attention to job relatedness, fairness, and documentation in accordance with testing guidelines. Examination of psychometric properties for hiring entry-level production employees (n= 149) reveals high interrater reliability (r= .88) and predictive validity (uncorrected r= .34, corrected r= .56), as well as evidence for test fairness and utility. The levels of these properties are comparable to those of a comparison battery of typical employment tests, and correlations with the tests suggest that the interview has a strong cognitive aptitude component. Potential explanations for the effectiveness of this structured interviewing technique are discussed.
There has been conspicuously little research concerning missing data problems in the applied psychology literature. Fortunately, other fields have begun to investigate this issue. These include survey research, marketing, statistics, economics, and biometrics. A review of this literature suggests several trends for applied psychologists. For example, listwise deletion of data is often the least accurate technique to deal with missing data. Other methods for estimating missing data scores may be more accurate and preserve more data for investigators to analyze. Further, the literature reveals that the amount of missing data and the reasons for deletion of data impact how investigators should handle the problem. Finally, there is a great need for more investigation of strategies for dealing with missing data, especially when data are missing in nonrandom or systematic patterns.
The impact of realistic job previews (RJP's) as a moderator of the ability-performance relationship is evaluated. First, the research evidence from experimental studies in business, education, and hospital organizations indicates that RJP's have no impact on either the level of job performance or the ability-performance relationship. The primary reason for this is that the RJP concerns the matching of human needs to organizational climate, and thus is designed to influence job satisfaction and voluntary turnover rather than job performance. Second, the potential impact of RJP's on the ability-performance relationship is the subject of speculation.
The nested-factors model is a well-established structural model of cognitive abilities in cognitive ability research but has not yet been used to investigate the role of cognitive abilities in job performance. Core assumptions of the nested-factors model are that a broad general mental ability (GMA) exists besides narrower abilities and that this GMA differs from the narrower cognitive abilities in breadth but not in subordination. The authors of this article propose that a recently emerging statistical technique—relative importance analysis—corresponds to the assumptions of the nested-factors model. To empirically study the implications of using the nested-factors model, the authors applied relative importance analysis to a meta-analytic matrix linking measures of 7 narrower cognitive abilities from an established ability taxonomy (Thurstone's primary mental abilities), GMA, and job performance. Results revealed that GMA accounted for 10.9% to 28.6% of the total variance explained in job performance and that GMA was not consistently the most important predictor. The discussion focuses on potential theoretical, methodological, and practical implications of the nested-factors model for personnel psychology.
The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) is a modern computerized occupational database with the potential to be an important resource for numerous work-related applications. However, developing any O*NET-based application requires working through conceptual, methodological, and practical issues. This article discusses a set of major issues in the context of using the O*NET for person-occupation matching purposes, providing examples of how these issues were addressed in a systematic ability-based matching application developed for career guidance. Specifically, we (a) describe the O*NET and its potential for career guidance, (b) explain person-occupation fit and its positive consequences for individuals and organizations, (c) compare person-occupation fit with person-job fit, (d) discuss matching individuals to occupations empirically using abilities, (e) highlight issues faced in using the O*NJST in this process and give examples of how these issues were addressed in our matching application, and (f) evaluate the functioning of this example matching method.
More than 40 years ago, Taylor and Wherry (1951) hypothesized that performance appraisal ratings obtained for administrative purposes, such as pay raises or promotions, would be more lenient than ratings obtained for research, feedback, or employee development purposes. However, research on appraisal purpose has yielded inconsistent results, with roughly half of such studies supporting this hypothesis and the other half refuting it. To account for those differences, a meta-analysis of performance appraisal purpose research was conducted with 22 studies and a total sample size of 57,775. Our results support Taylor and Wherry's hypothesis as performance evaluations obtained for administrative purposes were, on average, one-third of a standard deviation larger than those obtained for research or employee development purposes. In addition, moderator analyses indicated larger differences between ratings obtained for administrative and research purposes when performance evaluations were made in field settings, by practicing managers, and for real world subordinates. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed.
Recent research has suggested that scores on measures of cognitive ability, measures of Conscientiousness, and interview scores are positively correlated with job performance. There remains, however, a question of incremental validity: To what extent do interviews predict above and beyond cognitive ability and Conscientiousness? This question was addressed in this paper by (a) conducting meta-analyses of the relationships among cognitive ability, Conscientiousness, and interviews, (b) combining these results with predictive validity results from previous meta-analyses to form a “meta-correlation matrix” representing the relationships among cognitive ability, Conscientiousness, interviews, and job performance, and (c) performing 9 hierarchical regressions to examine the incremental validity of 3 levels of structured interviews in best, actual, and worst case scenarios for prediction. Results suggested that interview scores contribute to the prediction of job performance over and above cognitive ability and Conscientiousness to the extent that they are structured, with scores from highly structured interviews contributing substantially to prediction. Directions for future research are discussed.
This study reports the results of a positive incentive program designed to reduce absenteeism at a hospital. Absence data for a treatment group (N= 164) and a comparison group (N= 136) were collected for one year prior to the incentive program, the three years the plan was operational, and the year after the program was discontinued. In the treatment program, absence from the treatment group decreased significantly during the first and third years of the program; effects during the second year of the program were marginally significant. No changes occurred in the comparison group's absence level. A utility analysis revealed that the incentive program produced an 11.7% return on investment.
The purpose of this research is to test the importance of temporal trends within absenteeism data for males and females. The data support previous findings of higher absenteeism rates for women when compared to men. The data also indicate the importance of temporal trends as suggested by Dansereau, Alutto, and Markham (1978). Conclusions are drawn concerning the use of absence rates as dependent variables.
This study addresses the concept of “absentee-proneness,” the notion that a small percentage of employees are responsible for a great percentage of absenteeism. Two uncorrelated measures of absence (paid and unpaid) were recorded for each individual in a sample of 195 employees working in the accounting department of a large public utility. Data were recorded for seven consecutive quarters (e.g., 21 months). The results showed that a core of employees was responsible for the vast majority of absenteeism in any one quarter, but that core changed from quarter to quarter. The distribution of absence data over the full 21 month period did not differ from chance expectancy.
This study calls into question again a frequently made assumption that variations in employee absence rates may be accounted for solely by examining the direct rewards and punishments provided by the work situation. Absences among nonsupervisory men at an oil refinery were found to be related to feelings of fair treatment with regard to promotion, irrespective of how good employees see their actual chances for promotion to be. Attitudes concerning the fairness of pay also were found to affect absences. The results were interpreted as indicating the importance of feelings of loyalty and obligation among employees in accounting for behavior such as absences.
We conducted qualitative and quantitative reviews of the medical literature to develop an understanding of the linkages between nonspecific lower back pain (LBP) and employee absenteeism, and the efficacy of lower back pain interventions (LBPI) in reducing absenteeism. First, we offered a general time-based framework to clarify the causal flows between LBP and absence. Second, we inspected LBPIs designed to ameliorate LBP, which should, in turn, lead to reduced absence-taking. Third, we conducted a meta-analysis of 45 effect sizes involving 12,214 people, to examine the relationships between both LBP and LBPIs and absenteeism. Consistent with a presumption in the medical literature, we found support for the idea that chronic LBP has a positive overall relationship with absence-taking. The relationship was stronger for absence frequency measures than time lost measures. In addition, we found that increasing aggregation time (i.e., increases in the periods over which absence is observed) enhances the size of the chronic LBP-absence connection. Further, evidence showed that LBPIs were effective overall in reducing absenteeism. Finally, when there was a temporal mismatch between the form of LBP (acute vs. chronic) and the absenteeism aggregation period in LBPI studies, effect sizes were significantly smaller. We concluded with a discussion of these results, methodological limitations, and suggestions for future research that blends medical with organizational approaches to the etiology of absence.
SummaryT0he availability of data on absenteeism for all nonsupervisory employees of a major airline for a full calendar year presented a unique opportunity for investigating some of the correlates of absenteeism. The quantitative analysis of these data was guided by two major objectives: the first was to test the prediction that the larger the size of the location (or “plant”) the higher the absenteeism, and the second was to determine how age, wage rate, seniority, and job classification were related to absenteeism with sex and “collar” held constant. The findings support the hypothesis that absenteeism is higher in larger units and thus lend credence to the notion that the characteristics of larger organizational units lead to lower levels of involvement and personal satisfaction. Other findings of the study indicate that the relationships between background factors and absenteeism are different for “blue collar” men than for other categories of employees. Among “white collar” men and women and among “blue collar” women, older, longer service, and higher paid employees are more often absent with length of service having the greatest influence. For “blue collar’ men longer length of service and higher job status are associated with lower absence rates. These findings indicate that great care should be taken in making any over-all generalization about the factors influencing absenteeism and, particularly, that careful controls should be established in making any inferences concerning “morale” or “supervisory skill” on the basis of comparative absenteeism figures. The findings of this study, while based on data from only one company, would indicate that constructive personnel programs aimed at minimizing absenteeism should focus effort on the following work settings: larger plants, high seniority white collar personnel and blue collar women, and blue collar, male job classifications characterized by low status and little “freedom.”
An attendance control policy based on the Katz and Kahn (1966) motivational pattern of legal compliance was implemented in one department of a large manufacturing organization with two comparable departments serving as controls. A pre-post measure of absenteeism served as the criterion in a 2 × 3 factorial analysis of variance. The factors were the attendance control policy and 3 levels of absence groups (high, average, and low). It was hypothesized that a control policy based on legal compliance would lead to a meaningful reduction in absenteeism among high absence workers who were considered to be chronic absentees by the organization. The results supported the effectiveness of the attendance control policy among chronically absent workers, although the policy did not lead to improvements in attendance among regular attenders. The implications of the study are discussed in the context of organizational efforts to control chronic absenteeism.
Several investigations have examined the relationship between absenteeism and turnover. These behaviors have been variously found to be correlated positively, negatively, or not at all. The present investigation studied this relationship using multiple measures of both absenteeism and turnover. The findings showed that different types of relationships were present depending on the measures used. A search for invariant relationships, using mutually exclusive models, does not seem useful. The absenteeism-turnover relationship appears to be a variable process over time, people, situations, and measures.
Three items normally found on any job application blank were used on a sample of 220 female clerical workers in an attempt to predict an absenteeism criterion. Age and Marital Status showed no relationship to the criterion, while Number of Dependents was significantly and positively related to absenteeism in both the primary and hold-out groups. This supports the hypothesis that employee selection may be simplified by using information already possessed by the company.