Wiley

Personnel Psychology

Published by Wiley
Online ISSN: 1744-6570
Discipline: Psychology
Learn more about this page
Aims and scope

Personnel Psychology publishes psychological research centered around people at work. Articles span the full range of human resource management and organizational behavior topics, including job analysis, selection and recruiting, training and development, performance appraisal and feedback, compensation and rewards, careers, strategic human resource management, work design, global and cross-cultural issues, organizational climate, work attitudes and behaviors, motivation, teams, and leadership. Research conducted at multiple levels of analysis, including individual, team, and organizational levels, are welcome. Published articles include original empirical research, theory development, meta-analytic reviews, and narrative literature reviews.

 

Editors

Recent publications
Proposed conceptual model.
Note. H = Hypothesis. H2 represents mediated moderation effects, and H3 and H4 represent moderated mediation effects. Solid lines represent the relationships tested in Studies 1–3; dotted line represents the relationship tested in Study 3
Interaction of abusive supervision and self‐worth on job satisfaction (Study 1)
Interaction of abusive supervision and self‐worth on leader satisfaction (Study 2)
Interaction of abusive supervision and self‐worth on leader satisfaction (Study 3)
Article
Higher-performing employees are extremely important to organizations due to their superior contribution to unit performance and vaulted value within their teams. In turn, they espouse higher work-specific self-worth evaluations that influence how they react to abusive supervision. Taking a self-verification perspective, we theoretically explain how performance (through work-specific self-worth) augments the aversive nature of abusive supervision, which in turn affects higher-performing employees’ job embeddedness and subsequent decisions to quit their jobs. Across three field studies, our model is supported as we find that performance is positively related to work-specific self-worth, which magnifies the negative effects of abusive supervision on satisfaction. Consequently, we discover that as job performance (and in turn self-worth) increases, abusive supervision indirectly reduces job embeddedness and increases turnover through two forms of satisfaction. We expound upon how these findings contribute to both theory and practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
Scatterplot of when groups exhibit CI
Stacked bar chart depicting association between percentage of well‐structured tasks and when groups exhibit CI
Article
In 2010, a new research stream began on collective intelligence, defined as a group's general ability to perform consistently well across a wide variety of tasks. Subsequent empirical evidence presents a mixed picture. Some studies have found groups to exhibit collective intelligence while others have not. To resolve these disparate results, we compare 21 experimental studies to understand what influences whether groups exhibit collective intelligence. We find that task structure is a boundary condition for collective intelligence in that groups exhibit collective intelligence across well-structured tasks but not across ill-structured tasks. For ill-structured tasks, collective intelligence has a more nuanced set of multiple factors that may be interpreted as different facets of collective intelligence. This research extends our understanding of collective intelligence by suggesting that the original definition of collective intelligence was too all-encompassing. Collective intelligence should be reconceptualized as a multi-dimensional phenomenon, similar to research on individual intelligence. We highlight avenues for future research to continue to move collective intelligence research forward, particularly regarding ill-structured tasks. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
Theoretical model
Study 1 structural equation model. n = 445. Unstandardized path coefficients are reported. Standard errors are in parentheses. Item‐level indicators and residuals have been omitted for simplicity
* p < .05, two‐tailed
The effects of PCUB and motives on indebtedness in Study 2. Error bars represent standard errors
The effects of PCUB and motives on integrity in Study 2. Error bars represent standard errors
Article
There is substantial evidence that employees build relationships with coworkers who provide them with assistance and distance themselves from coworkers who behave unethically. We consider how employees respond when coworkers provide them with benefits that violate ethical standards—a phenomenon we refer to as pro-coworker unethical behavior (PCUB). Building on social exchange theory, we explore how recipients of PCUB may simultaneously experience both a sense of increased indebtedness toward their coworker, given the beneficial nature of PCUB, and reduced perceptions of their coworker's integrity, given the unethical nature of PCUB. We theorize that these diverging reactions will have countervailing indirect effects on the social exchange relationship between the recipient and PCUB provider. In turn, these effects on the social exchange relationship will influence whether the recipient responds favorably toward the provider, in the form of interpersonal citizenship. Our theoretical model incorporates the PCUB provider's prosocial versus self-interested motives as a critical contingency that shapes recipients’ perceptions of indebtedness and integrity. The results of a multi-wave field study of employee–coworker dyads and an experimental study provide converging support for our hypothesized model. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
Team functioning trajectories (mean change shown as dotted lines)
Moderation by average Machiavellianism and sadism in teams on cooperation over time (team cooperation scores on y‐axis)
Moderation by average Machiavellianism and sadism in teams on performance over time (standardized team performance scores on y‐axis)
Moderation by average negative traits in teams on pre‐ and post‐event cooperation (team cooperation scores on y‐axis)
Moderation by average negative traits in teams on pre‐ and post‐event performance (standardized team performance scores on y‐axis)
Article
Despite the well-established importance of team composition, there has been relatively little research that focuses on compositions regarding problematic personality traits. This study examines the impact of Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy, and sadism—all operationalized as team composition variables—on team cooperation and performance over time. This was done in a sample of 43 graduate student teams (n = 269) engaged in an immersive business simulation that unfolded over a 6-week duration. In addition, the parameters of the simulation task were altered midway through the simulation without forewarning, in turn creating a shock event that allowed for an examination of whether team composition for negative personality had similar effects under conditions of business-as-usual versus a disruptive change. Results indicated that both team average Machiavellianism and sadism had deleterious effects on team cooperation and performance over time, while controlling for two closely associated positive personality traits (honesty-humility and agreeableness). These damaging effects were further revealed to especially detract from performance trajectories after teams experienced a disruptive event. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of including problematic personality traits in considerations pertaining to team composition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
Article
We examined the efficacy of embodied learning for augmenting leader psychological capital — a latent construct reflecting hope, optimism, self-efficacy, and resilience. To do so, we leveraged the literature on embodied cognition and the challenge-hindrance stressor framework to better understand how involving both the body and mind during learning (i.e., embodied learning) can lead to heightened perceptions of challenge stressors, which then result in greater psychological capital. We also expected that higher levels of psychological capital relate to greater subsequent adaptability on the job. We tested these predictions in two quasi-experimental field studies. Study 1 included a sample of 141 Executive MBA students and Study 2 included a sample of 163 working managers. The results of the first study revealed that participants in the embodied learning group experienced higher post-learning psychological capital than those in the disembodied learning group and that psychological capital mediated the relationship between learning approach and peer-rated adaptability six months later. Study 2 replicated the positive relationship between embodied learning and post-learning psychological capital and extended it by showing that challenge stressors mediated this relationship. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
The Hypothesized Model
Note. H = Hypothesis. H3 and H4 represent moderation hypotheses, whereas H7a, H7b, H8a, and H8b represent mediation hypotheses
¹Constructs included in Study 1
²Constructs included in Study 2
3aConstructs included in Study 3a
3bConstructs included in Study 3b
Study 1: The moderation effect of workflow centrality on the relationship between hindrance stressors and dependent help‐seeking
Study 2: The interaction effect between hindrance stressors and workflow centrality on dependent help‐seeking
Article
In the modern workplace, it is virtually impossible to succeed without seeking any help from others. Despite its widely recognized importance, several areas surrounding help-seeking have not yet been clearly understood in the organization literature. Specifically, it is unclear whether seeking help always benefits employees in need, and how various work demands drive help-seeking behavior in different ways. In this research, we drew from the dual-type view of help-seeking (i.e., autonomous and dependent help-seeking) and the challenge-hindrance stressors framework to elaborate how seeking help of different types influences employees’ work competence-related outcomes in various directions, what work demands drive employees to seek different types of help, and when encountering work demands is particularly influential on their help-seeking tendencies. Evidence from a field study (Study 1) showed that while challenge stressors increased employees’ autonomous help-seeking, hindrance stressors increased dependent help-seeking especially for employees with greater workflow centrality. Moreover, autonomous help-seeking benefited help-seekers’ job performance ratings through increased self-perceived competence, whereas dependent help-seeking hurt their job performance via decreased perceived competence by coworkers. To cross-validate our findings, we then examined and replicated our core findings with three experimental vignette studies (Studies 2, 3a, and 3b). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
Article
To expand our knowledge of personality assessment, this study connects research and theory related to two common selection methods: assessment centers (ACs) and personality inventories. We examine the validity of personality‐based AC ratings within a multi‐method framework. Drawing from the self‐other knowledge asymmetry model (Vazire, 2010), we propose that AC ratings are suited to capture personality traits that are observable in social interactions, whereas other methods (i.e., self‐ratings) are useful to assess more internal traits. We obtained data from two personality‐based ACs, self‐ and other‐rated personality inventories, and supervisor ratings of job performance. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that personality‐based AC ratings reflected the Big Five traits. Consistent with the self‐other knowledge asymmetry model, AC ratings of more observable personality traits (Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Intellect/Openness) were correlated with inventory‐based measures of these traits. AC ratings demonstrated incremental validity in predicting job performance over inventory‐based personality measures for some traits (including Agreeableness, and Intellect/Openness) but self‐ratings also demonstrated incremental validity over AC ratings (for Conscientiousness). This implies that different personality measures capture unique information, thereby complementing each other. Yet, AC effect sizes were modest, suggesting that running personality‐based ACs is advisable only under specific circumstances. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
Synthesis of current theoretical perspectives
The overall performance domain and performance metrics
Synthesizing expectancy theory with construal level theory
PFP complexity, perceptions, and effects
Article
Compensation research has generally considered pay-for-performance (PFP) perceptions in terms of how people react to only a single PFP form or PFP systems as a whole, regardless of the complexity of the compensation system pertaining to the individual. Synthesizing construal level theory, expectancy theory, compensation activation theory, and Call and Ployhart's (2020) theory of firm value capture from employee job performance, we provide insights into how employees develop PFP perceptions when they are covered by a complex PFP system. We propose that (1) individuals shape PFP perceptions at different levels of mental construals, ranging from concrete to abstract; (2) concrete conceptualizations lead to specific, detailed, multidimensional perceptions of PFP system elements (i.e., expectancy, instrumentality, valence, and incentive-intensity) while abstract conceptualizations lead to more general perceptions with fewer perceived dimensions; (3) an individual's construal level can change over time because of characteristics of the PFP system as well as external events, and (4) construal levels have different implications for PFP system effectiveness at the individual and organizational levels. We also discuss how this theoretical approach provides a structure for enhancing our understanding of modern pay practices that helps to close the gap that currently exists between compensation theory and practice.
 
Article
People are increasingly turning to social media and online forums like Reddit to cope with work‐related concerns. Previous research suggests that how others respond can be an important determinant of the sharer's affective and well‐being outcomes. However, less is known about whether and how cues embedded in the content of what is shared can shape the type of responses that one receives from others, obscuring the joint and interactive role that both the sharer and listener may play in influencing the sharer's outcomes. In this study, we develop theory to advance our understanding of online coping with an explicitly social focus using computational grounded theorizing and machine learning techniques applied to a large corpus of work‐related conversations on Reddit. Specifically, our theoretical model sheds light on the dynamics of the online social coping process related to the domain of work. We show that how sharers and listeners interact and react to one another depends on the content of stressors shared, the social coping behaviors used when sharing, and whether the sharer and listener belong to the same occupational context. We contribute to the social coping literature in three ways. First, we clarify how social actors respond to cues embedded in the social coping attempt. Second, we examine the role that such responses play in shaping sharer outcomes. Finally, we extend theory on social coping with work‐related stressors to the online domain. Taken together, this research highlights the importance of the dynamic interplay between sharer and listener in the context of online social coping. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
Article
The field of aviation consists of many different organizations, operations, and functions. Psychologists working in design and implementation, various aspects of aviation, have built up vast knowledge bases and techniques for best‐practices within their silos; however, there is no shared, common, knowledge base for these disparate fields within aviation. This book serves to provide an overview of psychological methods and tools used in various areas of research, implementation, and design within aviation fields. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
Multilevel model of mindful relating
Article
Integrating theorizing on mindfulness and work relationships, we build a multilevel model of how mindfulness shapes interpersonal interactions and work relationship trajectories over time. Our framework of mindful relating yields three approaches an individual may utilize during an interpersonal interaction at work, based on the extent to which they incorporate the mindful qualities of attention and decentering. We theorize how the extent to which interaction partners are (in)congruent in their mindful relating approaches associates with interaction quality (positive, ambivalent, indifferent, and negative) – and how over time, this shapes the trajectory of a work relationship. We further posit that empathy, response flexibility, and emotional regulation transmit the effects of mindful relating and drive interaction quality. From a contextual perspective, we explore the roles of power dynamics and negative shock events as factors likely to impact how interactions over time collectively inform the trajectory of relationships. Finally, we explicate how our theory‐building can guide future work and make specific recommendations for theoretical and empirical advancement. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
Article
The confluence of the aging population and economic conditions that require working longer necessitate a focus on how to best train and develop older workers. We report a meta‐analysis of the age and training relationship that examines training outcomes and moderators with 60 independent samples (total N = 10,003). Framed within the lifespan development perspective, we expected and found that older trainees perform worse (ρ = ‐0.14, k = 34, N = 5,642; δ = ‐1.08, k = 21, N = 1,242) and take more time (ρ = 0.19, k = 15, N = 2,780; δ = 1.25, k = 12, N = 664) in training relative to younger trainees. Further, age was negatively related to post‐training self‐efficacy (ρ = ‐0.08, k = 10, N = 4,631), but not related to trainee reactions. Moderator analyses provided mixed support that training alone is related to increased mastery of skills and knowledge. No support was found for the moderating effects of pacing or instructional approach. We call for future research examining the interactive effects of training design on older worker outcomes in ways that capitalize on age‐related growth, compensate for decline, and consider the strategies workers use to mitigate the effect of age‐related losses. (200) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
Research model
Note: OCB = organizational citizenship behaviors; CWB = counterproductive work behaviors. We tested platform effects only in Study 2 and Study 3. We added the construct Peril to our model in Study 4.
Structural equation model results for Study 2. Standardized coefficients with p‐values in parentheses; Nonsignificant paths (i.e., p > .05) are presented using dashed arrows; two‐tailed tests. N = 290. Indices of model fit: χ²(386)= 610.209; CFI = .936; SRMR = .072; RMSEA = .045 with 90% C.I. [.038, .051]
Structural equation model results for Study 3 (Qualtrics working professional with hiring experience). Standardized coefficients with p‐values in parentheses; Nonsignificant paths (i.e., p > .05) are presented using dashed arrows; two‐tailed test. N = 431. Indices of model fit: χ²(386)= 795.626; CFI = .926; SRMR = .065; RMSEA = .050 with 90% C.I. [.045, .054]
Structural equation model results for Study 4 (Amazon Mechanical Turk working professionals). Standardized coefficients with p‐values in parentheses; Nonsignificant paths (i.e., p > .05) are presented using dashed arrows; two‐tailed test. N = 298. Indices of model fit: χ²(417)= 739.164; CFI = .940; SRMR = .068; RMSEA = .051 with 90% C.I. [.045, .057]
Article
A significant percentage of veterans suffer from post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Veterans are often directed to social media platforms to seek support during transition to civilian life. However, social media platforms are increasingly used to aid in hiring decisions, and these platforms may make veterans’ PTSD more discoverable during the hiring process. Based on social identity theory and identity management theory, the integrated suspicion model, and the stigma literature, we conducted four studies that examine veterans’ PTSD disclosures on social media and the consequences in the hiring process. Study 1 suggests that 16% to 34% of veterans included cues related to PTSD status on social media. Study 2, based on 290 upper‐level business students, shows that veterans with PTSD were more stigmatized than veterans without PTSD, and stigmatization is associated with more suspicion and lower hiring‐related ratings (of expected task performance, expected organizational citizenship behaviors, expected counterproductive work behaviors, and intention to interview). Study 3, based on 431 working professionals with hiring experience, further supports relationships from Study 2. Study 4, based on 298 working professionals, identifies peril (i.e., perceptions regarding danger associated with veterans with PTSD) as an additional mediator for the effects of PTSD on hiring‐related ratings. In sum, we identify and explore the identity management conundrum that social media disclosure poses for veterans with PTSD in the hiring process and discuss potential remedies and avenues for future research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
Holland's (1997) hexagonal ordering of the RIASEC interest types with example occupations
Article
Vocational interest measurement has long played a significant role in work contexts, particularly in helping individuals make career choices. A recent meta‐analysis indicated that interest inventories have substantial validity for predicting career choices. However, traditional approaches to interest inventory scoring (e.g., profile matching) typically capture broad, or average relations between vocational interests and occupations in the population, yet may not be accurate in capturing the specific relations in a given sample. Machine learning (ML) approaches provide a potential way forward as they can effectively take into account complexities in the relation between interests and career choices. Thus, this study aims to enhance the accuracy of interest inventory‐based career choice prediction through the application of ML. Using a large sample (N = 81,267) of employed and unemployed participants, we compared the prediction accuracy of a traditional interest profile method (profile matching) to a new machine‐learning augmented method in predicting occupational membership (for employed participants) and vocational aspirations (for unemployed participants). Results suggest that, compared to the traditional profile method, the machine‐learning augmented method resulted in higher overall accuracy for predicting both types of career choices. The machine‐learning augmented method was especially predictive of job categories with high base rates, yet underpredicted job categories with low base rates. These findings have practical implications for improving the utility of interest inventories for organizational practice, contributing to areas such as employee development, recruitment, job placement, and retention.
 
Article
Applying qualitative and quantitative analyses across four studies and seven samples, we clarified the meaning and developed a new measure of career insecurity. Career insecurity is defined as “an individual's thoughts and worries that central content aspects of one's future career might possibly develop in an undesired manner.” The new Multidimensional Career Insecurity Scale (MU-CI-S) measures eight career insecurity (CI) dimensions: (1) CI-Career opportunities, (2) CI-Decreased prestige and qualification requirements of the employment, (3) CI-Contractual employment conditions, (4) CI-Unemployment, (5) CI-Change of workplace, (6) CI-Retirement, (7) CI-Work-nonwork interactions, and (8) CI-Discrepancy between individual resources and work demands. Across all studies, the MU-CI-S showed excellent psychometric properties (e.g., factor loadings of all items and internal consistencies of all dimensions) and high levels of construct validity (e.g., theoretically assumed factorial structure and discriminant and convergent validity). Moreover, the analyses showed concurrent, predictive, and incremental validity beyond neuroticism and other job and career insecurity measures for predicting health and well-being, job performance, career success, and career attitudes. The results provide a comprehensive assessment and investigation of career-related insecurity perceptions in the current labor market. Moreover, the results offer theoretical and practical implications for individual career planning, career counseling, and organizational career management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
Conceptual Similarities and Distinctions between Time Theft, Withdrawal, Property Theft and Cheating
Article
Despite its prevalence, high cost, and practical import, employee time theft has received scant research attention. To facilitate future scholarship on this important topic, the present research endeavors to clarify the conceptualization of time theft and advance understanding regarding the range of its behavioral manifestations, develop and validate an instrument to assess time theft, and provide preliminary insights into its nomological net. Results, gathered across nine samples of employees who are paid on an hourly wage scale, suggest that time theft is a multidimensional formative construct, is distinct from other deviant work behaviors (e.g., withdrawal, property theft), and is influenced by instrumental (e.g., pay satisfaction) and expressive motives (e.g., boredom). Finally, time theft explained incremental variance in criterion variables (e.g., receipt or enactment of interpersonal help) controlling for the effects of other discrete manifestations of deviance (e.g., withdrawal). Implications for future scholarship and managerial practice are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
of conceptual model
Partially mediated model of relationship quality to mentor knowledge outcomes through career and psychosocial mentoring self‐efficacy from the mentor's perspective
Note. N = 199. Standardized path estimates are reported. Significant paths are in bold. Covariates are not shown here, but include paths from mentor sex to career and psychosocial mentoring self‐efficacy and self‐knowledge; college to psychosocial mentoring self‐efficacy, mentoring‐specific and relational knowledge; length of mentoring relationship to psychosocial mentoring self‐efficacy and self‐knowledge; and mentoring tenure and number of protégés to career and psychosocial mentoring self‐efficacy. All latent variables (i.e., relationship quality, career mentoring self‐efficacy, and psychosocial mentoring self‐efficacy) are depicted as ovals and all observed variables (i.e., mentoring‐specific, occupational‐specific, relational, and self‐knowledge) are depicted as rectangles. * p < .05, ** p < .01
Post‐hoc test of model with behavioral change intentions as an additional mediator
Note. N = 199. Standardized path estimates are reported. Significant paths are in bold. Covariates are not shown here, but include paths from mentor sex to career and psychosocial mentoring self‐efficacy and self‐knowledge; college to psychosocial mentoring self‐efficacy, mentoring‐specific and relational knowledge; length of mentoring relationship to psychosocial mentoring self‐efficacy and self‐knowledge; mentoring tenure to career and psychosocial mentoring self‐efficacy; and number of protégés to career and psychosocial mentoring self‐efficacy and behavioral change intentions. All latent variables (i.e., relationship quality, career mentoring self‐efficacy, psychosocial mentoring self‐efficacy, and behavioral change intentions) are depicted as ovals and all observed variables (i.e., mentoring‐specific, occupational‐specific, relational, and self‐knowledge) are depicted as rectangles. * p < .05, ** p < .01
Article
Drawing on the relational mentoring perspective (Ragins, 2012) and social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986), the purpose of this study is to understand how mentoring relationship quality relates to mentor knowledge acquisition and to refine and identify the types of knowledge mentors gain from their mentoring relationships. We hypothesize that relationship quality positively relates to mentor knowledge acquisition (mentoring-specific, relational, and self-knowledge) through career and psychosocial mentoring self-efficacy. We tested our model and research questions in a mixed methods study of 199 professor mentors. Our qualitative results provided a more in-depth understanding of what mentors learn from their mentoring relationships with respect to mentoring-specific knowledge, relational knowledge, and self-knowledge. Furthermore, we identified occupational-specific knowledge as an additional type of mentor knowledge acquisition. In our quantitative analysis, contrary to our hypothesis, we found that career mentoring self-efficacy mediated a negative relationship between relationship quality and mentoring-specific knowledge acquisition. Further, relationship quality had a direct, negative, effect on relational knowledge acquisition. Finally, career and psychosocial mentoring self-efficacy positively related to occupational-specific knowledge acquisition and together mediated the relation between relationship quality and occupational-specific knowledge acquisition. From our post hoc analysis, we found that behavioral change intentions mediated the negative relationships between relationship quality and mentoring-specific, relational, and self-knowledge. Our study contributes to the mentoring literature by focusing on the mentor's learning and provides practical implications for how organizations can better foster effective mentoring outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
Article
Evaluators’ fit assessments are not only influenced by applicants’ qualities, but also by stereotypes, especially in recruitment for high-status jobs in male-dominated fields. The unidimensional agentic stereotype of these work contexts signals agentic job and organizational requirements (stereotypically male qualities such as achievement orientation), although the actual requirements usually also include communality (stereotypically female qualities such as interpersonal skills). In a series of five experiments, we investigate the relevance of perceived applicant agency for perceived applicant fit, the influence of recruitment material, contextual differences, and the role of applicant gender. Our findings indicate that perceived applicant agency drives perceived person-job and person-organization fit in strictly male stereotyped work contexts, regardless of gender, and agentic recruitment material enhances this effect. Contrasting different contexts (high- with low-status jobs and a male-dominated with a gender-balanced and female-dominated field) revealed that the relevance of perceived agency increases with perceived job status, and the relevance of perceived communality decreases with the expected share of men. Although women were perceived as highly agentic in strictly male stereotyped work contexts, their need to be perceived as agentic also was higher than for men, due to the perceived lack of fit between women and high-status jobs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
Research model linking team autonomy to team effectiveness
Meta‐analytic path model. Task = task‐focused team functioning; Relationship = relationship‐focused team functioning; Performance = team performance; Attitudes = team attitudes; TR = task routineness; TI = task interdependence. In parentheses, values on the left and right of slashes indicate the estimates in the low and high levels of each moderator, respectively. ⁺p < .10, *p < .05. Several of the relationships we report above were not formally hypothesized but we report them for the sake of completeness
Article
Autonomy is a ubiquitous team design feature, which is purported to relate positively to team effectiveness. However, the theoretical link between team autonomy and team effectiveness is not well understood, and previous studies have found inconsistent relations between them. We aim to resolve this incomplete understanding by examining “why” autonomy relates to team effectiveness, “what” aspects of team effectiveness are affected by team autonomy, and “when” the relations vary. To do so, we investigated task- and relationship-focused team functioning as mediators, expanded the construct of team effectiveness beyond just team performance to include attitudes, and tested the moderating effects of task routineness and interdependence. Our meta-analyses based on 415 effect sizes from 69 studies conducted on approximately 6,035 teams revealed that team autonomy positively relates to both task- and relationship-focused team functioning. The results showed significant indirect effects of autonomy on both team performance and attitudes via both types of team functioning. Task routineness weakened the effect of team autonomy on task-focused functioning and, ultimately, on team performance and attitudes, while it did not change the effect on relationship-focused functioning. The influence of team autonomy did not vary by the level of task interdependence. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
Article
Although the various factors that predict applicant attitudes and decisions during recruitment have been explored, far less is known about the decision‐making process applicants go through to develop attitudes to facilitate job choice decisions. In a field sample (Study 1), applicant initial preferences across four firms predicted the trajectory of subsequent organizational attraction toward the firms over the 5‐month recruiting cycle. Further, these initial preferences significantly predicted job choice decisions at the end of the recruiting cycle. Applicants’ organizational attraction trajectories that developed during the entire recruiting process mediated this relationship. Findings in a laboratory sample (Study 2) were consistent with research on predecisional information distortion (PID). Applicants evaluated the information presented about two hypothetical recruiting companies and overly favored the company that was installed as applicants’ initial preference. Initial preferences had a significant indirect effect on job choice through total PID when the information about the two companies was equivalent and when the initially preferred company was moderately worse. However, the indirect effect was not significant when the initially preferred company was presented as severely worse. Applicants arriving at job choice decisions using biased information evaluations driven by initial preferences can adversely affect both organizations and applicants’ careers.
 
Conceptual model for the theory of social exchange at home
Note. Figure presents a conceptual model for the theory of social exchange at home to explain the disagreeableness premium for full‐time employed men in opposite‐sex marriages. Mediators, which are directly measured in Study I but unobserved in Study 2, appear in dashed boxes. Note that wife household performance operates as a moderator and also mediates the moderating effect of wife conscientiousness
The association between disagreeableness and other‐orientation toward wife as moderated by gender role traditionalism in Study 1
Note. Figure presents other‐orientation toward wife for full‐time employed men in opposite‐sex marriages as moderated by high (+1 SD) versus low (−1 SD) gender role traditionalism across varying levels of disagreeableness
The association between other‐orientation toward wife and job involvement as moderated by wife household performance in Study 1
Note. Figure presents job involvement for full‐time employed men in opposite‐sex marriages as moderated by high (+1 SD) versus low (−1 SD) wife household performance across varying levels of other‐orientation toward wife
The disagreeableness premium as moderated by gender role traditionalism and wife conscientiousness
Note. Figure presents predicted pay in British pounds per month for full‐time employed men in opposite‐sex marriages in Study 2 as moderated by high (+1 SD) versus low (−1 SD) gender role traditionalism (GRT) and high (+1 SD) versus low (−1 SD) wife conscientiousness (WC) across varying levels of disagreeableness
The disagreeableness premium as moderated by marital status and gender in a supplemental analysis
Note. Figure presents predicted pay in British pounds per month for all employees in the British Household Panel Survey (an expanded version of the data used in Study 2) as moderated by marital status and gender across varying levels of disagreeableness
Article
Research has shown that disagreeableness predicts financial success (especially for men), and this association is attributed to workplace behavior. However, this effect remains puzzling given that disagreeableness is negatively associated with valued workplace behaviors, such as cooperation and prosocial behavior. We theorize that the male disagreeableness premium can be further understood by considering social exchanges at home in which married men are less concerned with and helpful to their wives, especially when harboring traditional gender role attitudes. Such exchanges should allow disagreeable men to demonstrate higher job involvement, resulting in higher pay, especially when their wives demonstrate higher household performance and are highly conscientious. As expected, Study 1 data from 195 married couples indicated that male disagreeableness predicts higher pay as mediated by lower wife-orientation and higher job involvement, and moderated by traditionalism and a wife's household performance (and conscientiousness). In Study 2, we replicated key aspects of our model in a nationally representative sample of 1,558 married couples: Again, disagreeableness in married men predicts higher pay if they are more traditional and their wives are more conscientious. Our findings build on the literature's conventional wisdom (that organizations seem to reward disagreeable workplace behaviors) and highlight the importance of social exchange at home for success at work. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
Conceptual model for the meta‐analysis
Note. H = hypothesis (e.g., H1 = Hypothesis 1). A plus sign in parentheses indicates that we expect a positive bivariate relationship or an enhancement‐type interaction. A minus sign in parentheses indicates that we expect a negative bivariate relationship or an attenuation‐type interaction. Solid lines indicate relations expected a priori to be statistically significant, the dashed line indicates a relation expected a priori to be nonsignificant, and dotted lines indicate exploratory research questions. In addition to H1‐H6, which are displayed in the figure, we proposed two hypotheses pertaining to the incremental effect of reflective thinking style beyond that of conscientiousness (H7) and intelligence (H8) when predicting employee task performance
Article
We conducted a meta‐analysis to examine the relations of individual differences in reflective (or rational) and intuitive thinking styles with workplace task performance. We meta‐analyzed 113 effect sizes from 71 independent samples (N = 11,713). Results indicate that reflective thinking style has a positive and non‐zero meta‐analytic relation with task performance (ρ = .213). This positive relation is stronger in environments characterized by higher task complexity, greater importance of creativity and innovation for work tasks, and higher time pressure associated with work tasks. Intuitive thinking style, conversely, has a very small but positive meta‐analytic relation with task performance (ρ = .051), and this relation is stronger in environments characterized by higher task complexity. Finally, incremental validity analyses reveal that reflective thinking style explains unique variance in task performance, beyond conscientiousness and intelligence (general mental ability). Overall, this meta‐analysis demonstrates that reflective thinking style is an important antecedent to task performance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
Hypothesized model
Cross‐level moderating effect of perceived animals’ ability to feel and sense on the relationship between daily human‐animal work and daily compassion (Study 1)
Moderating effect of perceived animals’ ability to feel and sense on the relationship between human‐animal work and compassion (Study 3)
Moderating effect of perceived animals’ ability to feel and sense on the relationship between human‐animal work and awe (Study 3)
Path model with results (Study 3) Note: N = 178. Unstandardized path estimates are reported (standard errors in parentheses). Solid lines depict the hypothesized relationships and dashed lines indicate relationships that are not hypothesized. For the sake of parsimony, we did not report the paths between control variables and the focal study variables in the figure. Please refer to Table 6 for these numbers. *p < .05, **p < .01
Article
Human‐animal work represents a collaboration between humans and animals to achieve work goals, and is common in the domains of healthcare, therapy, entertainment, and education. Although the scopes and types of human‐animal work is diversifying and increasing, organizational scholars have yet to explore its impacts on employees. Drawing from the models of compassion and mind perception theories, we first develop a theoretical model pertaining to the development of compassion as a result of human‐animal work. In a study with zookeepers (Study 1), we find that human‐animal work evokes the emotion of compassion, which in turn is positively associated with employee prosocial behavior and task performance. These mediated effects are moderated by how employees perceive animals – employees are more likely to experience compassion, and in turn become more prosocial and work better when they generally perceive animals to be able to experience emotions and bodily sensations. Furthermore, two follow‐up studies (i.e., Studies 2 and 3) with employees who engage in human‐animal work in Hong Kong and the United States reveal that working with animals evokes awe in addition to compassion, and provides insight into their resultant impact on prosocial behavior and task performance. We end by discussing the theoretical and practical implications of this work. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
Path analysis results for the proposed multi‐categorical mediation with leader subjective ambivalence as reference category for Study 2. All unstandardized coefficients with standard errors reported in parentheses Note. Bootstrap sample size 10,000. *p < .01, **p < .05
Path analysis results for the proposed categorical serial mediation with leader subjective ambivalence as reference category for Study 2. All unstandardized coefficients with standard errors reported in parentheses Note. Bootstrap sample size 10,000. *p < .01, **p < .05
Path analysis results for the proposed categorical mediation with leader subjective ambivalence as reference category for Study 2. All unstandardized coefficients with standard errors reported in parentheses Note. Bootstrap sample size 10,000. *p < .01, **p < .05
The interactive effect of leader subjective ambivalence and project complexity on leader information‐seeking behaviors with 95% confidence interval for Study 3
Path estimates for path analysis for Study 3. Paths are unstandardized parameter estimates with standard errors in parentheses. *p < .01, **p < .05. Estimates for control variables and other indirect and direct effects not illustrated for simplicity, but can be found in Table 7
Article
In this article, we investigate the effects of leader subjective ambivalence on team performance. Integrating the ambivalence literature and social learning theory, we propose a multi‐level model of whether, when, and why team leaders’ subjective ambivalence enhances team performance outcomes. The results of two laboratory experiments (Studies 1 and 2) demonstrate initial support for the relationship between leader subjective ambivalence and information‐seeking behaviors. The results of a longitudinal field study (Study 3) based on 164 projects (164 leaders and 725 subordinates) show that leader subjective ambivalence has a positive indirect effect on team task performance first through leader information‐seeking behaviors and later through team information‐seeking behaviors. Our results further indicate that project complexity is a boundary condition for the proposed conditional indirect effect of leader subjective ambivalence on team performance outcomes. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
 
Model 1
Note. Our predictions regarding the direction of meta‐analytic associations (+ or ‐) between positive self‐concept and risk tolerance and each outcome is presented in parenthesis
Flowchart of search process
Article
How do dispositions affect an individual's attitudes and behaviors during organizational change? In this systematic and meta‐analytic investigation, using data from 154 articles (168 independent samples), we classify a broad set of dispositions into a previously validated two‐factor dispositional model. This model distinguishes between two dispositional factors that shed light on individuals’ adaptation to change: positive self‐concept and risk tolerance. Drawing from trait activation theory, we examine the magnitude of effects between each dispositional factor and various groups of outcomes: explicit change responses (e.g., resistance), well‐being (e.g., stress), work attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction), and work behaviors (e.g., job performance). We also evaluate the moderating effects of the change context (its stage, dimensions, and types), national context (cultural dimensions), and study design. To this end, we conducted multi‐level meta‐analyses using samples of employees who experienced organizational change. Our findings support the notion that during organizational change, positive self‐concept and risk tolerance are valid predictors across outcome categories and demonstrate that positive self‐concept is more strongly associated with several employees’ change responses and work attitudes than risk tolerance. These associations vary depending on the type of outcome, the stage of change, the national cultural dimension, and the study design, and to a lesser degree, the dimension and type of change. Finally, we offer theoretical and empirical research directions for organizational change and personality scholars. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
Article
To what extent and under what conditions do college graduates disengage from employment‐incompatible behaviors during the college‐to‐work transition? Drawing from the life course perspective, we proposed a model highlighting considerable stability of employment‐incompatible behaviors during initial months of organizational socialization. Our model predicted that maturing out of such behaviors, which is expected by employers and beneficial to career adjustment, would be more likely to occur given a conducive transition context. Using a large dataset tracking graduates from their last semester in college to up to approximately 1.5 years after graduation and with alcohol use as our empirical referent, we demonstrated that a pattern of high‐risk drinking behavior may remain even after the transition into full‐time employment. We further showed that lower levels of perceived cohort drinking norms and higher levels of mentoring were associated with a higher probability of maturing out, manifesting in a transition from a high‐risk drinking profile before graduation to a moderate drinking profile after starting full‐time employment. Finally, we found that maturing out was associated with lagged outcomes including lower levels of sleep problems and depression and fewer work days lost to absenteeism, thus underscoring the consequential nature of behavior profile shifts during the college‐to‐work transition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
Theoretical model. MTM, multiple team membership
The moderating role of permanent team identification on the number of temporary teams–MTM identity strain relationship (Study 1)
Abbreviations: ID, identification; MTM, multiple team membership
The moderating role of permanent team identification on the number of temporary teams–MTM identity strain relationship (Study 2)
Abbreviations: ID, identification; MTM, multiple team membership
Article
As the prevalence of multiple team membership (MTM) arrangements continues to grow, researchers have argued that shifting between teams and work roles induces MTM identity strain and other harmful outcomes. Drawing from work role transitions research on role identity and integrating it with social identity theory, we investigate this line of reasoning by conducting two studies, one field and one online panel study, focusing on blended MTMs, in which employees are concurrently assigned to a permanent team and several temporary project teams. Specifically, we examine the theoretical mechanisms explaining a positive relationship between number of temporary teams and turnover decisions. In Study 1, we surprisingly found that number of temporary teams negatively related to turnover decisions through MTM identity strain with permanent team identification strengthening this effect. In contrast, in Study 2, we found support for the hypothesized relationships: number of teams indirectly positively related to turnover intentions, mediated by MTM identity strain and cognitive depletion, and permanent team identification weakened the indirect effect. We provide explanations for these mixed findings and suggest theoretical and practical implications for MTM research.
 
Article
Electronic performance monitoring (EPM), or the use of technological means to observe, record, and analyze information that directly or indirectly relates to employee job performance, is a now ubiquitous work practice. We conducted a comprehensive meta‐analysis of the effects of EPM on workers (K = 94 independent samples, N = 23,461). Results provide no evidence that EPM improves worker performance. Moreover, findings indicate that the presence of EPM is associated with increased worker stress, regardless of the characteristics of monitoring. Findings also demonstrate that organizations that monitor more transparently and less invasively can expect more positive attitudes from workers. Overall, results highlight that even as advances in technology make possible a variety of ways to monitor workers, organizations must continue to consider the psychological component of work. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
The conceptual model
Unstandardized coefficients of the hypothetical model in Studies 1 and 2. Results of Study 1 are displayed before the forward slash; results of Study 2 are displayed after the forward slash. The figures in parentheses are standard errors
Interaction effect between team hopelessness and problem‐focused strategy on collective efficacy in Study 1
Interaction effect between team hopelessness and emotion‐focused strategy on collective efficacy in Study 1
Article
The extant team affect literature is silent on how team hopelessness may impact team functioning and, more importantly, how leaders may help to regulate it. Relying on the Appraisal‐Tendency Framework of emotion, this paper examines the effect of team hopelessness on team performance, as well as its underlying mechanism, collective efficacy. It also explores how leaders’ use of two different interpersonal emotion management (IEM) strategies can moderate this relationship. Across two field studies involving 80 and 170 workplace teams, respectively, we consistently find that team hopelessness negatively impacts team performance through reduced collective efficacy. Moreover, leaders’ use of a problem‐focused IEM strategy weakens the negative relationship between team hopelessness and team performance via collective efficacy, while their use of an emotion‐focused IEM strategy strengthens it. Our research highlights the detrimental effect of team hopelessness on team functioning and the various consequences of different leader IEM strategies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
Article
Despite research suggesting that emotional interactions pervade daily resource exchanges between leaders and members, the leader‐member exchange (LMX) literature has predominantly focused on the interplay between general affective experiences and the overall relationship quality. Drawing upon the affect theory of social exchange, we examine why and how discrete exchange imbalance engenders distinct emotions and shapes downstream work behaviors of the members. Results from a preregistered experimental study with 247 participants and an experience sampling study with time‐lagged reports from 79 leaders and 145 members show that a positively imbalanced exchange increases members’ subsequent leader‐directed helping via gratitude (but not via shame) and that a negatively imbalanced exchange increases members’ subsequent risk taking via pride (but not via anger). Moreover, the intensity of such effects hinges upon the average level of resource contributions of leader‐member dyads. Our research casts light on the role of transient emotions in dynamic resource exchanges between leaders and members and enriches our knowledge of within‐dyad fluctuations of social exchanges. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
The moderating role of age on the effect of perceived age separation on perceived age discrimination (Study 2).
The moderating role of age on the effect of perceived age separation on perceived belongingness (Study 2).
Article
The aging population implies a wider age range within a workforce, increasing the risk of age diversity as separation (the clustering into age‐based subgroups), which is considered a turnover stimulator. We provide a new theoretical perspective to age diversity and turnover research, arguing that age separation may not only increase turnover through perceived age discrimination (i.e., a self‐categorization perspective), but can also reduce it through increased perceived belongingness (i.e., a social identity perspective). Following the idea of asymmetric diversity effects, we propose the workforce's average age as a crucial moderator. A longitudinal sample of 2,393 Belgian organizations (2012‐2015) reveals that firm‐level age separation stimulates firm‐level collective voluntary turnover, but only in firms with an older average age (Study 1). Data from a representative sample of 4,764 employees from six European countries are consistent with the idea that perceived age separation stimulates aging workers’ turnover intention through increased perceived discrimination and reduced belongingness, and reduces younger workers’ turnover intention through increased belongingness (Study 2). These findings support that age diversity conceptualized as separation is not as unmistakably detrimental for turnover as previously assumed and affects younger and older employees and workforces differently. From a practical perspective, understanding the role of age in the age separation–turnover relationship may help organizations to prevent the loss of valuable knowledge through the departure of both older and younger employees. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
Results From Different Structural Equation Models and Comparisons
Overview of Behavioral Consistency and Effectiveness of Interpersonal Behaviors
Multiple Regression Analyses for Predicting AC Performance -Behavioral Factors
Article
Although the behaviors displayed by assessees are the currency of assessment centers (ACs), they have remained largely unexplored. This is surprising because a better understanding of assessees’ behaviors may provide the missing link between research on the determinants of assessee performance and research on the validity of performance ratings. Therefore, this study draws on behavioral personality science to scrutinize the behaviors that assessees express in interpersonal AC exercises. Our goals were to investigate (a) the structure of interpersonal behaviors, (b) the consistency of these behaviors across AC exercises, and (c) their effectiveness. We obtained videotaped performances of 203 assessees who took part in AC role-plays in a high-stakes context. Apart from assessors’ performance ratings, trained experts also independently coded assessees on over 40 specific behavioral cues in these role-plays (e.g., clear statements, upright posture, freezing). Results were threefold: First, the structure underlying behavioral differences in interpersonal AC exercises was represented by four broad behavioral constructs: agency, communion, interpersonal calmness, and intellectual competence. Second, assessees’ behaviors showed more consistency across exercises than performance ratings did. Third, the behaviors were related to role-play performance and predicted future interpersonal performance. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this study’s granular, behavior-driven perspective.
 
Theoretical model of sexual harassment training effectiveness
Article
Widespread agreement that training can play a key role in addressing workplace sexual harassment (SH) has led to a dramatic increase in employer-provided SH training around the world. However, summaries of published research have been qualitative in nature and have yielded inconsistent assessments of SH training's effectiveness in fulfilling that role. The study helps address those uncertain and sometimes conflicting assessments by providing the first meta-analytic investigation of the relationships between SH training and changes in trainees. We found that the largest SH training effect was on declarative knowledge learning (δ = 1.06), followed by attitude change (δ = .41), procedural knowledge-skills learning (δ = .39), and transfer outcomes (δ = .14). Significant moderating effects were found for scope of training, instructional method, and gender of trainees; however, the results varied by training outcome. The effect of SH training did not vary significantly as a function of the training delivery media, training duration, or training setting. Theoretical implications, directions for future research, and practical implications are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
Study 1 hypothesized model
Note. *p < .05. **p < .01. Coefficients are unstandardized and SEs are in parentheses.
Study 2 hypothesized model
Note. *p < .05. **p < .01. Coefficients are unstandardized and SEs are in parentheses.
Study 2 interactions between attractive and powerful posture predicting nonverbal presence
Study 1 and Study 2 nonverbal presence ratings for more and less attractive participants
Article
It turns out that being good‐looking really does pay off: decades of research have shown that attractive individuals are more likely to get ahead in their careers. Although prior research has suggested that bias on the part of evaluators is the source of attractive individuals’ favorable career outcomes, there is also evidence that these individuals may be socialized to behave and perceive themselves differently from others in ways that contribute to their success. Building on socialization research and studies on nonverbal power cues, we examined nonverbal communication in individuals with varying degrees of physical attractiveness. In two experimental studies with data from 300 video interview pitches, we found that attractive individuals had a greater sense of power than their less attractive counterparts and thus exhibited a more effective nonverbal presence, which led to higher managerial ratings of their hirability. However, we also identified a potential means for leveling this gap. Adopting a powerful posture was found to be especially beneficial for individuals rated low in attractiveness, enabling them to achieve the same level of effective nonverbal presence as their highly attractive counterparts naturally displayed. Our research sheds new light on the source of attractive individuals’ success and suggests a possible remedy for individuals who lack an appearance advantage.
 
Research model. A = Member A, B = Member B, LMX = leader‐member exchange, CWX = coworker exchange
Interactive effects of A's and B's LMX dyadic comparisons on A's helping behavior towards B (Study 1) and A's affiliative actions towards B (Study 2). A = Member A, B = Member B, LMX = leader‐member exchange
Interactive effects of A's and B's LMX dyadic comparisons on CWX between A and B (Study 2). A = Member A, B = Member B, LMX = leader‐member exchange, CWX = coworker exchange
Interactive effects of A's and B's LMX dyadic comparisons on A's perception of B's affiliative help (Supplementary Study). A = Member A, B = Member B, LMX = leader‐member exchange
Article
Members compare their differential leader-member exchanges (LMXs) to understand the triadic relationship (Member A, Member B, and their common leader); this will affect how members interact. Prior research based on balance theory assumes that the two members have a consensus on the structure of the triadic relationship, to argue that when Member A perceives their LMX to be lower than that of Member B, such an LMX imbalance would drive Member A to interact negatively with Member B. Comparison of LMX, however, reflects one's subjective perception, which may not be shared by the other. Therefore, we draw on social comparison theory to examine both members’ comparisons of LMX simultaneously and suggest that when they both perceive the other's LMX as better than their own, they may engage more in affiliative behaviors and develop a higher-quality coworker exchange (CWX). The results of two studies consistently supported these hypotheses. This research extends our understanding of LMX in triadic relations and demonstrates that mismatched perceptions of LMX dyadic comparison between two members (i.e., both perceive an LMX imbalance) could motivate members to develop a positive relationship. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
 
Journal metrics
37 days
Submission to first decision
7%
Acceptance rate
$3,000 / £2,000 / €2,500
APC
5.470 (2021)
Journal Impact Factor™
9.4 (2021)
CiteScore
Top-cited authors
Michael K Mount
  • University of Iowa
J. Kevin Ford
  • Michigan State University
Benjamin Schneider
Robert P. Tett
  • University of Tulsa
Erin Johnson
  • University of Iowa