O Brasil e conhecido como o pais que possui a maior floresta tropical do mundo (516 milhoes de hectares (60,7%) de florestas naturais e plantadas). Com o tempo, a fronteira agropecuaria avancou rapidamente ao longo de uma serie de frentes pioneiras, estendendo-se adentro da floresta. A Lei de Gestao de Florestas Publicas (Lei no. 11.284/06) foi elaborada para orientar as pessoas sobre como explorar economicamente as florestas publicas, sendo uma conquista da sociedade brasileira. Objetiva-se no presente trabalho sintetizar informacoes relacionadas a essa forma de Gestao no Brasil e demonstrar a importância desse instrumento para o desenvolvimento florestal sustentavel no pais. Para tanto, serao descritos, sem a pretensao de exaurimento, conceitos especificos, a iniciar pela definicao sobre florestas publicas e em seguida pela descricao do instrumento juridico da concessao, disposto na legislacao. Alem disso, o contrato de concessao dessas florestas e um instrumento legal que viabiliza a exploracao sustentavel das florestas publicas, com o objetivo de atenuar o desmatamento ilegal, permitindo tambem a regularizacao da posse de comunidades locais tradicionais. Este artigo analisa sua atribuicao juridica, bem como trata de suas caracteristicas procedimentais. Com a criacao e aplicacao da Lei surgiram novos orgaos e novas figuras institucionais. Embora seja cedo para colher os frutos dos processos de concessao, a ideia de unir forcas entre governo, comunidades e o setor privado, parece ser o caminho para uma economia de base florestal sustentavel e duradoura, de forma a garantir riquezas e prosperidade para as populacoes que conservam e utilizam as florestas.
O presente trabalho consiste em um estudo de caso da sub-bacia Grupiara, no municipio de Lavras (MG) em consonância as normas vigentes na Lei n o 12.651/2012. Estudos com foco na analise da paisagem sao importantes para se caracterizar adequadamente a ocupacao de bacias hidrograficas segundo as aptidoes e as vulnerabilidades ambientais. O Codigo Florestal brasileiro, alem de outras inumeras atribuicoes, define areas protegidas no interior das propriedades rurais do pais, por meio da instituicao das Areas de Preservacao Permanente e Reserva Legal. Sendo assim, foram elaborados diversos mapas, no intuito de gerar a rede de drenagem do municipio, extrair a sub-bacia em estudo, delimitar as Areas de Preservacao Permanente (APP) e propor formas diferenciadas de alocacao das Reservas Legais. A sub-bacia em estudo possui area de 408,47 ha, sendo 68,61 ha de APP que, teoricamente deveriam ser protegidas. Porem, na pratica, apenas 38,29 ha apresentam cobertura composta por fragmentos florestais, o que significa que 44,19 % das areas estao em descordo com a lei ambiental.
Safety protocols emerged to minimize the spread of Covid-19 and are in force 20 months after the disease exists in Brazil. The occurrence of SARS-CoV2 can be analyzed by the local Environmental Health Indicator (ISA). The objective of this study was to analyze the mortality rate caused by Covid-19 about environmental and sanitary conditions in 14 municipalities in the state of São Paulo, located in the Baixo Pardo/Grande and Pardo UGRHIs. Data from covid-19 (total cases and deaths) were obtained by SEADE (2021) and research by Rezende (2021) and Alvares (2021) provided the ISA parameters. The municipalities were grouped by demographic density and those with up to 50 thousand inhabitants were selected. The fatality rate was obtained as the ratio of the number of deaths to the accumulated cases of Covid-19. Of the 14 selected municipalities, 57,1% met the research hypothesis (municipalities with higher ISA have a mortality rate at covid-19 below the national average) and seven of them are below 20 thousand inhabitants with mortality rates below 2,4 %. Studies based on data from Covid-19, socio-environmental parameters (schooling, income, age group) and social vulnerability conditions can contribute to a better interpretation of environmental health in the pandemic.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) set universal goals and suggest ways to help achieve social security, mitigate gender, racial and economic inequalities, and protect the environment and biodiversity. However, the current COVID-19 pandemic has made the achievement of these goals more distant and has impacted the development of the social, economic and environmental spheres, including the SDG. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to discuss how the COVID-19 pandemic is affecting the 2030 Agenda and its 17 SDG. It was developed using a methodology based on systematic literature review, through the consultation of digital libraries and publications on official websites. To achieve its objectives, the text is structured in topics with the 17 SDG and their respective impacts. The authors observed an increase in structural inequities in several spheres, such as health, education, housing, security, and food, with socioeconomically vulnerable populations being the most affected. With regard to the environment, there were improvements in the quality of air and water courses, however, there was an increase in the deposition of plastic in the oceans and in landfills due to the use of disposable personal protective equipment (PPE) by the global population. Furthermore, due to the approaching global depression, together with insufficient political and economic attention, it becomes uncertain and unlikely that the SDG will be achieved in 2030. It is concluded that there is a need for an integrated action between public policy makers, social actors and the private sector, so that they can give an effective response towards a single objective: the improvement of the quality of life of Planet Earth and of all beings that live in it.
The objective of this study was to carry out a temporal analysis of land use and plant cover in the surrounding (20
km) of highway BR 174 in a period of 32 years by classifying satellite imagery. To realize this analysis we used tools
as the Geographic Information System (GIS) and geoprocessing, aimed at ensuring the acquisition, processing,
interrelationships and visualization of environmental information. The classification was performed with satellite
images of Landsat 5 MSS/TM and 8 OLI in the Spring 5.5 software. The results achieved showed a reduction of the
forest areas by 10%, representing a loss of 504.87 km² from 1985 to 2017, where the main causes are the
demographic growth of Manaus/AM, which expanded after the implementation of the Manaus Free Zone. In
Presidente Figueiredo the construction of highway BR 174 is the predominant factor for the reduction of the
Os carrapatos sao responsaveis pela transmissao de diferentes patogenos de alta prevalencia em regioes tropicais e subtropicais como o Brasil. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a prevalencia destas doencas, realizar taxonomia de carrapatos parasitando caes e analisar a presenca de agentes etiologicos em amostras sanguineas de caes mantidos pelo Centro de Controle de Zoonoses de Aracatuba (CCZ). O estudo mostrou baixa prevalencia das doencas transmitidas pela especie Rhipicephalus sanguineus , sendo a unica especie encontrada. Erlichia canis foi encontrada em sete amostras coletadas e a Babesia vogeli foi encontrada em apenas uma amostra. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Carrapato. Erliquiose. Babesiose. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND IDENTIFICATION OF Rhipicephalus sanguineus (LATREILLE, 1806) IN ARACATUBA, SAO PAULO ABSTRACT Ticks are responsible for transmitting different pathogens with highly prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions such as Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of tick diseases, perform taxonomy of ticks parasitizing dogs and analyze the presence of infectious agents in blood samples from dogs kept by the Center for Zoonosis Control Aracatuba (CCZ). The study showed a low prevalence of diseases transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. This was the only species found parasitizing dogs and Ehrlichiosis’s agent were found in various collected samples and agents of Babesiosis were found in only one sample. KEY-WORDS : Ticks. Ehrlichiosi. Babesiosis. EPIDEMIOLOGIA E IDENTIFICACION DE Rhipicephalus sanguineus (LATREILLE, 1806) EM PARACATUBA, SAO PAULO RESUMEN Las garrapatas son responsables de la transmision de diferentes patogenos de alta prevalencia en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales como Brasil. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la prevalencia de estas enfermedades, realice las garrapatas que parasitan perros de taxonomia y analizar la presencia de agentes infecciosos en muestras de sangre de los perros llevados por el Centro de Control de Zoonosis Aracatuba (CCZ). El estudio mostro una baja prevalencia de enfermedades transmitidas por Rhipicephalus sanguineus, siendo las unicas especies que se encuentran. Ehrlichia canis fue encontrado en siete muestras recogidas y Babesia vogeli se encuentra en una sola muestra. PALABRAS-CLAVE Garrapata. Ehrlichiosis. La babesiosis.
RESUMO: Um dos maiores problemas relacionados com o uso de agrotoxicos e que a maior parte dos produtos aplicados nao chega a atingir os organismos-alvo, sendo carreada pelas aguas das chuvas, percolando solos ou sendo volatilizados, desta forma representando uma ameaca aos ecossistemas como um todo, principalmente os aquaticos. A utilizacao de testes ecotoxicologicos, para a analise dos efeitos toxicos das substâncias quimicas presentes nos agrotoxicos em diferentes niveis de organizacao dos ecossistemas, tem se tornado uma ferramenta cada vez mais importante nas avaliacoes de impacto ambiental. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade aguda do herbicida atrazina, utilizando o cladocero Moina minuta como organismo-teste. Os testes de toxicidade foram realizados utilizando-se o produto comercial Atanor 50 SC. Para M. minuta as concentracoes testadas foram: 2,25; 4,5; 9,0; 18,0 e 36,0 mg L -1 . O valor medio obtido para a CE 50 – 48-h da atrazina foi 9.39 ± 0.71 e a faixa de sensibilidade desta especie situou-se entre 8,0 e 10,8 mg L -1 , com valor medio de 9.4 mg L - 1 . Ao comparar a CE 50 obtida para M. minuta com aquelas previamente estabelecidas para diferentes organismos aquaticos expostos ao herbicida atrazina, observa-se que esta especie foi na maior parte das vezes mais sensivel a atrazina do que as outras especies testadas. Os resultados obtidos sao promissores tendo em vista a sensibilidade observada para autilizada como organismo-teste. Alem disso, pelo fato de M. minuta ser uma especie facilmente encontrada em corpos de agua em todo o Brasil este cladocero podera ser um organismo alvo ferramenta promissora na avaliacao da toxicidade deste e de outros agrotoxicos, visando a obtencao de subsidios para acoes voltadas a preservacao da diversidade da biota aquatica. Palavras-chave: Cladocera. Atrazina. Toxicidade.
The health crisis at COVID-19 resulted in damage to human life and inevitable economic consequences, requiring immediate responses from governments. In this context, this work carried out an analysis on the Federal Development Strategy of Brazil, 2020 – 2031 in light of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. Exploratory methodology was used and descriptive research was used to analyze and interpret the facts, in order to develop concepts and ideas needed to formulate new approaches on the same topic. Thus, an examination was carried out on the actions of economic recovery, according to the Federal Decree, which listed five axes to increase the income and quality of life of the Brazilian population, aiming at sustained economic growth and job creation. This work was complemented with the exploration of the results presented in the V Light Report of Civil Society Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development Brazil, which studied the fulfillment of the goals of Agenda 2030 in Brazil, by the Federal Government. The results achieved showed that the economic growth in the country, today and for the next few years, lacks a national articulation with clear guidelines and defined scopes, whose achievement of the goals established by the UN-SDGs will take place without stagnation and setbacks. The contribution of this study is the urgent need to look at the 2030 Agenda, to ensure social inclusion and sustainable development in Brazil.
Due to the emergence of a new variant of viruses belonging to the family of coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2, or COVID-19, still unknown to the scientific community and with great power of contagion and dissemination, several countries around the world have been forced to adopt measures of social restrictions, such as lockdown. As a result of the reduction in the circulation of people and transport, as well as in industrial activities, improvements in air quality were observed in several countries. Thus, with the objective of verifying the influence of the pandemic on the concentration of aerosols in the Brazilian atmosphere, this study carried out a bibliographic survey on the subject, and generated monthly maps of aerosol concentration in Brazil, in the years 2019 and 2020, for comparative purposes. As a result, it was observed that the restriction measures adopted had a positive effect on air quality, mainly in the South and Southeast regions of the country, where the largest population concentrations, vehicle fleets and industrial groups are located. In contrast, higher rates of aerosols were observed in the Brazilian Amazon, coinciding with the period of and occurrence of fires in this region related to slash-and-burn agriculture, which may explain the fact. Air pollution, as well as the accumulation of particles resulting from forest fires, aggravates the occurrence of respiratory problems, which can lead to more people being hospitalized, compromising the capacity of health systems.
After more than a year since the first case of COVID-19 in Brazil, some public sectors are still looking for tools to adapt their activities to epidemiological recommendations that require social distancing. Urban planning and territorial management are indispensable activities to the dynamics of cities and, therefore, cannot be interrupted. In this context, this article aims to investigate the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as a territorial management tool, focusing on the Urban Technical Registration and Urban Land Regularization. From the case study methodology, it was verified in the experiences and current legislations that features related to property (such as constructions and vertical typology), urban infrastructure (e.g., manholes, sidewalks, lighting poles, hydrants, etc) and environmental aspects (mainly related to vegetation and water resources) need to be mapped for such purposes. We also considered the possibility of acquiring georeferenced and altimetric data. Finally, the use of orthophotos from UAVs has proved feasible for application in public territorial management in the context of epidemiological restrictions of isolation and social distancing imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. This tool was also promising in the post-pandemic scenario, as it presents itself as a less invasive solution for property mapping.
From the complex sanitary moment faced by Brazil, related to COVID-19, in particular due to the collapse of the health system that has occurred in medium-sized cities, this article aimed to analyze the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic in Uberlândia, according to reflections from geographic science, in order to help to understand the facts that led to the current scenario of the disease in the city. To achieve the objective, we carried out a theoretical discussion about how Geography faces recent events, especially in relation to the role of the Globalization process, both in the dissemination of information about the emergence of COVID-19 and other events, as well as in the rapid spread of the virus around the world. Based on these reflections, we analyzed the evolution of the pandemic, using data provided by the Municipality of Uberlândia and the Ministry of Health, with a cut-off date of March 18, 2021, in order to understand the chronological path of the facts. The choice for this cut-off date for data clipping is justified by our intention to analyze the first year of virus identification in the municipality. The results showed the negative evolution of the pandemic in the city, mainly over the months of February and March 2021, with 100% of the ICU beds occupied, which demonstrates the complexity and the long way to go to overcome this health crisis.
The emergence of the new coronavirus resulted in the COVID-19 pandemic, which led several countries to adopt restrictive measures, such as the lockdown. As a consequence, several changes were observed in social, commercial, industrial and environmental dynamics. Thus, the present study aimed to make a brief review of some of the main effects of the Pandemic on the environment, in different parts of the world, gathering this information in a single document. To this end, a qualitative method was adopted, in which bibliographical surveys from scientific articles were carried out, as well from articles, news and reports from reliable sources. According to the sources consulted, the impacts observed in the air were mostly positive, resulting in the reduction of the concentrations of most of the atmospheric contaminants. With regard to water resources, positive effects were detected, such as the improvement in water quality in several places in the world, as well as negative effects, portrayed in the increase of the insertion of new aquatic contaminants, of difficult synthesis, in addition to the increase of residues, harmful to the marine fauna. The increase in the volume of waste, due to the new consumption habits imposed by the Pandemic, has also shown to influence soil properties. Finally, it is possible to conclude that the health crisis is linked to the cultural habits of a society that should seek to establish more harmonious relationships with the environment.
In December 2019, a new virus variant was discovered in China, belonging to the coronavirus family, whose associated respiratory syndrome became known as COVID-19. Due to the ease of transmission, lethality and lack of knowledge about this new disease, several countries chose to adopt measures of social distancing, in addition to restrictions on travel and the performance of activities considered non-essential. Thus, the present study aimed to carry out a bibliographic survey about the main effects of social isolation on air quality, in some regions around the world, through consultation of scientific articles, national and international research institutes, as well such as satellite imagery. The results showed that the effects of these measurements were observed on air quality in different parts of the world, with a reduction in the levels of some of the main air pollutants, such as NO2, CO2, CO and particulate matter. In contrast, some studies showed that the concentration of O3 increased in certain regions. It was possible to conclude that the improvements observed were temporary, as they did not result from structural measures, but from transitory situations; and that the adoption of public policies to restrict the emission of pollutants is essential to reduce the incidence and aggravation of associated respiratory diseases, avoiding the overload of health systems, especially in the current pandemic scenario.
The Covid-19 pandemic calls into question deficiencies in current public policies and infrastructure of basic services to the population in large urban centers. From health systems, environmental sanitation and social protection, particularly for the low-income population, this opens the debate of the values and priorities at different scales. The research study area are subnormal settlements located in the neighborhoods of Pina and Brasília Teimosa in the Metropolitan Region of Recife. The aim was to assess the sanitary conditions in ZEIS, by conducting semi-structured interviews and assessing secondary data. Among the interviewees, only 56.3% said they had sanitary sewage collection and another 74.4% (n=1041) had access to water supply by Compesa, showing a significant deficit in the provision of basic services. With the pandemic, the necessary production of detailed empirical field data from the perspective of the peripheries faces great scientific challenges. Ensuring access to ideal sanitary conditions is a right for all and is related in an integrated way to multiple SDGs of the 2030 agenda. Demanding safe, adequate and affordable housing, and inclusive and sustainable urbanization, with capacity for planning and management of participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlements.
The present reality of the Pandemic caused by the COVID-19, is characterized by new adaptations in the decrease of the social and economic activities, with the social isolations, in cities and countryside communities, causing a decrease in the commercialization of food by the familiar agriculture, damaging the activities of social organization and rural technical advice in the sustainable development of agricultural activities, by the non-governmental institutions and representative entities of the civil society, in the implementation of public policies assisted to the farmers, having a greater consequence in the social vulnerability and rural poverty. The present article aims to study the effects of the pandemic on family farming in the territory of the backlands from Araripe in the state of Pernambuco, describing the strategies adopted in the social organization of countryside communities, in reducing the social impacts of the pandemic on family farming. Through a bibliographical research, based on academic literature, newspapers and institutional reports, on the activities of rural technical assistance with principles of agro-ecology, developed during the period of incidences of the pandemic. As a result, technological strategies were identified in the remote media, for the activities of rural technical assistance, organization of marketing of food products from family farming, at home, in greengrocers and emporiums of solidary marketing, assisted by non-governmental institutions, in the development of motivational initiatives for rural families, in overcoming social and economic difficulties, during this phase of social isolation and safety protocols to the health of countryside area families and the entire world population.
In contemporary society, the advancement of the new coronavirus (SAS-CoV-2) has made clear the relationships between society's actions and their consequences, both in the spread of the disease and, in the environmental issue, in the imbalance of ecosystems. In this sense, this study seeks to present a reflection on the relationship between modern science, the environment, and the health crisis of Covid-19, having as theoretical basis the studies of Ulrich Beck on risk society in the context of globalization. As a methodological procedure, a bibliography and documentary research were carried out. The study found that the current model of society can lead humanity to catastrophes at a global level, without the possibility of calculating the risk, since environmental problems are beyond the control of society and present many uncertainties, especially in the post-pandemic.
The COVID-19 pandemic presents itself as the greatest health challenge of the 21st century. Among the key measures to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 is social isolation, which has affected the processes related to urban mobility. With the need to reduce passengers on public transport and to curb an increase in car trips, several cities have sought to encourage the use of bicycles. This study analyzes the implementation of temporary bike lanes in Bogotá, Colombia, as a measure to confront the COVID-19 pandemic, the changes derived from this measure, and carries out a perception survey on the implementation of this infrastructure. The results show the implementation of 74 kilometers of temporary bike lanes, of which some of them have already been transformed into permanent; the survey shows an increase in the modal participation of the bicycle and that there is an acceptance of the transformation of the infrastructure from temporary to permanent character. However, participants evaluated safety and infrastructure quality criteria negatively. The city’s solutions, although capable of improvement, contribute to other cities implementing cycling infrastructure in the pandemic scenario and work to ensure a modal transition in the post-pandemic period.
This work sought to reflect on urgent adjustments in public space in times of crisis from tactical urban interventions. For this, it elucidates protective measures related to the control of the COVID-19 pandemic, in particular under the aspects of urban mobility and civil engagement, using for this the case study of the implementation of temporary cycle lanes in the municipality of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The methodology of this research was based on official publications made available electronically by the Municipality of Belo Horizonte and by the Company responsible for the transport and transit sector of Belo Horizonte (BHTRANS). In addition, this work was supported by publications available electronically from the Association of Urban Cyclists of Belo Horizonte (BH in Cycle) from 2012 to 2021. Based on the correlation between the material collected and the theoretical basis available on topics of interest to this research, the study aimed to discuss temporary and small-scale operations of the Tactical Urbanism type, implemented from the partnership between public authorities and civil society to ensure a safer urban mobility in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic during the year 2020 to date. The work highlights that the inclusion of Tactical Urbanism as a formal tool in urban planning can foster new local possibilities and immediate action strategies in the face of crises such as COVID-19, in addition to fostering citizen participation in decision-making processes about the city and its importance , guaranteeing basic rights such as moving safely.
RESUMO: Nos ultimos anos o aumento do consumo de agrotoxicos em todo o mundo tem preocupado agencias nacionais e internacionais em decorrencia dos diversos impactos ambientais e das serias implicacoes a saude humana. Dentre os agrotoxicos, o carbofurano e utilizado amplamente no Brasil em culturas de batata, milho, amendoim, arroz e soja. Como existe o risco deste composto ser carreado por diversos mecanismos ate os corpos d’agua e causar toxicidade a especies nao-alvo, e necessaria a avaliacao dos seus efeitos nestes ecossistemas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade aguda do carbofurano sobre a especie nativa tropical Ceriodaphnia silvestrii . Para isso, realizaram-se testes de toxicidade aguda, com concentracoes nominais deste agrotoxico. Para o dafinideo C. silvestrii , os valores de CE 50 24 h e CE 50 48 h foram de 1,80 µg L -1 e 0,75 µg L -1 , respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que C. silvestrii apresentou elevada sensibilidade ao agrotoxico carbofurano e foi mais sensivel do que as especies de cladoceros de regioes temperadas, de acordo com os dados da literatura. Considerando-se estes resultados e da ampla distribuicao de C. silvestrii em regioes tropicais e subtropicais, sugere-se o uso desta especie em avaliacoes ecotoxicologicas com agrotoxicos em aguas doces tropicais. Palavras-chave: Microcrustaceo. Pesticida. Toxicidade.