Periódico Eletrônico Fórum Ambiental da Alta Paulista

Published by ANAP - Associacao Amigos de Natureza de Alta Paulista
Online ISSN: 1980-0827
Publications
O Brasil e conhecido como o pais que possui a maior floresta tropical do mundo (516 milhoes de hectares (60,7%) de florestas naturais e plantadas). Com o tempo, a fronteira agropecuaria avancou rapidamente ao longo de uma serie de frentes pioneiras, estendendo-se adentro da floresta. A Lei de Gestao de Florestas Publicas (Lei no. 11.284/06) foi elaborada para orientar as pessoas sobre como explorar economicamente as florestas publicas, sendo uma conquista da sociedade brasileira. Objetiva-se no presente trabalho sintetizar informacoes relacionadas a essa forma de Gestao no Brasil e demonstrar a importância desse instrumento para o desenvolvimento florestal sustentavel no pais. Para tanto, serao descritos, sem a pretensao de exaurimento, conceitos especificos, a iniciar pela definicao sobre florestas publicas e em seguida pela descricao do instrumento juridico da concessao, disposto na legislacao. Alem disso, o contrato de concessao dessas florestas e um instrumento legal que viabiliza a exploracao sustentavel das florestas publicas, com o objetivo de atenuar o desmatamento ilegal, permitindo tambem a regularizacao da posse de comunidades locais tradicionais. Este artigo analisa sua atribuicao juridica, bem como trata de suas caracteristicas procedimentais. Com a criacao e aplicacao da Lei surgiram novos orgaos e novas figuras institucionais. Embora seja cedo para colher os frutos dos processos de concessao, a ideia de unir forcas entre governo, comunidades e o setor privado, parece ser o caminho para uma economia de base florestal sustentavel e duradoura, de forma a garantir riquezas e prosperidade para as populacoes que conservam e utilizam as florestas.
 
O presente trabalho consiste em um estudo de caso da sub-bacia Grupiara, no municipio de Lavras (MG) em consonância as normas vigentes na Lei n o 12.651/2012. Estudos com foco na analise da paisagem sao importantes para se caracterizar adequadamente a ocupacao de bacias hidrograficas segundo as aptidoes e as vulnerabilidades ambientais. O Codigo Florestal brasileiro, alem de outras inumeras atribuicoes, define areas protegidas no interior das propriedades rurais do pais, por meio da instituicao das Areas de Preservacao Permanente e Reserva Legal. Sendo assim, foram elaborados diversos mapas, no intuito de gerar a rede de drenagem do municipio, extrair a sub-bacia em estudo, delimitar as Areas de Preservacao Permanente (APP) e propor formas diferenciadas de alocacao das Reservas Legais. A sub-bacia em estudo possui area de 408,47 ha, sendo 68,61 ha de APP que, teoricamente deveriam ser protegidas. Porem, na pratica, apenas 38,29 ha apresentam cobertura composta por fragmentos florestais, o que significa que 44,19 % das areas estao em descordo com a lei ambiental.
 
Safety protocols emerged to minimize the spread of Covid-19 and are in force 20 months after the disease exists in Brazil. The occurrence of SARS-CoV2 can be analyzed by the local Environmental Health Indicator (ISA). The objective of this study was to analyze the mortality rate caused by Covid-19 about environmental and sanitary conditions in 14 municipalities in the state of São Paulo, located in the Baixo Pardo/Grande and Pardo UGRHIs. Data from covid-19 (total cases and deaths) were obtained by SEADE (2021) and research by Rezende (2021) and Alvares (2021) provided the ISA parameters. The municipalities were grouped by demographic density and those with up to 50 thousand inhabitants were selected. The fatality rate was obtained as the ratio of the number of deaths to the accumulated cases of Covid-19. Of the 14 selected municipalities, 57,1% met the research hypothesis (municipalities with higher ISA have a mortality rate at covid-19 below the national average) and seven of them are below 20 thousand inhabitants with mortality rates below 2,4 %. Studies based on data from Covid-19, socio-environmental parameters (schooling, income, age group) and social vulnerability conditions can contribute to a better interpretation of environmental health in the pandemic.
 
Área de estudo
Chave de interpretação na classificação de imagens no SPRING.
Procedimentos para mapeamento do uso da terra e cobertura vegetal.
Mapa da análise temporal do uso da terra e cobertura vegetal da rodovia BR 174.
The objective of this study was to carry out a temporal analysis of land use and plant cover in the surrounding (20 km) of highway BR 174 in a period of 32 years by classifying satellite imagery. To realize this analysis we used tools as the Geographic Information System (GIS) and geoprocessing, aimed at ensuring the acquisition, processing, interrelationships and visualization of environmental information. The classification was performed with satellite images of Landsat 5 MSS/TM and 8 OLI in the Spring 5.5 software. The results achieved showed a reduction of the forest areas by 10%, representing a loss of 504.87 km² from 1985 to 2017, where the main causes are the demographic growth of Manaus/AM, which expanded after the implementation of the Manaus Free Zone. In Presidente Figueiredo the construction of highway BR 174 is the predominant factor for the reduction of the forested areas.
 
Os carrapatos sao responsaveis pela transmissao de diferentes patogenos de alta prevalencia em regioes tropicais e subtropicais como o Brasil. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a prevalencia destas doencas, realizar taxonomia de carrapatos parasitando caes e analisar a presenca de agentes etiologicos em amostras sanguineas de caes mantidos pelo Centro de Controle de Zoonoses de Aracatuba (CCZ). O estudo mostrou baixa prevalencia das doencas transmitidas pela especie Rhipicephalus sanguineus , sendo a unica especie encontrada. Erlichia canis foi encontrada em sete amostras coletadas e a Babesia vogeli foi encontrada em apenas uma amostra. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Carrapato. Erliquiose. Babesiose. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND IDENTIFICATION OF Rhipicephalus sanguineus (LATREILLE, 1806) IN ARACATUBA, SAO PAULO ABSTRACT Ticks are responsible for transmitting different pathogens with highly prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions such as Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of tick diseases, perform taxonomy of ticks parasitizing dogs and analyze the presence of infectious agents in blood samples from dogs kept by the Center for Zoonosis Control Aracatuba (CCZ). The study showed a low prevalence of diseases transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. This was the only species found parasitizing dogs and Ehrlichiosis’s agent were found in various collected samples and agents of Babesiosis were found in only one sample. KEY-WORDS : Ticks. Ehrlichiosi. Babesiosis. EPIDEMIOLOGIA E IDENTIFICACION DE Rhipicephalus sanguineus (LATREILLE, 1806) EM PARACATUBA, SAO PAULO RESUMEN Las garrapatas son responsables de la transmision de diferentes patogenos de alta prevalencia en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales como Brasil. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la prevalencia de estas enfermedades, realice las garrapatas que parasitan perros de taxonomia y analizar la presencia de agentes infecciosos en muestras de sangre de los perros llevados por el Centro de Control de Zoonosis Aracatuba (CCZ). El estudio mostro una baja prevalencia de enfermedades transmitidas por Rhipicephalus sanguineus, siendo las unicas especies que se encuentran. Ehrlichia canis fue encontrado en siete muestras recogidas y Babesia vogeli se encuentra en una sola muestra. PALABRAS-CLAVE Garrapata. Ehrlichiosis. La babesiosis.
 
RESUMO: Um dos maiores problemas relacionados com o uso de agrotoxicos e que a maior parte dos produtos aplicados nao chega a atingir os organismos-alvo, sendo carreada pelas aguas das chuvas, percolando solos ou sendo volatilizados, desta forma representando uma ameaca aos ecossistemas como um todo, principalmente os aquaticos. A utilizacao de testes ecotoxicologicos, para a analise dos efeitos toxicos das substâncias quimicas presentes nos agrotoxicos em diferentes niveis de organizacao dos ecossistemas, tem se tornado uma ferramenta cada vez mais importante nas avaliacoes de impacto ambiental. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade aguda do herbicida atrazina, utilizando o cladocero Moina minuta como organismo-teste. Os testes de toxicidade foram realizados utilizando-se o produto comercial Atanor 50 SC. Para M. minuta as concentracoes testadas foram: 2,25; 4,5; 9,0; 18,0 e 36,0 mg L -1 . O valor medio obtido para a CE 50 – 48-h da atrazina foi 9.39 ± 0.71 e a faixa de sensibilidade desta especie situou-se entre 8,0 e 10,8 mg L -1 , com valor medio de 9.4 mg L - 1 . Ao comparar a CE 50 obtida para M. minuta com aquelas previamente estabelecidas para diferentes organismos aquaticos expostos ao herbicida atrazina, observa-se que esta especie foi na maior parte das vezes mais sensivel a atrazina do que as outras especies testadas. Os resultados obtidos sao promissores tendo em vista a sensibilidade observada para autilizada como organismo-teste. Alem disso, pelo fato de M. minuta ser uma especie facilmente encontrada em corpos de agua em todo o Brasil este cladocero podera ser um organismo alvo ferramenta promissora na avaliacao da toxicidade deste e de outros agrotoxicos, visando a obtencao de subsidios para acoes voltadas a preservacao da diversidade da biota aquatica. Palavras-chave: Cladocera. Atrazina. Toxicidade.
 
Due to the emergence of a new variant of viruses belonging to the family of coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2, or COVID-19, still unknown to the scientific community and with great power of contagion and dissemination, several countries around the world have been forced to adopt measures of social restrictions, such as lockdown. As a result of the reduction in the circulation of people and transport, as well as in industrial activities, improvements in air quality were observed in several countries. Thus, with the objective of verifying the influence of the pandemic on the concentration of aerosols in the Brazilian atmosphere, this study carried out a bibliographic survey on the subject, and generated monthly maps of aerosol concentration in Brazil, in the years 2019 and 2020, for comparative purposes. As a result, it was observed that the restriction measures adopted had a positive effect on air quality, mainly in the South and Southeast regions of the country, where the largest population concentrations, vehicle fleets and industrial groups are located. In contrast, higher rates of aerosols were observed in the Brazilian Amazon, coinciding with the period of and occurrence of fires in this region related to slash-and-burn agriculture, which may explain the fact. Air pollution, as well as the accumulation of particles resulting from forest fires, aggravates the occurrence of respiratory problems, which can lead to more people being hospitalized, compromising the capacity of health systems.
 
The health crisis at COVID-19 resulted in damage to human life and inevitable economic consequences, requiring immediate responses from governments. In this context, this work carried out an analysis on the Federal Development Strategy of Brazil, 2020 – 2031 in light of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. Exploratory methodology was used and descriptive research was used to analyze and interpret the facts, in order to develop concepts and ideas needed to formulate new approaches on the same topic. Thus, an examination was carried out on the actions of economic recovery, according to the Federal Decree, which listed five axes to increase the income and quality of life of the Brazilian population, aiming at sustained economic growth and job creation. This work was complemented with the exploration of the results presented in the V Light Report of Civil Society Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development Brazil, which studied the fulfillment of the goals of Agenda 2030 in Brazil, by the Federal Government. The results achieved showed that the economic growth in the country, today and for the next few years, lacks a national articulation with clear guidelines and defined scopes, whose achievement of the goals established by the UN-SDGs will take place without stagnation and setbacks. The contribution of this study is the urgent need to look at the 2030 Agenda, to ensure social inclusion and sustainable development in Brazil.
 
Percepção de acurácia posicional pelo deslocamento de feição vetorizada em escala 1:250. À esquerda ortofoto e à direita captura do Google Earth (imagem de satélite)
Vetorização de feições do imóvel em escala 1:500
Ortofoto e MDS
After more than a year since the first case of COVID-19 in Brazil, some public sectors are still looking for tools to adapt their activities to epidemiological recommendations that require social distancing. Urban planning and territorial management are indispensable activities to the dynamics of cities and, therefore, cannot be interrupted. In this context, this article aims to investigate the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as a territorial management tool, focusing on the Urban Technical Registration and Urban Land Regularization. From the case study methodology, it was verified in the experiences and current legislations that features related to property (such as constructions and vertical typology), urban infrastructure (e.g., manholes, sidewalks, lighting poles, hydrants, etc) and environmental aspects (mainly related to vegetation and water resources) need to be mapped for such purposes. We also considered the possibility of acquiring georeferenced and altimetric data. Finally, the use of orthophotos from UAVs has proved feasible for application in public territorial management in the context of epidemiological restrictions of isolation and social distancing imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. This tool was also promising in the post-pandemic scenario, as it presents itself as a less invasive solution for property mapping.
 
From the complex sanitary moment faced by Brazil, related to COVID-19, in particular due to the collapse of the health system that has occurred in medium-sized cities, this article aimed to analyze the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic in Uberlândia, according to reflections from geographic science, in order to help to understand the facts that led to the current scenario of the disease in the city. To achieve the objective, we carried out a theoretical discussion about how Geography faces recent events, especially in relation to the role of the Globalization process, both in the dissemination of information about the emergence of COVID-19 and other events, as well as in the rapid spread of the virus around the world. Based on these reflections, we analyzed the evolution of the pandemic, using data provided by the Municipality of Uberlândia and the Ministry of Health, with a cut-off date of March 18, 2021, in order to understand the chronological path of the facts. The choice for this cut-off date for data clipping is justified by our intention to analyze the first year of virus identification in the municipality. The results showed the negative evolution of the pandemic in the city, mainly over the months of February and March 2021, with 100% of the ICU beds occupied, which demonstrates the complexity and the long way to go to overcome this health crisis.
 
The emergence of the new coronavirus resulted in the COVID-19 pandemic, which led several countries to adopt restrictive measures, such as the lockdown. As a consequence, several changes were observed in social, commercial, industrial and environmental dynamics. Thus, the present study aimed to make a brief review of some of the main effects of the Pandemic on the environment, in different parts of the world, gathering this information in a single document. To this end, a qualitative method was adopted, in which bibliographical surveys from scientific articles were carried out, as well from articles, news and reports from reliable sources. According to the sources consulted, the impacts observed in the air were mostly positive, resulting in the reduction of the concentrations of most of the atmospheric contaminants. With regard to water resources, positive effects were detected, such as the improvement in water quality in several places in the world, as well as negative effects, portrayed in the increase of the insertion of new aquatic contaminants, of difficult synthesis, in addition to the increase of residues, harmful to the marine fauna. The increase in the volume of waste, due to the new consumption habits imposed by the Pandemic, has also shown to influence soil properties. Finally, it is possible to conclude that the health crisis is linked to the cultural habits of a society that should seek to establish more harmonious relationships with the environment.
 
The Covid-19 pandemic calls into question deficiencies in current public policies and infrastructure of basic services to the population in large urban centers. From health systems, environmental sanitation and social protection, particularly for the low-income population, this opens the debate of the values and priorities at different scales. The research study area are subnormal settlements located in the neighborhoods of Pina and Brasília Teimosa in the Metropolitan Region of Recife. The aim was to assess the sanitary conditions in ZEIS, by conducting semi-structured interviews and assessing secondary data. Among the interviewees, only 56.3% said they had sanitary sewage collection and another 74.4% (n=1041) had access to water supply by Compesa, showing a significant deficit in the provision of basic services. With the pandemic, the necessary production of detailed empirical field data from the perspective of the peripheries faces great scientific challenges. Ensuring access to ideal sanitary conditions is a right for all and is related in an integrated way to multiple SDGs of the 2030 agenda. Demanding safe, adequate and affordable housing, and inclusive and sustainable urbanization, with capacity for planning and management of participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlements.
 
In December 2019, a new virus variant was discovered in China, belonging to the coronavirus family, whose associated respiratory syndrome became known as COVID-19. Due to the ease of transmission, lethality and lack of knowledge about this new disease, several countries chose to adopt measures of social distancing, in addition to restrictions on travel and the performance of activities considered non-essential. Thus, the present study aimed to carry out a bibliographic survey about the main effects of social isolation on air quality, in some regions around the world, through consultation of scientific articles, national and international research institutes, as well such as satellite imagery. The results showed that the effects of these measurements were observed on air quality in different parts of the world, with a reduction in the levels of some of the main air pollutants, such as NO2, CO2, CO and particulate matter. In contrast, some studies showed that the concentration of O3 increased in certain regions. It was possible to conclude that the improvements observed were temporary, as they did not result from structural measures, but from transitory situations; and that the adoption of public policies to restrict the emission of pollutants is essential to reduce the incidence and aggravation of associated respiratory diseases, avoiding the overload of health systems, especially in the current pandemic scenario.
 
The present reality of the Pandemic caused by the COVID-19, is characterized by new adaptations in the decrease of the social and economic activities, with the social isolations, in cities and countryside communities, causing a decrease in the commercialization of food by the familiar agriculture, damaging the activities of social organization and rural technical advice in the sustainable development of agricultural activities, by the non-governmental institutions and representative entities of the civil society, in the implementation of public policies assisted to the farmers, having a greater consequence in the social vulnerability and rural poverty. The present article aims to study the effects of the pandemic on family farming in the territory of the backlands from Araripe in the state of Pernambuco, describing the strategies adopted in the social organization of countryside communities, in reducing the social impacts of the pandemic on family farming. Through a bibliographical research, based on academic literature, newspapers and institutional reports, on the activities of rural technical assistance with principles of agro-ecology, developed during the period of incidences of the pandemic. As a result, technological strategies were identified in the remote media, for the activities of rural technical assistance, organization of marketing of food products from family farming, at home, in greengrocers and emporiums of solidary marketing, assisted by non-governmental institutions, in the development of motivational initiatives for rural families, in overcoming social and economic difficulties, during this phase of social isolation and safety protocols to the health of countryside area families and the entire world population.
 
In contemporary society, the advancement of the new coronavirus (SAS-CoV-2) has made clear the relationships between society's actions and their consequences, both in the spread of the disease and, in the environmental issue, in the imbalance of ecosystems. In this sense, this study seeks to present a reflection on the relationship between modern science, the environment, and the health crisis of Covid-19, having as theoretical basis the studies of Ulrich Beck on risk society in the context of globalization. As a methodological procedure, a bibliography and documentary research were carried out. The study found that the current model of society can lead humanity to catastrophes at a global level, without the possibility of calculating the risk, since environmental problems are beyond the control of society and present many uncertainties, especially in the post-pandemic.
 
This work sought to reflect on urgent adjustments in public space in times of crisis from tactical urban interventions. For this, it elucidates protective measures related to the control of the COVID-19 pandemic, in particular under the aspects of urban mobility and civil engagement, using for this the case study of the implementation of temporary cycle lanes in the municipality of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The methodology of this research was based on official publications made available electronically by the Municipality of Belo Horizonte and by the Company responsible for the transport and transit sector of Belo Horizonte (BHTRANS). In addition, this work was supported by publications available electronically from the Association of Urban Cyclists of Belo Horizonte (BH in Cycle) from 2012 to 2021. Based on the correlation between the material collected and the theoretical basis available on topics of interest to this research, the study aimed to discuss temporary and small-scale operations of the Tactical Urbanism type, implemented from the partnership between public authorities and civil society to ensure a safer urban mobility in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic during the year 2020 to date. The work highlights that the inclusion of Tactical Urbanism as a formal tool in urban planning can foster new local possibilities and immediate action strategies in the face of crises such as COVID-19, in addition to fostering citizen participation in decision-making processes about the city and its importance , guaranteeing basic rights such as moving safely.
 
The COVID-19 pandemic presents itself as the greatest health challenge of the 21st century. Among the key measures to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 is social isolation, which has affected the processes related to urban mobility. With the need to reduce passengers on public transport and to curb an increase in car trips, several cities have sought to encourage the use of bicycles. This study analyzes the implementation of temporary bike lanes in Bogotá, Colombia, as a measure to confront the COVID-19 pandemic, the changes derived from this measure, and carries out a perception survey on the implementation of this infrastructure. The results show the implementation of 74 kilometers of temporary bike lanes, of which some of them have already been transformed into permanent; the survey shows an increase in the modal participation of the bicycle and that there is an acceptance of the transformation of the infrastructure from temporary to permanent character. However, participants evaluated safety and infrastructure quality criteria negatively. The city’s solutions, although capable of improvement, contribute to other cities implementing cycling infrastructure in the pandemic scenario and work to ensure a modal transition in the post-pandemic period.
 
RESUMO: Nos ultimos anos o aumento do consumo de agrotoxicos em todo o mundo tem preocupado agencias nacionais e internacionais em decorrencia dos diversos impactos ambientais e das serias implicacoes a saude humana. Dentre os agrotoxicos, o carbofurano e utilizado amplamente no Brasil em culturas de batata, milho, amendoim, arroz e soja. Como existe o risco deste composto ser carreado por diversos mecanismos ate os corpos d’agua e causar toxicidade a especies nao-alvo, e necessaria a avaliacao dos seus efeitos nestes ecossistemas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade aguda do carbofurano sobre a especie nativa tropical Ceriodaphnia silvestrii . Para isso, realizaram-se testes de toxicidade aguda, com concentracoes nominais deste agrotoxico. Para o dafinideo C. silvestrii , os valores de CE 50 24 h e CE 50 48 h foram de 1,80 µg L -1 e 0,75 µg L -1 , respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que C. silvestrii apresentou elevada sensibilidade ao agrotoxico carbofurano e foi mais sensivel do que as especies de cladoceros de regioes temperadas, de acordo com os dados da literatura. Considerando-se estes resultados e da ampla distribuicao de C. silvestrii em regioes tropicais e subtropicais, sugere-se o uso desta especie em avaliacoes ecotoxicologicas com agrotoxicos em aguas doces tropicais. Palavras-chave: Microcrustaceo. Pesticida. Toxicidade.
 
Neste trabalho procurou-se estabelecer o balanco hidrico climatico a partir das normais climatologicas de 1961-1990 apresentadas pelo INMET e calcular o indice de anomalia de chuvas (IAC) proposto por Rooy (1965) para os periodos de 2011, 2012 e 2013 mensalmente para o municipio de Paranaiba, localizado no nordeste do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. O municipio possui um clima tropical, tendo a formula climatica segundo classificacao Koppen em Aw, sendo caracterizado com um verao chuvoso e inverno seco. As medias anuais da precipitacao apresentadas nas normais foram 1455mm/ano e temperaturas 23°C/ano. A aplicacao do IAC foi propicia para a compreensao da seca atual em 2014, mostrando que o resultado e o acumulo de anos com baixas precipitacoes que ocasionaram a situacao de seca que vive o municipio de Paranaiba. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Balanco Hidrico; Indice de Anomalia de Chuvas; IAC; Paranaiba. 1961-1990 CLIMATOLOGICAL WATER BALANCE AND RAINFALL ANOMALY INDEX (RAI) APPLIED TO THE PERIOD OF 2011, 2012 AND 2013 TO UNDERSTAND THE DROUGHT OF 2014 IN THE CITY OF PARANAIBA/MS ABSTRACT In this study we sought to establish the water balance from climatological normals for 1961-1990 presented by INMET and calculate the rainfall anomaly index (RAI) proposed by Rooy (1965) for the periods 2011, 2012 and 2013 for monthly the municipality of Paranaiba, located in the northeast of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The municipality has a tropical climate, having the second formula Koppen climate classification Aw, being featured with a rainy summer and dry winter. The average annual rainfall of 1455mm/year were presented in the normal and temperatures 23°C/year. The application provides the RAI was to understand the current drought in 2014, showing that the result is the accumulation of years with low rainfall that caused the drought experienced by the municipality of Paranaiba. KEY-WORDS : Water Balance; Rainfall Anomaly Index; RAI; Paranaiba. 1961-1990 BALANCE HIDRICO CLIMATOLOGICA E TASA DE LLUVIA ANOMALIAS (TLA) APLICADA AL PERIODO DE 2011, 2012 Y 2013 PARA ENTENDER LA SEQUIA DE 2014 EN LA CIUDAD DE PARANAIBA/MS RESUMEN En este estudio hemos tratado de establecer el balance hidrico de las normales climatologicas para 1961-1990 presentado por INMET y calcular la tasa de precipitaciones anomalia (TLA), propuesto por Rooy (1965) para los periodos 2011, 2012 y 2013 para mensual el municipio de Paranaiba, situado en el noreste del estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. municipio tiene un clima tropical, que tiene la segunda formula de clasificacion de Koppen el clima Aw, que se ofrece con un verano lluvioso y el invierno seco. La precipitacion promedio anual de 1455mm/ano y temperaturas de 23°C/ano. La aplicacion ofrece la TLA era entender la actual sequia en el 2014, lo que demuestra que el resultado es la acumulacion de anos con escasas precipitaciones que causaron la sequia experimentada por el municipio de Paranaiba. PALABRAS-CLAVE: Balande Hidrico; Tasa de Lluvia Anomalias; TLA; Paranaiba.
 
O trabalho tem por objetivo desenvolver uma analise do ambiente, onde esta inserida a bacia hidrografica do corrego Dom Tomaz (BHCDT), localizada no municipio de Tres Lagoas/MS, a partir das geotecnologias disponiveis (sensoriamento remoto, GPS, cartografia automatizada, SIG [Sistema de Informacao geografico] e geoprocessamento). Destacando que estas permitem atualmente retratar o ambiente natural e/ou alterado, devido as acoes antropicas, de forma bem proxima da realidade encontrada no campo. Neste estudo foi possivel identificar tais alteracoes que ocorreram nas areas do entorno da bacia hidrografica. Foram mapeadas e quantificadas a partir do processamento digital de imagem Landsat 5 sensor TM de 1985/07/30 e 2011/06/20, o uso e cobertura da terra. Na area o uso e intenso pela pecuaria, atrelada a perda efetiva de vegetacoes naturais florestais e campestres (campos limpo e sujo), observa-se tambem a producao de silvicultura (eucalipto), mais intensificada no ano de 2011, devido a instalacao da industria Fibria. E passivel de identificacao a falta de cobertura vegetal natural nas margens e nascentes, que estao sendo utilizadas por atividades atreladas a atividade economicas.
 
RESUMO Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar a intensidade da precipitacao ocorrida em Maringa durante os anos considerados atipicos de 1988, 1999 e 2009. A serie historica analisada foi de 1976 a 2012 e os dados foram obtidos na Estacao Climatologica, localizada no campus da Universidade Estadual de Maringa-PR. Foi realizada a escolha do ano padrao atraves da classificacao proposta por Monteiro (1976), sendo escolhidos somente os anos de 1988 (tendente a seco), 1999 (habitual) e 2009 (chuvoso). Posteriormente foram analisados os graficos diarios do pluviografo de Lambrecht. As classes de intensidade adotadas foram de acordo com o Manual de Observacoes Meteorologicas do Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (1999). Foi utilizado o grau de intensidade fraca, moderada e forte. A intensidade forte ocorreu em menor quantidade quando comparado as demais classes, com a maior ocorrencia de 26 episodios registrados no ano de 2009 (chuvoso). PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Pluviosidade. Grau de intensidade. Planejamentourbano. ANALYSIS OF RAINFALL INTENSITY OF CLOSED IN YEARS IN 1988-1999-2009 MARINGA - PR ABSTRACT This work aims to analyze the intensity of the precipitation occurred in Maringa during the years considered atypical 1988, 1999 and 2009. The historical series analyzed was from 1976 to 2012 and data were obtained in the Climatological Station, located on the campus of the State University of Maringa. The choice of standard year was carried out by classification proposed by Monteiro (1976), being chosen only the years 1988 (tending to dry), 1999 (standard) and 2009 (rainy). Later the daily charts of the rain gauge Lambrecht were analyzed. Intensity classes were adopted according to the Meteorological Observation Guide from the National Institute of Meteorology (1999). It used the degree of low intensity, moderate and strong. The high intensity occurred in less when compared to the other classes, with the highest occurrence of 26 episodes recorded in 2009 (rainy). KEYWORDS: Precipitation. Intensity degree.Urban planning. ANALISIS DE LLUVIA INTENSIDAD DE CERRADO EN ANOS EN 1988-1999-2009 MARINGA – PR RESUMEN Este trabajotiene como objetivo analizarlaintensidad de laprecipitacionocurrioen Maringa durante losanos considerados atipicos 1988, 1999 y 2009. La serie historica analizadafue de 1976 a 2012 y losdatosfueronobtenidosenlaestacion climatologica, ubicadoenel campus de laUniversidaddel Estado de Maringa. La elecciondelanoestandarfuellevada a cabo por clasificacionpropuesta por Monteiro (1976), siendo elegido solamentelosanos 1988 (que tiende a secar), 1999 (estandar) y 2009 (de lluvias). Posteriormente se analizaronlos graficos diariosdel pluviometro Lambrecht. Clases de intensidadfueron adoptadas de acuerdoconlaGuia de Observacion Meteorologica del Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (1999). Se utilizoel grado de intensidad baja, moderada y fuerte. La alta intensidad se produjoen menos encomparacionconlasotrasclases, conla mas alta incidencia de 26 episodios registrados en 2009 (de lluvias ). PALABRAS CLAVE : Puviosidade. Grado de intensidad. Planificacion urbana.
 
O estado de Sao Paulo e o maior produtor nacional de cana-de-acucar. A regiao oeste deste estado tem apresentado grande expansao da area ocupada por essa cultura nos ultimos anos, inclusive com a abertura de novas usinas, como e o caso do EDR de Tupa. Com isso, suscita-se questionamentos quanto aos efeitos da expansao da area da cana na regiao, entre eles a substituicao de culturas tradicionais e o aumento do preco da terra. Uma das culturas que merecem destaque quanto a reducao em sua area em producao nos ultimos anos e o amendoim. Tal fato e relevante uma vez que o EDR de Tupa e o maior produtor de amendoim da seca no pais.
 
Nome (s) do Orientador (a) (s) Ana Paula Alves Favareto Patricia Alexandra Antunes Instituicao ou Empresa UNIVERSIDADE DO OESTE PAULISTA - UNOESTE Instituicao (s) de Fomento Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (Capes ) E-mail de contato tamigarbiatti@gmail.com Palavras-chave Agrotoxicos. Poluicao. Espermatozoide humano.
 
Realizou-se uma pesquisa sobre a demanda por etanol hidratado no Brasil comparativamente a demanda por gasolina C e gas natural veicular (GNV), principais concorrentes do etanol hidratado em veiculos automotivos, e sobre as tendencias de demanda e os precos relativos da gasolina e do etanol (ambos responderam por 96% da demanda nacional) nas cinco regioes brasileiras e nos estados com maior participacao na demanda de sua regiao. O periodo analisado foi de 2000 ate 2009. Constatou-se elevacao de aproximadamente 53,8% na demanda por combustiveis no pais. A gasolina e o combustivel mais demandado, representando 58% da demanda em 2009, participacao menor do que a de 82% obtida em 2000. A demanda por etanol se elevou em 257% no periodo analisado. Ao se realizar uma analise das cinco regioes e dos maiores estados demandantes nas regioes, observa-se que grande parte da elevacao da demanda nacional ocorreram em estados produtores de etanol e/ou com menores Impostos de Circulacao de Mercadorias e Servicos (ICMS) para o etanol hidratado em relacao ao adotado para a gasolina.
 
São Domingos sub-basin river, belongs to the management unit of water resources from the Rivers Turvo/Grande (UGRHI-15) in São Paulo State. It covers the area of 8 Towns which are: Ariranha, Santa Adélia, Pindorama, Catanduva, Catiguá, Tabapuã, Cedral and Uchoa. The aim of this study was knowing the projects and the actions developed by the Towns mentioned above and also the water quality of São Domingos River, through interviews with the managers of each Town, and queries to reports from CETESB and the committee of Turvo/ Grande basin Rivers. CETESB is the responsible Organ for monitoring the water quality of the main river in this sub-basin, which is São Domingos River. This Organ monitories some areas along the extension of the River, using among other indices, the Index of Water Quality (IQA). This Index was used at this study for being the major one at every report taken from CETESB. To confront the knowledge and participation of the community in the process of cleaning up the São Domingos River, interviews were made with residents of the Towns who are the ones with straight contact with the Its waters. As a conclusion, the Index values of water quality annual-average of each evaluated area from 2000 to 2010, were rated in the categories of bad to good, according to the CETESB rating. Also, according to the graphics prepared, there was a second observation for a rising tendency to the IQA ratings as also a considerable increase in the number of projects in this sub-basin study.
 
RESUMO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as variacoes de uso e ocupacao do solo entre os cenarios de 2000 e 2011 da microbacia do corrego Monte Belo – Botucatu (SP). Para tanto, utilizou-se de geotecnologias, sendo a integracao de informacoes realizada no Sistema de Informacoes Geograficas (SIG) - IDRISI, aliada ao uso de cartas digitais do IBGE, escala 1:50.000, alem de fotografias aereas (2000) e imagens de satelite LANDSAT - 5 (2011). Atraves dos dados obtidos, foram detectadas tres classes de uso do solo sendo que em 2000, elas correspondem ao reflorestamento, pastagem e mata ciliar e em 2011, reflorestamento, mata ciliar e solo exposto. Desta forma, pode-se concluir que as ferramentas de analise baseadas em SIGs trazem a possibilidade de analisar as variacoes no espaco e no tempo alem de resultar em informacoes que podem subsidiar o planejamento da microbacia do Corrego Monte Belo. Palavras-Chave: Sistema de Informacao Geografica. Uso e Ocupacao do Solo. Preservacao Ambiental.
 
The objective of this study is to evaluate, through a multidimensional index, the level of rural development of the municipalities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The process used to determine the rural development factors, the contextualization of the dimensions, as well as the definition of the variables assigned to each one of them were carried out in order to accomplish this proposal. Thus, it was possible to elaborate and to analyze the mathematical index. Methodologically, we used Systematic Bibliographic Review, analytical exploration of the results, cluster analysis and Tukey test for index validation. Based on the analysis of the results it was possible to observe neighboring municipalities with similar results, which may justify not only the local evaluation but also a micro-regional or meso-regional study. The understanding of the quality of rural life of São Paulo, through a multidimensional index, was able to generate prior knowledge for development policies at regional and local scale.
 
O presente trabalho busca gerar analises multitemporais referentes ao uso e ocupacao da terra da micro – bacia do Corrego do Cavalo/MS, localizada no municipio de Tres Lagoas/MS do ano de 2005 e 2010, juntamente com o mapa tematico (uso e ocupacao da terra) das determinadas datas. Para chegar a determinado objetivo foi preciso revisao bibliografica e trabalhos de gabinete sobre o tema, utilizacao de softwares computacionais, o uso de SIG, no referente trabalho utilizou-se o SPRING ® ,procedimentos operacionais, ou seja, processamento de dados orbitais, como imagens de satelite, organizacao das informacoes e divulgacao dos resultados. Os resultados obtidos no determinado trabalho foram mapas tematicos de uso e ocupacao da terra dos anos de 2005 e 2010, para podermos analisar as mudancas ocorridas na ocupacao da terra na bacia hidrografica do cavalo. A bacia hidrografica sofreu grandes alteracoes nesses cinco anos, principalmente com a vinda das grandes empresas de celulose e papel, pode-se notar o aumento considerado do eucalipto na regia da bacia hidrografica.
 
Resumo: O Municipio de Jaragua do Sul vem sofrendo ao longo dos anos pelos constantes desastres ambientais, nesse estudo priorizaram-se os casos dos anos de 2008 e 2011. Para entender o processo traumatico de um desastre buscou-se enfatizar a percepcao da populacao de Jaragua do Sul frente aos desastres, foram levantados dados com base na percepcao e interpretacao apos um desastre ambiental, e suas diferentes percepcoes sobre o desastre. Apos entendermos a percepcao de uma populacao traumatizada, podemos compreender a fundo o que e um desastre, juntamente com os estudos cientificos ja realizados sobre essa questao, a percepcao vem agregar valores a sociedade. O Municipio localiza-se, em um vale da Serra do Mar que apresenta vulnerabilidade a processos naturais de desnudacao que, dadas as condicoes climaticas, geologicas, geomorfologicas e de ocupacao antropica aumentam o risco de ocorrencias de desastres naturais como inundacoes e movimentos de massa. O municipio de Jaragua do Sul declarou situacao de emergencia em 20 de novembro de 2008 e, posteriormente Estado de Calamidade Publica em 14 de dezembro do mesmo ano. Ja no ano de 2011, precisamente no mes de janeiro e fevereiro o municipio entrou em estado de alerta, com riscos de enchentes e deslizamentos. Palavras–chave: Jaragua do Sul. Percepcao Ambiental. Percepcao de Risco. Evento Climatico Extremo.
 
Top-cited authors
Luís Antônio Coimbra Borges
  • Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA)
Camila Pires Cremasco
  • São Paulo State University
Antonio Fluminhan
  • São Paulo State University
Renata Santos
  • São Paulo State University
Gabriel Barbosa
  • São Paulo State University