Performance Improvement

Published by Wiley
Online ISSN: 1930-8272
Publications
Chapter
This chapter focuses on six rules and their associated tools, techniques, and tips for measuring the magnitude of problems and the effect of solutions so that the evaluations are more evidence-based, that is, they are based on actual observations or outcomes, not hypothetical events or hearsay. Collectively, the rules, tools, techniques, and tips are meant to support the evaluation of interventions or solutions designed to improve human performance. Rules are prescribed guides for what to do, when, and why. Tools are instruments used in the execution of a task. Techniques are suggestions about how to carry out a task or make better use of a tool usually with the intent of saving time or reducing error. Tips are bits of expert advice intended to make the application of a rule or the use of a tool easier.
 
Article
This article proposes needed transitions in the field of human performance technology. The following three transitions are discussed: transitioning from training to performance, transitioning from performance to performance system, and transitioning from learning organization to high performance system. A proposed framework that comprises performance, performance system, and high performance system is suggested, along with recommendations for future research about the viability of this framework.
 
Article
An evaluation system was designed and implemented by a faculty support department to measure the value, identify gaps, and improve the quality of their training at a midsize community college. The Targeted Evaluation Process (Combs & Falletta, 2000) was selected as the evaluation framework because of its applicability to training and nontraining interventions. Gilbert's (2007) Behavior Engineering Model was used to identify possible solutions to post-training performance gaps identified during the evaluation.
 
Article
Current business and educational environments are mandating the identification, building, and assessment of specific critical competencies for the workforce. However, traditional approaches to competency analysis are often slow, expensive, and backward looking. This article presents several new computer-aided approaches to competency analysis and provides examples of their use, including a detailed case study analyzing curricula and skills for professionals who provide benefits and work incentives planning and assistance to persons with disabilities.
 
Article
With the meteoric rise of the Internet and e-business, web-based systems for consumers and intranets for internal knowledge management systems are becoming a major focus of software engineers and human performance technologists. Typical compensatory mechanisms for poor system design such as training and human support systems are becoming unacceptable from a business perspective and not even an option for many e-business applications. Therefore the ability to design software systems from a performance-centered viewpoint is becoming even more urgent. Given this situation the major question facing organizations today is not whether to do performance-centered design, but how to get it done. This paper is a follow up to Performance Support Engineering: An Emerging Development Methodology for Enabling Organizational Learning (Raybould 1995). Since that paper was written the body of experience in developing performance-centered systems has grown significantly and considerable progress has been made by practitioners in elaborating the embryonic development methodology outlined in that 1995 paper. This paper summarizes the convergence of thinking among various professional disciplines that has taken place in analysis and design methodologies, and describes seven key elements of the now emerged performance support engineering development methodology. It is envisioned that this process, or processes very similar to this, will be the foundation for designing performance-centered systems at the beginning of the 21st century, whether they be consumer web applications, intranets,
 
Article
There are three levels of focus for performance improvement interventions: individual, group and organization. In working within these three levels, the performance technologist plays a dual role as both generalist and specialist. To be successful, the performance technologist should be versed in the 20 classes of interventions currently identified and be able to integrate them in a program of interventions tailored to the particular organization concerned. Comparison tables show the increased effectiveness and efficiency of the systemic process over the typical “single intervention at a time” approach. The conclusion lists 10 steps one can take right now to begin mastering multiple interventions.
 
Article
Marcie Levine is CEO of Survey Connect, the provider of intuitive assessment applications, survey software, and survey services to companies and organizations in support of achievement of their missions and goals. Prior to starting Survey Connect in 1996, Marcie had more than 15 years of experience in human resources, both as a consultant and in several corporate positions. As a human resources consultant in 1994 and 1995, Marcie worked on a variety of client assignments, including the design and implementation of surveys. It was the cumbersome nature of survey administration and analysis that caused her to search for a technological solution and led her to the subsequent founding of Survey Connect. Marcie received her undergraduate degree in Human Resources from the University of Kansas and her MBA from the University of Colorado at Denver. She has published several articles about the survey process in trade magazines including Selling Power and Quirk's Marketing Research Review. Marcie may be reached at mlevine@surveyconnect.com.
 
Article
Deliberate practice—meaning drill-like practice under the direction of a coach—is key to developing expertise in sports and music. But working professionals and businesspeople typically have no time for practice. We propose deliberate performance as a type of practice that professionals and businesspeople can pursue while they work as a way to accelerate their progression to becoming experts. Four deliberate performance exercises are described: estimation, experimentation, extrapolation, and explanation.
 
Article
Basic measurements and applications of six selected general but critical operational performance-based indicators—effectiveness, efficiency, productivity, profitability, return on investment, and benefit-cost ratio—are presented. With each measurement, goals and potential impact are explored. Errors, risks, limitations to measurements, and a final check for validity, applicability, accountability, and usability of these measurements are discussed. This article provides a simple, practical guide to performance measurement for organizations and human performance technology practitioners' accountability and continuous improvement.
 
Article
The balanced scorecard was developed to align business practices with the overall strategy of an organization and to monitor performance. A dashboard is a computer interface designed to receive and manipulate data from the various departments within a company to present comprehensive information to decision makers. The balanced scorecard, when combined with the dashboard, provides a way for organizations to determine strategy and evaluate performance.
 
Article
This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance management methods, it assists trainers and managers to promote change, achieve flexibility in performance, and enhance the fluency of skill application with regard to critical performance events.
 
Article
Working with clients to deliver solutions provides ample opportunity for success as well as failure. This article focuses on how to address three shortcomings that often contribute to performance solutions missing the mark. These shortcomings include (a) the framework used to view, discuss, and analyze performance is too narrow; (b) performance solutions do not address the ineffective habits of performers; and (c) the important process step of design is often improperly defined or even ignored.
 
Article
Problems with implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) can be assessed in light of change management theory. Viewing stakeholders collectively as a corporate entity supports employing change management strategies to make the NCLB work. Examining ways that organizational controls and change management can work together points to possible reasons for the problems NCLB has encountered. Finally, strategies are suggested that may facilitate education reform and also have broad application for human performance technology practice.
 
Article
Action plans have been shown to improve transfer of learning and have proven an effective tool in training evaluation. This study describes how action planning was simply and successfully adapted to a preexisting curriculum with few additional resources. The decision to use participant action planning, the administration of it, and the participants' and the sponsor's responses are discussed, along with suggestions for future human performance technology research.
 
Article
At the beginning came the job aid. Now, we incline toward performance support tools (PSTs), sometimes fondly described as “job aids on steroids.” PSTs that support employee performance have been studied, but scant attention has been paid to the PSTs that add to people's everyday lives beyond work. We studied 30 diverse people, voluntary PST users, to gauge their opinions and attitudes about such widely available PSTs as MapQuest, VideoJug, eHow, WebMD, and Turbo Tax.
 
Article
A survey of perceptions of Second Life as a training and development tool indicates that its use is still in the early stages of the adoption curve. Moreover, professionals who are familiar with it do not typically express the same enthusiasm for it as media reports seem to indicate.
 
Article
This article examines a number of issues regarding the leveraged use of global training within multinational organizations. Given a common purpose and using technology that may minimize cultural differences, is it possible for these organizations to overcome some of the cultural barriers to adult learning? In examining this concept, this article discusses issues of cultural differences, adult cognition, technology, developing global courseware, and measuring its impact.
 
Article
Why deliver instruction on the Web? principles of adult eduction the Web-based training process assessing learner needs selecting the most appropriate Web-based training method designing lessons asynchronous interactions creating blueprints evaluating programs ready, set, go. Appendices: tools for developing Web-based training training organizations listservs, threaded discussions, notes conferences, and forums selected bibliography matrix of Web-based training types netiquette.
 
Article
This article explores the feasibility of using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as a framework for instructor development in a professional services training environment. It explores the consistency of MBTI with common adult learning theory, addresses questions on MBTI's reliability and validity, and explores the applicability of MBTI to the training environment at PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, a global accounting and consultancy firm.
 
Top-cited authors
Thomas Stewart
  • The Ohio State University
Richard Mayer
  • University of California, Santa Barbara
Art Kleiner
  • New York University
George Roth
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Roger Kaufman
  • Florida State University