Peace and Conflict Journal of Peace Psychology

Published by American Psychological Association
Online ISSN: 1532-7949
Publications
Article
This study explores distinctions in Northern Ireland between inter-community (i.e. sectarian) and intra-community (i.e. nonsectarian) violence and their respective impacts on children, and considers these forms of violence in relation to children's processes of emotional security about community conflict. Preliminary work was based on focus groups with mothers in Belfast, followed by a quantitative study involving mothers in Derry/Londonderry. Support emerged for a conceptually-based distinction between sectarian and nonsectarian violence and differential prediction of children's adjustment problems, which was more closely linked with sectarian than nonsectarian community violence. Pertinent to explanatory mechanisms, community violence, especially sectarian, related to mothers' perceptions of children's emotional insecurity about community. Findings are discussed in terms of future directions for understanding community violence and child development in cultural context.
 
Article
Investigated the contributions of concerns with nuclear weapons, personal control beliefs, and social responsibility values to the determination of antinuclear activism beyond the effects of attitudes and attitude strength. 172 undergraduates (mean age 22.14 yrs) completed measures on antinuclear activism, antinuclear concerns, social responsibility, antinuclear attitude, and attitude strength. Results indicate concerns about the danger of nuclear weapons, perceptions of personal control, and social responsibility values accounted for a larger portion of the variance of antinuclear activism than antinuclear attitudes and attitude strength combined. Findings are discussed in terms of the nature of attitudes and beliefs and the relevance of these factors to involvement in peace and other social issues in a global community. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined 354 male and 335 female school-age (8–11 yrs old) children's self-reported experience of a number of negative life events, including a number of conflict-related events in relation to gender, age, socioeconomic status, and religious affiliation. Measures included an experience of negative events scale and Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Children. The reports suggest that children's experience of conflict-related events is considerable. One quarter of the sample had witnessed shootings and street riots. Main and interaction effects were observed that related children's reported experiences to gender, religious affiliation, and socioeconomic background. The relationship between exposure to political conflict and children's perceived competence was also examined, while accounting for psychosocial factors that independently affect perceived competence. This analysis suggested that children reporting lower behavioural competence are more likely to report experience of conflict-related events whereas lower global self-worth was related to experience of nonconflict-related negative events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Over the past several decades, a new pattern of armed conflict has evolved, taking increasingly heavy tolls on communities and civilian populations. In the 1990s, most armed conflicts are intrastate affairs fought with relatively low technology in and around communities, where they kill mostly civilians, inflict extensive psychological damage, destroy communities, and displace masses of people. They also serve to normalize violence and to plant seeds of future armed conflicts. To assess the impact of this situation on children, the United Nations commissioned the first global study on Impact of Armed Conflict on Children, headed by G. Machel. The Study presents a holistic picture of the assault on children, examining issues of physical attack, landmines, sexual abuse, displacement, separation from parents, recruitment into military activity, nutritional deficiencies, stress of caregivers, and community destruction, among others. It also makes recommendations on how to more effectively protect the rights of children that are so badly damaged by armed conflict. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The first Millennium issue of Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology (Boulding, Adams, Curie, de la Rey, Lamwaka, Oswald Spring, et al, 2000) suggested that we could envision cultures of peace. Having such a vision, imagining the possibility of a culture of peace, is the first step toward creating such a culture. The next step is to relate this ideal to reality. If our imagination is to inspire action, we must provide a bridge between the ideal and our present reality. To begin building this bridge, we must devise ways to assess where we currently stand. Such assessment may help us establish clear subgoals and concrete ways in which a culture of peace can be developed. This special issue (Vol 10[2]) is devoted to exploring how such assessment might be designed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This article examines the emergence of a remarkable stratum of Jesuit scholars at the Central American University José Simeón Cañas in El Salvador. In the 1970s, Jesuit intellectuals articulated a new vision on the relationship among the university, society, and politics, which informed their individual and collective work as scholars, educators, and social activists. Jesuit scholars Ignacio Martín-Baró, Ignacio Ellacuría, Jon Cortina, Jon Sobrino, Segundo Montes, and César Jerez played major roles in this process. Since the early 1970s, state institutions, the official press, business associations, and clandestine paramilitary groups known as “death squads” deemed the Jesuit scholars and other popular intellectuals the instigators of Marxist subversion in El Salvador. They articulated a set of public discourses and public opinion campaigns that sought to justify state terror against the Jesuit scholars. The intellectual legacy of Ignacio Martín-Baró is inextricably linked to this historical process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews the book, The Bell Curve: Intelligence and class structure in American life by Richard J. Hermstein and Charles Murray (see record 1994-98748-000). There there is much to be said for writing a book that examines the ways in which intelligence scores can provide useful markers of important differences, particularly a book that acknowledges, as The Bell Curve, that although the predictive power of test scores is very small so far as individuals are concerned, it is more substantial (and therefore potentially more useful) when it comes to making statements about the average expectations of large groups of people. This lengthy book looks at some interesting issues, but because the contents of The Bell Curve are too confused and too closely tied to the assumptions and preconceptions underlying the authors' point of view, it fails to provide readers with a reliable guide to the current state of knowledge about the concerns it raises. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews the book, "Peace Building in Northern Ireland, Israel and South Africa: Transition, Transformation and Reconciliation," by Colin Knox and Padraic Quirk. The book written at a time when, to all intents and purposes, Northern Ireland, Israel and Palestine, and South Africa were emerging from conflict-with the Belfast Agreement of 1998, the Palestinian National Authority, and the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Today, the prospects for peace in these societies have become more divergent, heightening a central concern of this book: the need for theory building. Overall, this is a well written and engaging study; it provides a useful overview to literature in the field, and raises-for the critical reader-some key issues for further reflection and research. The structure of the book is to offer a brief overview of macrolevel political developments in each society over the past decade or so-largely drawn from standard secondary texts and current affairs magazines. This work represents an important step toward raising concerns that should be addressed in theorizing peace-building. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Review of Reconcilliation, Justice, and Coexistence: Theory and Practice, M. Abu-Nimer (Ed.), 2001. Lanham, MD: Lexington. Reviewd by Landon E. Hancock. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews the book, The New UN Peacekeeping: Building Peace in Lands of Conflict after the Cold War by Steven R. Ratner (1995). There have been many recent accounts of peacekeeping that suggest it has entered a second "golden era," or some similar idea associated with the now-cliched "new world order." Peacekeeping here is viewed "as an instrument of international organization and law-a way of and process for securing important, shared values". In summation, although Ratner clearly approves of expanded UN peacekeeping and clearly is fond of and committed to "the Organization," his book ends up not being a very eloquent statement in support of those who would toast the Organization's new golden age. There appears to be no internal compass in this book and I am left unsure of what lessons one may draw from it. In the oddest twist of all, Ratner concludes with practical tips for reforming the UN bureaucracy and helping it better manage future peacekeeping operations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews the book, The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice edited by M. Deutsch and P. T. Coleman (see record 2006-12760-000). This superb volume provides a broad, masterful overview of the social psychological dynamics of conflict and processes of constructive conflict management. The field of conflict resolution, being relatively young and characterized by a dizzying array of practices and training methods, needs stronger theoretical guidance and linkages between theory and practice. This book addresses this need by offering a powerful, integrative conceptual platform for applied work at different levels. The co-editors note that although the links between theory and practice are bi-directional, the handbook emphasizes the theory-to-practice pathway. Covering an impressive variety of topics, the book consists of 27 chapters by distinguished theorists and practitioners. The book is organized into eight sections using a scheme that the co-editors describe as somewhat arbitrary. Because the book has such a broad scope and aims to provide guidance for the future, there are a number of approaches, issues, and topics that probably should have received greater attention. The book is not necessarily at odds with this view so much as it is too silent about the importance of local cultural beliefs and practices, even if they do prove to fit within a universal framework. This book deserves a prominent place on the shelf of everyone who wants to stay abreast of the field of conflict resolution and to encourage a productive wedding of theory and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Provides a commentary on H. C. Kelman's (see record 1999-11571-001) challenge to traditional views on the sharp distinction between problem solving and negotiation. Kelman suggests that "Track One," official negotiators should adopt some of the principles involved in "Track Two," unofficial conflict resolution. This author presents 3 reasons for not being optimistic about the adoption of the problem-solving metaphor by negotiators. The problems involve the basic structure of conflict resolution, which is practiced mostly in an adversarial manner, designed to maximize one's own side of the process, a situation not conducive to cooperative problem solving. The practicality of changing official processes which operate within a contestation metaphor is also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Comments on the D. W. Johnson and R. T. Johnson article (see record 2001-03059-001) which discussed the contribution of psychology to civil political discourse in a democracy. This commentary focuses on feminist insights into concepts of equality, citizenship, democracy, and political discourse and how such a perspective may raise issues and questions not considered by Johnson and Johnson's (this issue) theoretical model for civil political discourse. To illustrate our points, the authors draw on a number of cases from around the world to highlight some of the obstacles and challenges women face as they try to participate in civil political discourse. It is argued that unless the real external influences that limit women's ability to equally participate are addressed within a model of civil political discourse, in the end, such a model only will reinforce inequality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Comments on the article by E. Staub (see record 1999-15763-002) which discussed the origins and prevention of genocide, mass killing, and other collective violence. Post proposes that in order to understand the psychological basis for "ethnic cleansing" and man's inhumanity to man, it is critical to understand the powerful relationship of malignant leaders and vulnerable followers. At times of political and economic transition, hate-mongering demagogues, serving as malignant group therapists to their wounded nations, can provide sense-making explanations for their beleaguered followers, exporting the source of their difficulties to an external target, justifying hatred and mass violence. The loss of enemies in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet empire led to an intensification of ethnic-nationalist hatred as old enemies were revived and new enemies were created, providing a fertile climate for genocidal destruction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Confirmatory Factor Analyses: Fit Indices and Model Comparisons Model Fit indices Model comparisons N 2 df CFI IFI NFI RMSEA 2 df 
Article
The main objective of the current research is to construct a scale that measures individual differences in adherence to the ethos of conflict (EOC). The development of such a scale is of importance because EOC is seen as a determinative concept in describing the worldview of society members involved in intractable conflict. The first study shows that the 8 themes of EOC load on a single factor, reflecting a holistic and coherent view of the conflict situation. The second study indicates that the EOC constitutes an independent construct. The third study shows that EOC partially mediates between general conservative orientations and judgments of specific solutions proposed to end the conflict. Altogether, the new scale can serve scholars who study sociopsychological mechanisms and dynamics involved in various intractable conflicts around the world. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Interactive problem solving is an unofficial, third-party approach to conflict resolution, which brings together politically influential representatives of conflicting parties for direct interaction in problem-solving workshops. Experiences from this microprocess are used here as a metaphor for the macroprocesses of negotiation and diplomacy. The use of interactive problem solving as a metaphor for the larger process of conflict resolution implies that the conflicting parties have a shared problem in their relationship, which needs to be solved by addressing the underlying causes and dynamics of the conflict in an interactive process. Within this framework, the article describes the ultimate goal of negotiation as transforming the relationship between the parties via an agreement that addresses the fundamental needs and fears of both on a basis of reciprocity. It then discusses 4 components of the larger process of conflict resolution—identification and analysis of the problem, joint shaping of ideas for solution, influencing the other side, and creating a supportive political environment—and procedures for each suggested by the metaphor of interactive problem solving. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Introduces this special issue, Physical Activity and Youth Sports: Social and Moral Issues, of Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology. The author notes reasons for devoting an issue to physical activity and youth sports, including violence among children and youth, and the increasing amount of time available that individuals have due to the burgeoning transformation of work through automation. The author concludes that what forms sports will take will depend, in large part, on the values that are inculcated during childhood and youth. Those values are central to the ideas put forth in this issue. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews the book, Housman's Peace Diary and World Peace Directory 1996 (1995). This book was designed as a pocket directory and calendar for "activists" or peace organizational networkers. It contains a comprehensive listing of peace events and organizations, and is recommended by the reviewer to peace bureaucrats. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews the book, Collaborative Approaches for Resolving Conflict by Myra Isenhart and Michael Spangle (2000). The reviewer begins by commenting that the authors claim to have written a “conflict management survey book” in response to the growing number of students and practitioners in the conflict management field; they have succeeded admirably. The book is well-written, well-organized, and concise, with an unusual blend of theory and practice. It provides an excellent overview of various conflict resolution methods, and benefits from including not only examples of the use of these methods, but the profiles of a number of practitioners using each method as well. As the authors claim, practice with feedback is what virtually all the practitioners agreed is essential for imparting good conflict management skills; however, although highly recommended, many talked about the lack of opportunities to apprentice in the field. This highlights an area that needs to be addressed, that is, the creation of more formal opportunities for supervision and apprenticeship. Thus, the reviewer feels that this book would be a good resource for college and university students studying conflict, as well as human resource professionals concerned with reducing organizational conflict. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The concept of structural violence is related to the phenomenon of direct violence. The global economy is examined as one structural source useful in identifying the roots of diverse manifestations of violence. These manifestations include child abuse by refugees, AIDS among poor women, domestic terrorism, slave trade in prostitution, victimization from environmental contamination, and the abuse of children and women in sweatshops. The global economy is shown to be a prime factor in each case. It is also responsible for increasing disparities between the poor and the affluent. Finally, examples are presented of 2 promising programs designed to restrict the power of the global corporate economy to victimize local communities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This article uses the assessment template suggested by de Rivera (2004; see record 2004-20175-004) as a framework to assess the state of the culture of peace in Spain. After subjectively describing the current state of each of the aspects of the culture, it focuses on articulating the components of each aspect and identifying sources of indicators that could help in the objective assessment of the extent to which the culture exists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews two books "The Post-Cold War Order: The Spoils of Peace" by Ian Clark and "Human Security and the New Diplomacy: Protecting People, Promoting Peace" by Rob McRae and Don Hubert. Taken together, Ian Clark's study and Rob MacRae and Don Hubert's edited collection provide an insight into the dimensions of the current debates about peace and security in the contemporary international system. They span the implicit debate about whether peace as an ideal form can be achieved through international regimes, multilateralism, and institutions, or whether the liberal peace much of the developed world is currently subject to betrays continuities with previous and discredited frameworks. This axis is specifically of significance for those working in the area of peace psychology because it underlines and expounds key perceptions of the nature of the contemporary peace, and of its evolution from the point of view of policymakers, thinkers, and officials who are engaged with responses to conflict and war. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews the book "Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements" edited by Stephen John Stedman, Donald S. Rothchild, and Elizabeth M. Cousens (2002). This edited volume, Ending Civil Wars, emphasizes the importance of the successful implementation of peace agreements in creating a durable peace, and not simply the attainment of an agreement itself. Because the editors take the perspective that resources are limited, that the willingness of the international community to resolve conflicts is often restrained, and that implementation tasks and goals require prioritization, their analysis and conclusions are useful not only for political scientists, but also for policymakers who make decisions under political and economic constraints. Psychologists may find this volume helpful as well, for it offers clear descriptions of various elements of peacekeeping in which psychologists may be able to contribute to the peace process, such as refugee repatriation and human rights. The contributors to the first and second parts of the book explore which strategies are most likely to be successful under various conditions. The theoretical consistency of a common framework allows the case studies to yield meaningful comparative analysis and conclusions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
We begin this pioneer issue with portions of an autobiographical interview of Ralph White. The articles in the issue shed light on some of Ralph White's many contributions to peace psychology and reflects upon Ralph's immense value as first president of Psychologists for Social Responsibility. Three substantial articles on topics related to major concepts that Ralph has championed as critical to an understanding of the psychology of peace and conflict. One of the article recounts the importance of "realistic empathy" to former Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara's reflections on U.S. policy during the Vietnam War. Another article recognizes the value of the cognitive conception of empathy and reviews his research broadening that conception to include an emotional component. One of the article extends his research to power motive imagery, as shown in case studies of speeches from U.S. President James Polk in the 1840s to President John F. Kennedy and members of the Executive Committee of the National Security Council during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. The issue concludes with a "special essay" by Ralph White on misperception in 10 cases of conflict engaged in by the United States, from World War I to the current conflict in the Middle East. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This issue is devoted to Peace Psychology in Germany. The issue exclusively reports research conducted in Germany, in the sense that scholars working at institutions in Germany have been solicited to contribute. This excludes neither non-German nationals nor research with non-German subjects but it implies that the issue encompasses contributions from scientists working or having worked in a German institutional framework. Altogether, there are six articles. The first five contributions are essentially quantitative in their research methodology; the final contribution is a qualitative case study. Four of the six contributions are adaptations of contributions to "Forum Friedenspsychologie's" 16th Annual Conference of Peace Psychology in Bremen in 2003; two were solicited for this special issue. These contributions have been selected from among 11 original submissions that were reviewed on the grounds of a long abstract. Needless to say, earlier drafts of the six selected contributions have, of course, been peer-reviewed by members of the editorial board of the journal, and additionally by experienced German reviewers. Taken together, the selection of articles makes clear that German peace psychology does not just have one focus, but that its topical interests are manifold. However, it also becomes clear that peace psychology in Germany tends to be an offspring of social psychology. Four of the six contributions to this special issue clearly have a social psychological thrust. Other foci are less frequent. In this issue one finds an article that is rooted in developmental psychology and another one based in clinical and community psychology. A further important root of German peace psychology is, unfortunately, missing, namely that of media psychology and communication. Had it been possible to include such a contribution, one could even speak of a representative manifestation of the German peace psychology "landscape," a community clearly oriented towards social psychology, with some add-ons from developmental, clinical, and media psychology. To sum up, we wish non-German readers, in particular, an inspiring reading experience that hopefully will lead to more networking between German peace psychologists and peace psychologists from the United States and other parts of the world. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This paper presents the author's personal experiences with Milt Schwebel. No brief article can do justice to the many and varied contributions Milt has made to education, psychology, social justice, and peace. My goal here is to underscore one social justice theme that persists throughout Milt's distinguished career: the opposition to ideologies about the immutability of human behavior and social systems. Examples of his opposition can be seen in his work on the prevention of nuclear war and his advocacy of policies that engender systemic change. Milt was among those psychologists who recognized, early on, that the threat of nuclear war was fundamentally due to patterns of human behavior that were not immutable. Milt's life continues to serve as a model for all of us who aspire to use our analytical skills and passions in the service of social activism that promotes social justice. Milt demonstrates how scholarship and activism can form a seamless whole, simultaneously bringing human psychology into the multidisciplinary discourse on peace while nurturing a community of scholars and practitioners devoted to peace with social justice. Through his good work, he has made the world a little more equitable and humane for us all. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Comments on the article by D. A. Roblyer (see record 2005-06699-003). No nation today is in the position to assess the justness of a war it plans to initiate, whether a preemptive one or in response to a grievance, even when attacked. Nations, like individuals, are too personally involved, too egocentric to make objective evaluations of their own and their potential enemy's motivations and intentions. If we are to have a world in which conflicts are resolved by nonviolent means, the United States, like all other nations, must not make unilateral decisions in respect to war but be subject to the constraints of multiple views. A rational approach, used in the nation's interest, would incorporate the use of realistic empathy. The greatest likelihood that nations could remove their rose-colored glasses is by having the nations of the world involved in the process through the United Nations. The need for such a rational approach is all the greater when the enemy is not a given land mass constituting a nation and, therefore, seems amorphous, like a moving but unseen target. Roblyer's article should be considered in light of the fact that slowly-all too slowly-but surely the world is moving toward global governance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This paper presents the author's personal experiences with Milt Schwebel. He not only provided research data on the damaging impact on children of the threat of nuclear weapon use, or of nuclear accidents, he specified the obligation of professionals to reassure children by acting to reduce nuclear threat whatever their work setting: classrooms, religious houses, media, trade unions, and so forth. He asserted that adults must model for children the reason, caring, and courage to work within their own places of employment (and elsewhere) to change prevailing destructive policies or practices. Milt was not the only U.S. psychologist studying children and war, but he may have been the only one discreetly educating his faculty colleagues as well as his students in the policy applications of psychology. It is in that role that he deviously starred as the Conscience of Psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews the book, Shining and Other Paths: War and Society in Peru, 1980–1995 edited by Steve J. Stern (1998). This collection of essays offers an excellent starting point for anyone, even non-Peruvianists, wanting to address questions related to Shining Path guerilla movement in Peru. The editor's intention is to take the phenomenon of the Shining Path out of the realm of enigma,and root it in history and society. The explanation of Shining Path’s rise and fall lies as much in this detail as in the macro-historical process, and ultimately in the complex forms the two intersected. In the final essays, the editor encourages readers to reflect on the longer term consequences for Peruvian society and state of a war such as this. This was apparent in the unmasking of President Fujimori in 2000 as a corrupt and authoritarian figure, two decades after Shining Path began its terrible campaign and enabled the state to justify its violent and anti-democratic response. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews the books, World military and social expenditures 1996 (16th Ed.) by Ruth Leger Sivard (1996) and SIPRI yearbook 1996: Armaments, disarmament and international security by Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (1996). All countries should have a debate about national security. National security should be redefined in broader terms than the defense of borders. It should provide conditions for the health, education, and well-being of society and for a sustainable economy. The debate needs, however, reliable facts and statistics about how well these conditions have been created around the world. Fortunately, these two annual publications contain the information needed for an informed debate on national security issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Solutions to Conflict Revealing Attitudes toward Compromise
Descriptive Statistics and Intercorrelations among Variables (n = 176)
Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analysis Predicting Support for Compromise Solution (n = 176)
Multiple Regression Analysis Predicting Support for Compromise Solutions (n = 176)
Article
In this study we examine the content and frequency of ethnocentric talk during a peace education camp with Israeli, Palestinian and American participants. We compared participants' invocation of national narratives, use of collective pronouns and statements rejecting the action of the collective across different conversational conditions. We found that when the conversation focused on the present (as opposed to the past) and when the American third party critiqued both sides' views on the conflict there was a reduction in ethnocentric talk. The results point at the importance of an active third party and a conversational focus on the present in promoting constructive dialog between Israelis and Palestinians during an intergroup contact encounter.
 
Article
A formal model that captures the basic processes at work in the development and transformation of intractable conflict is presented. The formal model translates the insights of the Crude Law, which distills the principles underlying a highly diverse set of ideas and research finding into parameters that can be instantiated in computer simulations. The results of the simulations show emergent consequences that were not anticipated in the verbal version. Local mechanisms are found to be crucial for global dynamics of conflict. Conflicts grow exponentially in places of the highest incompatibility of interests and diffuse from these places. Conflicts escalate to intractability by changing social orientations in areas of its highest intensity. Disrupt ion of locality (e.g. globalization) can paradoxically reduce the conflict. Simulations also suggest that seemingly intractable conflicts can be transformed by creating a fast growing positive process in the vicinity of their center.
 
Cellule A inyangamugayo data.  
Legal Categories of Offense 
Cellule B inyangamugayo data.  
Inkiko-Gacaca Jurisdictional Functions 
Cellule C inyangamugayo data.  
Article
In June 2002, the Republic of Rwanda embarked on an extraordinary experiment in transitional justice, inaugurating the pilot phase of a new participatory justice system called Inkiko-Gacaca. This article-the result of 8 weeks of research involving interviews with government and nongovernmental organization officials, local judges, and prisoners, and extensive observations of the Inkiko-Gacaca process in several different rural communities-explores the system's potential for healing inter-group conflict through a collaborative process of establishing common social and moral norms. The historical and theoretical background of Inkiko-Gacaca is followed by an in-depth case study of 3 communities. Relating intergroup contact theory to the actual experiences of Rwandans participating in this transitional justice system, we emphasize the need to revise the theory's often-implied assumption of homogeneity in participant perspectives. This analysis illustrates 4 very different levels of trust at which Rwandans participate in the Inkiko-Gacaca system, and the dangers, as well as the positive potential, that this wide distribution of perceptions implies. Ultimately, the research indicates some specific ways in which Inkiko-Gacaca could address the concerns of its most disillusioned participants, to help ensure that its contribution to the process of social reconstruction in Rwanda is a positive one.
 
Article
Students in a U.S. university (n = 187) and a South Korean university (n = 201) responded to a sociopolitical questionnaire that included measures of militarism, nationalism, internationalism, patriotism, respect for civil liberties, and tolerance of dissent. Most correlations between militarism and the comparison sociopolitical variables proved significant in both samples but tended to be stronger in the U.S. sample. Militarism correlated positively with nationalism and patriotism but negatively with internationalism, respect for civil liberties, and tolerance of dissent. The strongest relationships were between militarism and both respect for civil liberties and tolerance of dissent. In the U.S. sample, relationships between militarism and the sociopolitical variables were stronger for males than females.
 
Article
Using a Dynamical Systems Perspective, the current paper will examine the processes and the mechanisms under which conflict malignancy spreads psychologically, socially, and structurally. The paper includes the following sections: 1) a discussion of the characteristics of malignant social conflicts, 2) a review of the literature on psychological, social, and structural dimensions related to conflict pervasiveness, 3) findings from an exploratory study conducted with Israelis and Palestinians on the spread of destructive conflict, and 4) a discussion of the relevance of dynamical-systems theory for conceptualizing and measuring the spread of negativity in conflict.
 
Article
Peace education in regions of intractable conflict faces a number of severe challenges, such as conflicting collective narratives, shared histories and beliefs, grave inequalities, excessive emotionality, and unsupportive social climates. In this light, the chances of success for peace education programs are rather slim. A series of quasi-experimental studies carried out with Israeli–Jewish and Palestinian youngsters revealed that despite the ongoing violence, participation in various programs yields positive attitudinal, perceptual, and relational changes manifested in, for example, more positive views of "peace," better ability to see the other side’s perspective, and greater willingness for contact. These changes depend on participants’ initial political views, and thus, as found in one study, play an attitude-reinforcing function, but, as found in another study, prevent the worsening of perceptions of and attribution to the other side, thereby serving in a preventive capacity.
 
Article
Reprints the original article by William James (1910). James characterizes the pervasiveness of war and military influences on everyday living as an innate pugnacity and love of glory that was once tied to an appetite for plunder. Militarism is seen as the preserver of the ideals of hardihood, and a need is seen for a moral equivalent of war that would preserve the social disciplinary function of war without the inherent costs and horrors of warfare. James argues that the "martial type of character" (embodying concepts of order, discipline, service, devotion, and universal responsibility) can be bred without war.
 
Article
This article presents preliminary findings on the effectiveness of postconflict recovery strategies, one of which is political activism. I describe Peru's experience to illustrate how mental health professionals adopt a more holistic view of psychosocial healing within the reparations framework established by Peru's Truth and Reconciliation Commission. I then illustrate how this model meets the particular needs of women who survived the conflict and are now reclaiming their mental well-being through political activism. The short-term evaluation of this approach reveals that it benefits this population both through raising their self-esteem and by involving them in policy decisions that directly affect their lives.
 
Article
Responds to the comments by C. J. Montiel and M. K. Anuar (see record 2003-04024-005), E. Staub (see record 2003-04024-006), C. L. Ruby (see record 2003-04024-007), H. Langholtz (see record 2003-04024-008) on the article by the current author (see record 2003-04024-004) which discussed the categorization, motivation for and ongoing threat of terrorism. The author found particularly instructive the different themes to which the authros responded.
 
Article
Replies to comments by Caroline Lamwaka (see record 2011-23517-004), Ursula Oswald Spring (see record 2011-23517-005), Mary Soledad L. Perpiñan (see record 2011-23517-006), Adam Curle (see record 2011-23517-007), Peter Suedfeld (see record 2011-23517-008), and David Adams (see record 2011-23517-009) on her original article "A new chance for human peaceableness?" (see record 2011-23517-002). The author states how grateful she is for a stimulating and thought-provoking set of reflections in response to her essay on peaceableness. Caroline Lamwaka writes from the very front lines of battle in Uganda. She has seen peacebuilding projects dismantled time and again by soldiers and by guerillas, in a region where there is continuing glorification of war. Ursula Oswald Spring has long battled the hydra of malign globalization as a scholar–activist who has also served in government. Familiar with many different kinds of networks, she looks to alternative communication media to develop a very different kind of global interdependence. Sister Mary Soledad Perpiñan has worked at peace building in the Philippines and the world through many turbulent decades. Her words, “Rocking the boat with protests against injustice can very well be an act of peacemaking,” give a welcome emphasis to the adventurous, risky, challenging aspects of peace work. Adam Curle has spent a lifetime working for peace—often in very violent and difficult settings. He knows more about the obstacles to peace than many of us can even conceive. Peter Suedfeld and the author are far apart in world views, but agree: conflict is a basic element of the human experience. Finally the author is grateful that David Adams found the time to provide an overview of the development of the Culture of Peace program at the UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) and the United Nations (UN), both from the perspective of member states and of NGOs. The movement from rhetoric about ending war to a specific naming of eight concrete areas of action for creating the conditions of peace is potentially very empowering for NGOs.
 
Article
Background: Most of the existing research on the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11) has narrowly focused on posttraumatic stress disorder, limiting the potential to learn about other important consequences of this disaster. This qualitative study examined survivors’ views of justice regarding the 9/11 attacks on New York City’s World Trade Center. Method: A volunteer sample of 196 employees with varied 9/11 disaster-trauma exposures from 8 affected agencies in the New York City area was recruited approximately 35 months after the incident. The participants completed structured interviews about their disaster experiences and wrote brief essays describing what justice meant to them in relation to their experience of the 9/11 attacks. The qualitative analysis first identified 4 themes regarding justice and revenge in the text of the essays, and the content of the essays was then coded into these 4 themes, yielding final definitions of the content in them. Results: The accountability-for-perpetrators theme was coded in more essays than any other themes. The essays had little discussion of revenge relative to the amount of discussion on justice. PTS was not mentioned in any of the essays. Conclusion: These findings suggest the importance of broadening the focus of future studies examining justice in relation to disaster.
 
Article
This study examined the relationship between personal epistemology, as measured by the Attitudes about Reality Scale, attitudes about the September 11 World Trade Center disaster, and patterns of blame assigned to various individuals and circumstances associated with the crisis. Data were collected within 1 month of the disaster and 6 months later from undergraduate students at a university from which people could see the destruction of the World Trade Center and from another university 200 miles from the site. A significant relationship was found between positivist attitudes about reality and support for militant government policies at both universities and at both time periods. This relationship was not different for the two universities and was significantly stronger at both institutions 6 months after the attacks. Students near the disaster site were more supportive of a strong response. However, differences between the two universities in the way that demographic and other markers related to covert and overt attitudes limit our ability to define this as an effect of proximity to terrorism. Results are discussed in terms of a deep connection between general epistemological predispositions, cognitive competence/style, and specific sociopolitical viewpoints. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Research about the Muslim American experience post-9/11 is sorely lacking. Perceptions of stigma as a predictor of Muslim American responses to 9/11 were examined. Negative cognitive and emotional responses were predicted by perceptions of stigma but not behavioral changes.
 
Degree of spontaneous endorsement of five major characteristics of public behavior by Black and South Asian New York taxi drivers. 
Article
An attack such as 9/11 engenders both increased in-group solidarity and other prosocial responses and increased hostility to out-group(s) including those perceived as similar to the presumed perpetrators. We report retrospective data collected from 5 to 11 months after 9/11, from 209 New York City taxi drivers. Judgments of their patrons by the taxi drivers indicate changes in civility (friendliness, politeness) that typically were most intense for the first week but continued to some degree for a few weeks to months, and some, the increased positivity experienced by Blacks, were present almost a year later. The direction of change depended on the ethnicity of the cab drivers: African Americans reported an increase in civility, whereas South Asian cab drivers reported a decrease in civility. The 9/11 attack seemed to improve public reaction to African Americans, perhaps because they were replaced by Middle-Easterners/South Asians as part of the "new enemy," the Muslim terrorists. (PsycINFO Database Record
 
Article
Colombia has experienced historically high levels of community and domestic violence, with young children ages 0–6 being at particular risk of psychosocial harm. This results from a number of risk factors associated with 1 of the longest lasting civil conflicts in the world. Young children are particularly at risk in Colombia due to their physical vulnerability in the midst of high levels of domestic and community violence. The following program applied a unique model addressing young children’s psychosocial well-being. The initiative built the capacity for caregiver empathy combining a positive parenting approach with community early learning strengths, child rights, and community empowerment methods. Case study research documenting the application of this model in Comuna 13, a Colombian community with high levels of civil conflict, showed that this integrated empathy and empowerment approach resulted in improved outcomes for children and their families. At the community level the initiative strengthened municipal formal and nonformal child protection systems, including the creation of “pathways for peace,” or zones of peace in violent neighborhoods. This article presents an overview of the case study methodology and preliminary findings of this 3-year applied research initiative. The findings are summarized in relation to contextual, assets approaches to peace-building with vulnerable children, and families at the center of restorative practice.
 
Article
It is with a mixture of deep sorrow and desire to celebrate a long, well-lived life that we announce the death of Professor Milton Schwebel, who died October 3 at the age of 99 in Tucson, Arizona with his family at his side. Milt was the Founding Editor of Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, which published it first volume in 1995. As one of the founders of APA Division 48, the Society for the Study of Peace, Conflict, and Violence, Milt served as a member of the Steering Committee that submitted the successful petition to establish Division 48 that was approved by the American Psychological Association Council in 1989. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Morton Deutsch (1920–2017), the first president of Division 48, Peace Psychology (1990–1991), died on March 13, 2017, at the age of 97. A renowned social psychologist and scholar, Professor Deutsch sought to bring about a more peaceful world in his scholarly emphasis on cooperation, conflict resolution, social justice, interdependence, and peace psychology. This appreciation and remembrance describes Mort’s life growing up in the years after World War I, his college experiences, his military service in World War II, and his doctoral work with Kurt Lewin at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It discusses his contributions to theory, teaching, and mentoring, practices that were at the heart of his generative work in social psychology. It describes his important contributions to peace psychology, including his role in founding the Society for the Study of Peace, Conflict, and Violence.
 
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