Paleontological Journal

Published by MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica
Online ISSN: 1555-6174
Print ISSN: 0031-0301
Publications
In 2009 we celebrate the 200th anniversary of the birth of Ch. R. Darwin, an English naturalist. His life and career as an outstanding biologist and famous geologist, are considered. His ideas and influence on the scientific community are discussed.
 
December 7, 2007, was the 150th anniversary of the birth of Louis Dollo, a prominent Belgian evolutionary paleontologist. The article briefly describes his life, research, and museum work as well as his work on popularizing science. The main scientific works of Dollo and their international recognition are characterized. Dollo’s high reputation among Russian scientists led to his election, on January 11, 1928, as a Foreign Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
 
August 2009 marked the 240th anniversary of the birth of Georges Cuvier, an architect of comparative anatomy, a founder of paleontology, and the originator of catastrophism. An account of the biography and summary of research of this outstanding French natural historian is provided. A contemporary of Cuvier, Napoleon Bonaparte, in 1800 regarded the diverse talents of his compatriot so highly that he made him a trusted member of his inner circle, inviting his help in both private matters and state affairs. KeywordsGeorges Cuvier-biography-life and activities
 
Reassessment of the suite of specimens used by William King when he erected the fenestrate bryozoan genus Thamniscus in 1849 has shown that they belong to two genera. However, King’s original generic concept only allows for some of these specimens to be included within Thamniscus. These specimens are illustrated. A recent generic treatment is consistent with King’s original generic concept.
 
Shapes of the colonies of the genus Orbipora: (a) cap-shaped, with an expanded base, lateral view; Orbipora sp.; specimen PIN, no. 5075/46, ×11.7; Russia, Leningrad Region, village of Khamontovo, left bank of the Lynna River; Llanvirnian Stage, Kunda Horizon, Subhorizon Ç IIIα ; (b) mushroom-shaped, lateral view; Orbipora sp.; specimen PIN, no. 5075/47, ×11.4; the same age and locality; (c) hemispherical, lateral view; O. acanthophora Bassler, 1911; specimen PIN, no. 5075/48, ×15.2; the same locality; Llanvirnian , Volkhov Horizon, Subhorizon Ç IIγ ; (d) rodlike, with a narrowed base, lateral view; Orbipora sp.; specimen PIN, no. 5075/49, ×10.4; the same locality; Llanvirnian, Kunda Horizon, Subhorizon Ç IIIα .  
Five species of the genus Orbipora, including two new species, O. lynnensis sp. nov. and O. ukhakuensis sp. nov., are described from the Middle Ordovician of the Leningrad Region and Estonia. The colonies of the species O. acanthophora Bassler, 1911 and O. solida Bassler, 1911 are measured and figured for the first time. The stratigraphic range and geographic distribution of O. acanthophora are refined. A scheme of possible phylogenetic relationships and distribution maps of the species of the genus are presented.
 
The following is a heavily edited transcript of my illustrated lecture, that included our 14 minute video (with a 2 minute animation model) that shows each step in live organisms hypothesized in the origin of nucleated cells from bacteria (“eukaryosis”). New observations presented with modern examples of live phenomena make us virtually certain that B.M. Kozo-Polyansky’s “new principle” (1924) of the importance of symbiogenesis in the evolutionary process of at least 2000 million years of life on Earth is correct. The widely touted but undocumented explanation of the origin of evolutionary novelty by “gradual accumulation of random mutations” will be considered an erroneous early 20th century hunch proffered primarily by Englishmen, North Americans and other anglophones. They (Neodarwinist “explanations”) will be replaced by the details of symbiogenesis: genetic mergers especially speciation by genome acquisition, karyotypic fissions (neocentromere formation, related chromosome change) and D.I. Williamson’s larval transfer concept for animals. Although ignored and dismissed in his life time, Kozo-Polyansky’s brilliant work will be lauded for symbiogenesis in the same style that Gregor Mendel’s studies of inheritance of “factors” in peas was for recognition of his establishment of diploid organism genetic principles by the beginning of the 20th century. My talk, photographs and moving pictures were presented at the Darwin conference, St. Petersburg, on September 23, 2009 introduced by E. Kolchinsky. Keywordssymbiogenesis–eukaryosis–Kozo-Polyansky–speciation–genetic mergers–genome acquisitions
 
Original figures of the radiolarian genera Entactinia and Stigmosphaerostylus : (a, b) Entactinia herculea Foreman: (a) after Foreman, 1963, pl. 1, fig. 3b, × 160; (b) after Foreman, 1963, pl. 1, fig. 3c, × 160; (c) E. paula Foreman, after Foreman, 1963, pl. 2, fig. 11, × 160; (d, e) Entactinia crustescens Foreman, 1963: (d) after Foreman, 1963, pl. 1, fig. 9b, × 128, (e) after Foreman, 1963, pl. 1, fig. 9f, × 128; (f) Stigmosphaerostylus notabilis Rüst: after Rüst, 1892, pl. 10, fig. 2, × 85; (g) Stigmosphaerostylus inaequalis Hinde: after Hinde, 1899b, pl. 16, fig. 3, × 200; (h) Acanthosphaera etheridgei Hinde: after Hinde, 1899a, pl. 8, fig. 24, × 200; (i) Heliosphaera clavata Hinde: after Hinde, 1899a, pl. 8, fig. 28, × 200; and (j) Stigmosphaerostylus etheridgei (Hinde): after Aitchison and Stratford, 1997, text-figs. 1–7, × 60.  
The genera Entactinia Foreman, 1963 and Stigmosphaerostylus Rüst, 1892 are revised. The major differences between the two genera are manifested in the structure of the outer shell, internal spicule, and the number of the main spines; this suggests that they should be assigned to different families (Entactiniidae and Haplentactiniidae) of different classes (Sphaerellaria and Spumellaria).
 
Changes in the morphology of the later whorls in the genus Clathrobaculus : (a) hypothetical shell of the presumed ancestor; (b) C. medidilatatus sp. nov.; (c) C. krantzi (Rouillier); (d) C. fahrenkohli (Rouillier). Abbreviations: (UK) upper keel, (LK) lower keel, and (SR) subsutural rib. Lines connect homologous elements of sculpture in shells of different species.  
Clathrobaculus fahrenkohli (Rouillier, 1846); PIN, specimen no. 48631170 (shell 15 mm high); abandoned quany "Kamushki", Moscow; Middle Callovian.  
Terminology concerning the shell of Clathrobaculus . Abbreviations: (BPA) basal-palatal angulation, (LS) lateral side, (UK) upper keel, (LK) lower keel, (SAK) surface above the keel, (B) base, (SBK) surface below the keel, (SR) subsutural rib, and (S) suture.  
The morphology and ontogeny of Jurassic gastropods those have been included in the genera Clathrobaculus Cossmann, 1912 and Gordenella Gründel, 1990 are discussed. Based on the ontogenetic research of their shells, several types of ontogeny are established in the species of these genera. The suggestion is made that the genus Gordenella should be considered as a junior synonym of Clathrobaculus within the family Mathildidae. The protoconchs of Clathrobaculus species are studied to reveal their morphological variability and a number of distinguishing characters in which they differ from the protoconchs of other mathildid genera. Four species of Clathrobaculus, of which two are new (C. medidilatatus and C. inconstantiplicatus), are described from the Jurassic deposits of the European part of Russia. The composition of C. fahrenkohli (Rouillier, 1846) and C. krantzi (Rouillier, 1849) is emended, and the protoconchs of these species and of the species C. inconstantiplicatus are described for the first time.
 
New materials and previously unpublished data on trematosaurid labyrinthodonts from the Early Triassic Bolshoe Bogdo locality (Astrakhan Region) are described. All cranial trematosaurid specimens from this locality are assigned to the monotypic genus Inflectosaurus based on the postorbital length of the skull roof. The diagnosis of the genus is amended. The intermediate position of Inflectosaurus between Angusaurus and Trematosaurus is marked.
 
Reconstruction of aldanellid gastropod (zone of columellar muscle attachment is black). 
Structure of the initial part of shell and reconstruction of the protoconch of Aldanella operosa Missarzhevsky, 1966: (a) initial part of the shell; (b) protoconch reconstruction. Designations: (I) first septum; (II) second septum.
Structure of the initial part of the shell of Aldanella rozanovi Missarzhevsky, 1966; specimen PIN, no. ?5083/0127; Lower Cambrian, Tommotian Stage, N. sunnaginicus Zone; Siberian Platform, western Anabar Region, Rassokha River (collected by N.P. Meshkova, 1972): (a) shell, apical view; (b) initial part of shell; (c) the same, protoconch is outlined by a dotted line; (d) protoconch reconstruction.
The position of attachment of the shell muscle is discovered in the columellar area of the shell of the Early Cambrian univalved genus Aldanella (family Aldanellidae, order Pelagielliformes, subclass Archaeobranchia), the structure of its protoconch is described, and the presence of series of septa in the embryonic part of their shell is confirmed. These new features confidently support the position of the family Aldanellidae within the gastropod class and allow them to be considered ancestral to younger gastropod lineages with a turbospiral shell.
 
Members of the genus Aldanella Vostokova, 1962 from the lower part of the Medvezh'ya Formation (Lower Cambrian, Tommotian Stage, N. sunnaginicus Zone) Ary- Mas-Yuryakh Creek, Kotui River basin, western Anabar Region, Siberian Platform; internal molds, ×48: (a) mirror image of the sinistral species A. golubevi sp. nov.; holotype PIN, no. 4386/1523; (b) normal image of dextral species A. crassa Missarzhevsky in Rozanov et al., 1969; specimen PIN, no. 4386/1512.  
Shell chirality among Cambrian gastropods is discussed. It is demonstrated that the earliest members of the class include chiral aberrations with abnormal opposite coiling of the shell. It is assumed that, in Cambrian gastropods, speciation could have occurred by mutation in the locus determining the chirality, as is proposed for extant gastropods. In contrast to modern gastropods, the existence of chiral morphs within single species has not been recorded in Cambrian mollusks, whereas the presence of chiral twin species is possible. The systematic position of sinistral representatives of the genus Aldanella Vostokova, 1962 is considered. Aldanella golubevi sp. nov. with sinistral shell is described from the base of the Tommotian Stage of the Anabar Region. Aberrant sinistral specimens of the normally dextral species Aldanella utchurica Missarzhevsky in Rozanov et al., 1969 and Pelagiella adunca Missarzhevsky in Rozanov et al., 1969 are figured.
 
The genus Entactinosphaera Foreman, 1963 is revised; it is shown to combine seven different genera, which are distinguished by morphological characters and belong to three orders of two radiolarian classes: the class Sphaerellaria, order Entactiniata (Bientactinosphaera, Entactinosphaera, Helioentactinia, Radiobisphaera), and class Spumellaria, orders Cancelliata (Retientactinosphaera, Magnisphaera) and Spongiata (Spongentactinia). New radiolarian taxa from the Middle Frasnian-Lower Famennian of the Timan-Pechora Basin and from the Lower Famennian of the Polar Ural Mountains, Russia, are described: Retientactinosphaera gen. nov., R. magnifica sp. nov., and R. clavata sp. nov. KeywordsRadiolaria–taxonomy–revision of genera–new taxa–Paleozoic
 
The wide distribution of the genus Ammosiphonia in the Upper Jurassic and Carboniferous of Western Siberia is established for the first time. Six haplophragmoidid species of Western Siberia are assigned to this genus. The diagnosis of the genus is emended; the taxonomic positions and scopes of the species Ammosiphonia nonioninoides (Reuss), A. beresoviensis (Bulatova), and A. sibirica (Zaspelova) are revised; two new species, A. suprajurassica sp. nov. and A. valanginica sp. nov., are described.
 
Shapes of the colonies of revalotrypids: Revalotrypa krestensis sp. nov.: (a) holotype PIN, no. 5075/56; mushroom-shaped colonies, lateral view, × 5; Leningrad Region, village of Belye Kresty; Latorp Horizon; (b) paratype PIN, no. 5075/169; conical colonies , lateral view, × 4; Leningrad Region, Lynna, village of Khamontovo; Volkhov Horizon, Upper Volkhov Subhorizon (B II γ ); (c) paratype PIN, no. 7-5075/153; massive colony, lateral view, × 1; age and locality the same as in Fig. 1a.  
Shapes of autozooecia, apertures, and neozooecia of Revalotrypa krestensis sp. nov.: (a) holotype PIN, no. 5075/56; longitudinal section of the colony showing tubular cylindrical autozooecia with rare diaphragms and small tubules of neozooecia, located between the autozooecia, × 30, age and locality the same as in Fig. 1a; (b) paratype PIN, no. 5075/78; tangential section showing circular apertures and rounded tetragonal neozooecia, × 30, age and locality the same as in Fig. 1a.  
A new genus Lynnopora gen. nov. with the type species L. lunata sp. nov. and a new species Revalotrypa krestensis Koromyslova sp. nov. from the Arenigian Stage (Latorp and Volkhov horizons) of the Ordovician of the Leningrad Region are described. The positions of the genus Revalotrypa Bassler, 1952 and the family Revalotrypidae Gorjunova, 1988 in the order Cystoporida are substantiated. The problems of biogeography and ecological adaptations of bryozoans of the family Revalotrypidae are discussed.
 
Mellopegma uslonica Parkhaev, 2004; Lower Cambrian, Botomian Stage, Uslon Section, village of Georgievka, eastern Transbaikalia: (a) specimen PIN, no. 2019/1047, internal mold, right view, ×85; (b) holotype, no. 2019/1051, fragment of the anterolateral surface of a mold with granulate microornamentation, ×155; (c, d) specimen PIN, no. 2019/1125, internal mold: (c) right view, ×85; (d) fragment of the apical area of a mold with granulate microornamentation.  
Barskovia hemisymmetrica Golubev, 1976; Tommotian Stage, right bank of the Yenisey River, 6 km downstream from Plakhino Island (Korovnikov et al., 2002; section no. 3, bed no. 6), Siberian Platform; internal mold (specimen from collection of D.P. Sipin, Joint Institute of Geology and Geophysiscs, Novosibirsk): (a) apical view, ×74; (b) apertural view, ×74; (c) granular microornamentation of the internal mold.  
Granular microornamentation of internal molds of mollusk species from the Botomian Stage of South Australia (Yorke Peninsula , Parara Limestone): (a–c) Nomgoliella australiensis Parkhaev, 2001; holotype PIN, no. 4664/1823, internal mold with fragments of shell; Horse Gully locality (sample HG no. 0): (a) apical view, ×78; (b) apertural view, ×78; (c) granular microornamentation preserved on the upper part of the whorl; (d–g) Anhuiconus microtuberus Zhou et Xiao, 1984; (d) specimen PIN, no. 4664/1867, internal mold; Horse Gully locality (sample HG no. 0), left view, ×28; (e–g) specimen PIN, no. 4664/1734, internal mold; borehole SYC-101 (depth 167.87 m): (e) dorsal view, ×45; (f) oblique left view, ×45; (g) granular microornamentation preserved on the apical part of the mold.  
Schematic structure of shell pores in different species of Cambrian mollusks, ×200: (a) Auricullina papulosa Vassiljeva, 1998; (b) A. granulosa sp. nov.; (c) Postacanthella elegans Yue, 1984; (d) Mackinnonia anabarica Parkhaev, 2005; (e) Tuberoconus paucipalillae Yue, 1984; (f) Daedalia daedala Parkhaev, 2001; (g) Mellopegma uslonica Parkhaev, 2004; (h) Khairkhania rotata Missarzhevsky , 1981; (i) Anhuiconus microtuberus Zhou et Xiao, 1984 and Leptostega hyperborea Parkhaev, 2005; (j) Barskovia hemisymmetrica Golubev, 1976; (k) Philoxenella spiralis Vostokova, 1962; and (l) Nomgoliella australiensis Parkhaev, 2001.  
The genus Auricullina Vassiljeva, 1998 and its type species A. papulosa Vassiljeva, 1998 are redescribed based on new well-preserved material, which allows me to revise the generic diagnosis and greatly add to the morphological characterization of the type species. A new species, A. granulosa sp. nov., is described from the Botomian of Australia. The synonymy of the taxa is improved. The morphology and function of shell pores in Cambrian univalved mollusks are discussed.
 
Boreophylloceras densicostatum sp. nov., × 1; (a–c) specimen no. 785/94: (a) apertural view, (b) lateral view, (c) ventral view; (d) specimen no. 785/961, lateral view; (e, f) holotype no. 785/91: (e) lateral view, (f) ventral view; (g, h) specimen no. 785/90: (g) lateral view, (h) apertural view. All specimens from the Boyarka River; Berriasian, kochi Zone, praeanalogus Subzone, Bukatyiskaya Formation.  
Study of the shells of phylloceratids from the kochi Zone (Berriasian) of north-central Siberia (Boyarka River, basin of the Kheta River) allowed their assignment to the genus Boreophylloceras Alekseev et Repin, 1998. A new species B. densicostatum is described.
 
Measurements of P . proanabarensis , mean values in mm 
Juvenile development of the Middle Cambrian agnostid trilobite Pentagnostus proanabarensis Fedoseev, 1999 is studied. A sequence of eight juvenile stages is defined based on changes in morphology and measurements. Three of them belong to meraspid degree 0, another three refer to meraspid degree 1, and two represent early holaspid stages. Neither the frequency distribution of the length of cephalons and pygidia nor the length-width scatter diagrams give clear clusters of molts; the number of juvenile molts can be estimated through the analysis of the posteroaxis length distribution. Thus, the measurements and morphology of some juvenile pygidia with vestiges of the pleural and postaxial furrows allow reconstruction of the number of segments during individual growth. At the initial stage of development, the pygidial axis of P. proanabarensis probably had four segments, the pygidial axis increased up to no less than six segments in adults.
 
The taxonomic position of the genus Palaeonothrus Krivolutskii et Sidorchuk, 2003 described from the Holocene of Arkhangelsk oblast is reconsidered. The fossils, which were originally attributed to moss mites (Acariformes: Oribatida), turned out to be isolated mesonota of some Ichneumonidae or Braconidae wasps, which were impossible to identify more precisely. Consequently, it is proposed to treat the genus Palaeonotrus as Ichneumonoidea incertae sedis until the source insects are identified.
 
The organization level of Precambrian fossils is the most reliable indicator of the state and parameters of the biosphere, such as the atmosphere composition, average temperature of the earth’s surface, and others. At present, cyanobacteria, unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes, and coelomates are considered to appear in the geological history of the Earth much earlier than it was supposed previously. Our knowledge and ideas of the early Earth are very important for considering the problems of the origin of life. A key boundary of the earliest period was probably about 4 Ga. This boundary is between the periods documented and undocumented by the geological record. The Earth history and probable surface conditions before 4 Ga are considered by L.M. Mukhina, A.V. Vityazeva, G.V. Pechernikova, and L.V. Ksanfomaliti in this volume. Key wordsEarly Earth–atmosphere composition–life conditions
 
4–4.6 Ga the Earth’s surface was probably mainly cold with some hot spots which resulted from impacts. A system so largely heterogeneous (in temperature) could have provided possibilities for processes of primary syntheses of organic compounds.
 
For the 50th anniversary of Paleontological Journal we undertook a quantitative analysis of it publications (4520) and new taxa, mainly at the species and subspecies level (7702) The publication of Paleontological Journal (PJ) began in 1959. Papers by Bogoslovskaya and Bannikov (1999) and Lopatin and Bannikov (2009) are devoted to its history. The “Account of the Publishing Activity of Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal (1976‐1981)” indicates the number of published papers (510), their distribution by topic and geographical affiliation of the authors. First of all we wish to present, from a taxonomic point of view, the results of a not exhaustive, but certainly very comprehensive quantitative analysis of publications that have appeared in the journal. The first attempt at such an analysis was undertaken based on the issues published between 1959‐1972 (Alekseev and Barskov, 1973); however, this only accounted for new taxa. Information on the patterns of distribution of newly published species and subspecies in Paleontological Journal was briefly analyzed by Alekseev and Loginov (2008). The analysis of the publications was performed by calculating annual indexes. It was shown that in the years when the index was published in the last (fourth) issue of the Journal, it was sometimes incomplete, however when compared with the entire bulk of data, these inconsistencies can be regarded as unimportant. They will be removed when the entire journal is digitized. During the last half century, 224 issues have been published; several times these changed in format, size and, frequency of publication. Up to and including 1996, four issues of the Journal were published annually, from 1997 onwards this increased to six. In 1996, the publication of the Journal began in a large format (A4). In addition to the regular issues, from 1993 additional issues have been printed (recently 6 annually) which are published exclusively in English consisting of thematic compendiums and monographs. They are not included in these calculations.
 
This paper is one of the series of narratives about the Paleontological Institute during the World War II. Correspondence between A.A. Borissiak, who was in evacuation in the city of Frunze, and his colleagues left in charge of the institute in Moscow, is presented, concerning the extremely difficult task of protecting the collections.
 
A new species, Abietoxylon shakhtnaense (Pinaceae), was erected on the basis of fossil wood anatomical characters from the Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene deposits of Southeastern Sakhalin. A. shakhtnaense is similar to wood of firs Abies sachalinensis, A. magnifica, and A. grandis. Fossil wood with features characterizing fir anatomical structure was found in Sakhalin for the first time. Key wordswood anatomy- Abietoxylon -Pinaceae-Oligocene-Miocene-Southeastern Sakhalin
 
The Earth’s biosphere appeared in a self-organization process along with the appearance of the Solar System. It is shown, based on the methods of self-organization examination and existing knowledge, that major stages of the chemical evolution in the early development of the biosphere include the “cold prehistory of life” in dense molecular nebulae, “pre-planetary chemocoenosis,” “RNA-world” in a circumsolar nebula, and primary biocoenoses of protocells (life) on the planetary bodies. Estimates for carbon in the primordial biosphere on the young Earth’s surface give 2.4 × 1019 kg. The decay of the primordial Earth’s biomass and biogeochemical cycles in 2.5 Myr led to the “planet of bacteria” with 2.0 × 1015 kg of biota in the Proterozoic (at the time of an oxygenated atmosphere). The main parameters (pressure, temperature, and state of catalytic solid phase) are estimated for these stages of the early evolution of life. It is shown that the abiogenic synthesis of the primordial matter was preformed in the Solar System on a grand scale with practically every atom in nanoparticles-catalysts participating. Selection among catalytically active nanoparticles worked towards the ability to synthesize high molecular compounds in a protoplanetary disk. Autocatalysts participated in the preplanetary chemical evolution, beginning from such simple substances as ethylene or glycolaldehyde. Primary synthesis of autocatalysts depended on external sources of energy, e.g., on ultraviolet radiation.
 
Existing data suggest that an early circumstellar preplanetary disk was the most likely location for primary abiogenic synthesis of prebiotic organic matter from simple molecules along with the “RNA world” and the origin of life. This paper discusses the stages of self-organization that have resulted in the Earth’s modern biosphere, and the relationships between astrophysical and paleontological events in evolution.
 
Shevchenkocrinus looghiensis n. gen. n. sp. Isolated, adult aboral cup, no. CREF37b-3 (coll. R. Leunissen) from the Rech Member (upper part of the Loogh Formation, lowermost Lower Givetian) of locality 2. a. aboral view with oval stem impression; b. oral view, tegmen missing; c. right anterolateral view of E ray and lateral-posterior view of primanal X (d). [Dimensions: × 3.8].
Shevchenkocrinus looghiensis n. gen. n. sp. Isolated, juvenile aboral cup with preserved tegmen and part of stem attached, no. CREF37b-1 (coll. P. Masterson) from the Rech Member (upper part of the Loogh Formation, lowermost Lower Givetian) of locality 2. a. oral view, showing two circles of orals and subcentral anal opening ( α ); b. aboral view, with part of oval stem preserved; c. lateral-posterior view of primanal X and anal opening ( α ); d. left anterolateral view of B ray ( α = anal opening). [Dimensions: × 4.7].
Shevchenkocrinus looghiensis n. gen. n. sp. Isolated radials (a-i) and basals (j-k) from the Baarley Member (Loogh Formation, lowermost Lower Givetian) of locality 1 (= locus typicus). Holotype (no. SMF-75482, e) and paratypes (nos. SMF-7547875481, SMF-75483-75488 a-d, f-k). [Dimensions. a × 2.7; b × 2.9; c × 2.9; d × 3.5; e × 2.7; f × 3.0; g × 3.5; h × 4.0; i × 4.2; j × 4.3; k × 4.0].
Melocrinites pyramidalis Goldfuss, 1839. Aboral view of the isolated, adult aboral cup (coll. GIK, no repository no.), showing oval stem impression and a pentalobate axial canal, which is surrounded by a perilumen. The stem of the specimen shows similarities with those of family Parahexacrinidae. [Dimension: × 1.4].
Melocrinites pyramidalis GOLDFUSS, 1839. Culumnals (nos. SMF-75489. a-c; SMF-75490. d-e; SMF-75491. f-g; SMF-75492. h; SMF-75493. i; SMF-75494. j; SMF-75495. k-n). a-g, k-n. from the Rech Member (upper part of the Loogh Formation, lowermost Lower Givetian) of locality 2. h-i. from the Baarley Member (Loogh Formation, lowermost Lower Givetian) of locality 1. j. from the Baarley Member of village Berlingen (Gerolstein Syncline, Eifel). a. lateral view of pluricolumnal with preserved, irregularly distributed, "outer" covering in form of cuneiform ossicles (encirclet); b. facetal view, showing wide crenularium, well developed perilumen and pentalobate axial canal (enlarged in c); d. facetal view, showing wide crenularium, well developed perilumen and pentalobate axial canal (enlarged in e); f-g. slightly twisted pluricolumnal (arrows) in lateral (f) and facetal view (g); h. facetal view of an oval columnal, narrow flanges laterally depressed; i. facetal view of a sigmoid-shaped columnal, indicating stem twisting; j. facetal view of an oval columnal, narrow flanges laterally depressed; k-n. part of twisted pluricolumnal in facetal view (k) and lateral views (m-n), showing irregularly distributed, wide, "outer" and cuneiform ossicles, which are partly cracked in m (enlarged in l) and baring thin "inner" columnals; the pluricolumnal is infested by a microconchid valve (see arrow in m). [Dimensions: a-b × 2.0; d × 2.4; f-g × 1.5; h × 2.7; i × 2.3; j × 1.7; k × 1.6; m-n × 1.6; detail views in c, e, l].
The rare Palaeozoic crinoid family Parahexacrinidae is reported here for the first time from the Lower Givetian of the Eifel Synclines (Rhenish Massif), expanding the geographic range to Germany. Shevchenkocrinus looghiensis gen. et sp. nov. is described based on isolated ossicles and two aboral cups from the Gerolstein and Hillesheim Eifel synclines and assigned to the family Parahexacrinidae. Furthermore, “Hexacrinites sp.” sensu Głuchowski (1993), from the Upper Frasnian of the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland), is transferred to the family Parahexacrinidae and classified as Parahexacrinitidae sp. I. comb. nov. Numerous parahexacrinitid species were erected based on the description of isolated columnals. New material from the Eifel proved that several of these species are not distinguishable from other crinoid groups, which is demonstrated for “Parahexacrinus ellipticus” and Melocrinites pyramidalis.
 
Correspondence between A.A. Borissiak, E.A. Ivanova, and Yu.A. Orlov during the World War II evacuation is presented. The correspondence shows the difficulties colleagues from the Paleontological Institute experienced in Frunze. The correspondence between Borissiak and Orlov discusses problems of paleontology as a fringe science and outlines further perspectives of paleontology.
 
Pyemotes primus sp. nov., holotype no. IAA982a, female, dorsal side of the body. Scale bar, 100 µm.  
The first fossil mite of the family Pyemotidae (Acari: Heterostigmata) is recorded. Pyemotes primus sp. nov. is described from the Late Eocene of the Rovno amber from a syninclusion with the bark beetles Taphramites rovnoensis Petrov et Perkovsky, 2008. In the presence of well developed longitudinal striation on hysterosomal tergites, the new species is similar to species from scolyti group, which is characterized by parasitoidism on immature stages of bark beetles and phoresy on adult stages. P. primus differs from the closely related species P. dryas (Vitzthum, 1923), P. parviscolyti Cross et Moser, 1971, P. johnmoseri Khaustov, 2004, and P. mandelshtami Khaustov, 1998 in the subequal setae h 1 and h 2. Key wordsPyemotidae-Acari-new taxa-Upper Eocene-Rovno Amber
 
A new fossil genus and species of oribatid mite, Cretaceobodes martinezae gen. et sp. nov., belonging to the family Otocepheidae is described. The new species is preserved in a piece of amber from the San Just outcrop (Teruel Province, Spain), which is believed to be Albian in age. The new genus is compared with the extant genus Carabocepheus Berlese, 1910 and its relationships with the superfamilies Otocepheoidea and Carabodoidea are discussed. Carabocepheidae is regarded as a junior synonym of Otocepheidae. Ranking Carabocepheus lounsbury latior Balogh et Mahunka, 1966 as a separate species is proposed. Key wordsOribatida, Otocepheidae, mites, new taxa, Lower Cretaceous amber-Albian, San Just, Spain
 
Morphology and taphonomy of acritarchs from the Upper Riphean deposits of the Baikal Folded Region (eastern Siberia) are analyzed. The morphotypes of acritarchs are compared to various stages in the life cycle of modern green algae of the order Chlorococcales. The acritarchs Dictyotidium minor Stan. and the modern coenobial taxon Pediastrum boryanum (Turp). Menegh. showed the greatest similarity of structure.
 
The problematic lizard family Changjiangosauridae, representatives of which inhabited Asia in the Early Paleogene, is discussed. Six new species of this group, including Acrodontopsis robustus gen. et sp. nov., Agamimus gracilis gen. et sp. nov., Graminisaurus interruptus gen. et sp. nov., Khaichinsaurus reshetovi gen. et sp. nov., Lavatisaurus elegans gen. et sp. nov., and Lentisaurus giganteus gen. et sp. nov., from the Middle Eocene of the Khaichin Uul 2 locality (southern Gobi, Mongolia) are described. It is shown that Changjiangosauridae are probably related to the Late Cretaceous Isodontosauridae and recent Uromastycidae; independent development of a number of dental features in different lineages of Acrodonta (Iguania) is corroborated.
 
Craspedites nodiger (Eichwald), specimen PIN, no. 3990/406, ×0.6: (a) lateral view, (b) ventral view; Moscow, old collecc tions, donated by A.E. Serbarinov.
Craspedites nodiger (Eichwald), original illustrations, ×0.8: (a, b) a reproduced figure of Ammonites koenigii Sow. (from Auerbach and Frears, 1846, pl. 6, fig. 1.2); (c) reproduced figure of Am. nodiger (from Eichwald, 1868, pl. 36, fig. 3a).  
Hectoroceras tolijense (Nikitin), original illustraa tions: (a, b) reproduced figures of Ammonites catenulatus (according to Eichwald, 1868, pl. 35, figs. 3a, 3b); (4c, 4d) reproduced figures of Oxynoticeras tolijense (according to Nikitin, 1884, pl. 2, fig. 7).  
The distribution of ammonites across the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary of the central part of the Russian Platform is discussed. The nomenclature of Craspedites nodiger (Eichwald, 1962) and Hectoroceras tolijense (Nikitin, 1881) is updated. A new species, Craspedites ultimus sp. nov., is described from the basal horizons of the rjasanensis Zone (Ryazanian Stage). The Hectoroceras tolijense and Hectoroceras kochi faunal horizons lying between the nodiger and rjasanensis zones are united in the kochi Zone of the basal Ryazanian. Previous opinions suggesting a hiatus between the Volgian and Ryazanian stages are reviewed and rejected. Keywordsammonites– Craspedites – Hectoroceras –Ryazanian Stage–Volgian Stage–Russian platform
 
Paleogeographical reconstruction of the location of continents in the Middle-Upper Cambrian (after McKerrow and Scotese, 1990). Designations: (NC) North China, (Au) Australia, (SA) South America, (NA) North America, (EE) Eastern Europe, (Av) Avaloniya, (SP) Siberian Platform, (CA) Central Asia, (FE) Far East, (K) Kazakhstan, (Af) Africa, (SC) South China, (An) Antarctica.
Part of the palinspatic map with Kazakhstan and Middle Asia for the Middle Cambrian (510 M a) (after Kheraskova et al., 2003). Designations: main blocks: (CHA) Chingiz and Tarbagatai, (BZA) Boshchekul', (ERA) Erementau, (SPA) Stepnyak, (AMM) Aktau-Mointy Massif, (NTS) North lien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, (SRA) Sarybulak, (KT) Lesser Karatau, (ALM) Altai Microcontinent. Localities with brachiopods: (I) Chingiz Region, Tarbagatai, (2) Boshchekul', Olenty-Shiderty Interfluve, Koyandy, (3) Erementau, Agyrek, (4) Sarakumy, (5) Lesser Karatau, (6) Kyrgyzstan.
Number of genera in Cambrian brachiopod orders
The analysis of the taxonomic composition and distribution of acrotretids (Brachiopoda) in the Middle Cambrian and early Late Cambrian shows that, in the later half of the Cambrian, the order Acrotretida was the most abundant brachiopod order and many of its representatives were cosmopolites. The structure, mode of life, and biological features of acrotretids, along with the arrangement of continents with epicontinental seasmostly in the low latitudes, promoted the wide dispersal of this group on the Earth in the Cambrian. KeywordsBrachiopods-biogeography-Cambrian
 
Multidimensional scaling plot (two dimensions) of Nei's genetic distances between 14 East European populations and one Asian population illustrates their phylogenetic relationships according to variability at the D1S80, 3'APOB, DM, DRPLA, and SCA1 HVR loci. To make comparisons easier an affiliation of populations to Caucasoid and Mongoloid race according to anthropological classification are designated in bold. 
Coefficients of correlation between CCR5 ∆ 32 allele frequencies and climatic-geographic parameters
The interaction of the human genome with the changing environment moulds the genetic structure of human populations. The variability of autosomal loci and the haplotype diversity was studied in geographically diverse populations from Russia and neighboring countries. Basic tendencies in variability were investigated concerning specific types of polymorphism. The results reveal marked differences between East European populations and those from the Asian part of Russia. The possible effects of climatic-geographic factors on the allele and haplotype frequencies have been studied for some loci. The existences of these correlations provide evidence of possible effect of both adaptation to natural environmental factors and large-scale population movements on the specificity and diversity of gene pool.
 
Based on the study of the growth habits and the relief of the colony surface in bryozoans of the class Stenolaemata from the Lower (Latorp horizon) and Middle (Volchov and Kunda horizons) Ordovician of the Leningrad Region, these bryozoans are shown to develop from the simple, unilaminate colonies (BIβ) to the massive colonies with a nodular surface and smooth columnar colonies (BIIα), which subsequently evolved into the columnar-spiral (BIIβ) and more complex erect branching and fenestrate constructions (BIIγ), and subsequently into the branching, articulate colonies (BIIIα). The apertures of autozooecia and the character of their arrangement on the colony surface changed correlatively from the circular (BIβ) to polygonal and roundedpolygonal, randomly arranged apertures, and subsequently to the oval apertures (BIIIα) arranged in strictly regular longitudinal or longitudinal-diagonal rows or in a quincuncial pattern. Thus, the development of growth habits in the bryozoans under consideration has a progressive character. It is expressed in the progressive increase in the complexity of growth habits of colonies and in the more regular arrangement of apertures and other structures on the colony surface. The directionality of morphological changes in the growth habits of colonies of Ordovician bryozoans was apparently closely associated with the development of more complex environmental interactions of these bryozoans, especially with water currents supplying food particles. It is suggested that the high competitive ability of bryozoans of the class Stenolaemata at early stages of its development in the basin of Baltoscandia was apparently due to the better use of food resources.
 
The analysis of some morphological characteristics of protoceratopoid skeletons, the extent of mobility of the vertebral column, and the probable adaptive significance of these features suggest that Bagaceratops had a mostly aquatic mode of life, Protoceratops was semiaquatic, Udanoceratops was facultatively aquatic, and Leptoceratops was predominantly terrestrial. Protoceratopoids were quadrupeds, with the prevalence of hind limbs, probably using slow or rapid trotlike gait. An asymmetrical locomotion was most likely impossible. On dry land, Bagaceratops and Protoceratops moved slowly. Udanoceratops and Leptoceratops approximately equally used rapid and slow locomotor modes, although the second could run for a longer time than the first.
 
Daohugounectes primitivus , gen. et sp. nov., reconstruction of a second instar larva. 
Geological distribution of the known larvae of the Mesozoic dytiscoid genera Daohugounectes , Stygeonectes, Bolbonectes, Coptoclava , and Megacoptoclava (Coptoclavidae).
Daohugounectes primitivus, a new genus and species of coptoclavid beetles, is described from 67 fossil larvae from the Jurassic locality of Daohugou, northeastern China. It differs from other coptoclavids in the combination of the following characters: lateral lobes of nasale present; legs relatively short, with tarsi flat and slightly dilated; abdominal tergite VIII almost circular; derivative of abdominal segment IX present; urogomphi short; and helical thickening of tracheae weak. Most of these features are plesiomorphic for the family Coptoclavidae and the superfamily Dytiscoidea. Among dytiscoids, a derivative of abdominal segment IX is present only in the larvae of the recently discovered relic family Aspidytidae.
 
Climatic changes in the western and central regions of Russian Eurasia in the Paleocene and in the first half of the Eocene were caused by the dynamics and rearrangement of the systems of marine seaways: the longitudinal one, which connected the Arctic Basin with marginal seas of the Northern Peri-Tethys, and the latitudinal one, which connected the latter seas with the Atlantic. As these systems were progressively reduced, the climate in the middle latitudes changed from paratropical to a subtropical monsoon climate with a moist summer, and later to a climate with a moist winter, and, in the Late Eocene, to a humid climate without any marked seasonal variation in precipitation. The type of flora changed in agreement with these changes. In the Paleogene, cold currents constantly influenced the climate of the Northwestern Pacific rim and facilitated the development of a warm-temperate mesophilic flora.
 
Micromalthus anansi Perkovsky sp. nov., holotype, Miocene Dominican amber: (a) habitus, × 36; (b) abdomen; (c) thorax; (d) antennae; and (e) mid leg.  
An adult of Micromalthus is discovered in amber for the first time. The species, from the Miocene Dominican amber, is described as M. anansi sp. nov., and is generally similar to Recent M. debilis, but differs in the longer legs and antennae. The Miocene species appears to be less fetalized than its modern counterpart.
 
Convexithrips robustus gen. et sp. nov., holotype PIN, no. 4210/2268, female: (a) general view and (b) details of structure.  
Fusithrips crassipes Shmakov, gen. et sp. nov. (Aeolothripidae) and Convexithrips robustus Shmakov, gen. sp. nov. (Thripidae), the oldest members of these families, are described from the Lower Cretaceous of the Baissa locality. This allowed the improvement of the time of emergence of the Recent Thysanoptera assemblage, which includes phloeothripids along with aeolothripids and thripids.
 
A new family, Vidronovellidae, with a new genus, Vidronovella, and its type species V. fastigata sp. nov., and a new species, Europora gerirudensis, are described from the Famennian of Afghanistan, and the new species Primorella iranica, Heloclema magnificum, and Worthenopora elbursensis are described from the Viséan of Iran.
 
The fossil history of the family Geinitziidae is reviewed. New taxa are described in the family: Shurabia hissarica, sp. nov. (Lower Jurassic of Tajikistan), Sh. shartegica, sp. nov. (Upper Jurassic of Mongolia), Sh. serrata, sp. nov. and Ginitzia sagulensis, sp. nov. (both Lower Jurassic of Kyrgyzstan). The subfamily Stegopterinae Sharov, 1961 is synonymized under Geinitziinae Handlirsch, 1906. The genera Minesedes Fujiyama, 1973 and Ominea Fujiyama, 1973 (Upper Triassic of Japan) are synonymized under Shurabia Martynov, 1937 and Geinitzia Handlirsch, 1906, respectively. Geinitzia varia Bode, 1953 (Lower Jurassic of Germany) and Fletchizia picturata Riek, 1976 (Upper Triassic of South Africa) are redescribed from their holotypes. F. kapokraalensis Wappler, 2001 and F. aleda Wappler, 2001 (both Upper Triassic of South Africa) are transferred to the genus Shurabia.
 
Changes in the taxonomic composition of Early Devonian amphiaspids represented in Siberia by two assemblages (from the northwestern Siberian Platform and Taimyr) are analyzed. The study is performed at the generic level and represented by diagrams. Changes in the amphiaspid composition are compared with changes in the development of the Taimyr and platform paleobasins. It is shown that shifts in ecological conditions at the stages of extinction of amphiaspids occurred within the limits of changes of abiotic factors (depth, salinity, etc.) that are usual for heterostracans. The disappearance (extinction) of amphiaspids is attributable to the level of their morphological organization, which caused inefficient adaptations to the developing paleoecosystems. The disappearance (extinction) of groups resulting from inadequate vital adaptations to the changing structure of paleoecosystems is considered to be a general law of evolution.
 
A scheme of ontogenetic changes in pygidia in early Agnostina. Growth patterns: I (pattern 1 without the postaxial furrow at all ontogenetic stages and with a short axis), II (pattern 2 with the axis reaching the border present at least in the meraspid period), III (pattern 3 with the postaxial furrow present at least in the meraspid period). Note that growth patterns I and II are also present in Eodiscinae.
The morphogenesis of the early members of the genus Peronopsis (Trilobita, Agnostina) is studied. The pygidium of Agnostina exhibits growth-related changes more clearly than the cephalon. In Peronopsis inarmata Hutchinson, 1962 and P. brighamensis Resser, 1938 the axial furrow develops around the anteroglabella in meraspid degree 0. The most significant changes occur in the shape of the pygidium axis and the postaxial field; posterolateral spines do not change throughout growth. Specific characters continue to develop until the advanced holaspid stage. Within the genus Peronopsis, three distinct growth patterns of the pygidium are recognized. Different relative growth rates of different parts of the pygidium were responsible for the evolutionary transitions between the growth patterns. The growth pattern when the pygidium lacks a postaxial furrow was the most primitive and gave rise to a number of species with a long axis reaching the border, a growth pattern that in turn gave rise to the species with the postaxial furrow (a character typical of Agnostina). The evolution of these growth patterns is inferred from ontogenetic observations and is supported by the stratigraphic succession of Peronopsis and their immediate descendants in different regional faunas.
 
This study is focused on the growth pattern of agnostids, a group of organisms that were very abundant in the Cambrian. The developmental patterns of six agnostid species are compared. It is shown that, like other trilobites, agnostids have two developmental stages, i.e., meraspid degrees 0 and 1 and the holaspid stage. Meraspid degrees are named according to the number of released thoracic segments. Several molts took place during every meraspid stage resulting in successive instars with a unique set of features. Meraspid degree 0 includes two or three instars, the first and last of which have a distinctive morphology and have been encountered in most of the species studied. During meraspid degree 1, the animal molted from two to four times. The number of molt stages appears to be species-specific. The first and last instars are easily distinguished from other developmental forms. Early holaspids of the majority of agnostid species studied also have certain features in common.
 
Two new genera, Repkinella and Aristotreta, and five new species from the class Lingulata (Brachiopoda) are described from the Upper Cambrian olistolith limestone enclosed in the Upper Ordovician olistostrome from the Agyrek mountains (northeastern Kazakhstan). The family Curticiidae Walcott et Schuchert is referred to the order Lingulida, not order Acrotretida, where it was previously placed.
 
A new species of the lesser panda, Parailurus baikalicus sp. nov., from the Pliocene of Transbaikalia is described. In contrast to the European taxa P. anglicus and P. hungaricus, it retains a primitive occlusal pattern of M1-M2, with a concave buccal outline, small mesostyle on M1, and undeveloped styles on M2. At the same time, the Transbaikalian panda is more advanced than other representatives of Parailurus in the upper molars with a reduced lingual cingulum and an enlarged paraconule, which is partially (M1) or completely (M2) separated from the protocone. This combination of primitive and advanced characters points to the separation of the Asian branch at the earliest stages of the genus development. The Transbaikalian lesser panda may represent a terminal form of this phylogenetic lineage.
 
For the first time, the Late Sagwon Flora is described from the upper beds of the Prince Creek Formation (Upper Paleocene) at the Sagavanirktok River (northern Alaska Peninsula). The flora is dominated by the angiosperm Tiliaephyllum brooksense Moiseeva et Herman sp. nov. and conifer Metasequoia occidentalis (Newb.) Chaney. The Late Sagwon Flora is most similar to the Danian or Danian-Selandian flora from the middle part of the Upper Tsagayan Subformation (Amur Region) and lower part of the Wuyun Formation (Heilongjiang Province, China). This similarity allows us to hypothesize that the genus Tiliaephyllum, which dominated in the Late Tsagayan Flora, migrated via the Bering Land Bridge from southern paleolatitudes of the Far East to high latitudes of the Arctic Pacific, due to the progressively warming climate of the Paleocene. Additional new angiosperm species are described from the Late Sagwon Flora: Archeampelos mullii Moiseeva et Herman sp. nov., Tiliaephyllum brooksense Moiseeva et Herman sp. nov., and Dicotylophyllum sagwonicum Moiseeva et Herman sp. nov.
 
Albian-Cenomanian localities of gymnosperms in basins of the Ussuri, Bikin, and Marevka rivers of northwestern Primorye. 1:800000, (2) ordinal number of locality.
Taxonomic composition of Aptian-Cenomanian gymnosperms in the Alchan Depression (relative occurrence of taxon is indicated with an asterisk)
The diversity of Cretaceous gymnosperms from the Alchan Depression in northwestern Primorye is discussed. The pike of gymnosperm diversity is restricted to the middle of the Late Albian, and a sharp decline took place in the terminal Albian. A new species, Dictyozamites serafimae sp. nov., is described.
 
Top-cited authors
Dmitry Shcherbakov
  • Paleontological Institute, Moscow, Russia
A. F. Bannikov
  • Russian Academy of Sciences
Nina D. Sinitshenkova
  • Russian Academy of Sciences
D. S. Aristov
  • Paleontological Institut, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
S. V. Naugolnykh
  • Russian Academy of Sciences