Pakistan Journal of Zoology

Print ISSN: 0030-9923
This paper was published as Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 2010, 42 (1), pp. 33-36. It is available from Metadata only entry Environmental samples were collected from oxidation tank of a waste treatment plant in Leicester, United Kingdom. Genomic DNA was recovered from the environmental samples and amplified by PCR using 59-be conserved sequence specific primers HS286 and HS287. Different 59-be conserved sequence containing genes were recovered from the environmental DNA clone library. Most of the recovered genes were novel with no identifiable ORF homologues in the databases. This technique demonstrates the usefulness of a culture-independent gene mining approach as an alternative to traditional gene recovery technologies.
In laboratory study, the entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae (Sc) and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Hb) alone and in combination with the insecticide, imidacloprid were evaluated against workers and nymphs of Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). The degree of interaction varied between the two nematode species. Results revealed that different concentrations, nematode species, exposure time and interaction between entomogenous nematodes and insecticides affected termite mortality in bioassay. It was found that nematodes species Hb and Sc alone had no significant effect on termite mortality but there was synergism between imidacloprid and nematodes species that caused more than 50% mortality in most treatments within all three colonies tested. Further study is warranted on this aspect of termite research so that this synergism between nematodes and insecticides can be applied in the field to control termite colonies and as a substitute for chemical control.
Two major outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis occured in the Northern Areas of Pakistan, Gilgit, during the last three years of the last millenium. The first was from 21st August 1997 to 10th October 1997 and the second from 25th June 1999 to 11th August 1999. A total of 332 fecal samples of suspected gastroenteritis patients were investigated at District Headquarter Hospital, Gilgit. Laboratory investigations showed that 120 (36.14%) cases were because of Vibrio cholerae EI Tor, Ogawa 01. All isolated strains of 1999 outbreak were found sensitive to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin and enoxacin, while in 1997 outbreak some strains showed resistance to ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol.
In 2004, an H4N6 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) was isolated from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) in Zhalong Nature Reserve of Heilongjiang Province in China. The virus was named A/Mallard/Zhalong/88/04(H4N6) (MZL88/04). In this study, eight gene segments of MZL88/04 were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence homology and phylogenetic relationships were determined between MZL88/04 and other H4N6 subtype isolates. Isolate MZL88/04 was classified into the Eurasian lineage, and was closely related to isolates from Nanchang, indicating close evolutionary relationships between the genes studied. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an H4N6 subtype AIV strain isolated from wild birds in the mainland of China.
Schematic plan for the synthesis of Schiff bases (4a and 4b). 
Selected binding pose of ligand 4b with DNA double helix. 
The anti-cancerous and anti-inflammatory potential of two novel Schiff bases was carried out by MTT - colorimetric protocol on HeLa cells (cervical disease) and Luminol-improved chemiluminescence assay, respectively.ThenovelSchiffbases4aand4bhavebeensynthesizedbythereactionof2-[(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)sulfanyl]-N-[4-(hydrazinecarbonyl)phenyl]acetamide with 3-nitro and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. Characterization of the synthesized compounds was done by using various spectroscopic techniques namely FTIR, proton and carbon-13 NMR, Mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. The results were in great consistency with the structures of the synthesized compounds and confirmed the formation of the targeted compounds. It was found that the compound 4a was potentially anti-inflammatory active while the compound 4b was found more active anti-cancerous agent as compared to 4a.
This 28-d feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with different levels of 1,3-diacylglycerol (1,3-DAG) on growth performance, blood lipids profiles, relative organ weight and meat quality of broilers. A total of 512 male, one-d-old Ross 308 broilers with an average initial BW of 45.28 ± 0.81 g were randomly allotted to 4 treatments. Each dietary treatment consisted of 8 replicate cages, with 16 birds per replicate. The 4 dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal-based diets and supplemented with 0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15% 1,3-DAG, respectively. During d 1-14, with increasing the dietary 1,3-DAG levels from 0 to 0.15%, the body weight gain (BWG) was improved (linear, P<0.01), whereas the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was decreased (linear, P<0.01). During d 14-28, dietary supplementation of graded level of 1,3-DAG improved the BWG (linear, P<0.05) and decreased the FCR (linear, P<0.01). During d 1-28, there was a linear increase in BWG (P<0.01) and a linear decrease in FCR (P<0.01) with increasing 1,3-DAG supplementation. In addition, dietary 1,3-DAG supplementation tended to increase the serum HDL cholesterol levels (quadratic, P=0.074). Furthermore, the relative weight of bursa of Fabricius was increased by supplementation with 1,3-DAG (quadratic, P<0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of different levels of 1,3-DAG in broilers diets could improve the growth performance, modify blood lipid profile and promote the development of bursa of Fabricius.
Genotyping of SCARB1 using Hin1l. 
Scavenger receptor class B type I protein (SCARB1) plays an essential role in cholesterol homeostasis. The effect of the polymorphisms in the gene have varying influences on lipid levels and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in different populations. In this study, we investigated the association of rs5888 polymorphism with serum lipid levels and CVD risk in an Indian population. A total of 412 samples which included 148 myocardial infarction survivors, 162 Normolipidemic healthy controls and 102 patients with hypercholesterolemia in a Indian Tamilian population were included in the study. Genotyping of SCARB1 genetic polymorphisms was done by PCR-RFLP combined with gel electrophoresis. The genotype distribution in the population was found to be consistent with Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. Through logistic regression analysis, it was observed that, in Tamil population the CC and CT genotype carriers have higher odds of developing myocardial infarction (OR - 1.64 and 2.04 respectively) and for developing hypercholesterolemia (OR - 2.02 and 2.13 respectively). In the total population, the CC genotype carriers have significantly lower HDL-C (0.82 ± 0.04 mmol/L Vs, 0.9 ± 0.05 mmol/L (p<0.05)) and higher LDL-C (3.7 ± 0.2 mmol/L Vs 3.5 ± 0.14 mmol/L, (p<0.05)) than TT carriers. The TT carriers have lower risk of developing MI and Hypercholesterolemia with OR - 0.6 and 0.49, respectively. SCARB1 rs5888 polymorphism is associated with the development of myocardial infarction and CC genotype influences LDL and HDL cholesterol levels significantly, whereas TT genotype has atheroprotective function in the Indian Tamil population.
Biochemical effects of a commercially available synthetic pyrethroid in Pakistan, Talcord 10EC (Permethrin) was studied at LC20 dose level upto 7 days on some enzyme activities and biochemical components of 10 day old adult beetles of Tribolium castaneum under laboratory conditions. Talcord 10EC has no effect on any carbohydrases (such as amylase, trehalasc, invertase, lactase, maltase), and lactate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and protease activities during initial period of treatment while these were significantly increased during subsequent treatment upto day 7. On the other hand, phosphatascs viz. acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatese were increased initially and decreased subsequently whereas transaminases viz. alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and cholinesterase (ChE) activities were decreased initially and increased subsequently. Of various macromolecules analysed, glucose and glycogen contents were depleted firstly and increased thereafter. Fructose, lipids, soluble protein, total protein, free amino acid, uric acid, urea, DNA and RNA contents were not disturbed during the initial days of Talcord treatment but showed drastically elevated levels afterwards till day 7. Cholesterol content showed tolerance. The results, therefore, revealed that 7 days of Talcord treatment is detrimental to enzyme activities and various macromolecules in adult beetles of T. castaneum as almost all of them were affected significantly on day 7 except transaminases and ChE, although initial period is not toxic as far as its toxicity on these biochemical components is concerned. Comparison of day 7 treated beetles with that of day 0 has also been discussed.
Sublethal concentration (20ppm) of a synthetic pyrethroid, Cymbush 10EC (Cypermethrin), administered to adult beetles of Tribolium castaneum for a period of 72 hours, caused an increase in almost all the enzyme activities related with carbohydrate metabolism i.e. amylase (15%), trehalase (92%), invertase (35%), lactase (30%) and maltase (31%). This showed utilization of reserve carbohydrates, which was also evidenced by depleted levels of glucose (53%) and glycogcn (43%) contents under insecticidal stress conditions. Conversely, lipids and cholesterol contents increased 15% and 11%, respectively. Of the remaining macromolecules, tested in this study, alkaline phosphatase (28%), acid phosphatase (39%), cholinesterase (34%), fructose (22%), DNA (19%) and RNA (23%) contents were increased, while lactate dehydrogenase (25%), proteases (20%) and total proteins (21%) were decreased. The isocitrate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, FAA and uric acid content, however, did not show any response. Sublethal concentration of Cymbush, therefore, induced significant abnormalities in the concentration of almost all the macromolecules, enzymes and metabolites of T. castaneum.
The LC50 of two synthetic pyrethroids. Talstar 10EC (=Bifenthrin) and K-othrine 25WP (=Deltamethrin), and a mixture of Malathion and Bifenthrin, Pro-store 420EC have been determined against adult beetles of Pak strain of Tribolium castaneum. LC50 Talstar was 1352 ppm (15.49 μg/cm2) and 330 ppm (3. 78 μg/cm2), whereas K-othrine required 4805 ppm (55.06 μg/cm2) and 629 ppm (7.2 μg/cm2) dose, respectively, for LC50 after 48 and 72 hours treatment. The LC50 of Pro-store was 8143 ppm (93.27 μg/cm2) and 2495 ppm (28.59 μg/cm2), respectively, after 48 and 72 hours. The minimum effective dose against T. castaneum increased in the order Talstar <K-othrine <Pro-store. The LC50 of K-othrine and Pro-store is 1.9 and 7.56 fold more than that of Talstar if insects are exposed for 72 hours.
HLA typing using PCR. M, DNA 1kb marker; C, positive controls for allele of interest; A, PCR with primers of internal control GAPDH (PCR product size = 576bp); B, PCR with primers of allele of interest; Allele of interest in a, HLA-DRB1*11 (PCR product size = 176bp); Allele of interest in b, HLA-DRB1*12 (PCR product size = 248bp); Lanes 1 to 17, Samples of aero-allergic patients.
Percentage prevalence of HLA-DRB1*11 (A) and HLA-DRB1*12 (B) amongst aero-allergy cases reported at Allergy Centre, NIH, Islamabad and healthy controls. 
Aeroallergens include dust, pollens, cotton and threshing dust particles. Prevalence of different allergic diseases in Pakistan is about 66.1% and every year, almost 2.4 million people get vaccine for allergy from Allergy Centre, National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad. Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) genes are located on the short arm of the chromosome number 6 and position 21 and the allele frequency is associated with allergy. The study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the aero-allergens and the frequency of HLA-DRB1*11 and HLA-DRB1*12 allele in aeroallergen sensitized individuals. Blood samples of aeroallergen sensitized individuals were collected at the Allergy Centre, NIH, Islamabad. Then samples were analysed at the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of the Punjab, Lahore during the study period expanded from August 2014 to February 2015 for the presence of HLA-DRB1*11 and HLA-DRB1*12 allele using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). While total level of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in all serum samples. This study indicated that the frequency of both alleles HLA-DRB1*11and HLA-DRB1*12 in aero allergy patients is less as compared to healthy controls. HLA-DRB1*11 demonstrated significant association with aeroallergens and could have a protective role for allergy while HLA-DRB1*12 did not show any association with aeroallergen sensitization.
Distribution on birth months in M. leonine. 
IBIs after the birth of male/female infants in M. leonine.
Based on the record of 11 consecutive years, this study for the first time describes reproduction in the northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina). Totally 10 infants were born as singletons across the whole survey period. 60% of infants were males and sex ratio did not significantly deviate from 1:1, which to some extent supports local resource competition hypothesis. The birth date ranged from early February to late May, in which seventy percent of infants were born in March. The interbirth interval was 401±146 days on average. There was no significant difference between interbirth interval after the birth of male infants and that after the birth of female infants. All infants survived over the first year of their ages. The reproductive parameters in captive M. leonina were discussed in the context of other captive primate studies, and positive suggestions on zoo breeding and management have been proposed.
A new nematode Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) haspani n. sp. is described on the basis of the specimens recovered from the intestine of a fish, Cyprinion watsoni (Day, 1872) from fresh waters in Harnai (Sibi Division) Balochistan. The new nematode specimens are clearly different from all the previously reported species of Rhabdochona Railliet, 1916 by the relevant length of esophagus, shape and sizes (0.24-0.34 and 0.071-0.076) of spicules, distance of nerve ring, deirids and excretory pore from the anterior extremity and, in the females by measurements of eggs (0.013-0.035), morphology of vagina, position of vulva and excretory pore. Additionally, the new specimens have 8 teeth in the prosotme and 13 pairs of caudal papillae including 8 preanal and 5 postanal.
MiRNAs are known as small, non-coding and single stranded RNAs which can regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and involve in the development of sperm. Meanwhile, DUSP4, PDK4 and FKBP1B were also found to participate in testis development and spermatogenesis. In this study, online software and luciferase reporter gene system were used to predict and verify the target relationship between miR-122 and DUSP4/PDK4, miR-449a and FKBP1B. Thereafter, comparison analysis was done on miR-122, miR-449a, DUSP4, PDK4 and FKBP1B mRNA expression levels in different bull testes tissues (1-day, 12-months-old and 24-months-old). In addition, genes mRNA and protein levels were detected after bull testicular Sertoli cells were transfected with miR-122 and miR-449a. Meanwhile, DUSP4, PDK4 and FKBP1B overexpression experiments were conducted. Eventually, MTT assay was performed to observe the cells proliferation. The results showed that miR-122 and miR-449a were highlyexpressed in testis tissues (p<0.01). The expression levels of miR-122 and miR-449a in the 24-month-old testes were higher than those in the neonatal and 12-month-old groups during the testicular maturation process, however, PDK4, DUSP4 and FKBP1B expression levels were decreased (p<0.01). Furthermore, the luciferase in miR-122/449a co-transfected with pmiR-RB-REPORT-DUSP4-WT or pmiR-RBREPORT-PDK4/FKBP1B-WT group was significantly lower than pmiR-RB-REPORT-DUSP4-mut or PDK4/FKBP1B-mut and negative control groups. Meanwhile, PDK4, DUSP4 and FKBP1B expression levels were down-regulated due to miR-122 and miR-449a overexpression (p<0.01). Moreover, cells proliferation ability was activated after DUSP4, PDK4 and FKBP1B overexpression (p<0.01). Finally, MTT assay results demonstrated that miR-122 or miR-449a could promote bull testicular Sertoli cells proliferation. Collectively, these data suggested that miR-122/PDK4/DUSP4 and miR-449a/FKBP1B pathways could play a vital role in bull testis development.
Homolgy tree based on partial sequences of 12SrRNA locus (A) and cytochrome oxidase (Co1) gene (B) by using DNAMAN software version 5.2.2. 
DNA sequences analysis of Ropalida brevita for 12S rRNA locus (A) and cytochrome oxidase (Co1) gene (B) aligned with other species of subfamily Polistinae. 
A total of 67 samples of Ropalida brevita were collected from District Abbottabad, Pakistan during 2011 to 2013. Species was confirmed by taxonomic key, which are belonging to subfamily of Polistinae. Phylogenetic tree were reconstructed using 12 SrRNA (12S) gene showing homology of 73% compared with gene bank data while on the basis of cytochrome oxidase 1 (Co1) gene 93% homology were recorded. It was concluded that Co1 gene is more reliable than 12S rRNA gene for confirmation of R. brevita position in the Vespidae family.
14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved regulatory molecules participating in the coordination and regulation of many cellular processes. In this study, we first report the 14-3-3 gene, named as Pc-14-3-3, in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii. The Pc-14-3-3 gene encodes a polypeptide of 247 amino acids and the deduced 14-3-3 protein sequence reveals the higher percent identity with its homologues from crustaceans. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis shows that Pc-14-3-3 expression is higher in hepatopancreas than that in other examined tissues. In addition, prokaryotic expression and purification of the Pc-14-3-3 protein were performed. SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis demonstrated that a 30 KD recombinant protein was successfully expressed in E. coli cells. The titer of the antibody against recombinant Pc-14-3-3 protein was about 1: 3100 which was determined by ELISA. The expression of Pc-14-3-3 was significantly up-regulated in hepatopancreas after eyestalk ablation or ecdysone induction, which was confirmed by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis. These results suggest that Pc-14-3-3 plays a role in the development process of P. clarkii.
Two new insecticides, Pirate 36SC (chlorfenapyr) @ 294g a.i./ha. and Steward 15SC (indoxacarb) @ 65g a.i./ha. were evaluated on Helicoverpa armigera during 1997 and 1998 crop seasons and compared with Baythroid-TM 525EC (cypermethrin + methamidophos) @ 649g a.i./ha., Lorsban 40EC (chlorpyriphos) @ 988g a.i./ha. and alpha-cypermethrin 5EC @ 31 a.i./ha. Larval mortality was 80 and 90% in Steward, 57 and 60% in Pirate and 68 and 80% in Lorsban treated plots three days after treatment during 1997 and 1998, respectively. During both seasons residual efficacy of Pirate was 80 and 85% followed by Steward 56 and 62% seven days after application. All the other treatments gave less than 50% mortality both three and seven days after treatment.
Comparison of quantitative real time PCR for RNU6-2, cel-mir-39-1 and mir-16-5p as reference genes determined through qPCR. Boxes represent mean and standard deviation and whiskers represent minimum and maximum values.
GeNorm analysis of average expression stability by qBase+ software: GeNorm results (M values) for candidate reference genes analyzed (normalized against c. elegans mir-39 as spike in control) indicated mir-16-5p as the most suitable reference gene with highest expression stability.
Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction PCR (qPCR) may be utilized as a sensitive and reliable technique for the determination of circulating miRNA expression. Despite recent advancements, there is not a single consensus on the use of reference gene for quantification of circulating miRNAs through qPCR analyses in ALL. In the current study, we identified the reference gene that is the most suitable for qPCR normalization in patient and control plasma samples of ALL. Three highly reported reference genes namely RNU6-2, mir-16-5p and cel-mir-39-1 were selected as the candidate genes for normalization. Preliminary, quantification was performed through real time PCR in eight samples. The geNorm algorithm and comparative delta Cq method were used for selection of suitable reference gene out of the three candidate genes. The validation studies were, thereafter, performed on 112 samples including 87 patients and 25 normal healthy controls. The geNorm algorithm exhibited circulating mir-16-5p with the highest expression stability demonstrated by geNorm M value of 0.418. The comparative delta Cq method showed no significant difference in Cq values of ALL patients and healthy controls suggesting that mir-16-5p is the most stable normalizer for miRNA expression profiling assays in ALL. The results revealed that circulating mir-16-5p may be utilized as a suitable reference gene for normalization and improved quantification of miRNA.
The phylogenetic analysis of Schizothorax species by the neighbor-joining method using MEGA 6.06. Phylogenetic analysis of Schizothorax species based on complete 16S rRNA gene sequence.
The evolutionary history was inferred using the neighbor-joining method with eight other Indian Schizothorax species (with accession number).
The minimum spanning network (MSN) of each population by pair-wise distance between each haplotype. Mutations were shown through hatch marks.
Molecular phylogeny of Schizothoracinae containing four species distributed in the north and north-east Himalayas was investigated based on the complete mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene sequences. The average nucleotide length of 16S rRNA in 45 samples ranged from 1527 to 1552 bps. Five haplotypes (h) were observed, with haplotype diversity (Hd) 0.5323±0.080. Among 5 haplotypes, 2, 2 and 1 haplotype were detected in S. plagiostomus, S. niger and S. esocinus, respectively. Haplotype diversity was lowest and same in S. esocinus, S. niger and S. progastus (0.0001) and highest in S. plagiostomus (0.5436). Average number of nucleotide differences of 4 species (Kt) was 0.737 and total nucleotide diversity (Pi) was equal to 0.0004 ± 0.0001. Out of 1552 sites, 1547 sites were found to be conserved and five were polymorphic, in which four were parsimony informative while, one was singleton. The rate of transition/transversion (R) was 3.131, which deviate from neutral evolution where, R= 0.5. The negative values of Tajima’s D and Fu and Li’s F* indicated that the genetic variations in 16S rRNA between species were not neutral which reflect the excess of external mutations. Results indicate that 16S rRNA gene is unable to fully resolve the inter-relationship of Schizothoracinae species.
This study carried out in Beymelek Lagoon from June 2006 to May 2007, to investigate monthly variations of stock density and growth performance,of juvenile gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L., 1758). Juvenile individuals of gilthead seabream were sampled monthly using gillnets, with 40, 44 and 50 mm stretched mesh sizes and trammel nets with 56, 60, 70 and 80 mm stretched mesh sizes at three different areas of Beymelek Lagoon. During the study, a total of 1798 juvenile gilthead seabream were sampled by these nets. Juvenile gilthead seabream samples were first caught in June. Number of samples caught in this month was only 10 individuals, while reached to 140 individuals in July and 494 individuals in August. The smallest gilthead seabream caught in June was 18 g weight and 10.6 cm in length. It was determined that average weight and length of samples collected in this month were 29.2 g and 12.5 cm, respectively. Their average weight and length reached to 93.4 g and 18.2 cm until at the beginning of September being free commercial fishing for this species. In this period, specific growth rate also increased 116.3%. This increase lasted gradually until October.
Monthly changes of biomass in depth range for Mullus barbatus and Upeneus pori (1: 0-20m, 2: 20-50m, 3: 50-100m depth ranges).  
This study was carried out during the 2002-2003 fishing season (September 2002- April 2003) off the Karatas Coasts located at the entrance of the Iskenderun Bay. Sampling was conducted in monthly intervals through the stations chosen from 0-20, 20-50 and 50-100m depth ranges. An evaluation for the fishing season was done by taking into account Mullus barbatus and Upeneus pori among the species which made up the main catch. At the end of this evaluation we found that if the beginning of the fishing season along the Northeastern Coasts of Turkey was delayed from September to October, the increase in the TW of the stock of M. barbatus and U. pori would be 15.05% and 82.87% in turn; if it was delayed until November the above mentioned increases were calculated at the level of 82.87% and 83.36% respectively. From the commercial point of view, by shifting the opening of the fishing season to November there would be a 350% increase in the income earned from the species M. barbatus. As a result, we conclude that delaying the fishing season to November instead of September would be better for both the fish stocks and the economy.
This study was conducted to assess optimal salinity level among 0‰, 5‰, 10‰, 15‰, 20‰ and 25‰ for successful breeding of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The duration of study was 56 days. Brooders (48) having mean weight (male 162±0.2 g and female 160±2.5 g) were selected and stocked into hapa nets in 12 fiberglass tanks (2000-liter). Ratio among male and female was 1:3. They were fed with commercial floating pelleted feed constituting 35% crude protein with 2% body weight twice a day. Eggs were collected on weekly basis by cultch removal method. Results showed that the highest fecundity, fertility, hatchability and survival of fry were obtained on salinity of 0%-15% and significantly decreased on 20‰ and 25‰. The eggs per gram body weight were also recorded in all treatments and highest eggs were obtained i.e. 4.0-4.3 per female on 0‰-15‰. Water temperature (28.02±0.12°C), dissolved oxygen (6.4±0.02 mg/L), pH (7.47±0.04) and ammonia (less than 0.022±0.001 mg/L) were monitored throughout the study period. Water quality parameters remained within the recommended range. Our results suggest that Nile tilapia, O. niloticus may give maximum eggs up to 15‰ salinity with 92% survival of fry.
The present study was carried out to assess the population structure, growth and condition factor of carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758), between June 2012 and June 2013 in Mogan Lake. The age of Cyprinus carpio caught from Mogan Lake ranged between I to VI years. The sex percentage was determined as 49.45 % males and 46.15% females. Fork length of fish ranged from 14.0 cm to 41.5 cm and body weight of fish ranged from 65 g to-1750 g. The von Bertalanffy growth equations were: Lt =49.603 [1 - e-0.241 (t+1.74)] for females and Lt = 49.060 [1 - e- 0.259 (t+1.44)] for males; Wt = 2623.07 [1 - e-0.241 (t+1.74)] 2.874 for females and Wt = 2669.75 [1 - e-0.259 (t+1.44)] 2.7529 for males. The condition factor was calculated as 1.98 and 1.99 for females and males, respectively.
This study was carried out between January 2010 and December 2010 to determine the parasites and their effect on growth of carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) inhabiting Karacaoren II Dam Lake. Sixty four samples were captured on monthly basis, their age and parasites were examined. These fish fall in groups I-VIII and 39 (60.9%) of them harboured Dactylogyrus anchoratus, Dactylogyrus minutus, Argulus foliaceus, Lernaea cyprinacea, Caryophyllaeus laticeps and. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. It was determined that among the fish of same sex and age and captured during the same month, the ones without a parasite were longer and heavier than the ones with parasite. It was found that the parasitized carps were shorter and weaker than the ones without a parasite.
Diet of tawny owl Strix aluco was studied in gardens of National Agronomical Institute of El Harrach during 1996 and 1997, and that of barn owl Tyto alba in Jardin d'Essai of Hamma in 1997. In total 601 regurgitated pellets, 527 of tawny owl and 74 of barn owl, were analyzed. Five types of prey items included: arthropods, amphibians, reptiles, birds and small mammals. Birds were consumed the most (37.8%) by tawny owl, and the amphibians (37.5%) by the barn owl. Common wall gecko or moorish gecko. Tarentola mauritanica (16.8%) was the most frequently preyed by tawny owl and Mediterranean painted frog, Discoglosssus pictus (34.9%) by barn owl.
Horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) are known world-wide as important mechanical vectors of viruses, bacteria, protozoans, and helminths that cause diseases in wild and domestic animals. Tabanus bromius L. is common species worldwide, which shows considerable variation in the size of the body due to its adaptation to different habitats. In this paper, thirteen populations of this species, which are collected from different habitats and ecological regions (forests, sea sides and alpines) at altitudes between 5-2200 meters in Anatolia and Aegean were compared using geometric morphometries. When the wing shape differences of populations were analyzed by UPGM, the cluster analyses recognized two main groups of populations, one group comprising Afyon (890 m), Amasya (800 m), Artvin (960 m), Bolu (1200 m), Eskisehir (1170 m), Kastamonu (600 m) and Zonguldak (1050 m) while the second group comprised Bursa (700 m), Giresun (150 m), Sinop (160 m), Samsun (340 m), Karabük (230 m) and Trabzon (200 m).
Metazoan parasite of the mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in a fish farm ponds, Bursa, Turkey was investigated from April 2005 to March 2006. Sixty four out of 79 mirror carps were infected with one or more of the four parasite species - Dactylogyrus extensus, D. anchoratus and Paradiplozoon homoion (Monogenea) on the host gills and Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea) on oral cavitiy, gills, fins and skin. D. extensus was the most frequent having an overall prevalence of 39.2%. P. homoion was 54.4%. The third most prevalent parasite was D. anchoratus with overall prevalence of 25.3%. A. foliaceus showed overall prevalence of 43.03%. At the end of this study, when P. homoion was recorded as parasite species being the highest overall prevalence, D. extensus was observed in the highest intensity. D. extensus, D. anchoratus and P. homoion were recorded for the first time in the mirror carp in Turkey.
Top-cited authors
Abdul Rauf Shakoori
  • University of the Punjab
Tariq Mukhtar
  • PMAS - Arid Agriculture University
Ecevit Eyduran
Ali Muhammad Yousafzai
  • Islamia College Peshawar
Abdul Rehman
  • University of the Punjab