Pakistan Journal of Nutrition

Published by Asian Network for Scientific Information
Print ISSN: 1680-5194
Publications
Aiming to evaluate the functional properties of a blood protein, the emulsifying ones were chosen to be studied in this work. Thus, the effect of the pH and of the tryptic hydrolysis on the emulsifying properties of bovine globin, extracted by the acidified acetone method, was studied. The emulsifying capacity (EC), the emulsifying activity index (EAI) and the emulsion stability (ES) were determined at pH varying from 3.0 to 8.0 and employing hydrolysis times from 5 to 60 min. The highest values for EC and ES were obtained at pH 5.0 and 6.0, respectively, corresponding to the range of high protein solubility. On the other hand, the EAI was higher at pH 3.0 and also at pH 7.0 and 8.0, where the protein is insoluble. The tryptic hydrolysis produced an increase in EC, in all pH range studied, while for the EAI the same effect was observed only in pH 4.0 and 5.0, and for ES at pH 7.0 after 60 min of hydrolysis.
 
Sixteen preparation of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of four edible plants, Entada africana (bark), Terminalia avicennoides (bark), Mitragyna stipulosa (bark) Lannae acida (stem bark) were screened for their inhibitory effects on ten strains of E coli 0157:H7 (EHEC) using the agar diffusion method. It was shown that ethanol extracts of Entanda africana inhibited all the ten strains used, some extracts showed variable antibacterial activities while some others could not cause any inhibition. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the potent extracts ranged from 1.56mg/ml to 50.00mg/ml while the minimum bacteriocidal concentration (MBC) was between 6.25mg/ml to 25.00mg/ml. Pytochemical screening of the extracts revealed that all contained saponin. Some showed presence of tannins and glycosides while alkaloid was not detected in all samples.
 
This study was performed to find out the prevalence of obesity among 11-14 years old children in Sivas province. BMI values higher than 95 percentile were accepted as being obese and those in between 85-94 percentile are accepted as overweight. Of the 2701 students; 3.1% were found obese, while 7.5% were overweight, and 7.6 were underweight according to their BMI values. Underweight children among the age of 14 yrs old children was significantly higher than the others. Obesity among boys were significantly higher than in girls. Prevalence of obesity was found higher in the children of high-income families and among children who gobbling. Underweight subjects were significantly higher among children who don`t dine regularly and those who eat once a day. In conclusion; prevalence of obesity among children in Sivas is not high yet, and undernutrition seems to be a more serious problem than obesity.
 
The main thrust of the study was to investigate the body composition of normal and malnourished children aged 3 to 11 years. A total of 2192 children aged 3 to 11 years, grouped into 2060 normal and 131 stunted, and 2062 normal and 129 wasted children using – 2SD of NHANES cut off point. Body composition was evaluated using anthropometric variables (weight, height, triceps, sub scapular, suprailiac, and biceps skinfolds). The anthropometric variables were measured according to the protocol of the international society for the Advancement of kinanthropometry. Children were categorized by the age groups as defined by Deitz (1994) for the development of obesity in children. Result revealed that percentage body fat was high for the stunted children in the infancy and adipose rebound period (16.8% and 15.3% of stunted children compared to 15.6 and 14.9% normal children respectively), which the normal children had high significant percentage body fat at the adolescence spurt (14.6% compared to 15.5%). Inversely, normal children had high percentage body fat compared to wasting children throughout the age category. The fact that stunted children exhibit high percentage body fat at an early stage may clearly depict that stunting at an early stage of this population may be associated with overweight.
 
Glycyrrhizic acid (GCA) exerts its effect by inhibiting 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) which catalyses the oxidation of cortisol to cortisone in man and corticosterone (B) to 11-dehydrocorticosterone (A) in rats. This GCA induced inhibition of 11β-HSD activity can be overcome by repetitive stress. Since catecholamines are among the mediators of stress, this study was carried out to determine the effect of isoprenaline on GCA-induced inhibition 11β-HSD bioactivity. Intact male Sprague Dawley rats received either drinking solution containing 1 mg/ml GCA or tap water for 10 days. On the day of killing, the rats received an intraperitoneal injection of vehicle, isoprenaline or propranolol. Hypothalamus, liver and kidney homogenates were assayed for 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 bioactivity by determining the percentage conversion of B to A in the presence of NADP and NAD respectively. Isoprenaline or propranolol had no effect on basal activity of 11β-HSD in all tissues. Isoprenaline reversed the GCA induced inhibition of 11β-HSD1 activity in the hypothalamus and kidney, whereas in the liver it reversed the GCA induced inhibition of both 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2. Thus, catecholamines may be one of the mediators opposing inhibition of 11β-HSD by GCA during stress.
 
The purpose of paper was the evaluation of short-chain organic acid effect on Escherichia coli in fish meal stored at 12°C. Fish meal samples (n=125) were inoculated with 7 x 10<SUP>7</SUP> CFU x g<SUP>-1</SUP> of E. coli ATCC 25922 strain and treated with 0 to 1.2% of formic (35%) and propionic (15%) acid mixture. The treatment resulted in the significant reduction of number of test bacteria, proportional to the concentration of acid added. When applied in mixture, propionic and formic acid appeared to work synergistically against E. coli . Accordingly, their application as high-protein feed preservatives seems to be highly appropriate.
 
Moisture  
Proximate composition and food energy content of 14 pearl millet cultivars
Fibres content of 14 millet cultivars  
A comparative study was carried out on nutritional and technological qualities of fourteen (14) cultivars of Pennisetum glaucum .The contents of proteins ranged from 8.66 % to 17.11 % for all the cultivars. IKMP3, IKMP5, SOSAT C88 and L Zatiib were reveled to be excellent sources of proteins. Water-soluble proteins ranged from 1.81 % to 3.18 % . Fat content in the grains values ranged from 6.76 % to 10.24 %, the best cultivars for fat were IKMP3, IKMP5, SOSAT C88 and KM. The carbohydrates are the major components of these cultivars, values ranged between 71.82 % to 81.02 % and samples IKMP1, IKMP2, TK, B1, B2 contained more carbohydrates than all others cultivars. The energy values of cutivars flours ranged from 426.21 Kcal/100g to 446.53Kcal/100g. Results of Technological properties showed capacities of swelling in water (V<sub>I</sub>/V<sub>F</sub>) ranged from 2.33 and 8.28. Masses of 1000 grains ranged from 5.53 g to 13.13 g; cutivars IKMV8201, IKMP5, B1 had the highest masses of 1000 grains and consequently present better outputs potential millers. Starch is present in relatively significant quantity of 51.49 % at 79.07 % and cultivars IKMP1, B1, and SG have the most raised contents. The crude fibres also are present in high quantity 8.06 % to12.40% and cultivars IKMP3, SOSAT C88 are provided greater quantity. The cultivars contents of phytates from 5.45 to 14.26 mg / g and in polyphenols from 2.27 to 3.20 mg / g. The energy values of cultivars flours lies between 426.51 kcal / 100 g and 446.53 kcal / 100 g. Samples IKMP3, IKMP5, SOSAT C88 and KM are equipped best with it. In addition, cultivars IKMP3, IKMP5, S0SAT C88, IKMV8201, KM and L Zatiib have better nutritional profiles.
 
Karyological and Chromosome analysis of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) inhabiting Ananmbra River, Anambra State of Nigeria was carried out using Modified Air-drying technique. Clarias gariepinus was found to have standard karyotype and diploid chromosome number of 2n = 56. The study further revealed that the males and females catfish consist of 8 metacentric, 24 and 25 submetacentric and 24 and 23 acrocentric chromosomes, respectively. The work documented the karyotypic polymorphism of Clarias gariepinus resident in the River.
 
The effect of feeding frequency on the growth performance, feed conversion ratio and survival of Himri Barbel, Barbus luteus , was investigated. Thirty fry (0.26±0.03 g) were stocked in 12 (80-L) (80×40×40 cm) aquaria and fed 3, 4, 5 and 6 times a day respectively for 60 days. Final body weights and SGR were measured significantly lower at D (6 times/day) and C (5 times/day) than B (4 times/day) and A (3 times/day) treatments (p<0.05). There were no significant differences for the FCR and survival rates (p>0.05). The results showed that weight gain and growth performance of Himri Barbel, B. luteus , fry were decreased with increased feeding frequency.
 
The objective of this survey was to know the influence of the biotope on the food regime of two species of catfishes of the basin of the Léfini river having an interest aquacade or economic. To arrive to this end, we captured and analyzed the stomachs of seventy six (76) specimens belonging to two species that are: Chrysichthys ornatus Boulenger 1902 (26 specimens) and Chrysichthys puntatus Boulenger 1899 (50 specimens). The two species have been captured in two different biotopes to know: the savanna and the forest. To appreciate the food régime according to these two biotopes, we calculated some parameters and food indications notably: the percentage of Occurrence (OC), the volumetric percentage (V) and the food indication (IA) of Lausanne. The done analyses show that the two studied species have a plastic food regime. This one varies according to the biotope. In savanna, the food regime of Chrysichthys ornatus has been varied more than in forest with a content stomacal where one identified eight (8) different preys against five (5) where dominate the scales cycloids with a percentage of occurrence of 75%. At Chrysichthys puntatus , on the other hand, the regime has been varied very in forest that in savanna with a content stomacal understanding five (5) types of preys against three (3) dominated by plant particles with a percentage of occurrence of 87%.
 
Transmission Electron Micrographs (TEM) of S. markers, lane b: Single band of partially-purified typhimurium (105 CFU/mL). Control cells were bacteriocin. Markers from top to bottom included: left untreated (a) or treated with bacteriocin Bovine Serum albumin ( E. coli), ovalbumin preparation of B. megaterium 19 (b). Control cells (chicken egg), carbonic anhydrase (bovine remained as intact, smooth and undamaged rod erythrocytes), ß-lactoglobilin (bovine milk), shaped cells, while treated ones appeared as lyzozyme (chicken egg white), a-lactalbumin, ghost cells with a deformed morphology and aprotinin, insulin drain oxidized and bacitracin. distorted cell surfaces Sizes on the left are indicated in kDa ghost cells of S. typhimurium treated with the bacteriocin, where cells surfaces were damaged due to pore formation, in addition to an alteration in the cell morphology, confirming the bactericidal action of the bacteriocin. 
SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of the partially purified bacteriocin of B. megaterium 19. Lane a: Coomassie Brilliant blue-stained gel with small and large molecular weights of standard 
A Bacillus megaterium 19 strain isolated from a mixture of fermented vegetable wastes, produced a bacteriocin that displayed a wide spectrum antimicrobial activity against food-spoilage microorganisms and possessed a bactericidal mode of action. The bacteriocin activity against Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus attained its maximum value during the mid stationary phase. Maximal bacteriocin activity (93% growth reduction) was achieved using MRS broth, at initial pH of 5.5-6.5 and at 30°C incubation temperature. High levels of bacteriocin activity (up to 85% growth reduction) were detected under limited or reduced oxygen levels. The inhibitory activity increased in mMRS broth with 4% sucrose and (0.10%) beef extract. The bacteriocin was thermally stable over a wide temperature range up to 100°C for 15 min and retained its activity at acidic and neutral pH values, but not at alkaline pHs. Full bacteriocin activity was expressed after 30 days of storage at 4°C, for 15 min of exposure to UV light. The bacteriocin was amylase and lipase sensitive, however, treatment with proteolytic enzymes resulted in a remarkable stability. SDS-PAGE analysis of the partially purified bacteriocin revealed an apparent molecular weight ranging from 3.496 to 6.512 kDa. The strain may have a potential use as food biopreservative, because of its promising thermostable technological properties and broad antimicrobial spectrum.
 
This study was conducted to determine trends in annual rainfall oscillations and mohair production in Lesotho between 1935 and 1996. An exponential regression equation of the form LnY = LnA + bx was used to estimate trends. Between 1935 and 1965 Angora goat numbers, mohair production and mohair yield per goat increased (p<0.01) at annual rates of 1.1, 1.9 and 1.1%, respectively. During years of independence (1966-1996) annual goat numbers remained, largely, stagnant (p>0.05) at around one million animals. Mohair yield per goat declined (p<0.01) at an annual rate of 1.2% to around 0.85 kg in 1996. Similarly, mohair production declined (p<0.01) at an annual rate of 1.2% to 970,000 kg in 1996. A long-term (1935-1996) annual rainfall mean of 700 mm was calculated. There were recurrent wet (rainfall above long-term mean) and dry (rainfall below long-term mean) years. However, no clear alternate rainfall oscillations of wet and dry years were observed. It was, thus, difficult to predict years of drought (rainfall below long-term mean) from alternate annual rainfall oscillations. A positive but non-significant (p>0.05) relationship between annual mohair yield per goat (kg) and rainfall (mm) was observed. Policy implications of the results on drought preparedness are discussed.
 
Explorers and members of the armed forces frequently have to make expeditions in to unknown and hostile country, where the opportunities for obtaining food are either limited or altogether absent. In such circumstances the expedition has to take with it sufficient food for its members. The planning and provision of the rations may make all the differences between the success or failure of the expedition or military operation. In 1920-1942 the food supply and health provision was acceptable among the soldiers of the Royal Hungarian Army and no signs of kidney diseases and nephrotic syndrome could be seen. In August 1942 in Russia the temperature was plus 41°C and in 1943 January it was and 41°C. May be that this indetermination in the temperature and starvation and undernutrition, accompanied with lack of fluids resulted in the greater frequency of the occurrence of kidney diseases and not punctually registered nephrotic syndrome among the soldiers of the Royal Hungarian Army. In almost a year of the eastern front the 2nd Army lost 125,000 men and dead, wounded or captured, only 70,000 returned.
 
This study was conducted to evaluate the causes and effects of foetal wastage in the Nigeria livestock industry, following indiscriminate slaughter of pregnant cows in Makurdi Abattoir, Benue State. A total of 45, 742 were slaughtered in the abattoir, with a total of 1,508 (3.9%) fetuses recovered from 1997 to 2002. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between fetuses and years.
 
Fe, Zn and Se intakes in different governorates 
The top 10 food sources of Zn in the Jordanian diet 
This paper evaluates the intakes of the trace elements: iron, zinc and selenium as obtained from food consumption calculations based on the most recent data of JHEIS, 2006. The estimated mineral intake was analyzed using a nutrition analysis software program (Food Processor SQL, 2008). The nutrient intake of these 3 trace elements for different governorates was calculated. The results showed that the means of daily per capita intake of iron, zinc and selenium were 21.2 mg, 9.3 mg and 154.4 μg, respectively. Chicken meat was the first animal food among the richest top 10 foods in iron; it provided small amount of iron (0.9 mg, 6% of total consumption). The rest food sources of iron were of plant origin, of which bread topped the list (8.3 mg) followed by molukhyia ( Corchorus olitorius L.) (1.0 mg). Also results showed that bread provided 2.7 mg zinc (29% of total consumption). Similarly, bread was the first source of selenium (86.7 μg, 56% of consumption). There was a variation in the estimated intake of these nutrients among different governorates.It is obvious that bread is the leading food of the top ten food sources of iron, zinc and selenium; this might be due to the fact that wheat flour is fortified with vitamins and minerals, including iron and zinc. However, it should be noted that bioavailability of minerals such as iron and zinc from plant food sources is low.
 
This study was conducted to investigate the nutritional habits of extreme endurance swimmers before, during and after long distance swimming in open water. Athletes had to complete a questionnaire about their nutrition before, during and after the race. In the 4 weeks before the race, 50% ingested a protein rich diet, but 42% followed no special diet. Sixteen percent consumed ergogenic supplements, 66% consumed vitamins and 75% minerals. The day before the start of the race, 83% accomplished a carbo-loading. During the race, 20 different solid food and 12 beverages were consumed. Mainly bananas (75%) and carbohydrate gels (66%) were eaten, whilst isotonic sport drinks (92%) and water (42%) were the main beverages. After the race, 26 different solid food and 10 beverages were consumed. Rice (58%), chocolate (50%), vegetables (50%) and bananas (50%) were preferred; water (58%) and isotonic sport drinks (33%) were the main beverages. Extreme endurance swimmers in the Marathon-Swim in the lake of Zurich followed preferentially a protein-rich diet in the 4 weeks before the race. During the race, they consumed preferably a carbohydrate-rich nutrition (bananas, carbohydrate gels) and drank isotonic sports drinks. After the race, they preferred carbohydrate-rich nutrition and drank water.
 
Data about the nutrition during ultraendurance competitions are scarce, with the exceptions of few case reports. Because very long lasting sports events become more and more popular, we aimed to describe the nutritional intake during an extreme ultraendurance race carried out in Switzerland in 1998. The ultraendurance multisport race was 244 km long (48 km mountain biking, 122 km road cycling, 28 km roller blading, 3.5 km swimming, 42.5 km running; total altitude difference � 4000 m). The 12 male finishers participating in the study completed the race in a median (and range) time of 18.6 (17.0-19.8) hours. Their energy intake during the race was 22.6 (12.4-33.6) MJ and corresponded to 44 % of their estimated energy expenditure. Carbohydrate, protein, net fluid, and net sodium intake amounted to 60 (36-90) g h<sup>-1</sup> , 0.8 (0.1-2.4) g kg<sup>-1</sup> body mass, 560 (310-790) mL h <sup>-1</sup>, and 13 (7-19) mmol L<sup>-1</sup> net fluid intake, respectively. In conclusion, the nutrition during the ultraendurance race was similar to the one recommended for shorter events like a marathon run and the focus was set upon a high carbohydrate intake.
 
In the present study, the chemical and microbiological quality changes in salted (25% of the fish weight) Hydrocynus forskalii was carried out during storage at +37±1<SUP>o</SUP>C. Moisture, ash, protein, lipid, fiber and pH were analyzed to determine chemical quality and total viable counts of bacteria (TVC), total Staphylococcus-Micrococcus and yeast-mould were measured to determine microbial quality during the storage period. Reduction of chemical quality was found statistically significant (p<0.05). No yeast and mould were detected for the period of storage. Microbial analysis demonstrated that the salted techniques reduced the microbial counts of the salted fish, whereas it retarded the microbial growth during the last two months. Based on the data, the optimal shelf life was found to be three months for salted Hydrocynus forskalii .
 
In this research, production of mycoprotein by Fusarium oxysporum (PTCC 5115) was investigated. In order to achieve the highest production yield, cultivation parameters including temperature, agitation speed, carbon and nitrogen sources were optimized by applying the Taguchi design. The optimum conditions obtained for mycoprotein production were: 25 &derg;C, 150 rpm, 5 g of glucose per liter and 3.4 g of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate per liter which resulted in the product containing 42% (w/w) crude protein. RNA content was reduced to an acceptable level through heat treatment of fungal biomass at 65&derg;C for 15 min. This heat shock procedure reduced RNA level to less than 1%, which is recognized as an acceptable level for human food grade products.
 
The in vitro gas production and the proximate composition of field grown Panicum maximum cv T 58 (Guinea grass) harvested from poultry manured soil and harvested after 6 weeks of regrowth was determined. The experiment was a split plot design with three replicates. Poultry droppings increased the volume of the gas produced in both stem and leaf of P. maximum cv T 58. The result reveals that stems produce higher methane gas than the leaf. This indicates that the stem lost high energy compared to the leaves when fed to the ruminants. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in metabolizable energy (ME), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and short chain fatty acids (SFA) measured. Panicum maximum from fertilized poultry dropping recorded higher crude protein 8.40% content in the leaf compared with the stem of 5.08 %. Despite these variations, the forage generally contained adequate amounts of the minerals to meet livestock requirements. In production systems, the quality of Panicum maximum a major feed of grazing animals in south Western Nigeria could be enhanced by application of the poultry dropping to the soil.
 
Conventional labeling (%ATI) of blood elements with 99mTc-Kinetic Curve Samples of blood from Wistar rats (Control) were incubated with stannous chloride and 99mTc were added. The ATI% was calculated. The results were analyzed (Mann Whitney test, n = 5).
Effect of chayotte extract (decoct) on the labeling (%ATI) of blood elements with 99mTc-Kinetic Curve Samples of blood from Wistar rats (treated) were incubated with stannous chloride and 99mTc were added. The ATI% was calculated. The results were analyzed (Mann Whitney test, n = 5). The Fig. 3 and 4 have shown the effect of a chayotte extract (macerated) on the distribution of the radioactivity on the blood elements. The analysis of the results to the extract indicates that there is an increase in the uptake of 99mTc in the times: 15 min by the C (from 29.04 ± 0.31 to 50.13 ± 0.82) and 30 min C (from 75.39 ± 0.77 to 83.42 ± 0.51).
Conventional labeling (%ATI) of blood elements with 99mTc-Kinetic Curve Samples of blood from Wistar rats (control) were incubated with stannous chloride and 99mTc were added. The ATI% was calculated. The results were analyzed (Mann Whitney test, n = 5).
Control Fig. 6: Treated decoct
The biodistribution of radiopharmaceutical used in diagnostic imaging can be altered by a wide variety of factors. If unknown, the drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals can lead to misdiagnosis or the necessity to repeat the examination, increasing the dose to the patient. The constituents of herbal products can cause adverse effects. Although natural products are widely used as food or as medicines for humans they can alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc) as wells as the bioavailability of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (99mTcO<sub>4</sub>Na). 99mTc is one of most used radio nuclide in nuclear medicine and in basic research. Some authors described that natural and synthetic drugs may alter the process of radio labeling. Sechium edule (chayotte) is a vegetable very spent in the human nutrition as the popular medicine due its properties such as the diuretic and the hypotensor effects. We evaluated the influence of a chayotte ( Sechium edule ) extracts (decoct and macerated) on the radio labeling of blood elements and on the bioavailability of 99mTcO<sub>4</sub>Na. In this study, blood was withdraw from Wistar rats and the aliquots of blood were incubated with the chayotte extracts decoct and macerated, 0.1g/mL) during 1 hour. After that, blood was incubated with stannous chloride (SnCl<sub>2</sub>) for 1 hour together with the adding of 99mTc in each breaks of 15min until 1 of incubation with SnCl<sub>2</sub> . In each 10 min an aliquot of blood was taken and then plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA 5%) and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) were separated. For the biodistribution analysis, the 99mTcO<sub>4</sub>Na (0.3mL) was administrated into male Wistar rats which had drunk or not the extract (macerated) for 60 days. After 10 min, the animals were sacrificed, the organs were isolated, the radioactivity determined in a well counter and the percentages of radioactivity per gram (%ATI/g) in the organs was calculated. For the radio images analysis, the animals were treated with the extracts (macerated and decoct) during 15 days, after this period of time, it was administrated doses of 100�Ci of 99mTcO<sub>4</sub>Na in the ocular plexus of the animals. The images were obtained after 10min. The qualitative analysis of the images was done. The analysis of the results has demonstrated that the extracts have increased the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc which was incubated together with SnCl<sub>2</sub>, in the times 0 and 30 min to decoct extract (time 0 min: labeling in the C: from 37.97 � 0.31 to 59.70 � 0.56; and in the FIC: from 61.76 � 0.75 to 73.15 � 0.37; time 30min: labeling in the C: from 84.06 � 0.91 to 94.75 � 0.87; and in the FIC: from 76.72 � 0.26 to 85.37 � 0.67) and in the times 15 and 30 min to macerated extract (time 15min: labeling in the C: from 29.04 � 0.31 to 50.13 � 0.82; time 30min: labeling in the C: from 75.39 � 0.77 to 83.42 � 0.51). The %ATI/g was altered in the thyroid (from 4.57 � 0.58 to 2.03 � 1.33); lung (from 0.84 � 0.25 to 0.21 � 0.02); stomach (from 5.19 � 1.34 to 2.03 � 0.60) and blood (from 50.07 � 3.36 to 32.25 � 2.32). In the qualitative analysis it was observed an decreased in the performance of the images related to the stomach region. Due to the biodistribution it was related that an extract of eggplant was capable of altering the bioavailability of 99mTcO<sub>4</sub>Na different of a cauliflower extract which has not been able to alter it. It is possible to suggest that some components of chayotte extracts present an oxidant power able to alter the biodistribution of 99mTcO<sub>4</sub>Na, as a tip, we speculate that the referred extract metabolized in the liver may induce the generation of reactive metabolites with oxidant properties, this fact could justify the alteration of the uptake in the organs.
 
With the increasing speculations of the involvement of nutrition, particularly trace elements in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, a comparative study of plasma copper, iron and zinc levels was carried out between preeclamptic and non-eclamptic Nigerian women living in Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria. Data for 40 preeclamptic and 40 non-eclamptic women matched for age, gestational age, Body Mass Index (BMI), parity and socioeconomic status from a cohort of 349 pregnant women recruited at gestational age < 25 weeks for the assessment of impacts of trace elements’ status on pregnancy outcomes were analyzed. In addition to trace elements which were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Buck Scientific, Model AVG 210), Total White Blood Cell Count (TWBC) and Haemoglobin Concentration (HbC) were determined using standard laboratory techniques. The preeclamptic and the non-eclamptic women had comparable TWBC and HbC with the former having significantly (p < 0.05) higher blood pressure. However, although, the preeclamptic women had lower plasma copper, iron and zinc levels than the non-eclamptic women, only copper was found to be statistically significant (6.02±7.23 vs. 10.23±9.84 μmol/l, p<0.05). It is thus concluded that preeclampsia is associated with significant decrease in plasma copper. Further research is desired to elucidate the role of trace elements, especially copper in the pathogenesis of pregnancy induced hypertension.
 
Percentage Composition of Diets of different proportions of PKM and BDG fed to weaner pigs 
Proximate composition of PKM, BDG and diets of different proportions of PKM and BDG (% DM Basis) 
The cost-benefit of feeding diets of different proportions of PKM and BDG to weaner pigs 
The cost-benefit of feeding diets of different proportions of PKM and BDG to grower pigs 
Carcass Quality and Organ characteristics of Pigs fed diets of different Proportions of PKM and BDG diets 
The response of weaner pigs to diets of different proportions and high levels of palm kernel meal (PKM) and brewers dried grain (BDG) in the humid tropics was determined with 24 hybrid (Landrace x Duroc) pigs whose initial live weights ranged from 8.08 to 8.21 kg (average 8.18 kg). The different proportions of PKM + BDG in the diets were 30 + 40% (T2), 35 + 35% (T3), and 40 + 30% (T4), respectively. PKM + BDG was 0% in T1 (control) and replaced maize in diets T2, T3 and T4. Growth performance and cost-benefit were evaluated at the weaner stage, while carcass and organ characteristics were added at the end of grower stage. Parameters measured were live weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed cost, feed cost of weight gain, gross margin, carcass and organ characteristics. Diets of different proportions of PKM and BDG significantly (P< 0.05) increased FCR and protein intake, significantly (P< 0.05) reduced cost of production and increased gross margin at the wea ner stage. At the grower stage, PKM+BDG diets significantly (P< 0.05) lowered final live weight, weight gain, PER and significantly (P< 0.05) increased FCR, feed and protein intake. The diets also significantly (P< 0.05) reduced total feed cost compared to the control diet and affected some carcass and organ characteristics without regular pattern. It was concluded that weaner and grower pigs could be fed diets containing 70% PKM + BDG (at various proportional combinations), replacing maize completely in the diets.
 
The present study was carried out to assess the abdominal wall thickness/abdominal fat in school children (6-11 years) at Dera Ismail Khan Pakistan. Abdominal Ultrasound was the sole criteria for the assessment of abdominal wall thickness. It included 103 school children; 58 (56.31%) boys and 45 (43.68%) girls. 76 (73.79%) were obese and 27 (26.21%) were normal weight children. Thorough clinical examination excluded those with chronic health problems. Body weight status was determined according to Quatelet’s Index and CDC’s gender specific growth charts 2-20 years (2000). Those, having BMI-for-age-percentile 5<SUP>th</SUP>-<85<SUP>th</SUP> percentile were declared as normal weight and obese with > 95<SUP>th</SUP> percentile. An ultasononic probe of 7.5MHZ was used to assess the abdominal fat (subcutaneous and preperitoneal) on two points: 2 cm above and 2 cm below umbilicus in the midline. Abdominal wall thickness/abdominal fat were found higher below the umbilicus than above the umbilicus in obese as well as in normal weight children. Maximum thickness of abdominal wall was found below the umbilicus in an obese girl (3.25 cm). Mean, for the abdominal thickness in normal weight children was calculated as 1cm. It is an important indicator for abdominal obesity in children.
 
In Nigeria, okra Abelmoschus esculentus are packed and stored in polypropylene bag when moved from outlying villages to the city market. The study aims at assessing other storage method for Benin indigenous okra other than polypropylene bag with respect to nutrients, antinutrients and antioxidants. In this study fresh harvested Benin okra were harvested and divided into three parts. One part was stored in 100% RH at the temperature of 10°C ± 2°C, another at the temperature of 10°C ± 2°C and the last part in polypropylene bag. The nutrients, antinutrients (Phytate and Saponin) antioxidants (Vitamin C and Total Phenol) and the Viscosity were subsequently determined. The result of the study indicates that the nutrient, antinutrient and antioxidant content reduces significantly (p>0.05) in the three storage methods: Moisture (88.73-84.62)%, fibre (10.63-7.22)%, protein (14.87-12.84)%, fat (9.67-7.96)%, phytate (3.84-1.18)%, saponin (0.612-0.284)%, vitamin C (46.28-14.39) mg/100g, total phenol (0.095-0.059)% and the viscosity (58.16-53.42)cp. The method of storage of 100%RH recorded the least percentage loss in moisture, fibre antioxidant and viscosity content of the okra while the least % loss was recorded for protein and fat in the polypropylene bag method. The highest loss of the antinutrient was recorded at the storage method of temperature of 10°C ± 2°C. On the average the storage method of 100%RH at temperature of 10°C ±2°C shows to be better method than the others.
 
A total of 160 adolescent girls aged 10 to 19 years were surveyed for nutrient intake. Three-days weighed food intake was the technique used for this study. Subjects were from model secondary schools and universities in Abia State, Nigeria. The values for food nutrients were calculated using food composition tables. Foods that were not in the food composition tables were analyzed chemically in the laboratory to know their nutrient contents. Values from the chemical analysis were used for the calculation of food nutrients. The mean intakes in all the nutrients tested for adolescent female university students were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of adolescent female secondary school girls. Both adolescent female secondary school and university students, however, had nutrient intakes higher than FAO requirements except for iron intake where the secondary school girls did not meet the requirement for iron (36-42 g/day). Snacks contribution to the daily nutrient intakes of the adolescent female secondary school students were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of the university students except for the carbohydrate intake (146.66 g vs 170.26 g) respectively. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the quality of meals and snacks served to both secondary school and university students to know their contribution to nutrient intake in order to alleviate the problem of malnutrition in adolescent female Nigerian students.
 
The need to determine the effect of family size on body weight and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) of adolescent female secondary and university students in Abia State, Nigeria, is very important for this study. One hundred and sixty adolescent girls aged 10-19 years were used for the study. Data for this report was obtained from a cross-sectional survey of two boarding secondary schools [one school from Umuahia North Local Government Area (LGA) and the other from Ikwuano LGA] and two tertiary institutions (one school from Umuahia North LGA and the other from Ikwuano LGA) in Abia State, Nigeria. A structured self-administered questionnaire designed to collect information on socio-economic status of adolescent girls was given to the respondents in their schools. A sample of 160 adolescent girls was used for body weight and iron status of the blood. Forty adolescent girls were systematically selected from each school. Pearson’s correlation was used to determine the interrelationship between variables. Results showed that the secondary school girls had larger family size than their university counterparts (41.75% vs 40.0%) respectively. The secondary school adolescents also had lower mean body weight which differed significantly from those of the university students (p<0.05). The mean PCV of both the secondary school and university students were low and comparable (p>0.05). For the secondary school students, Pearson’s correlation showed that family size had negative but significant relationship with PCV (r = -0.362, p<0.05). Body weight had negative but significant relationship with PCV (r = -0.164, p<0.05). For the university students, family size had negative but significant association with body weight and PCV (r = -0.380, p<0.05 and r = -0.008, p<0.05) respectively. This study showed that family size had an effect on body weight and PCV of both secondary school and University adolescent girls in Abia State.
 
Effect of polyethylene packaging and coating having fungicide, ethylene absorbent and antiripening agent on the physico-chemical composition such as weight loss, Total Soluble Solids (TSS), pH, Titratable Acidity (TA) and Ascorbic Acid (AA) of Chaunsa white commercial variety of mango was investigated at ambient temperature (28-33<sup>o</sup>C and 56.7-69.7% relative humidity) during storage. It was examined that uncoated fruit packed in polyethylene or coating emulsions having fungicide, ethylene absorbent and antiripening agent had significant effect (p<0.05) on overall physico-chemical constituents of Chaunsa at ambient temperature during storage. It was investigated that treated fruit packed in polyethylene had minimum weight loss ranged from 1.92-3.98 %, lower TSS (15.17-18.43%), lower pH (3.88-4.4), higher retention of TA (0.81-0.97%) and lower AA (19.81-30.91 mg/100 g) with an average mean of 3.20, 15.84, 3.99, 0.87 and 24.48 respectively at ambient temperature during storage. On the other hand the control (T<sub>1</sub>) had highest weight loss (9.39%), TSS (20.83%), pH (4.91), lowest TA (0.44%) and highest AA (42.06 mg/100 g) respectively during storage. The coated fruit packed in polyethylene had minimum weight loss, slower increase of TSS, pH, higher retention of acidity and slower increase in AA respectively of fruit during the storage period. Whereas, fruit packed only in polyethylene had lowest weight loss, higher TSS, pH, highest retention of acidity and higher AA respectively. It is obvious from these studies that coated fruit having other protective chemicals when packaged in polyethylene had played a very effective role to control compositional changes by delaying the ripening process and with a minimum quality loss during 30 days of storage at ambient temperature, as compared to the control sample that had greater compositional changes with maximum quality loss during storage at ambient temperature. The control fruit were unacceptable after 12 days of their storage due to its unattractive skin, brown pulp color and poor taste as compared to treated fruit having good keeping quality even after one month of their storage.
 
The effect of different concentrations of CaCl<SUB>2</SUB> (1, 2 and 3%) with the combination of oxidizing agent like Potassium permanganate (KMnO<SUB>4</SUB>) on storage life of apricot fruit packaged in sealed Polyethylene bags was investigated at ambient temperature (Relative humidity 60-63% and temperature 28-30<SUP>o</SUP>C) during storage. The quality characteristics such as weight loss, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and sensory parameters like color, texture, taste, flavour and overall acceptability were studied at an interval of 2 days (0, 2<SUP>nd</SUP>, 4<SUP>th</SUP>, 6<SUP>th</SUP>, 8<SUP>th</SUP> and 10<SUP>th</SUP> day) for a total period of 10 days during storage. All of the 9 treatments had shown a highly significant effect (p<0.05) on storage life and quality parameters of fruits. However, the treatment T<SUB>4</SUB> (KMnO<SUB>4</SUB> + 3% CaCl<SUB>2</SUB> + Polyethylene bags) was most effective in the retention of higher contents of vitamin C (11.47 mg/100 g), total soluble solids (12.58%), titratable acidity (0.72%) and sensory parameters like colour (4.97), texture (6.23), taste (6.52), flavour (6.38) and the higher overall acceptability score (6.72) with minimum weight loss (3.66%) in T<SUB>4</SUB>. Compared to control fruit showed maximum weight loss (9.5%), lower vitamin C (9.55 mg/100 g), titratable acidity (0.67%), total soluble solids (10.58%) and lower quality score like colour (3.92), texture (4.83), taste (4.79), flavour (4.43) and the lower score (4.6) of overall acceptability during storage whereas the Treatment T<SUB>3</SUB> (3% CaCl<SUB>2</SUB>+Polyethylene bags) was found better to all other treatments during storage. The treated apricot fruit have increased storage life up to 10 days as compared to control which was un acceptable after 6<SUP>th</SUP> day of the storage.
 
Emulsifying agents have an effect on cookies and the finished product partially, depending on the system and the type of emulsifier used. Lecithin’s molecular structure makes it an effective emulsifier for the interaction of water and oil. Phospholipids, the major component of lecithin, are partly hydrophilic (attracted to water) and partly hydrophobic (repelled from water). Fat is particularly important in the texture of a low-moisture cookie. The present study has desirable significance which relates to practical issues like cookies dough emulsions, optimization of manufacturing, quality control and effects on prolonging shelf life prediction. The investigation revealed that the method applied was very suitable for determining the effects of lecithin on cookie production. According to the method 0.27, 0.21, 0.19 and 0.16% lecithin were mixed based on dough weight by using a Horizontal-Z-Drum mixture machine in four different cookie samples (S-1, S-2, S-3 and S-4 respectively) and the moisture absorption rate of four samples were analyzed by using Scaltec auto moisture analyzer. The moisture absorption rate at 30 minutes for S-1, S-2, S-3 and S-4 were 2.10, 3.11, 3.19 and 3.23% respectively. For S-1, 0.27% lecithin shown minimal moisture absorption at 30 min. Therefore, it is clear that increase of emulsifying agent decreases the rate of moisture absorption in cookies and lecithin might have a great effect on preservation of cookies. The study recommends that further enthusiastic investigation may continue for the prediction of optimum dose of lecithin for maximum shelf-life of cookies.
 
Foaming capacity and stability, water absorption capacity; emulsion capacity and stability; and least gelation concentration of kersting`s and bambara groundnut flours as influenced by types of salt (NaCl, NaNO<SUB>3</SUB>, NaNO<SUB>2</SUB>, CH<SUB>3</SUB>COONa and Na<SUB>2</SUB>SO<SUB>4</SUB>) and their concentrations were investigated using standard techniques. The results showed that the highest foaming capacity was recorded for CH<SUB>3</SUB>COONa at 15.0% (w/v) salt concentration in kesting`s groundnut while lowest was NaNO<SUB>2</SUB> at 0.5% (w/v) in bambara groundnut flour. Foaming stability values after 8h were types of salt and salt concentrations dependent. The water absorption capacity decreased at various salt concentrations compared with value in distilled deionized water. The best salts for water absorption capacity were NaNO<SUB>2</SUB>, CH<SUB>3</SUB>COONa and Na<SUB>2</SUB>SO<SUB>4</SUB> particularly at 0.5% (w/v) salt concentration. The oil emulsion capacity depended mostly on salt concentration and the type of salt under consideration while oil emulsion stability is better at higher salt concentrations between 5.0-15% (w/v) than lower salt concentrations for the two studied samples. Likewise the least gelation concentration of 12.0% (kersting`s groundnut flour) and 14.0% (bambara groundnut flour) in free salt solutions were improved to between 6.0-10% and 8.0-12.0%, respectively in the presence of the salts used.
 
Amount and type of fats in the diet have an important effect on bone health and lipid profile. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different types of dietary oils and fats on lipid profile, calcium absorption and bone mineralization in male mice. Mice weighing 25±5 g were divided into nine groups and fed on diets without oils or fats (control group) and containing soybean oil, corn oil, olive oil, palm oil, sunflower oil, butter, animal fat or margarine. Mice fed on diet containing soybean oil or olive oil had the lowest levels of TG, TC, LDL-c and HDL-c as compared to the other groups. Diets with palm oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, butter, animal fat or margarine caused significant decreases in the serum level of calcium as compared to the effect of diet without oils or fats. Mice fed diet containing olive oil, butter or animal fat had significant increase in bone density, while those fed diet containing soybean oil, corn oil, sunflower oil or margarine had significant decreases in femur bone density, compared to the control group. The apparent calcium absorption was significantly increased by feeding diets containing soybean oil, corn oil, palm oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, butter or animal fat. Dietary intake of vegetable oils improved lipid profile while butter, animal fat and margarine had the opposite effect. Butter and animal fats increased calcium and phosphorus deposition in femur bone more than vegetable oils.
 
Urban areas are faced with the problem of increasing population and consequently inadequate supply of food items. Many urban households and individuals in Nigeria merely eat for Survival. This study was therefore designed to assess the state of food security among urban households in the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents from the study area. Data were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics and Food Security Scale. The results revealed that 70% of the urban households in the study area are food secure, while only 30% are non food secure. The major coping strategies against food shortages were the purchase of less preferred food and reduction in the quantity of meals. The study recommends that efforts at reducing food insecurity among urban households should focus on increasing urban household income and food supply.
 
This trial evaluated the deactivation effects of PEG 6000 on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of Colophospermum mopane ( Mophane ) and acacia browse trees. Samples were collected from Sebele Content farm except for Mophane and were freezed dried before analysis. PEG was introduced into the digestion tubes at a rate of 160mg/g of sample in the form of a one milli liter of solution containing 80mg PEG before the addition of rumen fluid/buffer medium. It was found that plant species had an effect (P0.05). However, IVDMD values of PEG treated samples were numerically higher with those of Acacia nilotica approaching significance (P=0.083). Within the PEG treated samples, IVDMD was higher (P<0.05) for A. nilotica, A. tortilis and V. verrucosum and lower for Mophane samples. The low digestibility of Mophane may not be due to extractable condensed tannins (CT) because fresh Mophane leaves have been previously found to contain 27.0g/kg DM condensed tannins. Other anti-nutritional factors may be responsible for its low digestibility. Alternatively, phlobatannins which are a characteristic of heartwood of Mophane may be present in fresh leaves and may have formed an insoluble complex with PEG leading to an underestimation of IVDMD. It is concluded that PEG may not be an ideal deactivating agent to improve utilization of fodder trees by resource limited farmers and an alternative such as wood ash should be investigated.
 
Stability of Kordofan and Damazin gum emulsions as affected by different oil types.  
Gum Arabic ( Acacia senegal ) from Kordofan (Central Sudan) and Damazin (Blue Nile, Western Sudan) were used in this study. Physicochemical properties of gum samples were studied (moisture, ash, nitrogen, total soluble fiber, specific rotation, relative viscosity, refractive index and pH). Results show significant differences in moisture content, protein content and relative viscosity between Kordofan and Damazin gums. Damazin gum contained higher protein (3%) and characterized by higher viscosity (24.81) compared to Kordofan gum. Stability of Acacia gum emulsion in regard to type of refined oil (sesame, groundnut, cotton seed, sunflower and corn), temperature, stirring time, concentration and gum grade was also investigated. Results revealed that emulsion stability is significantly affected by the type of oil used. Cotton seed oil gave the most stable emulsion while groundnut resulted in the lowest stable emulsion. Increase in the length of the stirring time is significantly increased stability of the emulsion. Also emulsion stability was affected by gum grades. Other factors of concentration and temperature did not significantly influence emulsion stability.
 
This study compared the nutritional status and academic performance of Low Birth Weight (LBW) and Normal Birth Weight (NBW) school-aged population in Nigeria. A total of 119 subjects were involved in this study from a purposely selected one rural and one urban school in Abia state. Pre tested and validated questionnaires were used in data collection. Academic performance was obtained from their school records, while birth weights and ages were obtained from health/immunization cards. SPSS version 15.0 was used for data analysis. The subjects comprised of 57.1% males and 42.9% females, of 9-12 years old. Low prevalence (14.3%) of LBW was found. All three indicators used for nutritional status assessment (weight for age; height for age; BMI) showed more than 50% of study population as having normal nutritional status (96.64, 74.79 and 63.03% respectively). Stunting was 10.08%, overweight 2.52% and 6.72%, while obesity was 0.84%. This study revealed a significant (p<0.05) influence of birth weight on nutritional status with the use of BMI and weight for age indicators. The only child found underweight (<-2SD weight for age) had a LBW. The NBW group had higher percent of normal nutritional status than LBW group (Weight for age: 98.04% Vs 88.24%, BMI 65.69% Vs 47.06%). Stunted was found among 11.77% of the LBW and 9.80% of NBW groups (p>0.05). The subjects’ birth weight had no significant (p>0.05) influence on their academic performance. The findings of this study emphasize more attention to children born with LBW for improvement in their growth and academic performance.
 
Proximate composition and phytochemical constituents of leaves of Acalypha hispida , Acalypha marginata and Acalypha racemosa were investigated. Proximate composition of leaves of Acalypha hispida showed that it contained moisture (11.02%), crude fat (6.15%), ash (10.32%), crude protein (13.78%), crude fibre (10.25%) and carbohydrate (44.48%). Similarly, Acalypha marginata showed that it contained moisture (10.83%), crude fat (5.60%), ash (15.68%), crude protein (18.15%), crude fibre (11.50%) and carbohydrate (38.24%); while Acalypha racemosa contained moisture (11.91%), crude fat (6.30%), ash (13.14%), crude protein (16.19%), crude fibre (7.20%) and carbohydrate (45.26%). The phytochemicals detected in both aqueous and methanolic extracts of each of the different species of leaves were the same and are phenolics, flavonoids, hydroxyanthraquinones and saponins. Steroids and phlobatannins were detected in Acalypha hispida and Acalypha racemosa , while glycoside was detected only in Acalypha hispida . All these results indicate that the leaves of these Acalypha species contains nutrients and mineral elements that may be useful in nutrition. The presence of some phytochemicals like saponins and flavonoids explained the medicinal action of the plant encountered in its therapeutic uses.
 
The effect of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves on plasma levels of sodium and potassium were studied in normal rabbits given daily, by intra-gastric gavage, 1g/kg of the leaf, in the form of decoction prepared by mixing 5g of air-dried powdered leaves in 10 mL water. The treatment led to significant decreases (p<0.05) in plasma sodium concentrations and significant increases in potassium concentrations. These findings connote a therapeutic advantage in the use of A. wilkesiana for the treatment of hypertension, especially in managing the abnormal sodium and potassium metabolisms that accompany hypertension.
 
This study was conducted to assess the acceptability of bread samples produced by fortification of wheat flour with Tilapia Fish Protein Flour (TFPF) in varying proportions (5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight of wheat flour). Bread produced from 100% wheat flour served as the control. The fortified bread and the control samples were subjected to proximate and organoleptic analysis. The result of proximate analysis revealed that the incorporation of TFPF into wheat flour resulted in improvement in the nutritional value of bread sample. The protein content increases as more and more TFPF was added. The protein content for the control sample was 9.08% while the values for fortified bread samples ranged between 18.01 and 10.59% with sample coded 411 (80% wheat flour: 20% TFPF) having the highest value. The result of organoleptic analysis revealed that there was no significant difference among the samples in term of taste, aroma, crust and crumb colour and overall acceptability. Acceptable fortified bread could therefore be produced from wheat and TFPF.
 
The aim of this study was to determine the Turkish consumer descriptive panel ratings for yoghurts with different added fruit, fruit syrup and herbal paste comparing to plain yoghurt. Two yoghurts were added two kinds of fruits: honey pumpkin ( Cucurbita mocshata ) and date plum ( Diospyros lotus L.). One of the yoghurt was added pekmez (concentrated grape juice) and another was added a paste, made of herbs and sugar. Fourty two (n=42) university students tasted and rated on a five-point hedonic scale their degree of liking for five samples of yoghurt varying in added ingredients. Subjects were asked to complete a questioner about consumption of yoghurt in their daily life. Degree of liking differed significantly among samples and the samples best liked were those flavoured with pekmez (grape syrup) and honey pumpkin ( Cucurbita mocshata ). Degree of liking of yoghurts did not have a correlation with dairy products consumption.
 
Tempeh was produced by fermenting soybeans with Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL 2710. The bacterial and fungal counts of fresh tempeh samples were 8.2x10<sup>6</sup> cfu/g and 7.17x10<sup>6</sup> cfu/g respectively. The pH of the soybean substrate increased from 5.6 to 6.92; while the moisture content decreased from 20.30% to 16.5% during fermentation. Acceptability of the processed tempeh among health workers in Ado-Ekiti was assessed by administering a questionnaire along with the tempeh. Responses by sixty one (61) individuals was analysed by chi-square at 5% level of significance. Acceptability of tempeh among the Moslems was significantly higher than among Christians. The differences in acceptability of tempeh based on sex, age, marital status and profession were not significant (at p < 0.05). Generally, there was a positive response as 77.05% of the health workers readily accepted tempeh.
 
Nutrient variation in individual food and composite food.
This study was conducted to develop standardized mixed composite foods for assessing consumer acceptance and for achieving optimal accuracy in nutrient estimation of Pakistani meals. Since, it was a pilot study only two composite foods Dal maash (Phaseolus Radiata) and Tori Bujia (Luffa Segyptice) were selected. Nine recipes were selected from a recipe pool. Three different recipes for each composite food were prepared and evaluated by the Preference Evaluators (PE) for consumer acceptability. The composite food with the Highest Preference Score (HPS) was selected and subjected to the process of standardization. Both the mixed/composite foods were prepared and assessed on nine point Hedonic scale for consumer acceptability by sensory evaluation. Standardized recipes of both Dal maash and Tori Bhujia scored highest points with mean values ranging from 8.0-8.8 for three attributes of sensory evaluation taste, texture and color with LSD = 0.30. The Nutritional assessment of the two standardized composite foods was calculated using Pakistani Food Tables (2001) and values were compared with the values of food items (cooked or raw) given the national food tables. The study concluded that nutritional composition of standardized composite food (Tory Bujia) differed remarkably from those presented as raw edible food part reflected in the Pakistani Food Composition Tables as the recipes are either not included in these food tables or have limitation for not being standardized.
 
This study attempts to find out the determinants of food acceptance and micro-nutrient deficiency in preschool children from Karachi, Pakistan. Primary data was collected through survey from 400 households by interviewing and filling up the questionnaire. Index for food acceptance and micro-nutrient deficiency were constructed with the help of related questions from the questionnaire. Econometric models were developed and Logit techniques was employed to estimate probability of end indicator. Our results show that increase Micro-Nutrient Deficiency (MND) may cause lower level of Food Acceptance and vice versa. On the other hand, modeling food acceptance may indicate higher level of MND among preschoolers reduce the acceptance level of appropriate food. Other important variables like Household Income, Mother’s Literacy and Mother’s Maternal Knowledge showed significant effects and appropriate signs of coefficients as per expectations. On the basis of these findings, if government targets the core independent variables that are identified in the analysis, Food Acceptance level can be increased amongst the children and Micro-Nutrient Deficiency could then be reduced. Consequently government intervention, both long term and short term are needed to provide and regulate the food acceptance behavior either at household level or at other form so that our generation could be healthier and more productive which would lead the economic growth of a country which is abundant in labor.
 
organoleptic examination of plain and carrot yoghurt
Plain and carrot yoghurt were prepared in the laboratory scale production from cow`s milk obtained from Fayoum district, Egypt. Carrot yoghurt was prepared by blending milk with 5, 10, 15 and 20% carrot juice before fermentation. The sensory, rheological, chemical, and microbiological quality of yoghurt samples were investigated during refrigerated storage at 4?C for three weeks. The Sensory scores increased especially for yoghurt samples with 15% carrot juice. Chemical analysis revealed an increase in acidity, decrease soluble nitrogen /total nitrogen ratio and curd tension with increasing carrot juice. On the other hand, high carrot juice suppressed the growth of mold and yeast, Coliform organisms while Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected. Yoghurt with 5, 10, 15 and 20% carrot juice showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in aflatoxin M1 respectively. The results of the study showed that carrot had significant effect on the acceptability of yoghurt during shelf life. The economic and public health importance of carrot in yoghurt was discussed.
 
The present state of some locally produced food drinks in Nigeria has not been sufficiently attractive to a wide spectrum of the prevailing market. Kunnu, a cereal-based food drink, is one of such indigenous drinks in Nigeria. The economic gains from these entrepreneurial activities are thus being limited. This pilot study explores the possibility of repositioning Kunnu drink for increased acceptability among present and prospective consumers of the drink. Data for the study were collected from one hundred randomly selected students of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria. Ninety-Eight percent of the respondents were aware of the drink. In addition, the strawberry flavour was indicated as most preferred by 36.84% of the respondents. The results of the study suggest that the drink might enjoy a higher level of patronage if it is reformulated, as well as hygienically processed and appropriately packaged. The study suggested that processors of the drink be exposed to some form of training to enhance their skill.
 
Map of Qua Iboe River Estuary showing Douglas creek and sampling sites (Inset: Map of Akwa Ibom State)
Bacteriological density and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were determined in the brackish surface water and mangrove oyster ( Crassostrea tulipa ) from Douglas creek, Nigeria. Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THBC), Total Vibrio (TVC) and Total Coliform (TCC) counts ranged from 8.8 x 10<SUP>4</SUP> - 10.8 x 10<SUP>4</SUP> cfu/ml, 2.1 x 10<SUP>4</SUP> - 3.8 x 10<SUP>4</SUP> cfu/ml and 5.2 x 10<SUP>4</SUP> - 7.2 x 10<SUP>4</SUP> cfu/ml in water whereas THBC, TVC, TCC in the mangrove oyster ranged from 12.5 x 10<SUP>6</SUP> - 17.9 x 10<SUP>6</SUP> cfu/g, 3.9 x 10<SUP>5</SUP> - 5.8 x 10<SUP>5</SUP> cfu/g and 8.9 x 10<SUP>5</SUP> - 9.7 x 10<SUP>5</SUP> cfu/g. The microbial groups in the water and oyster exhibited varying correlations with r-values (p = 0.05) ranging from -0.3767 to 0.7209. The bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Aerobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter sp, Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus sp, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter iwoffii, Chromatium sp, Micrococcus sedentarius, Listeria monocytogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae . The individual PAH accumulated by the mangrove oyster ranged from 0.02-3.56 mg/kg against background surface water PAH concentration which ranged from 0.02 - 1.00 mg/l. Total PAH concentration in brackish surface water and mangrove oyster tissue was 7.51 mg/l and 11.96 mg/kg respectively. The Bioconcentration Factor (BFC) of the individual PAH in the mangrove oyster ranged from 0.51 [benzo (b) fluoranthene] to 17.8 [dibenzo (a,h) anthracene]. The microbial isolates are of health significance and PAH concentration in the mangrove oyster could biomagnify along the food chain with adverse toxicological effects on ardent consumers of the biota. The mangrove oyster ( Crassostrea tulipa ) could be used as a biomarker of bacterial and PAH contamination of the mangrove ecosystem.
 
The study included 131 people aged 65 + (62 men and 69 women). Food intake variety questionnaire (FIVeQ) included questions about eating (yes/no) during last 7 days the named amounts of 65 subgroups of products. Interviews were made using the face-to-face situation, twice with a two-week interval (test and retest). For the further analysis products were aggregated into 9 main groups: cereal products, dairy products, meat products, vegetables, fruit, fats, sugar and sweets, beverages, spices. The questionnaires` accuracy measures were sensitivity index (%) and specificity index (%) and the test power. High reproducibility of the results obtained by the FIVeQ questionnaire was stated. It shows a good accuracy of the questionnaire as a tool for studying food intake variety and allows to recommend its usage among older people.
 
Nowadays Angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitor drugs are the leading drugs for the treatment of hypertension, heart failure and some of nephropathy. But One of the most frequent side effect of these drugs is cough. A dry, tickly and often bothersome cough that may develop in around 15 to 39 percent of these patients and may lead to discontinuation of treatment. So we decided to use herbal drug of althaea officinalis for the treatment of this cough. For this study in the year 1385 and by using of method of double- blind clinical trial 60 patients with hypertension who were from the province of Chaharmal va bakhtiarei and had been developed cough during taking of angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitor drugs were selected. Then for all of them were filled a paper of questionnaire. In these papers the scores of severity of their cough on a scale between 0 to 4 and the advantages of their spirometery tests were noted. Then all of these patients were divided in 2 groups. The first group was treated by herbal drug of althaea officinalis and the second group by placebo by 20 drops for every 8 hour (TDS). These patients used these drugs for treatment period of 4 weeks. At the end of 4 weeks the scores of severity of their cough with the advantages of their spirometery tests were noted again. The Mean scores of the severity of the cough in the first group which have been treated by althaea officinalis had a significant change from the score of) 2/66+0.958 (to) 1/23+1.006 (Eight patient in the althaea officinalis group showed almost complete cough abolition. No significant change in laboratory data related to spirometery tests were observed in either group. The mechanism of this type of cough maybe is related to the stimulation of tracheae-bronchial tree and the herbal drug of althaea officinalis can have important role in decreasing and treatment of the cough of ACEI drugs.
 
The preventive potentials of ethanol leaf extract of Ageratum conyzoides (ACE) against acute acetaminophen and caffeinated acetaminophen over dose in Wister rats were investigated. Thirty Wister rats of both sexes were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats per group. There were two control groups. Animals in control group 1 were administered 600 mg/kg body weight of acetaminophen intraperitoneally (ip) whereas, animals in control group 2 in addition to acetaminophen were administered 100 mg/kg body weight of caffeine by oral gavage. Experimental groups 3 and 4 were treated with acetaminophen as in group 1 but in addition received 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, respectively of ACE by oral gavage, The experimental groups 5 and 6 were treated as in control group 2 and in addition received 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, respectively of ACE. The treatment lasted 14 days. Serum Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALP) levels (U/L) significantly increased (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively) in group 2 than group 1 but dropped marginally in groups 3 and 4. Comparing group 2 with group 5, ALT, AST and Akaline Phospotase (ALP) (U/L) activities reduced significantly (p<0.01) in group 5 treated with 250 mg/kg of ACE. Similar significant reductions were observed in group 6 treated with 500 mg/kg of ACE, ALT activity (p<0.01), AST and ALP activities (p<0.001). Total serum protein level (g/100mL) was marginally increased in group 3 (acetaminophen plus 250 mg/kg ACE) than group 1 (acetaminophen only). Total serum protein was however increased significantly (p<0.01) in group 5 (acetaminophen plus caffeine plus 250 mg/kg ACE) and (p<0.05) group 6 (acetaminophen plus caffeine plus 500 mg/kg ACE) more than group 2 (acetaminophen plus caffeine). It is concluded from these findings that ACE offered protection against acetaminophen and caffeinated acetaminophen toxicity in rats.
 
Different treatments used to prepare fortified cookies Table 3: Effect of storage on physical parameters of fortified
Effect of fortificant on sensory characteristics (scores) of Table 8: Baking stability of Retinyl acetate (µg) in fortified cookies
Cookies were prepared from commercially available straight grade flour using Retinyl acetate (RA) as fortificant @ 30, 40 and 50% of Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA). The product was packed in Bioriented poly propylene (BOPP) and analyzed on monthly basis for physico-chemical and sensory attributes including baking and storage stability of the fortificant up to three month. The results revealed the non-significant influence of fortification on physico-chemical composition and sensory characteristics and the cookies containing 50% of RDA; Retinyl acetate were found the best in overall acceptability. Baking loss of Retinyl acetate was 9.30% while 8.33% loss was observed during storage.
 
Top-cited authors
Aijaz Hussain Soomro
  • Sindh Agriculture University
Alfred Traore
  • University of Ouagadougou
Aly Savadogo
  • University Joseph KI-ZERBO
Matthew Olaleke Aremu
  • Federal University of Lafia, Nasarawa State -Nigeria
Elfadil E. Babiker
  • King Saud University