Pakistan Journal of Botany

Print ISSN: 0556-3321
Publications
Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group AG2-2 IIIB is a severe sugar beet and maize pathogen. It causes crown and root rot disease which leads to yield losses world-wide. The soil-borne pathogen is difficult to detect and quantify by conventional methods. We developed a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for the quantification of genomic DNA of Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2 IIIB based on the ITS region of rDNA genes. The limit of quantification of the assay is 1.8 pg genomic DNA. The amplification efficiency was 96.4. The assay will be helpful in the diagnoses of Rhizoctonia solani infection of sugar beet and maize roots and in the quantification of R. solani AG2-2 IIIB inoculum in plant debris and soil.
 
Fresh and dry shoot biomass and shoot and root Na + and K + concentrations of different populations of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Cenchrus ciliaris L. when 88-day old plants were subjected to well-watered or water deficit conditions for 30 days.
The water famine is one of the major factors for converting huge cultivated land into deserts all over the world. Likewise, in Pakistan, Salt Range due to low rainfall is also converting into uncultivable area. In the present study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, to assess the extent of water stress toleranc in terms of mineral nutrient status. Two populations of each of two grass species i.e., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Cenchrus ciliaris L. were used in this experiment. One population of each of two grass species was collected from drought-hit area ‘‘Salt Range’’ and other from often irrigated Faisalabad. Each population of these of grass species were subjected to three different levels of water stress (control, 75% and 50% of field capacity. Imposition of water stress markedly decreased the shoot fresh and dry biomasses, shoot, P, N and Ca2+. However, populations of both grasses collected from the Salt Range were better in growth than Faisalabad region. Each population of both grasses collected from Salt Range accumulated high K+, Ca2+, N and P concentrations. The higher growth of the Salt Range populations of both grass species could be related to the greater accumulation of K+, N, and Ca2+ in the shoots as compared with the populations from Faisalabad.
 
Three potential salt tolerant forage grasses (Cynodon dactylon, Imperata cylindrica and Sporobolus arabicus) were collected from the salt affected habitats in the Salt Range, Pakistan. Ecotypes of all the three grasses were also collected from normal non-saline habitats within the Faisalabad region. Mechanism of adaptation to saline environments is very specific, which is not only for grass species but also for ecotypes. Ecotypes of all three grasses from Faisalabad showed stunted growth under salt stress, perhaps to save energy for normal developmental and other metabolic processes. Salt tolerant ecotypes from the Salt Range had better growth and survival under saline conditions and had less reduction in shoot growth at the highest salt level as compared to those collected from non-saline habitats. Leaf area of tolerant genotypes was less affected by salinity than salt sensitive genotypes. Increased root growth as observed in C. dactylon and S. arabicus, can be attributed to better salt tolerance in the populations from the Salt Range. The ecotypes of all three grasses, C. dactylon, I. cylindrica and S. arabicus from the Salt Range performed better under high salinities than their counterparts from the Faisalabad region. On the basis of various morphological characteristics and growth attributes, the ecotype of S. arabicus from the Salt Range has been categorized the most tolerant among all the grasses and ecotypes. It was followed by the ecotypes of C. dactylon and I. cylindrica from the Salt Range.
 
In this study, spatio-temporal variations in biochemical and physicochemical parameters of Adiantum shoots during different seasons and sites of Soone Valley in Salt Range were investigated. Adiantum was located only at two sites i.e. at Knotty Garden during all the four seasons and at Dape Sharif site only during spring. All the parameters studied varied significantly during different seasons and at both sites. It was observed that dry matter, fiber and total mineral contents were the maximum during winter whereas, moisture, fat and protein contents were the highest during autumn at Knotti Garden. In contrast, NFES and NFE were found higher during spring at Dape Sharif. Among the ionic contents studied, Ca, P and Fe were higher during spring at Dape Sharif where as N and K contents were more during autumn at Knotti Garden. Mg and Zn were the maximum during summer and spring at Knotti Garden respectively. Partial RDA of the data revealed that phenols and flavonoids were associated with spring at Knotti Garden where as, alkaloids were associated with spring at Dape Sharif. It was concluded that association of phenolics and falvonoids with Knotti Garden was due to low temperature stress, where that of alkaloids with Dape Sharif with high pH and EC of the site.
 
Mean squares of grain and yield related attributes for ten wheat lines
Ten wheat genotypes were evaluated for estimation of heritability and genetic advance of various yield related parameters viz. spike length, number of spikes per plant, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, 1000 grain weight and grain yield per plant. Among all the studied characters, number of grains per spike, 1000 grain weight and grain yield per plant showed high values of heritability coupled with high genetic advance that result in prevaing suitable conditions for selection.
 
he present study was conducted to assess whether exogenously applied SA as a foliar spray could ameliorate the adverse effects of salt stress on sunflower plants. Two lines of sunflower (Hisun-33 and SF-187) were grown under normal or saline (120 mM NaCl) conditions. Different levels of salicylic acid (0, 100, 200, 300 mg L-1) were applied as a foliar spray. Salt stress reduced the growth of both lines, but both cultivars were equally responsive to the stress. Application of 200 mg L-1 of SA caused an increase in biomass of both lines under non-saline or saline conditions. Photosynthetic rate of both cultivars increased due to SA applied foliarly both under control and saline conditions, particularly in line SF-187. Furthermore, increase in growth of both cultivars due to exogenously applied SA may have been due to changes in photosynthesis. However, SA applied as a foliar spray did not change the sub-stomatal CO2 suggesting that stomtal factors were not the major controlling factors for photosynthesis. Overall, the adverse effects of salt stress could be alleviated by exogenous application of SA.
 
The present studies were conducted to identify high yielding wheat genotypes for target environments and establish relationship between carbon isotope discrimination (Δ), grain yield (GY) and water use efficiency (WUE), and other parameters. A set of eight wheat genotypes screened previously for variation in Δ and higher GY were grown under four water regimes; well-watered (WW), medium-watered (MW), low-watered (LW) and stored soil moisture (SSM) conditions. Early leaf and grain samples collected at maturity were analysed for Δ. Plant parameters, such as number of tillers (NT), plant height (PH) heading days (HD), and maturity days (MD) were recorded. At harvesting spike length (SL), number of grains per spike (NGPS), thousand grains weight (TGW), biomass yield (BY), GY, harvest index (HI) and WUE on biomass basis (WUEB) and grain basis (WUEG) were determined. Significant effects of genotype and treatments on Δ of leaf (L) and grain (ΔG), BY, GY, HI, WUEB, WUEG, HD, NT, PH, NGPS, TGW and SL were observed. Genotype x treatment interaction had a significant effect on HI, PH, SL, TGW, HD and MD, but the effect was non-significant on other traits. In all these genotypes L and ΔG showed a variation of 1.3 and 0.91‰, respectively. All genotypes exhibited higher L than ΔG under different water regimes. Water stress reduced both L and ΔG and highly significant correlation (0.946**) was found between L and ΔG. GY showed a wide variation among these genotypes and water stress resulted in a marked decrease in GY. Genotype Sitta produced highest mean GY (4.4 Mg ha-1) with highest WUEG (16.99 kg ha-1 mm-1) averaged across the treatment. GY showed significant positive correlations with L (r=0.779*) and ΔG (r=0.753*). GY was also strongly and positively correlated with HI (r=0.845**), SL (r=0.779**) and TGW (r=0.899**). GY had a significant negative correlation with NT (r=-0.884*) and HD (r=-0.708*). WUEG was positively correlated with L (r=0.846*), ΔG (0.707*), HI (r=0.846**), SL (r= 0.784*), TGW (r=0.892**). WUEG was negatively correlated with NT (r=-0.814*) and HD (r= -0.743*). Sitta and FD-83 genotypes were found high yielder with greater increase in WUE under water stress and can be exploited to obtain high GY in rain-fed and water limited environments of the country. The results highlight significant positive correlations between Δ and GY or WUEG in bread wheat and carbon isotope discrimination as indirect selection criterion for grain yield in Pakistan.
 
Isolate-specific aspect of non-hypersensitive resistance in wheat to wheat leaf rust was studied at seedling stage in the green house. Isolate-specific response of non-hypersensitive resistance was assessed from latency period (LP) and infection frequency (IF) of two single-pustule isolates of Puccinia triticina in 26 spring wheat cultivars/lines. Small but significant cultivar x isolate interactions were observed for LP and IF in seedlings of host genotypes. Isolate specific effect for LP at seedling stage was consistent and reproduced in a repeated experiment; however, the interaction for IF was inconsistent and was not reproducible. The inconsistency in cultivar x isolate interaction may be due to some non-genetic origin. The result suggested that a gene-for-gene relationship could exist between non-hypersensitive resistance genes in the host and genes in pathogen.
 
Evaluation of the pelt after treatment with alkaline protease from Bacillus subtilis IH-72
Physical analysis of the finally prepared leather treated with alkaline protease from Bacillus subtilis IH-72
The work describes the production of alkaline protease in a lab scale fermentor from Bacillus subtilis IH-72. The production of alkaline protease was enhanced by optimization of cultural conditions in a stirred fermentor. The alkaline protease so produced was applied to the goat skin for the removal of hair. The skin pieces were treated in three different ways; singly with the enzyme, in combination with the lime sulphide and singly with lime sulphide. The best results with the skin processing were obtained, when skin was treated with crude enzyme in combination with 7 % lime sulphide. The quality of pelt (color, grain, stretch, scud etc) and physical properties of the finally prepared leather (tensile strength, tear strength, bursting strength etc) were also improved with the use of proteolytic enzymes produced by Bacillus subtilis IH-72.
 
Ecotoxicological effects of different concentrations of alkaline metal salts (NaCl, KNO3) and strong acid (H2SO4) on the germination of P. nigra ssp. pallasiana (Black Pine) seeds of different origins were investigated. Seeds were exposed to four different concentrations of NaCl, KNO3 and H2SO4 (0.05% to 3%). The results revealed that seed germination rate and germination speed of the Black Pine seeds collected from 14 origins responded differently to the toxicity of NaCl, H2SO4, and KNO3. The results indicated that, while low NaCl concentrations (0.5 to 1%) had no effects on seed germination rates, high concentrations (2 to 3%) had significant inhibitory effects, all concentrations reduced germination speed of the seeds. 0.5 to 2% concentrations of KNO3 had no effects, but 3% concentration had significant inhibitory effect on germination rate, it reduced germination speed as well. H2SO4 had significant inhibitory effects, reduced both germination percentage and speed, inhibiting or preventing germination altogether.
 
Nectaries are nectar producing epidermal glands located on lower side of cotton leaves. Nectar is sugar rich food source for insect pests. The leaf nectaries provide nectar source long before the plants begin to flower and attract insects. Double recessive genotype produces nectariless phenotype which confers resistance to pink bollworm. Incorporation of double recessive trait would be easier if DNA marker for the trait is developed and used in marker assisted selection/backcrossing. Random Amplified polymorphic DNA technique was used to identify DNA markers linked with this trait. More than 300 RAPD primers were used to find linkage with the trait. Only one primer GLE-11 was found linked to the nectariless trait, this primer amplified a polymorphic DNA fragment of 1145bp between the parents and bulks. Three recombinants were observed out of 30 individual plants showing the presence of this marker at 10cM distance from the nectariless loci. This DNA marker was named as GLE-111145. This marker can be converted into SCAR and may be used in breeding.
 
Verbascum ozturkii Karavel., Uzunh & S.Çelik a. habit, b. corolla, c. capsul
Distribution map of Verbascum ozturkii ( ▲ ), Verbascum oocarpum ( ■ ) 
A new species Verbascum ozturkii Karavel., Uzunh. & S.Çelik sp. nov. (Sect. Bothrosperma Murb.), has been described here. It was collected from East Anatolia in Turkey. The species is related to V. oocarpum Murb. and thus a comparison was made. It differs from V. oocarpum Murb. Mainly in its hair situation, basal leaves, inflorescence, pedicels, calyx, corolla, stamens and capsule features.
 
The antimicrobial activity of crude water extract, Supernatant as well as Methanolic extract of Raphanus sativus were investigated in vitro using Agar well diffusion method. All Extracts were tested against two gram negative, two gram positive bacteria and four fungal cultures. Plant extracts exhibited concentration dependent antimicrobial properties. The extracts displayed highest antibacterial activity against Hafnia alvei, Enterobacter agglomerans, Lactobacillus and Bacillus thuringiensis while fungal species viz. Penicillium lilacinum, Paecilomyces variotii, Spadicoides stoveri, Penicillium funiculosum showed variable degrees of inhibition even at lower concentration.
 
n present study, antistaphylococcal activity of endemic Salvia chrysophylla Stapf. naturally distributed in Denizli (Turkey) and its vicinity was investigated. The antistaphylococcal activity of the crude extracts was evaluated against two strong microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus and Cowan liyofili. The activity was detected by using broth microdilution methods. When compared with other studies, mic value of our study is further low. The essential oils of endemic Salvia chrysophyla in Denizli was analyzed by GC-MS. The major constituents of the oil of S. chrysophyla were 3-oktanol, α-phellandren-8-ol, camphor and limonene.
 
Effect of D-mannose on antioxidant defense response, apoptotic internucleosomal nuclear DNA (nDNA) degradation, and protease activity was studied in roots of wheat seedlings during early growth. Mannose (1%) induced apoptotic internucleosomal nDNA fragmentation after 96 hours of treatment when it was not observed in control. Superoxide dismutase activity was down regulated parallel to induction of apoptosis. Protease activity was enhanced prior to induction of apoptosis which shows involvement of proteolysis in apoptotic induction process. More over a sharp increase in membrane lipid peroxidation (MDA content) was also observed during apoptosis induction. Catalase and peroxidase activities were increased 24 hours before apoptotic induction while down regulated at time of induction. Total phenolic content was down regulated 48 hours before induction of apoptosis. Collectivity antioxidant defense was down regulated and proteases activities and lipid peroxidation were enhanced during induction of apoptosis and thus play a key role in controlling D-mannose induced apoptotic process. New apoptotic effect of D-mannose in wheat roots in connection with antioxidants and proteases activities is discussed in detail.
 
Research studies are carried out for cultivation potential of medicinal and aromatic plants [Thyme, Oregano, Rosemary, Sage (belonging to the family Lamiaceae)] in Balochistan. The species studied showed good adaptability in cold and dry area and production potential in highland Balochistan. A medicinal herb garden was also established at Arid Zone Research Centre, Quetta with more than 60 potential medicinal and aromatic plants. This germplasm category includes culinary and herbal teas (Thymus vulgaris, Matricaria recutita, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Cymbopogon citrates, Artemisia drancunculus, Origanum majorana, Origanum vulgare). Aromatic plants (Lavandula angustifolia, Lavandula stoechas, Rosmarinus officinalis) and medicinal plants (Tanacetum parthenium, Hyssopus officinalis, Pimpinella anisum, Achillea celifolium, Achillea millefolium, Borago officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Oenothera biennis, Crocus sativus). Available germplasm of annually sown crops like (Foeniculum vulgare, Carum copticum, Linum usitatissimum, Anethunm sowa and Nigella sativa, Cuminum cyminum) were also evaluated and characterized for morphological description and registration with the Federal Seed Registration and Certification Department. These crops have also been introduced among the farming communities in different agro-ecological zones of Balochistan. The results indicate that medicinal and aromatic plants have great potential for commercial scale cultivation in Balochistan subject to provision of better and sustainable marketing avenues.
 
Birjand is located near the Afghanistan border in eastern part Iran at the 57° 45´ to 50° 60´ latitude and 10° 31´ to 33° 15´ northern longitude with an altitude of 1419 m, and a surface area of 31704 Km. In this contribution some floristic and ethnobotanical aspects of the area are given according to the conventional methods used in taxonomical and ethnobotanical studies. All collected plants were identified using available flora. A total of 37 families, 128 genera and 160 species were identified from the area. The largest family is Asteraceae with 16 genera and 22 species and the largest genera are Salsola and Acanthophyllum with 4 species. About 40% of plants are used as medicinal plants, 47/8% pastural, 8/3% poisonous and 4% with industrial uses. The life form of plant species was determined using the Raunkier's method. Phanerophytes comprised 11/45%, chamaephytes 20%, hemicryptophytes 27%, chryptophytes 5/7% and therophytes 33% of the flora of the area. The most important medicinal plants of the area are: Achillea tenuifolia (Asteraceae), Berberis vulgaris (Berberidaceae), Ephedra procera (Ephedraceae), Crocus sativus (Iridaceae), Hymenocrater calycinus, Teucrium polium, Ziziphora clinipodiodes (Lamiaceae), Ziziphus jojoba (Rhamnaceae) and Pistacia atlantica (Anacardiaceae). The most important industrial species are: Ferula assa-foetida and Dorema ammoniacum (Apiaceae).
 
The research work was carried out to study the effect of sucrose induced osmotic stress on callus growth and biochemical aspects of two wheat genotypes (S-24 and MH-97). The seeds were cultured on Linsmaier and Skoog medium containing 30g sucrose, 8g agar, 5mg L-1 thiamine HCl and 3mg L-1 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. One month old calli were subcultured for 15 d in liquid LS-medium supplemented with same concentration of thiamine HCl and 2,4-D. and different concentrations of sucrose [control, (3%), 4%, 6% 5% and 8%]. After 15 d of sucrose induced osmotic stress the results revealed that relative growth rate (fresh), macro cations (K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ )and micro cations (Mn2+, Fe2+) significantly decreased, while dry weight, free proline, total soluble carbohydrates contents and water relation parameters significantly increased (more negative) as concentration of sucrose increased in the culture medium. The effects of sucrose induced osmotic stress was greater on MH-97 than S-24.It is concluded that increasing sucrose concentrations in the medium above control caused osmotic stress and it also been found that accumulation of free proline and total soluble carbohydrates accumulated in greater amount responsible for turgor maintenance and increase in callus dry weights.
 
General appearance of North Cyprus.  
Distribution area of ▄: Teucrium cyprium subsp.kyreniae, ▲: Pimpinella cypria, O: Ferulago cypria, : Limonium albidum subsp.cyprium and ●: Scutellaria sibthorpii.  
Results of the germination trials
Origanum syriacum var.bevanii a. General appearance, b. Inflorescence, c. Detailed view of inflorescence, d. Detailed view of flower and calyx.  
Phlomis cypria var.cypria a. General appearance, b. Inflorescence, c. Flower, d. Calyx and brakteol (Fruit).  
The aim of this study was to investigate the morphology of 10 endemic taxa Pimpinella cypria, Ferulago cypria, Limonium albidum subsp. cyprium, Onosma caespitosum, Origanum syriacum var. bevanii, Salvia veneris, Sideritis cypria, Phlomis cypria var. cypria, Scutellaria sibthorpii and Teucrium cyprium subsp. kyreniae distributed in Northern Cyprus. These belong to the families Apiaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Boraginaceae, and Lamiaceae. All these species are distributed only on the Beshparmak mountains in the northern part of Cyprus and are under a threat of extinction due to severe habitat degradation arising from human activities, forests fires and stone queries. The micrographs of the seeds were taken by means of trinocular stereo dissection microscope, and detailed morphological features recorded from the fresh and dried samples collected during 2001-2004. An attempt has been made for transplantation of these species to some protected sites.
 
Analysis of raw and composted fruit and vegetable wastes
Comparative effect of L-TRP/IAA-treated NEC on nitrogen and phosphorus of maize with/without N fertilizer (Field trial, average of three repeats)
In the present study compost was prepared from waste fruit and vegetables and enriched with 25% (44 kg ha-1) of full dose (175 kg ha-1) of N fertilizer for maize. Pure auxin, indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and L-TRP (precursor) were blended with respective batches @ 10 mg kg-1 compost for the value addition of N-enriched compost (NEC). Comparative effectiveness of IAA or L-TRP-blended NEC was studied, in the presence or absence of 50% (88 kg N ha-1) of full dose of N fertilizer, through pot and field trials. Compost was applied @ 300 kg ha-1. Results indicated that IAA-blended NEC supplemented with half dose of N fertilizer was as effective as NEC in improving growth and yield of maize. However, precursor (L-TRP)-blended NEC was found better than pure auxin (IAA)-blended, when both were compared with NEC. It significantly improved growth, yield and nutrient uptakes (up to 8.4, 8.6 and 11% respectively) of maize over NEC in the presence of 88 kg N ha-1. The technology bears its promise not only to improve crop yield on sustainable basis but also reduce huge piles of organic wastes causing environmental pollution.
 
The plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) may improve growth and nodulation of leguminous crops through their ACC-deaminase activity. Their plant growth promoting activity can further be improved by adding recycled organic material which could act as a carrier to enhance microbial activities under field conditions. Three bacterial strains with ACC-deaminase were evaluated for their potentials to improve growth, yield and nodulation of chickpea (Cicer arientum L.) in the presence and absence of composted organic material enriched with P, both under pot and field conditions. The integrated use of PGPB and P-enriched compost resulted in a highly significant increase in fresh biomass (84%), number of pods plant-1 (97%), grain yield (79%) and number of nodules plant-1 (87%) compared to uninoculated control (without compost). The findings imply that inoculation with PGPB containing ACC-deaminase in the presence of P-enriched compost could be highly effective in improving growth, yield and nodulation of chickpea than sole application of either PGPB or P-enriched compost.
 
The percentage distribution of major trees species and other formations in the forests of Turkey
a: The distribution of Pinus sylvestris associations in Turkey 
b: The distribution of Carpinus betulus associations in Turkey 
Pinus L. and Carpinus L. are the two widely distributed genera of gymnosperms being represented by 80 and 170 species respectively. The former has 5 species in Turkey and latter 2 species namely; P.pinea, P.halepensis, P.brutia, P.sylvestris, P.nigra ssp. pallasiana, Carpinus betulus and C.orientalis. In this paper an attempt has been made to present an overview of the geobotanical structure of Pinus sylvestris L. and Carpinus betulus L. in Turkey. Out of 20.2 million hectares of forests in Turkey yellow pine covers nearly 1.3 million ha and hornbeam species around 10 thousand ha. The forests of P. sylvestris are found in North, Northeast Anatolia, on Murat mountains around Kutahya and C. betulus mainly in Thrace, Marmara, Black Sea and Inner Anatolia. P. sylvestris is represented by 9 associations; Pinus sylvestris-Vaccinum myrtillus, Pinus sylvestris - Daphne glomerata, Pinus sylvestis - Astragalus adzharicus, Pinus sylvestris-Lilium ciliatum, Pinus sylvestris-Daphne pontica, Pinus sylvestris-Populus tremula, Populo-Pinetum sylvestris, Pinus sylvestris-Orthilio secundo, Pinus sylvestris f.lazica-Epimedium pinnatum subsp.colchicum, Triseto-Pinetum sylvestris, whereas C. betulus has only 6 associations Carpinus betulus-Scaligeria tripartita, Carpinus betulus-Acer campestre, Quercus petraea ssp. iberica-Carpinus betulus, Carpinus betulus-Quercus petrae ssp. iberica, Fagus orientalis-Carpinus betulus. P.sylvestris associations are floristically rich having 275 taxa as compared to C.betulus forests which embody only 121 taxa. The life form spectrum of P.sylvestris forests includes 146 chamaephytes, 44 hemicryptophytes, 40 phanerophytes, 28 cryptophytes and 17 therophytes, whereas C.betulus forests include 23 phanerophytes, 39 chamephytes, 36 hemicryptophytes,14 cryptophytes and 8 therophytes. Phytogeographically a major part of the taxa in P.sylvestris forests are Euro-Siberian elements (24.4 %) followed by the Irano-Turanian (6.4 %) and Mediterranean (1.4 %). In C.betulus forests the distribution is as follows; Euro-Siberian-Euxine elements ( 83 %) followed by Mediterranean (14 %) and Irano-Turanian (3%). These observations stress the fact that geobotanically these forests prefer mainly high altitude moist habitats in the north and northeastern parts of Turkey.
 
The objectives of the research project were to evaluate the effect of planting modes based on varying moisture levels on the growth and yield of two lowland rice cultivars viz. KS-282 (coarse cultivar) and BAS-385 (fine cultivar) under natural conditions at three successive stages (viz. tillering, soft dough and mature grain stages) of grain filling. The two cultivars were grown in two different planting modes i.e. beds and flat fields at Kala Shah Kaku (KSK), Lahore. The endogenous level of growth promoting hormones Gibberellic Acid (GA) and Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) as well as sugar and protein content of leaves and grain increased at tillering and soft dough stages but decreased at mature grain stage. The magnitude of increase was more in flat field (FF) as compared to raised beds (RB) in both the cultivars. The stomatal resistance of flag and penultimate leaves was higher in flat field as compared to raised beds at tillering stage in both the cultivars. Root length, weight and plant height was significantly higher in BAS-385 as compared to KS-282 under both planting modes. It was concluded that difference in the moisture availability significantly affected the physiology of plants leading to higher yield in FF planting modes as compared to RB. The endogenous level of plant hormones (IAA and GA) affected the translocation of assimilates. KS-282 cultivar performed better with respect to yield. However, leaves and grains of BAS-385 contained more sugar and protein content than KS-282.
 
Metal element dose effect on the number of leaves, shoot length, root length and seedling length of Dalbergia sisso Roxb.
Effects of heavy metals on chlorophyll contents of Dalbergia sissoo seedlings
The present study investigated the effects of Cadmium (Cd) and Chromium (Cr) on the growth of Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) seedlings. Metal elements were applied in the form of Cd(SO4)2 and K2CrO4 at variegated concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg L-1 under controlled conditions of light and temperature for four weeks. Response of the seedlings was monitored in terms of number of leaves, shoot and root length, leaves, root and shoot weight (fresh and oven dry) and chlorophyll contents. Decline in growth was recorded after 10 mg L-1 and 40 mg L-1 for Cr and Cd application respectively. Similarly, combined application of Cd and Cr showed growth reduction beyond 20 mg L-1 dose. Chromium appeared to be more toxic to Dalbergia sissoo as compared to Cd at seedling stage.
 
The sampling stations of the Istanbul Strait  
A first report of the coccolithophorid flora in the phytoplankton of the Istanbul Strait is presented in this paper. Samples were taken with a Nansen bottle at three depths (surface, -5 m, -10 m), on the coast of Istanbul Strait, considering four different areas: Üsküdar, Çengelköy, Kanlica and Beykoz during May 97 and August 1998. Density, biomass and total phytoplankton chlorophyll a content were calculated. During the study period, some physical and chemical parameters were measured. A total of five species of coccolithophorids were observed at sites, however considerable differences were observed in the seasonal fluctuations of density and biomass. A bloom was observed during May 1997. Calyptrosphaera species was the most dominated species followed by Anacanthoica acanthos (Shiller) Deflandre. Biomass, quantified as biovolume, showed a well-defined seasonal pattern transferred to the field with 100% survival rate.
 
Plant fresh and dry biomasses, leaf, root or grain Na + , K + and Cl -concentration of rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants when 30-day old plants were subjected for 23 days to different levels of phosphorus under salt stress.
Leaf, root or grain P and Ca 2+ concentration of rice (Oryza sativa L.) when 30-day old plants were subjected for 23 days to different levels of phosphorus under salt stress.
A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the influence of rooting medium application of phosphorus on mineral nutrients status of rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants under normal or saline conditions. There were four levels (control, 20, 40 and 60 mmol kg-1) of NaCl and three levels of phosphorus (control, 30 and 60 mg kg-1) applied through rooting medium. Imposition of varying levels of salt stress markedly decreased the plant fresh and dry biomasses due to increase in the leaf, and root Na+, and Cl- concentrations. In contrast, a significant reduction in the leaf and root K+, Ca2+ and root P was also observed in the rice plants. A non-significant effect of salt stress was observed on leaf P, and grain Cl-, K+, Ca2+ and P concentrations. Maximum increase or decrease in these nutrients was observed at 60 mmol NaCl/kg. Different levels of phosphorus applied through rooting medium inhibit the accumulation of Na+ and Cl- in leaf and roots, while enhance the leaf and root K+, P along with Ca2+. Among all levels, 60 mg kg-1 of phosphorous was observed most effective in relation to these nutrients studied in rice plants.
 
Mugla Province, its administrative districts and location in Turkey. 
Mean Cd (A), Pb (B) and Zn (C) concentrations in branches, washed and unwashed leaves as μ g g -1 dw together with S.E. bars. B: Branch, UL: Unwashed leaves, WL: Washed 
This study was firstly aimed to find out the measures of Cd, Pb and Zn as the heavy metal pollution in Mugla Province, and secondly if Pyracantha coccinea Roem. (firethorn) can be used as a biomonitor and phytoremediation. P. coccinea samples were collected from 34 localities in four different areas of Mugla Province, during vegetation period in 2006. The Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations of unwashed and washed leaf samples and unwashed branch samples were measured by ICP-OES. As a result of measurements, the average highest value of Cd accumulation has been reached in unwashed leaf samples, which were collected near highways. The value was 0.36±0.60 μg g-1 dw. The lowest value was detected as 0.16±0.04 μg g-1 dw, in washed leaf samples which were found in industrial area. The average highest value of Pb (14.93±1.23 μg g-1 dw) was determined in the branch samples collected in industrial area whilst the lowest (5.60±1.47 μg g-1 dw) were in washed leaf samples collected in industrial area too. The highest Zn (15.57±1.66 μg g-1 dw) was measured in the branch samples collected in city center, whilst the lowest was measured in the branch samples (8.99±1.32 μg g-1 dw) collected in city center too. It was proven that P. coccinea can be used as a biomonitor species for these heavy metals. It was also observed that this species could be used for phytoremediation procedure.
 
The genus Inula L. (s.l.) is systematically revised from Pakistan and Kashmir. A synthetic approach is adopted by utilizing the data from different aspects including palynology, cypsela morphology, chemistry and phytogeography. The data is analyzed numerically as well. In all 6 genera (22 species) are recognized from Pakistan and Kashmir, which includes one new genus: Lackia R. Dawar; Inula L. (s.str.), Pentanema Cass., Duhaldea DC., Dittrichia Greuter and Iphiolla Casso Two new species viz., Inula koelzii Dawar & Qaiser (already published) and Inula stewartii Dawar are described, while two new combinations (Duhaldea latifolia (DC.) Dawar & Qaiser and Lackia rhizocephala (Schrenk) Dawar) are also proposed. All the taxa are grouped into 4 different pollen types, namely Inula acuminata-type, Pentanema divaricatum-type, Duhaldea cappa-type and Lackia rhizocephala-type, mainly on the bases of polar length, tectum pattern between spines and apices of spines. Two types viz., Inula acuminata-type and Duhaldea cappa-type have much more morphologically diverse and higher number of taxa. Morphological data of cypselae also strengthen the existence of different genera with the exception of Inula complex (including Inula L. (s.str.) and Duhaldea DC.) which have :I: similar type of cypselae. Twenty one taxa are analyzed for their p'1enolic constituents and most of the taxa can be delimited on the bases of presence or absence of certain phenolic constituents, Q-coumaric acid along with sakuranetin 1aesculin with sakuranetin and tricin 5-glucoside with O-coumaric acid are exclusively present in Dittrichia Greuter ,Lackia R.Dawar and lphiona Cass., respectively. However, the genera lnula L. (s.str.) and Pentanema Cass., do not have any specific compounds. The data obtained from macro and micromorphology of cypselae, pollen grains and chemistry are analyzed numerically by clustering to study the relationships among different species and genera of lnula L. (s.1.), As far as the distribution pattern is concerned, out of twenty one taxa 15 taxa are uniregional elements from which 7 are typically Irano-Turanian, 4 are Sino-Japanese,2 are Saharo-Sindian, one is Indian and last one is Mediterranean element. While, 5 taxa are biregional elements, out of them 3 taxa occur equally in Irano-Turanian and Sino-Japanese region. One of them penetrates from Irano-Turanian to Saharo-Sindian region and remaining one occurs in Indian and Saharo-Sindian region. Only one taxon is pluriregional element as it is distributed in Irano-Turanian, Euro,-Siberian and Mediterranean region. Only two species (lnula koelzii Dawar & Qaiser and I. stewartii Dawar) are found to be endemic to Kashmir (Irano-Turanian region).
 
Effect of winter application of low-biuret urea on fruit set, yield and physical quality characters of 'Blood Red' sweet Orange fruit 
The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum time of low-biuret urea (LBU) applied as a foliar spray to improve marketable yield and fruit quality of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck.) cv “Blood Red”. Two percent solution of LBU was sprayed on 15 years old plants to the point of run off, on 15th of October, November and December in 2004. Simple water spray was used as control. Plants selected for the experiment were grafted on rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) rootstock and were grown at University of Agriculture Faisalabad (Latitude 31° 25' North; Longitude: 73° 09'), Pakistan. Experiment was laid out in RCBD, using single plant as a treatment unit with three replicates. Foliar spray of 2% LBU on 15th November, 2004 significantly increased total yield (102%) as well as grade-I fruit yield (75%) compared with control. Fruit quality including pulp colour score (40%), TSS (33%), vitamin C (10%), TSS/TA (19%), sugars (44%) and taste score (37%), of November treated samples were significantly greater as compared to control. Significant decrease in fruit weight, fruit diameter, and number of aborted seeds/fruit was recorded in all the treatments as compared to the highest values in control, followed by the treatments applied on 15th of December, October and November, 2004 respectively. Highest value of 108.3g for fruit weight and 56.9mm diameter were found in plants treated on 15th November, 2004. No effect was observed in juice contents, peel weight or acidity with LBU treatments. Overall, foliar spray of 2% LBU applied on 15th November, 2004, produced better results for improving marketable yield and fruit quality of “Blood Red” sweet orange.
 
Linkage group 4b showing SCAR and STMS markers (Iruela et al., 2006)
Sequence Tagged Microsatellite Sites (STMS) TA-146 
Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) SCY17 590 
Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) SCAE19 336 
Chickpea blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei is one of the major diseases in Pakistan and other chickpea growing regions of the world. Different QTLs for resistance against the fungus have been identified in both inter and intraspecific crosses and are located on Linkage Group (LG) 2, 4a, 4b and 6. The objective of the present study was to screen local genotypes for the QTLs involved in resistance against blight. For this screening SSR, SCAR, ISSR and RAPD techniques have been tried to detect the reported QTLs in 21 mutants/local genotypes. The screening for Ascochyta blight of these genotypes has been carried out in the Ascochyta blight screening nursery for three years at NIAB. The results revealed that QTL linked with STMS, RAPD and ISSR markers on LG2, 4a and 6 are not involved in conferring resistance in local genotypes. Another important QTL on LG 4b is saturated with RAPD, SCAR and STMS markers and our studies of local genotypes showed strong linkage of STMS and SCAR markers with blight resistance on this linkage group.
 
Chemical analysis of growing media before and after growing of Zinnia plants
Effect of various growth media on vegetative plant characteristics of Zinnia elegance cv. Blue Point
Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different growing media on the growth and flowering of Zinnia elegans cv. Blue Point. Five different growth media including coconut compost, silt, soil, leaf manure, leaf manure mix (silt + leaf manure + coconut compost; 1:1:1) were used for growing zinnia. The experiment was laid out in Complete Randomized Design giving equal importance to treatments. Number of flowers, blooming period, number of lateral branches per plant, number of leaves per plant, plant height (cm), leaf area(cm2), days to first flower emergence, size of flower and flower quality were determined. The properties of each medium, including water holding capacity (saturation percentage), pH, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium were also determined. Plant height (cm), number of leaves per plant, number of side branches, days to first flower emergence and number of flowers were affected significantly when plants were grown in leaf manure mix. Coconut compost gave maximum size of flowers which was significantly greater than soil. Flower quality was found to be non-significantly affected with the use of various growth media. It is therefore opined that the utilization of coconut compost, silt and leaf manure is a good source of NPK. Therefore, utilization of growing media in combinations proves more effective for the good growth and flowering of zinnia.
 
Narrow and twisting flower bract exists in addition to normal broad bract in cotton germplasm which has been named as frego bract. In this bract type, bracteole is reduced; hence do not provide shelter to eggs/nymphs of insects and has been reported to provide resistance against some insect pests like bollworms and boll weevil. Inheritance of this trait was studied by crossing normal and frego bract genotypes. In the F2 population normal bract and frego bract plants were in the ratio of 3:1 showing monogenic inheritance of the trait, frego bract being recessive. The test cross ratio of 1:1 confirmed the monogenic inheritance. The F2 population was used to study linkage relationship of frego bract with fibre (staple length, fibre fineness, fibre strength) and seed traits (ginning out turn, seed index and seed volume). There was positive correlation of bract type with fibre strength (normal bract allele and alleles for strong fibre seemed to be on the same chromosome). The absence of correlation of the gene for frego bract with the other traits, shows that it segregates independently in relation to those traits. Hence frego bract type plants may be tailored with good combination of agronomic traits.
 
Performance of mungbean advanced mutants in yield trial during summer 2007 at NIFA, Peshawar
Performance of mungbean advanced lines in yield trial during summer 2007 at NIFA, Peshawar
Genetic variability was created for seed yield and its components in mungbean through hybridization by using local and exotic germplasm and through induced mutations only in local germplasm during summer and kharif 2004, respectively. The stable and high yielding genotypes developed through selections from the segregating populations were screened for Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMV) during kharif 2006 and evaluated in replicated yield trials for seed yield and some important agronomic traits at NIFA, Peshawar during summer 2007. The mutants/recombinants with significantly higher seed yield than check variety showed seed yield of 2250 to 3042 kg ha-1. The 1000 seed weight, days to flowering and physiological maturity of all the evaluated mutants/recombinants ranged from 39 to 51g, 40 to 49 days and 79 to 84 days, respectively. The MYMV rating of the mutants/recombinants was from resistant to highly resistant.
 
The present investigation was conducted for the estimation of fixed oils from various explants and respective callus cultures in jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). Leaves, nodes, internodes, shoot apices and cotyledons were used as explants. MS media containing different concentrations of growth regulators were used for callus induction. Quantitative estimation of oils of different explants revealed that cotyledonary explant contained highest amount of oil. Leaves contained second highest amount, followed by shoot apices, nodes and internodes. Comparison of oil yield from explants with six or nine weeks-old callus cultures indicated that explants had highest amount of oil content followed by nine and six weeks old callus cultures.
 
Water relations study sites for C. spinosa on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey.
Map showing distribution area of C. spinosa in Turkey.
Capparis spinosa from the family Capparidaceae is widely distributed on varying habitats in Turkey. Recently, it has been recommended for the evaluation of degraded arid lands in the country. This study was thus undertaken to investigate the diurnal time course of water relations of C. spinosa L. growing on healthy and degraded sites. Water stress was analysed on the basis of stomatal conductance (gs), leaf water potential (w) and transpiration rate. The species appeared to be a drought resistant with lower WSIS (16 MPa h), showing a negligible difference between the two sites. A high gs, with lowest WSIS value shows that despite being a water spender, C. spinosa dynamically recovers even in the warmest hours of the day and under drought conditions. The long roots and wide ecological amplitude allow it to withstand harsh environments. The species thus appears to be a suitable candidate for the protection of degraded areas.
 
Distribution map of Bienertia cycloptera with selected climatic diagrams of stations near its sites. Map is based on the materials studied by H. Akhani and some localities gained from literature (see text). Climatic diagrams are provided based on the climatic data obtained from the Iranian Meteorological Organization and provided according 
Vegetation profile (down) and soil chemical properties (up) along 50-m transect in RudeShur, near Mardabad. 
(A) Association of Bienertia cycloptera (indicated by arrow) with Climacoptera turcomanica and Tamarix shrubs, along Kal-Shur river (Turan Protected Area). (B) Habit of B. cycloptera, 25 km S Delijan (Esfahan Province). (C, D) Close up (cp) of flowering (D) and fruiting branches (C). (E) Soil profile and root branching of B. cycloptera in Mobarakieh. (F) cp of flowering branch of Suaeda physophora in a 1822-m altitude saline, 67 km W Damghan (Semnan Province). (G) Habit of Halopeplis pygmaea, at the beginning of Qom-Tehran Highway (all pictures from H. Akhani). 
Ordination obtained according to DCA (Detrended Correspondence Analysis) method of 42 plots in plant communities, and with surrounding vegetation units lacking Bienertia cycloptera, showing three major groups and correlation of plant communities with altitude, shrub coverage and C4 percentage. RelevØ No. 9 is omitted from ordination. Eigenvalue for axis 1 = 0.694; eigenvalue for axis 2 = 0.552. 
SEM image of pollen grain: (A) Bienertia cycloptera (Iran: Akhani and Ghobadnejhad 15 799); (B) Suaeda physophora (Iran: Akhani and Salimian 15 334); (C) S. aegyptiaca (Iran: Akhani 9066); (D) S. arcuata (Iran: Akhani 5817, unacetolized); (E) S. crassifolia (Turkmenistan: Gurbanov and Seifulin 10. 9.1976); (F) Borsczowia aralocaspica (Kazakhstan: Androsov 3536); (G) Suaeda linifolia (Iran: Akhani and Ghobadnejhad 
Salicornia is a most complicated vascular plant group which its taxonomy and species circumscription is considered as a night-mare. This first revision of Iranian species is based on long-term field studies, co-cultivation of plants in the laboratory, ecological, cytological and molecular studies and determination of carbon isotope composition. In this paper the species of Central and Southern Iran are dealt with which will be followed by another paper on the Northern and Northwestern parts of Iran. In this paper the presence of four species, one subspecies and one putative hybrid in the area is accepted. In addition to recently described S. persica Akhani from Central Iran, four more new taxa and one new putative hybrid are described for science: (1) S. iranica Akhani spec. nov. is a diploid species widespread in central Iranian salines. This is characterized by erect habit and short opposite upper spikes; (2) S. sinus-persica Akhani spec. nov. is described from Southern Iran in Khuzestan, Bushehr and Hormozgan Provinces along the saline and brackish rivers running to the Persian Gulf and estuaries and coastal habitats. This is a diploid species characterized by yellowish colour and ascending to loosely prostrate and much branched habit; (3) S. perspolitana Akhani spec. nov. is related to S. persica which is described from South-Central Iranian salines around Tashk and Bakhtegan hypersaline lakes. This is a prostrate plant with leaf-like bracts, a character which is known for the first time in the genus Salicornia; (4) S. persica subsp. rudshurensis Akhani is a taxon found in North-Central Iran in Tehran province which differs from typical subspecies by slender spikes and obtuse central flowers; and (5) S. x tashkensis Akhani hybrid nov. is a putative hybrid found only in Tashk lake in South-Central Iran. The elongate and pendant fruiting spikes and absence of seeds in most flowers is distinctive in this taxon. The carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of most species are given and the chromosome numbers (so far investigated) are reported. The ecology, threats and biogeographical importance of the species are discussed and photographs of living plants are provided. An identification key to the known species of Iranian Salicornia is given.
 
Response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. NIAB-78) to salinity, in terms of seed germination, seedling root growth and root Na+ and K+ content was determined in a laboratory experiment. Cotton seeds were exposed to increasing salinity levels using germination water with Sodium chloride concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM, to provide different degrees of salt stress. Germinated seeds were counted and roots were harvested at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after the start of the experiment. It appeared that seed germination was only slightly affected by an increase in salinity (in most cases the differences between treatment were non-significant), whereas root length, root growth rate, root fresh and dry weights were severely affected, generally highly significant differences in these variables were found for comparisons involving most combinations of salinity levels, in particular with increased incubation period. K+ contents decreased with increasing salinity levels, although differences in K+ content were only significant when comparing the control and the 4 salinity levels. Na+ content of the roots increased with increasing levels of NaCl in the germination water, suggesting an exchange of K+ for Na+. The ratio K+/Na+ strongly decreased with rising levels of salinity from around 4.5 for the control to similar to 1 at 200 mM NaCl.
 
Description of regulatory elements found in full length cloned region.
Regulatory elements found in promoter of OsRGLP1
Germin and germin-like proteins constitute a large family of plant proteins which are also considered as germination markers due to their high expression levels during germination/early growth. These proteins are known to be involved in many stress related processes as well, but their biochemical functions and physiological roles have not been fully described. In order to gain insight into the functions and regulation of a rice germin-like protein gene 1, about 1.2 kb of its upstream region was amplified, cloned, sequenced and analyzed. Analysis showed that this promoter has a very little homology with the promoters of other GLP genes within rice genome. The promoter contains putative regulatory elements of diverse functions and has distinct copy number, location and clustering pattern of regulatory elements in its sequence. This promoter being unique requires further characterization to explore its regulatory role.
 
Analysis of variance of different yield traits in F 2 generation of spring wheat.
Correlation studies were conducted in F2 progenies of an 8x8 complete diallel cross of wheat genotypes, sown at the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi during 2002. The association among different yield contributing traits was studied at genotypic and phenotypic levels. The results revealed positive correlation in case of number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike and 1000 grain weight with grain yield at both genotypic and phenotypic levels. However, number of tillers per m2 and spike length contributed negatively towards grain yield at both levels. Plant height was positively correlated with grain yield at genotypic level, whereas negatively correlated at phenotypic levels. It was, therefore, suggested that number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike and 1000 grain weight should be given emphasis for future wheat yield improvement programs.
 
In vitro direct regeneration protocol for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), A- Surface sterilization, B-Planting seeds on MSØ media, C-1-week-old young plantlets, D-Cotyledonary nodes, E-Isolation of cotyledonary nodes, F-Culturing on MS + 0.1 mg/L KIN + 1 g/L PVP, G-In vitro direct regeneration, H-Subculturing on MS + 0.1 mg/L KIN + 2 mg/L NAA + 1 g/l PVP, I-Rooting in WPM and 1 mg/L IBA, J- Adaptation to the soil.  
The purpose of this study was to develop an efficient micropropagation system for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), a worldwide commercially important fiber crops. In this study, successful shoot and root induction were achieved from cotyledonary nodes of two different cotton genotypes, Nazilli 84S and Çukurova 1518 which are widely planting in Turkey. Plant tissue culture systems were established on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with various plant growth regulators using cotyledonary nodes with hypocotyl pieces as explant. Explants were placed on different MS media supplemented with different combinations of kinetin (KIN) and α-Naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA). Seven-day-old explants were used and germination, regeneration and rooting processes were consisted in 5 weeks. The best regeneration responses were from cotyledonary nodes of Nazilli 84S - 80 % and Çukurova 1518 - 75 %. Successful direct regeneration and rooting were obtained and significant differences were not seen between two genotypes. In addition, regenerated young plants were phenotypically normal and they set seeds. This rapid in vitro regeneration and rooting procedure can be also available for use of particle gun and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.
 
Pollen analysis of genus Hibiscus 
Fig.4  
Fig.6  
Fig.20  
Pollen morphology of four species and three cultivars belonging to genus Hibiscus of family Malvaceae from North West Frontier Province (N.W.F.P.) of Pakistan were examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen morphology of the family is fairly uniform. Pollen grains are generally radially symmetrical apolar, mostly spheroidal to oblate-spheroidal, pantoporate or polyporate. Tectum uniformly echinate, medium to finely perforated, or punctate with granules or scabrae in between spines.
 
Seventeen Rhizopus isolates were used for the production of glucoamylase. An extensive screening program was carried out to select the potential isolates. Among those, Rhizopus-RFF showed the 100% relative activities and farther investigations were carried out by the Rhizopus-RFF. To optimize the suitable environmental condition for the production of maximum activities of glucoamylase, some of their physicochemical parameters such as temperature, range of pH, incubation period, and nitrogen sources were separately tested. 10% potato starch was used as substrate for fermentation process. The highest percentage of enzyme activity was observed at 45ºC with pH 4.5. Combined use of 0.3% polypeptone and 0.3% yeast extract was yielded 8.33 /gm the highest activities of enzyme.
 
Interest in plants is increasing and much work is being carried out these days on their multipurpose uses. A great impetus has been given to this during the last 3 decades. Several publications have been made by different investigators. Large number of naturally growing plants are collected and sold at the markets. Nearly 500 plants are used for primary health care in Turkey and a 23 in Cyprus. However, not much is known about the poisonous plants. Some of these are toxic and others cause reaction. Plant poisoning lies around 6 %, rurals suffer more from the consumption of naturally growing plants as compared to urban dwellers. One has to be very cautious before using these plants as the plants used for the purpose of treatment of diseases as a whole or parts thereof or consumed by the public directly could prove dangerous for the health. This paper describes ethnoecological aspects of the widely distributed major poisonous plants in Turkey and Northern Cyprus which can prove fatal if used unknowingly. Major applications and active constituents of plant taxa are outlined.
 
Electron micrograph of meiocytes showing 4-nucleoli (NU), Centromere (CM), and association of chromatin with nuclear membrane, X25000  
A section of late Pachytene showing association of chromosome with nucleolus, which shows centromere (CM). Recombination nodules (RNs) are also evident in the adjacent sectioned bivalent (BV) Mitochondria (M), X28000  
A portion of Fig.2 enlarged, micrograph to show structure of Synaptonemal Complex marked with recombination nodules (RNs) and centromere (CM). X29000  
Ultramicrograph shows meiocytes at Diakinesis, where the most of bivalent are sectioned transversely and some tangentionally. At certain points centromere (CS) can also be identified X25000  
At the ultrastructural level Synaptonemal Complexes were studied in Datura innoxia, a polyploid. The attachment of the chromosome ends with the nuclear membrane is documented. In addition, our study has revealed the general features of synaptonemal complexes associated with centromeres (CM) and recombination nodules (RNs). The present paper also describes first time a close relationship between nucleolus and chromosomes.
 
Selection of drought adapted genotypes and efficient use of water are among the most important goals in the breeding programs. In order to study drought tolerance of three important species of millets, Proso millet (Panicum miliaseum), Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and Pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum) were planted in a split-plot design with two irrigation treatments (well watered and 50% of irrigation requirement) and four replications in Birjand Agricultural Research Station, Iran. Deficit irrigation declined yield by reduction of seed number per ear and ear number per plant. This reduction was greater in Proso millet than the other two species. In addition, although, drought stress caused a reduction in WUE of Proso millet, it increased WUE in the other ones. Harvest index also reduced in the presence of drought stress due to of both seed per ear and per plant reduction. Tillering started earlier in Proso millet than the other millets. Although, stem elongation started earlier in foxtail millet than the other millets, but its ear was emerged very late. Water stress caused reduction in the number of tiller and ear, peduncle and ear length and plant height. On the whole, foxtail millet showed the greatest yield in both stress and non-stress conditions.
 
Effect of treatment and time of harvest on external fruit quality
Sapburn injury is regarded as the most serious threat to external fruit quality of mango. When the stem (pedicel) of a mango fruit is broken, the sap exudes out; spreading over the fruit peel causes serious skin damages. This study was intended to determine the best time of harvest and desapping for maximum control of sapburn injury in mango fruits. The performance of lime [Ca(OH)2] was evaluated at different times of the day in comparison with Australian industry product “Mango Wash”. The fruits were harvested at three different times of the day: morning (7 a.m.), noon (12 p.m.) and evening (5 p.m.) and subjected to lime (@ 0.5%) and Mango Wash (@ 0.4%) treatments. No sap injury (0 score) was observed in the fruits harvested and de-sapped during morning whereas maximum sap injury was observed at noon in both the cases (0.5 score for lime, 0.75 score for Mango Wash). Both lime and Mango Wash showed significantly less sap injury as compared to control for all the three times of treatment application. Almost all of the physico-chemical attributes (except fruit peel colour and non-reducing sugar contents) were non-significantly affected by the desapping treatments. Fruit peel colour was slightly suppressed by Mango Wash. Lime was found to impart attractive appearance to the fruits; however the skin colour was not significantly improved as compared to control. The time of fruit harvest also exerted non significant effects on most of the fruit quality attributes. Significantly higher TSS value was measured in the fruit harvested at noon as compared to other times of the day. Minimum sapburn injury in the fruits harvested and desapped in the morning hours led to the conclusion that morning is the best time of harvest and desapping for the mangoes. Moreover, the potential of lime for controlling sapburn injury in mangoes was also confirmed and it was concluded that lime can be successfully used for mango fruit desapping as a substitute of highly expensive Mango Wash.
 
This study was carried out in a logged-over forest at Compartment 14, Ayer Hitam Forest, Puchong, on a randomly chosen 5-ha area (200mx250m). The 5-ha plot contained a total of 6621 trees (for trees greater than 5cm dbh) which belonged to 319 species in 148 genera and 51 families and that is 11% species, 28% genera and 51% families of the total tree taxa found in Peninsular Malaysia. Endemism and new records were high, 33 species and 30 species respectively. A minimum contiguous area of 5-ha plot is recommended to capture species diversity in a tropical logged-over forest. The implications of the findings are herein discussed within the context of sample plot size, species diversity and conservation of logged-over forest.
 
Homology tree constructed showing the genetic similarity among sugarcane genotypes.
List of Genotype Specific Bands
Genetic difference between twelve red rot resistant and five susceptible genotypes of sugarcane cultivated in Pakistan were studied using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Initial screening was done using 300 markers and four genotypes (two resistant and two susceptible for red-rot). From these 300 markers, 24 were selected and further applied to all 17 genotypes. A total number of 182 loci were generated by these 24 primers. Of these 156 loci were polymorphic and 26 were monomorphic, whereas 10 loci were genotype specific. Moreover, the number of monomorphic loci for the resistant and susceptible genotypes was 29 and 52 respectively. However, none of the loci could be solely linked to either resistance or susceptibility against red-rot. The mean genetic similarity among the genotypes recorded was 74.37% which shows that a large part of the genome is similar. This may be due to the lack of parental diversity. This study reveals that there is possibly more than one genetic reason for resistance or susceptibility against red rot in sugarcane genotypes of Pakistan.
 
Comparative performance of wheat genotypes for agronomic characters
Correlation coefficients for pooled data of yield and yield components.
Eighteen genotypes including two check varieties were compared for yield and yield components. In this yield comparison lines 04 and 08 had the highest grain yield per plot. The subsequent line which had higher grain yield was 06. The possible reasons for the highest grain yield in line 04 could be due to the longest spike length, the highest number of spikelets per spike, higher number of grains per spike, higher grain yield of main spike and higher grain weight. Correlations were calculated for pooled yield and yield components data of various genotypes. Plant height showed positive and highly significant correlation with spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike and main spike grain yield but no correlation with number of grains per spikelet. Main spike grain yield exhibited positive and highly significant correlation with plant height, spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per main spike and number of grains per spikelet.
 
Kohat Division comprises of around three distinct ecological zones with severe cold in winter and mild summers with snow covered peaks to the west and north west comprising of Parachinar and agencies like Orakzai and FATA areas. In the south lies a vast sandy terrain adjoining mountains comprising of stony soil inhabited by Zizyphus sp and other xerophytes. Summer temperatures usually shoot above 500C with mild winters. The central Kohat region exhibits a weather in between the above two extremes. As reported the flora is rich with herbals which have been over exploited resulting in deterioration of the habitat. As an alternate and to save the environment from further degradation, selected herbals were grown in the Medicinal Plants Farm of the University. This experience has been successful with increased biomass and medicinal ingredients production. The findings are reported in the following sections.
 
Top-cited authors
Zabta Khan Shinwari
  • Quaid-i-Azam University
Muhammad Yasin Ashraf
  • Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology
Muhammad Ashraf
  • University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
Rahmatullah Qureshi
  • PMAS - Arid Agriculture University
M. Qaiser
  • University of Karachi