Hindawi

Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity

Published by Hindawi
Online ISSN: 1942-0994
Print ISSN: 1942-0900
Discipline: Cell & Molecular Biology
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Aims and scope

Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity is a unique peer-reviewed journal that publishes original research and review articles dealing with the cellular and molecular pathophysiological mechanisms of oxidants in health and disease. Oxidative processes influence almost all acute and chronic progressive disorders and on a cellular basis is intimately linked to cell signaling, metabolism, immune function, and senescence. The journal is an important source of information and knowledge in today's cancer, cardiovascular, immunology, and neuroscience scientific literature and serves as an international forum for the scientific community worldwide to translate pioneering “bench to bedside” research into clinical strategies.

 
Editors
Recent publications
  • Ye Yang
    Ye Yang
  • Mingyan Shao
    Mingyan Shao
  • Wenkun Cheng
    Wenkun Cheng
  • [...]
  • Wei Wang
    Wei Wang
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a set of heart and blood vessel disorders that include coronary heart disease (CHD), rheumatic heart disease, and other conditions. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has definite effects on CVDs due to its multitarget and multicomponent properties, which are gradually gaining national attention. Tanshinones, the major active chemical compounds extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza, exhibit beneficial improvement on multiple diseases, especially CVDs. At the level of biological activities, they play significant roles, including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-apoptosis and anti-necroptosis, anti-hypertrophy, vasodilation, angiogenesis, combat against proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), as well as anti-myocardial fibrosis and ventricular remodeling, which are all effective strategies in preventing and treating CVDs. Additionally, at the cellular level, Tanshinones produce marked effects on cardiomyocytes, macrophages, endothelia, SMCs, and fibroblasts in myocardia. In this review, we have summarized a brief overview of the chemical structures and pharmacological effects of Tanshinones as a CVD treatment to expound on different pharmacological properties in various cell types in myocardia.
 
Both epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) and endothelial-to-mesenchymal (EndMT) transitions have shown to contribute to the development and progression of kidney fibrosis. It has been reported that apelin, a regulatory peptide, alleviates EMT by inhibiting the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway in renal diseases. Additionally, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) has been shown to be a key inhibitor of EndMT through suppression of the TGFβ/Smad pathway. In this study, we found that apelin and FGFR1 were spatially close to each other and that the apelin and FGFR1 complex displayed inhibitory effects on TGFβ/Smad signaling as well as associated EndMT in diabetic kidney fibrosis. In cultured human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs), we found that the anti-EndMT and anti-TGFβ/Smad effects of apelin were dampened in FGFR1-deficient cells. Either siRNA- or an inhibitor-mediated deficiency of apelin induced the Smad3 phosphorylation and EndMT. Streptozotocin-induced CD-1 diabetic mice displayed EndMT and associated kidney fibrosis, which were restored by apelin treatment. The medium from apelin-deficient endothelial cells stimulated TGFβ/Smad-dependent EMT in cultured HK2 cells. In addition, depletion of apelin and the FGFR1 complex impaired CEBPA expression, and TGFβ-induced repression of CEBPA expression contributed to the initiation of EndMT in the endothelium. Collectively, these findings revealed that the interaction between apelin and FGFR1 displayed renoprotective potential through suppression of the TGFβ/Smad/CEBPA-mediated EndMT/EMT pathways.
 
Background. The pharmacological mechanism of the traditional Chinese medicine formula-Jijiu Huiyang decoction (JJHYD), which contains several herbal medicines for the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF), is yet unknown. Method and Materials. The main active components of JJHYD were analyzed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The target genes of JJHYD and CHF were retrieved through multiple databases, a drug-ingredient-target-disease network was created, and KEGG enrichment and GO analyses were carried out. The binding ability of paeonol and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 alpha (GSK3A) was confirmed by molecular docking. CHF animal model and cell model were constructed. The effects of paeonol on cardiac dysfunction, myocardial hypertrophy, cardiac lipid accumulation, and myocardial apoptosis were detected by echocardiography, histopathology, and flow cytometry, respectively. The effects of paeonol on the expression of myocardial hypertrophy index, GSK3A, and genes or proteins related to the PPARα pathway were determined by qRT-PCR or western blot. Result. UHPLC-MS/MS analysis combined with database verification showed a total of 227 chemical components in JJHYD, among which paeonol was the one with heart-protective roles and had the highest content. Paeonol alleviated isoproterenol-induced cardiac lipid accumulation, cardiac hypertrophy, and myocardial dysfunction and inhibited the activation of the PPARα pathway, while overexpression of GSK3A reversed these effects of paeonol. However, the reversal effects of GSK3A overexpression could be offset by siPPARα. Conclusion. As the main active substance of JJHYD, paeonol participates in the protection of CHF by targeting the GSK3A/PPARα signaling pathway to reduce lipid toxicity.
 
Background. Mounting evidence have indicated that long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) muscleblind like splicing regulator 1 antisense RNA 1 (MBNL1-AS1) play a crucial regulatory role in cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction (MI) included. In this research, we sought to probe into the biological function and potential mechanism of MBNL1-AS1 in MI. Methods. Cardiomyocytes were treated under hypoxic conditions for 0–12 h. Functional assays including CCK-8 and flow cytometry were performed to assess hypoxia-stimulated cardiomyocyte viability and apoptosis, respectively. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis and mechanical assays were conducted to reveal the competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) mechanism of MBNL1-AS1. Results. The upregulation of MBNL1-AS1 was found in hypoxia-stimulated cardiomyocytes. Functionally, the downregulation of MBNL1-AS1 dramatically promoted hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte viability and inhibited apoptosis. Mechanistically, miR-132-3p bound to MBNL1-AS1 in hypoxia-induced cardiomyocytes, and miR-132-3p directly targeted RAB14, member RAS oncogene family (RAB14) and calmodulin binding transcription activator 1 (CAMTA1). Furthermore, MBNL1-AS1 upregulates the expression of RAB14 and CAMTA1 in hypoxia-stimulated cardiomyocytes via targeting miR-132-3p. Conclusions. The current study revealed the critical role of the MBNL1-AS1/miR-132-3p/RAB14/CAMTA1 axis in MI, indicating MBNL1-AS1 as an innovative therapeutic target for MI.
 
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, finding new diagnostic and therapeutic targets is vital for HCC patients. Recent studies have shown that dysregulation of RNA-binding proteins is often associated with cancer progression. Several studies have reported that the RNA-binding protein SSB can promote cancer occurrence and progression and is linked to tumor epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which could be a new diagnostic marker and therapeutic target. However, the expression and function of SSB in HCC remain to be elucidated. Therefore, this study is aimed at clarifying the expression and biological function of SSB in HCC through bioinformatics analysis combined with in vitro experiments. We found that SSB is highly expressed in HCC and is associated with the poor prognosis of HCC patients, and it can serve as an independent unfavorable prognostic factor. Knockdown of SSB can inhibit the growth of HCC cells in vitro, increase the level of apoptosis and the expression of pro-apoptosis-related proteins, and decrease the expression of antiapoptotic proteins. Meanwhile, SSB knockdown reduced HCC cell invasiveness, and the expression of EMT-related proteins changed significantly. We also found that the gene SSB was associated with the level of oxidative stress in liver cancer cells, and the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased after knockdown of SSB. The results of bioinformatics analysis also showed that high expression of SSB may affect the effect of checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy. In conclusion, we found that SSB is highly expressed in HCC and that upregulated SSB can promote the proliferation and metastasis of HCC through antiapoptotic, altered intracellular oxidative stress level, and EMT pathways, which can serve as a new diagnostic marker and therapeutic target, and patients with high SSB expression may not have obvious ICB therapy effect.
 
PCA score plot of sample and QC combined from all runs. (a) Positive and (b) negative ion modes before batch effect correction. (c) Positive and (d) negative ion modes after batch effect correction.
PCA score plot of sample and QC combined from all runs. (a) Positive and (b) negative ion modes before batch effect correction. (c) Positive and (d) negative ion modes after batch effect correction.
PCA score plot of sample and QC combined from all runs. (a) Positive and (b) negative ion modes before batch effect correction. (c) Positive and (d) negative ion modes after batch effect correction.
PCA score plot of sample and QC combined from all runs. (a) Positive and (b) negative ion modes before batch effect correction. (c) Positive and (d) negative ion modes after batch effect correction.
Metabolites associated with gender.
Aging is a complex process characterized by progressive loss of functional abilities due to the accumulation of molecular damages. Metabolomics could offer novel insights into the predictors and mechanisms of aging. This cross-sectional study is aimed at identifying age-associated plasma metabolome in a Malay population. A total of 146 (90 females) healthy participants aged 28–69 were selected for the study. Untargeted metabolomics profiling was performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Association analysis was based on the general linear model. Gender-associated metabolites were adjusted for age, while age-associated metabolites were adjusted for gender or analyzed in a gender-stratified manner. Gender-associated metabolites such as 4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid, carnitine, cortisol, and testosterone sulfate showed higher levels in males than females. Deoxycholic acid and hippuric acid were among the metabolites with a positive association with age after being adjusted for gender, while 9(E),11(E)-conjugated linoleic acid, cortisol, and nicotinamide were negatively associated with age. In gender-stratified analysis, glutamine was one of the common metabolites that showed a direct association with age in both genders, while metabolites such as 11-deoxy prostaglandin F2β, guanosine monophosphate, and testosterone sulfate were inversely associated with age in males and females. This study reveals several age-associated metabolites in Malays that could reflect the changes in metabolisms during aging and may be used to discern the risk of geriatric syndromes and disorders later. Further studies are required to determine the interplay between these metabolites and environmental factors on the functional outcomes during aging.
 
Background. This study was aimed at determining the effects of alpha-lipoic acid on ionizing irradiation-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in the brain of rats. Methods. The animals were exposed to whole-brain X-radiation with a 15 Gy single dose in the absence or presence of alpha-lipoic acid (200 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment for one week. The rats were divided into four groups (5 rats in each group): vehicle control, alpha-lipoic acid alone (ALA), radiation alone (RAD), and radiation plus alpha-lipoic acid (RAD+ALA). In the next stage, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the brain tissue of the rats were measured. Furthermore, the Western blot analysis technique was performed to assess the NOX2, NOX4, and caspase-3 protein expression levels. Results. Twenty-four hours after the irradiation, MDA and nitric oxide levels in the irradiated rats were significantly higher than those in the control group ( p < 0.001 ); however, the pretreatment with alpha-lipoic acid resulted in a significant reduction in these stress oxidative markers ( p < 0.05 ). Moreover, a significant decrease in CAT, SOD, and GPx levels was observed in the radiation group alone compared to the control group ( p < 0.01 ); in contrast, the activities of these antioxidant enzymes significantly increased in the radiation plus alpha-lipoic acid group in comparison to the radiation group alone ( p < 0.05 ). The results of Western blot analysis revealed that NOX2, NOX4, and caspase-3 protein expressions significantly elevated in the irradiated rats compared to the control group ( p < 0.001 ). The pretreatment with alpha-lipoic acid could significantly decrease the expression levels of NOX2, NOX4, and caspase-3 in comparison with the radiation group alone ( p < 0.05 ). Conclusion. According to the obtained findings, it can be mentioned that the alpha-lipoic acid pretreatment could mitigate the ionizing irradiation-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in the brain of the rats.
 
Testes produce sperms, and gamete generation relies on a proper niche environment. The disruption of hierarchical regulatory homeostasis in Leydig or Sertoli cells may evoke a sterile phenotype in humans. In this study, we recapitulated type 2 diabetes mellitus by using a high-fat diet- (HFD-) fed mouse model to identify the phenotype and potential mechanism of diabetes-induced testicular impairment. At the end of the study, blood glucose levels, testosterone structure, testicular antioxidant capacity, and testosterone level and the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor- (HIF-) 1α, apoptosis-related protein cleaved-caspase3, and autophagy-related proteins such as LC3I/II, p62, and Beclin1 were evaluated. We found that long-term HFD treatment causes the development of diabetes mellitus, implicating increased serum glucose level, cell apoptosis, and testicular atrophy ( P < 0.05 vs. Ctrl). Mechanistically, the results showed enhanced expression of HIF-1α in both Sertoli and Leydig cells ( P < 0.05 vs. Ctrl). Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were demonstrated to be a potential factor leading to HIF-1α upregulation in both cell types. In Sertoli cells, high glucose treatment had minor effects on Sertoli cell autophagy. However, AGE treatment stagnated the autophagy flux and escalated cell apoptosis ( P < 0.05 vs. Ctrl+Ctrl). In Leydig cells, high glucose treatment was adequate to encumber autophagy induction and enhance oxidative stress. Similarly, AGE treatment facilitated HIF-1α expression and hampered testosterone production ( P < 0.05 vs. Ctrl+Ctrl). Overall, these findings highlight the dual effects of diabetes on autophagy regulation in Sertoli and Leydig cells while imposing oxidative stress in both cell types. Furthermore, the upregulation of HIF-1α, which could be triggered by AGE treatment, may negatively affect both cell types. Together, these findings will help us further understand the molecular mechanism of diabetes-induced autophagy dysregulation and testicular impairment, enriching the content of male reproductive biology in diabetic patients.
 
The triple strikes of cancer. Immunotherapy includes monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, oncolytic viruses, immunological adjuvants, checkpoint inhibitors, and cellular therapies. Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) are the mainstream radiotherapy technologies. SRT includes three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). SRS includes X-knife, Y-knife, and Cyber Knife. Chemotherapy includes cell cycle-specific agents (CCSA) and cell cycle-nonspecific agents (CCNSA). Immunotherapy of tumors has two purposes: to target tumor cells and to activate immune cells. The combined use of radiotherapy and chemotherapy may enhance efficacy.
Mechanism of vaccines plus radiotherapy. CD8 T cells can recognize the tumor antigen peptide–MHCI molecule complex on the surface of tumor cells and then proliferate and differentiate into cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) with a specific killing activity following activation, which mediates the necrosis or apoptosis of tumors. Exfoliating from the surface of tumor cells, tumor antigens are absorbed and processed by antigen-presenting cells (APC) as polypeptide molecules and then expressed on the surface of APC in the form of a tumor antigen peptide–MHCII molecule complex. Tumor antigen-specific CD4 T cells recognize and activate the complex, release cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and γ-interferon (IFN-γ) to activate monocytes-macrophages and NK cells, and enhance the killing function of CD8 CTL. IFN, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and CD4 CTL can directly kill tumor cells. The combination of vaccines and radiotherapy may produce a synergistic effect, which can enhance vaccine-mediated tumor cell lysis while upregulating MHC, Fas, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and TAA [30, 31].
Cancer immunotherapy has drawn much attention because it can restart the recognition and killing function of the immune system to normalize the antitumor immune response. However, the role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in cancer treatment cannot be ignored. Due to cancer heterogeneity, combined therapy has become a new trend, and its efficacy has been confirmed in many studies. This review discussed the clinical implications and the underlying mechanisms of cancer immunotherapy in combination with radiotherapy or chemotherapy, offering an outline for clinicians as well as inspiration for future research.
 
An imbalance in oxidative and inflammatory regulation is the main contributor to intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Hydrogen (H2) therapy is a promising antioxidation and anti-inflammatory approach. However, the key to the treatment is how to maintain the long-term effective H2 concentration in the intervertebral disc (IVD). Therefore, we developed a pH-responsive delivery of H2 through ammonia borane-loaded hollow polydopamine (AB@HPDA) for IDD therapy, which has sufficient capacity to control long-term H2 release in an acid-dependent manner in degenerative IVD. The characterization, toxicity, and pH-responsive H2 release of AB@HPDA was detected in vitro. The metabolization of AB@HPDA in the degenerated IVD was tested by in vivo imaging. The therapeutic effect of AB@HPDA on IDD was tested in vivo by X-ray, MRI, water content of the disc, and histological changes. Nuclear extracellular matrix (ECM) components, oxidative stress, and inflammation were also tested to explore potential therapeutic mechanisms. AB@HPDA has good biocompatibility at concentrations less than 500 μg/mL. The H2 release of AB@HPDA was pH responsive. Therefore, AB@HPDAs can provide efficient hydrogen therapy with controlled H2 release in response to the acidic degenerated IVD microenvironment. The metabolization of AB@HPDA in IVD was slow and lasted up to 11 days. HPDA and AB@HPDA significantly inhibited IDD, as tested by X-ray, MRI, disc water content, and histology ( P < 0.05 ). pH-responsive H2 delivery through AB@HPDAs has the potential to efficiently treat IDD by inhibiting ECM degradation and rebalancing oxidative stress and inflammation in degenerative IVDs.
 
Simvastatin treatment ameliorates features of TH2-mediated and TH17-mediated asthma in mice. (a) Measurement of dynamic airway resistance. (b–d) Total cell counts, eosinophil counts, and neutrophil counts (10⁵ cells/ml) in the BALF. (e–h) Levels of IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 in the BALF. (i, j) Representative hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and inflammation score of lung sections of mice. (k, l) Representative PAS staining of lung sections and quantification of PAS-stained epithelial cells per bronchi showing airway mucus production in mice. (m–r) Flow cytometric analysis of percentages of TH2, TH17, and Treg lymphocytes in the lung.
Simvastatin treatment attenuates TH17-mediated neutrophilic asthma through reducing NETosis in mouse lungs. (a) Confocal microscopy staining of CitH3⁺ MPO⁺ DAPI⁺ NETs released from ex vivo-cultured neutrophils and the lung sections of the indicated groups of mice. (b) Levels of extracellular dsDNA in the BALF. (c) ELISA measurement of MPO-DNA complexes in the BALF of mice. (d) Representative blots of CitH3 and actin (loading control) assessed by Western blot of lung protein extracts from mice. (e) Quantification of normalized CitH3 levels in lung protein extracts of mice. (f, g) Representative hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and inflammation score of lung sections of mice. (h) Representative PAS staining of lung sections of mice. (i) Quantification of PAS-stained epithelial cells per bronchi showing airway mucus production in mice. (j) Measurement of dynamic airway resistance. (k, l) Total cell counts, eosinophil counts, and neutrophil counts (10⁵ cells/ml) in the BALF. (m, n) Levels of IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17A in the BALF. (o–r) Flow cytometric analysis of percentages of TH2, TH17, and Treg lymphocytes in the lung.
Adoptively transferring neutrophils from OVA+LPS mice to simvastatin-treated OVA+LPS mice was sufficient to trigger the TH17-mediated neutrophilic asthma. (a) Confocal microscopy staining of CitH3⁺ MPO⁺ DAPI⁺ NETs released from ex vivo-cultured neutrophils and the lung sections of the indicated groups of mice. (b) Representative blots of CitH3 and actin (loading control) assessed by Western blot of lung protein extracts from mice. (c) Quantification of normalized CitH3 levels in lung protein extracts of mice. (d, f) Representative hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of lung sections of mice. (e) Representative PAS staining of lung sections of mice. (g) Quantification of PAS-stained epithelial cells per bronchi showing airway mucus production in mice. (h, i) Total cell counts, eosinophil counts, and neutrophil counts (10⁵ cells/ml) in the BALF. (j, k) Levels of IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 in the BALF. (l–o) Flow cytometric analysis of percentages of TH2, TH17, and Treg lymphocytes in the lung.
Simvastatin treatment reduces NETosis via PAD4 in the lungs of OVA+LPS mice. (a, b) Representative immunofluorescence images of PAD4 and DAPI staining of lung sections (n=6) and ex vivo-cultured neutrophils in the indicated groups of mice. (c) Representative blots of PAD4 and actin (loading control) assessed by Western blot of lung protein extracts from mice. (d) Quantification of normalized PAD4 levels in lung protein extracts of mice. (e) The expression levels of PAD4 mRNA examined by RT-qPCR in lung homogenates of mice. (f, g) The lung neutrophils were isolated from OVA+LPS mice or control mice and preincubated the neutrophils in media with or without simvastatin (10 μg/ml) before stimulation with 100 nmol/l phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). (f) Representative immunofluorescence images of PAD4 and DAPI staining. (g) Representative immunofluorescence images of CitH3 and DAPI staining.
Simvastatin treatment reduces NET formation in neutrophils via PAD4 in vitro. (a) Flow cytometry analysis of CD11b expression on HL-60 cells after 5 days of culture with DMSO. (b) The expression levels of PAD4 mRNA examined by RT-qPCR in the HL-60-differentiated neutrophil-like cells. (c) Representative blots of PAD4 and actin (loading control) assessed by Western blot of the HL-60-differentiated neutrophil-like cells. (d) Quantification of normalized PAD4 levels in the HL-60-differentiated neutrophil-like cells. (e) Representative immunofluorescence images of PAD4 and DAPI staining in the HL-60-differentiated neutrophil-like cells. (f) Representative immunofluorescence images of CitH3 and DAPI staining in the HL-60-differentiated neutrophil-like cells.
Objective. Patients with severe asthma respond poorly to corticosteroids, and their care accounts for more than 60% of the total costs attributed to asthma. Neutrophils form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which play a crucial role in severe asthma. Statins have shown anti-inflammatory effects by reducing NETosis. In this study, we investigate if simvastatin can attenuate severe asthma by reducing NETosis and the underlying mechanism. Methods. Mice were concomitantly sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA), house dust mite (HDM), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) during sensitization to establish a mouse model of severe asthma with neutrophil predominant inflammation (OVA+LPS mice) and treated with or without simvastatin. In inflammatory response, proportions of Th2, Th17, and Treg cells in lung tissue were detected by flow cytometry, and the levels of cytokines, dsDNA, and MPO-DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed by ELISA. Citrullinated histone H3 (CitH3) and peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) in lung tissue were determined by Western blot and immunofluorescence imaging. PAD4 mRNA was determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR). HL-60 cells were differentiated into neutrophil-like cells by 1.25% DMSO. The neutrophil-like cells were treated with or without LPS, and simvastatin was then stimulated with PMA. CitH3 and PAD4 expressions were determined. Results. Sensitization with OVA, HDM, and LPS resulted in neutrophilic inflammation and the formation of NETs in the lungs. Simvastatin treatment reduced the inflammation score, cytokine levels, total cells, and neutrophil counts in the BALF and reduced proportions of Th2 and Th17 but increased Treg cells in lungs of OVA+LPS mice. Simvastatin-treated OVA+LPS mice show reduced NET formation in BALF and lung tissue compared to control mice. Adoptive transfer of neutrophils was sufficient to restore NETosis and neutrophilic inflammation in simvastatin-treated OVA+LPS mice. Simvastatin reduced PAD4 mRNA and protein expression in lung tissues and neutrophils isolated from lungs of OVA+LPS mice and consequent NET formation. In vitro, simvastatin reduced LPS-induced PAD4 upregulation and NETosis in HL-60-differentiated neutrophil-like cells. Furthermore, PAD4-overexpressed lentiviral transduction was sufficient to restore PAD4 protein expression and NETosis in simvastatin-treated HL-60-differentiated neutrophil-like cells. Conclusions. Simvastatin reduces Th17-mediated neutrophilic inflammation and airway hyperreactivity by reducing PAD4 expression and inhibiting NETosis in a mouse model of severe asthma. Severe asthmatic patients with high levels of circulating NETs or sputum NETs may show improved responses to statin treatment.
 
The widespread use of therapeutic glucocorticoids has increased the incidences of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP). Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are major causes of GIOP; therefore, alleviation of excess oxidative stress in osteoblasts is a potential therapeutic strategy for osteoporosis. Exosomes derived from ADSCs (ADSCs-Exos), as novel cell-free therapeutics, can modulate various biological processes, such as immunomodulation, reduce oxidative damage, and promote tissue repair as well as regeneration. In this study, ADSCs-Exos restored the viability and osteogenic potential of MC3T3-E1 cells by attenuating apoptosis, oxidative damage, intracellular ROS generation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, after pretreatment with ADSCs-Exos, Nrf2 expressions were upregulated in Dex-stimulated osteoblasts. Inhibitory assays showed that silencing Nrf2 partially eliminated the protective effects of ADSCs-Exos. The rat model assays confirmed that ADSCs-Exos alleviated the Dex-induced increase in oxidation levels, restored bone mass of the distal femur, and increased the expressions of Nrf2 and osteogenic markers in bone tissues. Thus, ADSCs-Exos alleviated apoptosis and oxidative stress by regulating Nrf2/HO-1 expressions after Dex and prevented the development of GIOP in vivo.
 
Colorectal cancer has risen to the third occurring cancer in the world. Fluorouracil (5-Fu), oxaliplatin, and cisplatin are the most effective chemotherapeutic agents for clinical chemotherapy. Nevertheless, due to chemotherapeutic drug resistance, the survival rate of patients with CRC remains very low. In this study, we used the inflammation-induced or mutation-family-inherited murine CRC models to study the anticancer and immunotherapy effects of urolithin B (UB), the final metabolite of polyphenols in the gastrointestinal tract. The label-free proteomics analysis and the gene ontology (GO) classifications were used to test and analyze the proteins affected by UB. And 16S rDNA sequencing and flow cytometry were utilized to uncover gut microbiome composition and immune defense improved by UB administration. The results indicated that urolithin B prevents colorectal carcinogenesis by remodeling gut microbial and tumor immune microenvironments, such as HLA-B, NK cells, regulatory T cells, and γδ TCR cells, and decreasing the PD-L1. The combination of urolithin B with first-line therapeutic drugs improved the colorectal intestinal hematochezia by shaping gut microbiota, providing a strategy for the treatment of immunotherapy treatment for CRC treatments. UB combined with anti-PD-1 antibody could inhibit the growth of colon cancer. Urolithin B may thus contribute to anticancer treatments and provide a high immune response microenvironment for CRC patients’ further immunotherapy.
 
Studies reported the positive and negative osteogenic effects of MEG3 in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). This study aims at clarifying the osteogenic potential of MEG3 and the underlying mechanism. Bone morphogenetic protein 9- (BMP9-) transfected MSCs were recruited as an osteogenic model in vitro, and ectopic bone formation were used in vivo to explore the effect of MEG3 on osteogenesis. We found that overexpression of MEG3 facilitated BMP9-induced osteogenic markers, ALP activities, and matrix mineralization. However, knockdown of MEG3 attenuated BMP9-induced osteogenic markers. MEG3 increased the phosphorylation of GSK-3β and the protein level of β-catenin. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) can also combine with GSK-3β and increase the latter phosphorylation. Moreover, MEG3 increased the mRNA level of PDK4. The ceRNA analysis showed that MEG3 may regulate the expression of PDK4 via microRNA 532-5p (miR-532-5p). The MEG3-enhanced GSK-3β/β-catenin axis can be attenuated by miR-532-5p, and miR-532-5p inhibitor partly rescued endogenous PDK4 and MEG3-mediated expression of PDK4. MEG3 may potentiate PDK4 and GSK-3β/β-catenin by inhibiting miR-532-5p.
 
This study was designed to investigate the impact of the preexisting use of beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) on the cellular immune response in peripheral blood and the clinical outcomes of patients with acute ischemic stroke. We retrospectively collected clinical data from a cohort of 69 patients with premorbid beta-blockers and 56 patients with premorbid ACEIs/ARBs. Additionally, we selected a cohort of 107 patients with acute ischemic stroke to be the control of the same age and sex. We analyzed cellular immune parameters in peripheral blood 1 day after the appearance of symptoms, including the frequencies of circulating white blood cell subpopulations, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR). We found that the count of lymphocytes and the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio were significantly higher in the peripheral blood of patients treated with beta-blockers before stroke than in matched controls. However, the premorbid use of ACEIs/ARBs did not considerably impact the circulating immune parameters listed above in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Furthermore, we found that premorbid use of beta-blockers or ACEIs/ARBs did not significantly change functional outcomes in patients 3 months after the onset of stroke. These results suggest that premorbid use of beta-blockers, but not ACEIs/ARBs, reversed lymphopenia associated with acute ischemic stroke. As cellular immune changes in peripheral blood could be an independent predictor of stroke prognosis, more large-scale studies are warranted to further verify the impact of premorbid use of beta-blockers or ACEIs/ARBs on the prognosis of patients with ischemic stroke. Our research is beneficial to understanding the mechanism of the systemic immune response induced by stroke and has the potential for a therapeutic strategy in stroke interventions and treatment.
 
Gliomas are highly invasive and aggressive tumors having the highest incidence rate of brain cancer. Identifying effective prognostic and potential therapeutic targets is necessitated. The relationship of pyroptosis, a form of programmed cellular death, with gliomas remains elusive. We constructed and validated a prognostic model for gliomas using pyroptosis-related genes. Differentially expressed pyroptosis-related genes were screened using the “limma” package. Based on LASSO-Cox regression, nine significant genes including CASP1, CASP3, CASP6, IL32, MKI67, MYD88, PRTN3, NOS1, and VIM were employed to construct a prognostic model in the TCGA cohort; the results were validated in the CGGA cohort. According to the median risk score, the patients were classified into two risk groups, namely, high- and low-risk groups. Patients at high risk had worse prognoses relative to those at low risk evidenced by the Kaplan-Meier curve analysis. The two groups exhibited differences in immune cell infiltration and TMB scores, with high immune checkpoint levels, TMB scores, and immune cell infiltration levels in the high-risk group. KEGG and GO analyses suggested enrichment in immune-related pathways. Furthermore, we found that the genes in our signature strongly correlated with oxidative stress-related pathways and the subgroups exhibited different ssGSEA scores. Some small molecules targeted the genes in the model, and we verified their drug sensitivities between the risk groups. The scRNA-seq dataset, GSE138794, was processed using the “Seurat” package to assess the level of risk gene expression in specific cell types. Finally, the MYD88 level was lowered in the U87 glioma cell line using si-RNA constructs. Cellular proliferation was impaired, and fewer pyroptosis-related cytokines were released upon exposure to LPS. In summary, we built a pyroptosis-related gene model that accurately classified glioma patients into high- and low-risk groups. The findings suggest that the signature may be an effective prognostic predictive tool for gliomas.
 
Accumulating evidence has noted the circRNA-microRNA- (circRNA-miRNA-) mRNA competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory network in disease development and progression. The current study explored the ceRNA network in acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC). Potential ATC-related genes were screened, and upstream miRNAs and circRNAs of VWF (the candidate target) were assayed through database searching and high-throughput sequencing technology. circ_0001274/miR-143-3p/VWF ceRNA regulatory network was constructed and validated. The expression of circ_0001274/miR-143-3p/VWF was determined in the peripheral blood samples from ATC patients and ATC mouse models. Online database and circRNA sequencing analysis results identified VWF as a key gene in ATC as supported by assays and that VWF was lowly expressed in ATC patients and mice. Further experiments demonstrated that miR-143-3p could target and inhibit VWF, and circ_0001274 could competitively sponge miR-143-3p. Functionally, circ_0001274 could competitively sequester miR-143-3p to upregulate VWF expression, potentially improving ATC. Our study highlights the critical role of circ_0001274/miR-143-3p/VWF axis in improving ATC.
 
Background and Objectives. Europinidin is a water-soluble plant dye, derived from delphinidin, which is a well-known anthocyanidin and has a broad range of physiological effects. The current study sought to assess the neuroprotective potential of europinidin against streptozotocin-induced memory deficits in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Oral acute toxicity studies were performed to evaluate the toxicological effects of europinidin in animals. In this study, four different animal groups ( n = 6 ) were used. Group I was the normal control, group II was the STZ-induced diabetes control, group III was STZ + europinidin-treated (10 mg/kg), and group IV was STZ + europinidin-treated (10 mg/kg). The efficacy of europinidin at a dose of 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg was studied with single-dose administration of streptozotocin, which experimentally induced memory impairments in Wistar male rats for 38 days. The mean body weight and blood glucose levels were recorded at the initial and end of the study. The two behavioural paradigms (Y-maze and Morris water maze) were performed to evaluate spatial and working memory in rats. The biochemical parameters such as acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione transferase, malonaldehyde, catalase, and nitric oxide level as hallmarks of oxidative stress were measured. Additionally, the proinflammatory parameters were also determined to evaluate the neuroinflammatory responses associated with streptozotocin such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin (IL-6), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ƙB), interleukin (IL-10), and nuclear factor-erythroid factor 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the perfused brain. Results. The rats in the europinidin-treated group exhibited a significant restoration of body weight and blood glucose level as compared with the streptozotocin control group. Furthermore, europinidin significantly modulated the spatial and working memory in rats, when assessed through behavioural paradigms. Streptozotocin caused a significant alteration in biochemical, neuronal enzymatic, and neuroinflammatory parameters, which were significantly restored to normal levels by europinidin. Conclusion. The present study attributed the neuroprotective efficacy of europinidin in experimental animal models by subsiding the several biomarkers of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and neuronal enzymatic activities.
 
Purpose. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of emodin on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI) and mechanism. Methods. Eighty healthy adult male SD rats (weighing 230-250 g) were utilized to establish I/R model, which were randomly divided into five groups (16 rats in each group): sham operation group, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury group (I/R group), emodin group, emodin +NC group, and emodin +XIST group. The contents of CK, CK-MB, LDH, and HBDH in serum were determined by ELISA kit. LDH was detected by ELISA assay, SOD was detected by the xanthine oxidase method, and MDA was detected by the thiobarbituric acid method. The relative expression of XIST and miR-217 was evaluated by RT-qPCR. Western blot was applied to detect the protein expression. Flow cytometry was applied to detect cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Results. Myocardial infarction area was obviously increased in I/R model rats, while emodin decreased the myocardial infarction in I/R model rats. In addition, cardiac enzymes (CK, CK-MB, LDH, and HBDH) and apoptosis were obviously increased in MIRI model rats, while emodin obviously decreased cardiac enzymes and apoptosis. The ROS and MDA levels were raised while the activities of SOD were declined in the I/R model group. The ROS and MDA levels were decreased while the activities of SOD were raised in the emodin group. The XIST expression was markedly raised in the I/R model group while decreased in the emodin group, and the overexpression of XIST reversed the protective effect of emodin on myocardial infarction, oxidative stress, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In addition, XIST directly regulated the expression of miR-217, and si-XIST inhibited H/R-induced oxidative damage of cardiomyocytes via inhibiting miR-217. Conclusion. Emodin protected MIRI both in vitro and in vivo via inhibiting lncRNA XIST to upregulate miR-217.
 
Background. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a complex disease and the leading cause of death worldwide. It is caused by genetic and environmental factors or their interactions. Candidate gene association studies are an important genetic strategy for the study of complex diseases, and multiple variants of inflammatory cytokines have been found to be associated with CAD using this method. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is an important inflammatory immune response factor that plays a role in a various inflammatory disease. Clinical tests and animal experiments indicated that IL-5 is involved in CAD development, but the exact mechanisms are unclear. This study investigated the genetic relationship between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL5 and CAD. Materials and Methods. Based on the Chinese Han population, we collected 1,824 patients with CAD and 1,920 control subjects and performed a two-stage case-control association analysis for three SNPs in IL5 (rs2057687, rs78546665, and rs2069812) using the high resolution melt (HRM) technology. Logistic regression analyses were applied to adjust for traditional risk factors for CAD and to perform haplotype and gene interaction analyses. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to study relationships between the selected SNPs and serum lipid levels. Results. In this study, two-stage case-control association analysis revealed that the allele and genotype frequency distributions of the three IL5 SNPs were not statistically significant between the case and control groups. In addition, none of the IL5 haplotypes were associated with CAD. Further stratified analyses were conducted by sex, age, hypertension, and disease status, respectively, and the results revealed that the rs2057687 and rs2069812 of IL5 were associated with CAD in the male group ( p adj = 0.025 , OR, 0.77 (95% CI, 0.62-0.97); p adj = 0.016 , OR, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.70-0.97), respectively); the rs2057687 and rs78546665 of IL5 were associated with late-onset CAD ( p adj = 0.039 , OR, 0.78 (95% CI, 0.62-0.99); p adj = 0.036 , OR, 1.46 (95% CI, 1.02-1.53), respectively); the rs2069812 of IL5 was associated with CAD in the hypertension group ( p adj = 0.036 , OR, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.71-0.99)); and none of the SNPs in IL5 were associated with different CAD states (anatomical CAD and clinical CAD). In addition, the association between SNPs and the serum lipid levels indicated that rs78546665 was positively correlated with triglyceride levels ( p = 0.012 ). Finally, SNP-SNP interaction analyses revealed that interactions of rs2057687 and rs2069812 were associated with CAD ( p adj = 0.046 , OR, 0.77 (95% CI, 0.13-4.68)). Conclusion. This study suggested that the common variants of IL5 might play a role in CAD by affecting the risk factors for CAD and through SNP-SNP interactions, which provides a new target for specific treatment of CAD patients and a theoretical basis for personalized medicine.
 
Acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI, such as gefitinib) in lung cancer continues to be a major problem. Recent studies have shown the promise of ferroptosis-inducing therapy in EGFR-TKI resistant cancer, but have not been translated into clinical benefits. Here, we identified carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) was upregulated in gefitinib-resistant lung cancer. Then we measured the cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and labile iron levels after the treatment of ferroptosis inducer erastin. We found that CA9 confers resistance to ferroptosis-inducing drugs. Mechanistically, CA9 is involved in the inhibition of transferrin endocytosis and the stabilization of ferritin, leading to resistance to ferroptosis. Targeting CA9 promotes iron uptake and release, thus triggering gefitinib-resistant cell ferroptosis. Notably, CA9 inhibitor enhances the ferroptosis-inducing effect of cisplatin on gefitinib-resistant cells, thus eliminating resistant cells in heterogeneous tumor tissues. Taken together, CA9-targeting therapy is a promising approach to improve the therapeutic effect of gefitinib-resistant lung cancer by inducing ferroptosis.
 
Sildenafil (SF) is widely used for erectile dysfunction and other conditions, though with limitations regarding oral absorption and adverse effects. Despite nanotechnological improvements, the effect of nanocarriers on SF hepatotoxicity has not been documented to date. This study aimed at assessing the impact of chitosan nanoparticles either uncoated (CS NPs) or Tween 80-coated (T-CS NPs) on the effects of SF on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzyme activities in rats. Test SF-CS NPs prepared by ionic gelation were uniform positively charged nanospheres (diameter 178-215 nm). SF was administered intraperitoneally to male rats (1.5 mg/kg body weight) in free or nanoencapsulated forms as SF-CS NPs and T-SF-CS NPs for 3 weeks. Free SF significantly suppressed the activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the levels of glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as in an indirect measure of free radicals. Interestingly, SF-CS NPs and T-SF-CS-NPs treatments significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of SF on the activity of these enzymes whereas, GST activity was inhibited. Moreover, the protein expression of GST was downregulated upon treatment of rats with free SF, SF-CS-NPs, and T-SF CS-NPs. In contrast, the activity and protein expression of GPx was induced by SF-CS NPs and T-SF-CS-NPs treatments. The histopathological study showed that SF induced multiple adverse effects on the rat liver architecture which were markedly suppressed particularly by T-SF-CS NPs. In conclusion, chitosan nanoencapsulation of SF counteracted the adverse effects of SF on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and liver architecture. Findings might have significant implications in improving the safety and efficacy of SF treatment of the widely expanding disease conditions.
 
Osteoblast (OB) and osteoclast (OC) play important roles in bone formation and bone resorption, which can communicate with each other through cytokine paracrine. Previous studies have confirmed that Epimedii Folium (EF) and Ligustri Lucidi Fructus (LLF) used alone or in combination can treat osteoporosis (OP) through regulating bone remodeling, but the effects of EF and LLF on osteoblastogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, and OB-OC communication are unclear. In this study, we investigated the direct and indirect effects of EF and LLF on OBs and OCs via monoculture and coculture (transwell) models of OBs and OCs. We found that the combination of EF and LLF (EF&LLF) could promote osteoblastogenesis and inhibit osteoclastogenesis directly and indirectly. In order to study the mechanisms of EF&LLF on indirectly regulating osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis, we detected the expression of cytokines by which OBs and OCs could communicate with each other. We found that EF&LLF could downregulate the expression of RANKL and M-CSF and the protein ratio of RANKL/OPG of OBs and Atp6v0d2 expression of OCs and upregulate the expression of OPG and TGF-β1 of OBs and the expression of TGF-β1, BMP-2, and IGF-1 of OCs, indicating that EF&LLF could regulate cytokine expressions of OBs/OCs to affect OB-OC communication. In addition, EF&LLF had a better effect on regulating cytokines of OBs and OCs than EF or LLF in single use. This study suggested that EF&LLF exhibited the effects of promoting osteoblastogenesis and inhibiting osteoclastogenesis via acting on OB-OC communication and provided some scientific evidences for EF&LLF against OP.
 
Flow diagram of literature search, screening, and selection process adapted from PRISMA [18].
Background and Aims. Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated host immune response to an infection. Curcumin is a yellow polyphenol derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties scientifically proven, a condition that allowed its use as a tool in the treatment of sepsis. Thus, the purpose of this article was to systematically review the evidence on the impact of curcumin’s anti-inflammatory effect on experimental sepsis. Methods. For this, the PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and LILACS databases were used, and the research was not limited to a specific publication period. Only original articles in English using in vivo experimental models (rats or mice) of sepsis induction performed by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or cecal ligation and perforation surgery (CLP) were included in the study. Studies using curcumin in dry extract or with a high degree of purity were included. At initial screening, 546 articles were selected, and of these, 223 were eligible for primary evaluation. Finally, 12 articles with full text met all inclusion criteria. Our results showed that curcumin may inhibit sepsis-induced complications such as brain, heart, liver, lungs, and kidney damage. Curcumin can inhibit inflammatory factors, prevent oxidative stress, and regulate immune responses in sepsis. Additionally, curcumin increased significantly the survival rates after experimental sepsis in several studies. The modulation of the immune response and mortality by curcumin reinforces its protective effect on sepsis and indicates a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of sepsis.
 
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) and is closely associated to programmed cell death. However, the complex mechanisms of necroptosis, an alternative cell death pathway, in DKD pathogenesis are yet to be elucidated. This study indicates that necroptosis is involved in DKD induced by high glucose (HG) both in vivo and in vitro. HG intervention led to the activation of RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL signaling, resulting in renal tissue necroptosis and proinflammatory activation in streptozotocin/high-fat diet- (STZ/HFD-) induced diabetic mice and HG-induced normal rat kidney tubular cells (NRK-52E). We further found that in HG-induced NRK-52E cell, necroptosis might, at least partly, depend on the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Meanwhile, ROS participated in necroptosis via a positive feedback loop involving the RIPK1/RIPK3 pathway. In addition, blocking RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL signaling by necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), a key inhibitor of RIPK1 in the necroptosis pathway, or antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an inhibitor of ROS generation, could effectively protect the kidney against HG-induced damage, decrease the release of proinflammatory cytokines, and rescue renal function in STZ/HFD-induced diabetic mice. Inhibition of RIPK1 effectively decreased the activation of RIPK1-kinase-/NF-κB-dependent inflammation. Collectively, we demonstrated that high glucose induced DKD via renal tubular epithelium necroptosis, and Nec-1 or NAC treatment downregulated the RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL pathway and finally reduced necroptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Thus, RIPK1 may be a therapeutic target for DKD.
 
Autophagy is closely associated with atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Compound Danshen prescription is widely used as a clinical antiatherosclerotic drug. In our previous studies, we have shown that the combined active component, ginsenoside Rg1-notoginsenoside R1-protocatechualdehyde (RRP), can effectively alleviate endothelial dysfunction and reduce atherosclerotic plaques. However, the association between cellular senescence, caused by reduced autophagy, and atherosclerosis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether RRP can enhance autophagy and alleviate cell senescence through the AMPK pathway. Our results showed that RRP reduced the secretion of inflammatory factors in the serum of atherosclerotic mice, enhanced autophagy, and alleviated aortic aging in mice, thus reducing atherosclerotic plaques. In human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs), RRP effectively enhanced autophagy and inhibited senescence by activating the AMPK pathway. When AMPKα was silenced, the effect of RRP was inhibited, thus reversing its antiaging effect. Overall, our results show that RRP regulates autophagy through the AMPK pathway, thereby inhibiting cell senescence and alleviating the progression of atherosclerosis, suggesting that RRP may be a potential candidate drug for the treatment of atherosclerosis.
 
As a degenerative disease in joints, temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJOA) is characterized by progressive cartilage degradation, subchondral bone remodeling, and chronic synovitis, severely undermining functions and quality of life in patients. NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) contributes to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inflammatory pathway activation in osteoarthritis, which has attracted increasing attention in research in recent years. GLX351322 (GLX), a novel NOX4 inhibitor, exerts a protective effect on chondrocytes. However, whether it has a therapeutic effect on ROS production and inflammatory responses in synovial macrophages remains to be evaluated. In this study, we examined the effect of GLX on LPS-induced ROS production and inflammatory responses in vitro and on complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced TMJ inflammation in vivo. We found that GLX could depress LPS-induced intracellular ROS production and inflammatory response without cytotoxicity by inhibiting the ROS/MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathways. In line with in vitro observations, GLX markedly attenuated the synovial inflammatory reaction in the TMJ, thus protecting the condylar structure from severe damage. Taken together, our results suggest that GLX intervention or NOX4 inhibition is a promising curative strategy for TMJOA and other inflammatory diseases.
 
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is one of the most prevalent, abundant, and internal transcriptional modification and plays essential roles in diverse cellular and physiological processes. Low fluid shear stress (FSS) is a key pathological factor for many cardiovascular diseases, which directly forces on the endothelial cells of vessel walls. So far, the alterations and functions of m6A modifications in vascular endothelial cells at the low FSS are still unknown. Herein, we performed the transcriptome-wide m6A modification profiling of HUVECs at different FSS. We found that the m6A modifications were altered earlier and more sensitive than mRNA expressions in response to FSS. The low FSS increased the m6A modifications at CDS region but decreased the m6A modifications at 3 ′ UTR region and regulated both the mRNA expressions and m6A modifications of the m6A regulators, such as the RBM15 and EIF3A. Functional annotations enriched by the hypermethylated and hypomethylated genes at low FSS revealed that the m6A modifications were clustered in the aging-related signaling pathways of mTOR, PI3K-AKT, insulin, and ERRB and in the oxidative stress-related transcriptional factors, such as HIF1A, NFAT5, and NFE2L2. Our study provided a pilot view of m6A modifications in vascular endothelial cells at low FSS and revealed that the m6A modifications driven by low FSS mediated the cellular responses to oxidative stress and cell aging, which suggested that the m6A modifications could be the potential targets for inhibiting vascular aging at pathological low FSS.
 
Objective: Cardiac remodeling has been demonstrated to be the early stage and common pathway for various types of cardiomyopathy, but no specific treatment has been suggested to prevent its development and progress. This study was aimed at assessing whether Cryptotanshinone (CTS) treatment could effectively attenuate cardiac remodeling in vivo and in vitro. Methods: Aortic banding (AB) surgery was performed to establish a pressure-overload-induced mouse cardiac remodeling model. Echocardiography and pressure-volume proof were used to examine mouse cardiac function. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Picro-Sirius Red (PSR) staining were used to assess cardiac remodeling in vivo. Mouse hearts were collected to analysis signaling pathway and cardiac remodeling markers, respectively. Furthermore, neonatal rat cardiomyocyte (NRCMs) and cardiac fibroblast (CF) were isolated to investigate the roles and mechanisms of CTS treatment in vitro. Results: CTS administration significantly alleviated pressure-overload-induced mouse cardiac dysfunction, inhibited cardiac hypertrophy, and reduced cardiac fibrosis. Mechanically, CTS treatment significantly inhibited the STAT3 and TGF-β/SMAD3 signaling pathways. In vitro experiments, CTS treatment markedly inhibited AngII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and TGF-β-induced myofibroblast activation via inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation and its nuclear translocation. Finally, CTS treatment could not protect against pressure overload-induced mouse cardiac remodeling after adenovirus-associated virus (AAV)9-mediated STAT3 overexpression in mouse heart. Conclusion: CTS treatment might attenuate pathological cardiac remodeling via inhibiting STAT3-dependent pathway.
 
As major and serious complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and sepsis are the chief causes of low survival rates as well as mortality and for HSCT recipients. Although the overall treatment outcomes of HSCT have improved significantly in recent years, there is still an increased incidence rate of complications and mortality after transplantation. In the immediate past, with a deeper understanding of oxidative stress, more and more shreds of evidence have shown that it is closely related to transplantation-related sepsis. However, there is currently a precious little research on the interaction between oxidative stress and complications after HSCT, and the major mechanism has not yet been clarified. The objective of this study was to assess the internal connection between and potential mechanisms as well as visualized the scientometrics results of all important literature related to the topic. Through exhaustive scientometrics analysis, we searched and carefully screened 286 related publications from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) with “((HSCT) OR (hematopoietic stem cell transplantation)) AND (oxidative stress)” as the search strategy. Then, detailed visualization of the overall information analysis was made by scientific and rigorous bibliometrics software or website. Next, we analyzed retrieved articles extensively and then 59 publications that are relevant to this topic were selected for nuanced analysis and summary. The assessment of these studies proved the validity of the interaction between oxidative stress and complications after HSCT objectively and directly.
 
Background: Asthma treatment is difficult due to disease heterogeneity and comorbidities. In addition, the development of drugs targeting the underlying mechanisms of asthma remains slow. We planned to identify the most upregulated differentially expressed long noncoding RNA in asthma to explore its regulatory patterns and pathways in asthma. Methods: We sensitized mice using a mixture of ovalbumin, house dust mites, and lipopolysaccharide to establish an asthma mouse model. We also sensitized asthma cells with TGF-β1 in an in vitro model. We performed a microarray analysis to identify the lncRNA with the differential expression level in model mice. We applied hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome stainings to mouse tissues to quantify the tissue damage extent. Next, we assess the levels of lncRNA CRNDE, miR-29a-3p, TGF-β1, MCL-1, E-cadherin, vimentin, and snail. We counted the percentages of Th17 cells using flow cytometry. Finally, we performed a dual-luciferase reporter assay to assess the association between lncRNA CRNDE and miR-29a-3p. Results: We successfully established asthma mouse/cell models and selected the lncRNA CRNDE for our study. Transfection of si-CRNDE reduced the degree of injury and inflammation in the mouse model and reversed the TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the cell model. Moreover, the E-cadherin level was upregulated, and the levels of IL-17A, vimentin, snail, and α-SMA were downregulated. We also discovered that lncRNA CRNDE negatively regulated miR-29a-3p and that this one in turn inhibited MCL-1 in mice. After lncRNA CRNDE expression downregulation, the level of miR-29a-3p was increased, and we detected reduced levels of MCL-1 and EMTs. Conclusions: lncRNA CRNDE expression downregulation led to reduced inflammation and reduced lung damage in mice with induced asthma, it inhibited the EMTs of lung epithelial cells via the miR-29a-3p/MCL-1 pathway, and it reduced the levels of Th17/IL-17A cells to reduce asthma signs.
 
Background: The occurrence and development of ovarian cancer (OV) are significantly influenced by increased levels of oxidative stress (OS) byproducts and the lack of an antioxidant stress repair system. Hence, it is necessary to explore the markers related to OS in OV, which can aid in predicting the prognosis and immunotherapeutic response in patients with OV. Methods: The single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) dataset GSE146026 was retrieved from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and Bulk RNA-seq data were obtained from TCGA and GTEx databases. The Seurat R package and SingleR package were used to analyze scRNA-seq and to identify OS response-related clusters based on ROS markers. The "limma" R package was used to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between normal and ovarian samples. The risk model was constructed using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression analysis. The immune cell infiltration, genomic mutation, and drug sensitivity of the model were analyzed using the CIBERSORT algorithm, the "maftools," and the "pRRophetic" R packages, respectively. Results: Based on scRNA-seq data, we identified 12 clusters; OS response-related genes had the strongest specificity for cluster 12. A total of 151 genes were identified from 2928 DEGs to be significantly correlated with OS response. Finally, nine prognostic genes were used to construct the risk score (RS) model. The risk score model was an independent prognostic factor for OV. The gene mutation frequency and tumor immune microenvironment in the high- and low-risk score groups were significantly different. The value of the risk score model in predicting immunotherapeutic outcomes was confirmed. Conclusions: OS response-related RS model could predict the prognosis and immune responses in patients with OV and provide new strategies for cancer treatment.
 
Background: Placenta previa increases the risks of obstetrical complications. Many studies have reported a link between various ABO blood types and pregnancy complications. This study is aimed at describing and comparing the characteristics and outcomes of women with placenta previa by ABO blood type. Methods: Data for this study was obtained from a retrospective cohort study between January 1, 2014, and June 30, 2019, of all clinically confirmed placenta previa in a university-based tertiary medical center. Both types of A, B, O, AB, and combining O and non-O blood types were compared to the characteristics and outcomes. Results: 1678 participants with placenta previa were included in this study. The highest participants were blood type O with 666 (39.7%), followed by type A with 508 (30.3%) and type B with 395 (23.5%), and the lowest participants were AB with 109 (6.5%). Blood type AB had a higher incidence of antepartum hemorrhage (p = 0.017), predelivery anemia (p = 0.036), and preterm birth (p = 0.015) in placenta previa women. Meanwhile, the incidence of rhesus D positive (97.9% vs. 95.8%, p = 0.012) and twins (5.0% vs. 2.7%, p = 0.011) was higher in the non-O group, and the incidence of neonatal asphyxia (5.9% vs. 9.2%, p = 0.016) was lower in the non-O group. Conclusion: Type AB blood may be a potential risk factor for women with placenta previa. This finding may help provide any obstetrician to predict the risk of complication for placenta previa women by the ABO blood types.
 
Medicinal plants are rich source of phytochemical constitutes and can be used to treat many human diseases. Infectious diseases have always been a major source of concern. Globally, the medicinal plant Achillea wilhelmsii locally known as Bohe Madran is extensively dispersed and widely used as traditional medicine. The aim of this present work is to investigate phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of the whole plant ethanolic extract of Achillea santolinoides subsp. wilhelmsii (WEEAW) from Balochistan region. The total phenolic content was 14.81 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g of the extract whereas the total flavonoid content was 12.27 ± 0.12 mg QE/g of the extract. The antioxidant ability of the extract was analyzed by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl) scavenging assay and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) assay in terms of concentration having 50% inhibition (IC50). Results showed that IC50 value for DPPH% inhibition was 0.367 ± 0.82 mg/mL while FRAP assay represented with IC50 value of 0.485 ± 1.26 mg/mL. In antileishmanial bioassay, the extract was analyzed against Leishmania major and showed good activity with IC50 value of 7.02 ± 0.83 mg/mL. Antibacterial assay revealed that Staphylococcus aureus was highly sensitive with the diameter of inhibition zone ( 21.61 ± 1.09 mm) followed by Salmonella typhi ( 17.32 ± 0.15 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( 16.41 ± 0.63 mm), and Escherichia coli ( 15.30 ± 1.17 mm) while Klebsiella pneumoniae showed minimum inhibition ( 14.13 ± 0.49 mm). Antifungal activity was tested against Aspergillus flavus with 89% of inhibition zone and 77% against Mucor mucedo and Aspergillus niger with 74% of inhibition zone. The anti-inflammatory assay was carried out by inhibiting protein denaturation, proteinase inhibitory activity, and heat-induced hemolysis. The IC50 value for protein denaturation was 6.67 ± 1.25 mg/mL, proteinase inhibitory with IC50 value of 4.12 ± 0.69 mg/mL, and heat-induced hemolysis assay with IC50 value 4.53 ± 0.82 mg/mL by comparing to the standard drug aspirin having IC50 value 1.85 ± 0.54 mg/mL. Results of the current work showed that whole plant ethanolic extract of Achillea wilhelmsii exhibited substantial anti-inflammatory action, thus can be utilized as a traditional treatment. Furthermore, overall finding of this research suggested that the antioxidant potential of the plant aids to prevent free radical damage and reduce the incidence of chronic disease. More research is needed to find out more active compounds present in the extract that are responsible for their pharmacological effects.
 
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are severe metabolic disorders caused by an imbalance in the glycosylation pathway. Phosphomannomutase2 (PMM2-CDG), the most prevalent CDG, is mainly due to the disorder of PMM2. Pathogenic variants in cysteine have been found in various diseases, and cysteine residues have a potential as therapeutic targets. PMM2 harbor six cysteines; the variants Cys9Tyr (C9Y) and Cys241Ser (C241S) of PMM2 have been identified to associate with CDG, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain uncharacterized. Here, we purified PMM2 wild type (WT), C9Y, and C241S to investigate their structural characteristics and biophysical properties by spectroscopic experiments under physiological temperature and environmental stress. Notably, the variants led to drastic changes in the protein properties and were prone to aggregate at physiological temperature. Meanwhile, PMM2 was sensitive to oxidative stress, and the cysteine pathogenic variants led to obvious aggregate formation and a higher cellular apoptosis ratio under oxidative stress. Molecular dynamic simulations indicated that the pathogenic variants changed the core domain of homomeric PMM2 and subunit binding free energy. Moreover, we tested the potential drug targeting PMM2-celastrol in cell level and explained the result by molecular docking simulation. In this study, we delineated the pathological mechanism of the cysteine substitution in PMM2, which addressed the vital role of cysteine in PMM2 and provided novel insights into prevention and treatment strategies for PMM2-CDG.
 
There is increasing evidence for enhanced oxidative stress in the vascular wall of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Mitochondrial damage and dysfunction are hypothesized to be actors in altered production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. However, the role of mitochondria and oxidative stress in vascular remodelling and progression of AAA remains uncertain. We here addressed whether mitochondrial dysfunction is persistently increased in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) isolated from AAA compared to healthy VSMC. AAA-derived VSMC cultures (AAA-SMC, n = 10 ) and normal VSMC cultures derived from healthy donors ( n = 7 ) were grown in vitro and analysed for four parameters, indicating mitochondrial dysfunction: (i) mitochondrial content and morphology, (ii) ROS production and antioxidative response, (iii) NADP+/NADPH content and ratio, and (iv) DNA damage, in the presence or absence of angiotensin II (AngII). AAA-SMC displayed increased mitochondrial circularity (rounded shape), reduced mitochondrial area, and reduced perimeter, indicating increased fragmentation and dysfunction compared to healthy controls. This was accompanied by significantly increased O2- production, reduced NADP+/NADPH levels, a lower antioxidative response (indicated by antioxidative response element- (ARE-) driven luciferase reporter assays), more DNA damage (determined by percentage of γ-H2A.X-positive nuclei), and earlier growth arrest in AAA-SMC. Our data suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are persistently increased in AAA-SMC, emphasizing their implication in the pathophysiology of AAA.
 
Patients undergoing doxorubicin (Dox) chemotherapy often develop new-onset atrial fibrillation and heart failure. Recent studies indicate that the TLR4/MyD88/NLRP3 pyroptosis signaling pathway plays a key role in the occurrence and development of cancer, heart failure, and atherosclerosis. However, few studies investigated the role of oxidative stress and pyroptosis in doxorubicin-induced heart failure and new-onset atrial fibrillation. In this study, we recruited 84 healthy subjects, 112 patients undergoing Dox chemotherapy showing heart failure (HF), and 62 patients undergoing Dox treatment who manifested atrial fibrillation (AF). The mRNA and protein levels of TLR4 expression, several downstream pyroptosis-associated proteins (cleaved caspase-1, NLRP3, GSDMD-N, and HMGB-1), serum inflammatory factors, and oxidative stress were detected at the beginning of chemotherapy and after 3 months of Dox chemotherapy. Oxidative stress and downstream pyroptosis-associated proteins tended to increase in the Dox-baseline group to the Dox-HF group. However, virtually no change in the expression of either oxidative stress or pyroptosis-associated proteins was detected in patients after three months of Dox chemotherapy compared with those at baseline. This study suggests that the prolonged oxidative stress and high levels of pyroptosis-associated proteins contribute to cardiac systolic dysfunction, suggesting TLR4 as a novel biomarker and a potential treatment target for doxorubicin-induced heart failure.
 
Oxidative stress causes damage to macromolecules, including proteins, DNA, and lipid, and has been recognized as a crucial driver of the onset and progression of several intestinal disorders. Pterostilbene, one of the natural antioxidants, has attracted considerable attention owing to its multiple biological activities. In the present study, we established an oxidative stress model in broiler chickens via injection with diquat to investigate whether pterostilbene could attenuate diquat-induced intestinal damage and reveal the underlying mechanisms. We found that diquat-induced decreases in the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and the level of reduced glutathione and the increase in hydrogen peroxide content in plasma and jejunum were significantly alleviated by pterostilbene (P<0.05). Pterostilbene supplementation also decreased intestinal permeability and jejunal apoptosis rate, improved jejunal villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth, and promoted the transcription and translation of jejunal tight junction proteins occludin and zona occludens 1 in diquat-challenged broilers (P<0.05). Furthermore, pterostilbene reversed diquat-induced mitochondrial injury in the jejunum, as indicated by the decreased reactive oxygen species level and elevated activities of superoxide dismutase 2 and mitochondrial respiratory complexes (P<0.05). Importantly, administering pterostilbene maintained iron homeostasis, inhibited lipid peroxidation, and regulated the expression of the markers of ferroptosis in the jejunum of diquat-exposed broilers (P<0.05). The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 signaling pathway in the jejunum of diquat-exposed broilers was also activated by pterostilbene (P<0.05). In conclusion, our study provides evidence that pterostilbene alleviates diquat-induced intestinal mucosa injury and barrier dysfunction by strengthening antioxidant capacity and regulating ferroptosis of broiler chickens.
 
Patrinia scabiosaefolia, as traditional food and medicine plant, was used to treat appendicitis, enteritis, and hepatitis for thousand years in China. Patrinoside and patrinoside A isolated from P. scabiosaefolia could significantly improve insulin resistance (IR) by activating PI-3 K/AKT signaling pathway in our previous study. Since IR is closely related to inflammation, their anti-inflammatory activities in RAW264.7 inflammatory model induced by LPS and in 3 T3-L1 IR inflammatory model induced by TNF-α were evaluated to identify whether the effects on improving IR related to anti-inflammatory activity. In RAW264.7 cells, patrinoside and patrinoside A significantly inhibited the transcription and secretion of inflammatory mediators NO, TNF-α, and IL-6. Western blot analysis showed that the significant inhibition of phosphorylation of IκB and P65 and P38, ERK and JNK suggested that the effects were exerted through NF-κB pathway and MAPK pathway. In 3 T3-L1 cells, patrinoside and patrinoside A also inhibited the activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways through inhibiting the transcriptions of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and chemokines MCP-1 and MIP-1α. These events resulted in the inhibition of macrophages migration to adipocytes. In addition, patrinoside and patrinoside A ameliorated oxidative stress by inhibiting ROS release in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In conclusion, patrinoside and patrinoside A could active PI-3 K/AKT pathway, inhibit NF-κB pathway, MAPK pathway, and improve oxidative stress, which showed multipathways on improving IR. These results provided the scientific basis for material basis and mechanism on improving IR of P. scabiosaefolia.
 
Comparison of serum bilirubin levels among POAG groups with different severities of disease.
Comparison of serum bilirubin levels between subgroups of POAG group in male subgroup.
Logistic regression analysis of the association between serum bilirubin levels and POAG.
Objective: To investigate the relationship between peripheral blood total bilirubin (TBIL) levels and the risk of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods: This study was a cross-sectional, case-control study design. Between April 2021 and January 2022, 198 POAG patients and 205 healthy subjects were recruited from the EENT Hospital of Fudan University. Their clinical information (intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, vertical cup-disk ratios (VCDR), and axial length) and demographic data were collected. Serum levels of TBIL were measured in enzymes using a Roche C702 biochemical analyzer. The POAG subgroups were classified by gender and VCDR: mild (VCDR ≤ 0.64), moderate (VCDR ≤ 0.85), and severe (VCDR > 0.85). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: The level of TBIL (11.58 ± 5.16 μmol/L) in the POAG group was higher than that in the control group (10.18 ± 3.38 μmol/L; p < 0.05). In the male subgroup, TBIL was also significantly higher than in the normal control group; TBIL levels were lower in the mild subgroup (10.82 ± 4.48 μmol/L), followed by the moderate subgroup (12.00 ± 5.55 μmol/L) and the severe subgroup (14.47 ± 5.45 μmol/L). The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that high TBIL levels were a risk factor for male POAG, at 1.126 (95% CI 1.009-1.256). Pearson's analysis revealed that TBIL was positively correlated with intraocular pressure (r = 0.134, p = 0.012), VCDR (r = 0.142, p = 0.046), anterior chamber depth (r = 0.190, p = 0.014), and axial length (r = 0.179, p = 0.019) in the patients. However, no statistical difference (p < 0.05) was observed in the female patients with POAG. Conclusion: The results showed that high levels of TBIL may be related to the pathogenesis of POAG and that the severity of the disease is positively correlated, especially in male patients.
 
A previous study of an animal model with tumor suppressor gene von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) conditional knockdown suggested that tissue inflammation and fibrosis play important roles in the development of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), which is consistent with the epidemiological evidence linking inflammatory kidney disease and renal cancer. Ferroptosis and inflammation have been linked in a recent study, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. This study is aimed at investigating the mechanism of lipocalin-2- (LCN-2-) mediated ferroptosis and inflammation in vhl-mutated HK-2 cells and mouse primary proximal tubule cells (mRTCs) and the polarization of macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Based on the levels of lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) in HK-2 cells, we observed that a VHL mutation increased ROS production and depressed GPX4 expression, whereas LCN-2 knockdown reversed these effects. Accordingly, VHL appears to affect ferroptosis in an LCN-2-dependent manner. We also revealed that LCN-2 sensitizes HK-2 cells to inflammation and macrophage RAW 264.7 cells to M1-like polarization. This study provides novel insights into the potential therapeutic target and strategy for attenuating the progression of ccRCC by revealing the role of VHL in regulating chronic inflammation within the LCN-2–ferroptosis pathway.
 
Methods: The PubMed database was searched to identify all studies related to DN that were published from 2001 to 2021, with these studies being separated into four time-based groups. The characteristics of these studies were analyzed and extracted using BICOMB. Biclustering analyses for each of these groups were then performed using gCLUTO, with these results then being analyzed and GraphPad Prism 5 being used to construct strategy diagrams. The social network analyses (SNAs) for each group of studies were conducted using NetDraw and UCINET. Results: In total, 18,889 DN-associated studies published from 2001 to 2021 and included in the PubMed database were incorporated into the present bibliometric analysis. Biclustering analysis and strategy diagrams revealed that active areas of research interest in the DN field include studies of the drug-based treatment, diagnosis, etiology, pathology, physiopathology, and epidemiology of DN. The specific research topics associated with these individual areas, however, have evolved over time in a dynamic manner. Strategy diagrams and SNA results revealed podocyte metabolism as an emerging research hotspot in the DN research field from 2010 to 2015, while DN-related microRNAs, signal transduction, and mesangial cell metabolism have emerged as more recent research hotspots in the interval from 2016 to 2021. Conclusion: Through analyses of PubMed-indexed studies pertaining to DN published since 2001, the results of this bibliometric analysis offer a knowledge framework and insight into active and historical research hotspots in the DN research space, enabling investigators to readily understand the dynamic evolution of this field over the past two decades. Importantly, these analyses also enable the prediction of future DN-related research hotspots, thereby potentially guiding more focused and impactful research efforts.
 
Dietary habits contribute to the characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cognitive impairment, which are partly induced by the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated Tau, a microtubule-associated protein. In mice, a fat-rich diet facilitates cognitive dysfunction. However, the mechanism by which dietary fat damages the brain remains unclear. In this study, 13-month-old C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal or high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 months. Neuro-2a cells were incubated with the normal medium or palmitic acid (200 μM). Spatial memory was assessed utilizing a behavioral test. Further, western blotting and immunofluorescence techniques were used to determine the levels of mitophagy-related proteins. The synaptic morphology and phosphorylation of Tau proteins were also evaluated. Administration of HFD decreased the expression of synaptophysin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression, leading to significant damage to neurons. Tau protein hyperphosphorylation was detected at different loci both in vivo and in vitro. Significantly impaired learning and memory abilities, accompanied by impaired mitophagy-related processes, were observed in mice fed with HFD as compared to mice fed with normal food. In conclusion, high fatty-acid intake hinders mitophagy and upregulates Tau protein phosphorylation, including age-related synaptic dysfunction, which leads to cognitive decline.
 
Pirarubicin (THP) is one of the classic chemotherapy drugs for cancer treatment. It is often clinically limited because of its cardiotoxicity. The occurrence and development of THP-mediated chemotherapy-related cardiotoxicity (CRC) may be reversed by RING finger protein 10 (RNF10). This study was performed with the aim of evaluating the inhibitory effect of RNF10 on THP-mediated CRC and its molecular mechanism. In vivo, we found that the expression of RNF10 decreased in THP-induced CRC rats, accompanied by Meox2 inhibition and AP-1 activation, resulting in increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis. After small interfering RNA (siRNA) and lentivirus transfection (Lv) of RNF10 in vitro, the expression of RNF10, Meox2, and AP-1 proteins and the degree of cardiomyocyte apoptosis were detected. We found that overexpression of RNF10 in H9C2 cardiomyocytes significantly promoted Meox2 and inhibited AP-1, alleviated apoptosis, and showed further inhibitory activity on THP-induced cardiomyocyte toxicity. Silencing RNF10 showed the opposite result. Our study showed that RNF10 inhibited THP-induced CRC through the activity of Meox2 and AP-1 proteins. RNF10 may be the next drug target for the treatment of CRC and other related cardiovascular diseases.
 
Background: Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) consists of two subunits, the large subunit RRM1 and the small subunit (RRM2 or RRM2B), which is essential for DNA replication. Dysregulations of RR were implicated in multiple types of cancer. However, the abnormal expressions and biologic functions of RR subunits in liver cancer remain to be elucidated. Methods: TCGA, HCCDB, CCLE, HPA, cBioPortal, and GeneMANIA were utilized to perform bioinformatics analysis of RR subunits in the liver cancer. GO, KEGG, and GSEA were used for enrichment analysis. Results: The expressions of RRM1, RRM2, and RRM2B were remarkably upregulated among liver cancer tissue both in mRNA and protein levels. High expression of RRM1 and RRM2 was notably associated with high tumor grade, high stage, short overall survival, and disease-specific survival. Enrichment analyses indicated that RRM1 and RRM2 were related to DNA replication, cell cycle, regulation of nuclear division, DNA repair, and DNA recombination. Correlation analysis indicated that RRM1 and RRM2 were significantly associated with several subsets of immune cell, including Th2 cells, cytotoxic cells, and neutrophils. RRM2B expression was positively associated with immune score and stromal score. Chemosensitivity analysis revealed that sensitivity of nelarabine was positively associated with high expressions of RRM1 and RRM2. The sensitivity of rapamycin was positively associated with high expressions of RRM2B. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated high expression profiles of RR subunits in liver cancer, which may provide novel insights for predicting the poor prognosis and increased chemosensitivity of liver cancer in clinic.
 
Gut microbes may be the critical mediators for the cognitive enhancing effects of exercise. Via fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), this study is aimed at determining the mechanism of how voluntary exercise improved learning and memory ability impairment post a high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet. The learning and memory abilities assessed via the Morris water maze in the FMT recipient group of voluntary exercising mice were improved compared to sedentary group. 16S rRNA gene sequencing results indicated that exercise-induced changes in gut microbiota distribution were transmissible, mainly in terms of elevated Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus, and Eubacterium nodatum, as well as decreased Clostrida_UCG-014 and Akkermansia after FMT. The neuroprotective effects of FMT were mainly related to the improved insulin signaling pathway (IRS2/PI3K/AKT) and mitochondrial function; inhibition of AQP4; decreased p-Tau at serine 396 and 404; increased BDNF, PSD95, and synaptophysin in the hippocampus; and also decreased HDAC2 and HDAC3 protein expressions in the nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions of the hippocampus. The findings of qRT-PCR suggested that exercise-induced gut microbes, on the one hand, elevated GPR109A and decreased GPR43 and TNF-α in the hippocampus. On the other hand, it increased GPR109A and GPR41 expressions in the proximal colon tissue. In addition, total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid, valeric acid, and isovaleric acid contents were also elevated in the cecum. In conclusion, exercise-induced alterations in gut microbiota play a decisive role in ameliorating HFHC diet-induced cognitive deficits. FMT treatment may be a new considerable direction in ameliorating cognitive impairment induced by exposure to HFHC diet.
 
The experimental timeline and generic information regarding the subjects after treatment. (a) Experimental design (b) body weight comparisons (TNBS vs. Control: ∗P<0.05; ∗∗P<0.01; ∗∗∗P<0.001. TNBS + EA vs. TNBS: ∗P<0.05; ∗∗P<0.01; ∗∗∗P<0.001). (c, d) Colon lengths of (∗P<0.05; ∗∗P<0.01; ∗∗∗P<0.001). (e) Hematoxylin and eosin staining of colon tissue at 14 days after TNBS treatment. (f) The mechanical threshold of visceral pain (∗P<0.05; ∗∗P<0.01; ∗∗∗P<0.001). Values are expressed as mean±SD (n=8).