Encarsia aseta, sp. nov. is described from India. The species belongs to the Encarsia parvella-group, and differs form all described species in the genus by the absence of setae on the mid lobe of the mesoscutum. The host of this species is Dialeurolonga elongata Dozier.
All the 13 nominal taxa of the subgenus Polyrhachis are included in this revision. Range, mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variability, coefficient of difference, and the taxonomic distance for 10 morphological measurements and indices are calculated for comparison of different samples. Seven of the eight infraspecific taxa are synonymized, and the other, mindanaensis, is raised to specific status. Montana from Borneo is described as a new species. A tentative phyletic scheme within this subgenus is proposed.
Through the kindness of Prof. Dr. J. Illies, I have had an opportunity to examine a collection of Plecoptera made by Dr. W. L. Peters and Mrs. J.G. Peters in 1964 and 1965 in Thailand and India. This consists of 25 imagines and 202 nymphs, which belong to two families and fall into six genera, one of which is new, and contains two new species. Though specific identification of most of these nymphs must remain in question, I have attempted to discuss and illustrate them in detail for the purpose of adding them to our knowledge of the south-east Asiatic stoneflies. The stonefly fauna of south-east Asia as well as of India has been already described by several European and American authors, but our knowledge of the stonefly fauna of Thailand is very scanty and a large number of species remain undescribed. Most of the descriptions of theknown species from the region are also, unfortunately, inadequate. The species represented in the above mentioned collection are described below.
The dipteran genus Engyneura Stein (Anthomyiidae) from China is reviewed and a new species Engyneura yuanyea sp. nov. is described. A key to the species based on both males and females is also provided. The types are deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Shenyang Normal University, China.
Five species of the orb-weaving spider genus Pronoides from the Gaoligong Mountains, Yunnan Province, southwest China, are included of which four are new viz., Pronoides applanatus sp. nov., Pronoides fusinus sp. nov., Pronoides guoi sp. nov. and Pronoides trapezius sp. nov. Pronoides brunneus Schenkel (1936) is redescribed. The voucher specimens including the types are deposited in the College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, and will be partly deposited in the California Academy of Sciences, USA.
Two new species of Phaonia pallida group viz. Phaonia mammilla sp. nov. and Phaonia palpilongus sp. nov. from China are described. Also, a new record Phaonia rubriventris Emden from China, along with the distribution of species, and a key to the species of the pallida group from the Palaearctic and Oriental regions are given.
Five species of mites are described and figured, three of which are new to science: Parasitus shillongensis, sp. nov., Parasitus assamensis, sp. nov. and Antennoseius indicus, sp. nov. The remaining two species, Pergamasus (Pergamasus) primitivus (Oudemans, 1904) and Veigaia uncata Farrier, 1957, are recorded for the first time from India.
The variation in mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (mtCOI) and 16S rRNA in the 15 colour morphs of Harmonia axyridis Pallas from China was analysed. The results show that there are 170 and 233 variable sites in the gene sequences of mitochondrial DNA in the COI and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. A seven-base insert segment (CGACTAC) was found in COI-B1B and COI-Y4D, whereas no such fragment was found in the 16S rRNA. Results suggest that the genetic differences amongst most individuals are small, thus similar colour morphs do not cluster in the same branch, and these variations have no taxonomic significance.
Predators hold a position of great importance in agro-ecosystems. Their primary significance is that they deter the prey and reduce their plant foraging behaviour, thereby reducing damage and indirectly enhancing the biomass production. The present study was designed to observe the foraging activity of insects in response to spider silk and the cues deposited by spiders on the plants. Orb-weaving spider, Argiope trifasciata, was used as a silk source while Acrida turrita, the common grasshopper of rice fields was used as model herbivorous insect. Foraging of grasshoppers on the silk/cues-deposited plant leaves was compared with the control leaves. Resultantly, a sharp contrast was observed in the foraging activity. Silk-treated leaves were distinctly avoided by the grasshoppers when they were given a choice between the silk-treated and untreated leaves. Furthermore, the learning behaviour of grasshopper was also examined against fresh spider cues. The grasshoppers exhibited a preference for the clean filter paper; by spending more time on it as compared to the cue-deposited filter paper. Therefore, the study provided conclusive evidences that irrespective of the absence of spider, the presence of silk itself is an effective deterrent in threatening the prey and reducing the herbivory damage.
A review is presented of the species included within the “Cyaneoderes group” of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802, subgenus Koptortosoma Gribodo, 1894. The 14 names applied to members of this group by previous authors represent six valid species. Females of five species in this group have bright blue and black pubescence on the dorsal surface: X. abbotti (Cockerell, 1909); X. bangkaensis Friese, 1903; X. caerulea (Fabricius, 1804); X. insularis Smith, 1857; and X. tumida, Friese, 1903. A key, diagnostic table, and set of illustrations is presented to facilitate the identification of females of all five species. The known males of species in this group (X. caerulea and X. insularis) are illustrated. Xylocopa dormeyeri Enderlein, 1909, is placed as a synonym of X. insularis Smith, while X. meade-waldoi Hurd, 1959, is placed as a synonym of X. caerulea (Fabricius), New Synonymies. Diagnostic notes are presented for X. incompleta Ritsema, 1880, a species with bright orange (rather than blue) pubescence, which was included in the “Cyaneoderes group” by previous workers.
Three species of the genus Lauxania Latreille, 1804 from China are described as new to science: L. (Lauxania) hirsuta sp. nov., L. (L.) jinyunensis sp. nov., L. (L.) valga sp. nov. Lauxania (Callixania) minor Martinek, 1974 is first recorded for China. A key to the subgenera and species of the genus Lauxania in China is presented.
Four new species of the Phyllomyza Fallén (Diptera: Milichiidae) from China are reported from Tibet. The following four species are described as new to science: Phyllomyza flavipes sp. nov., Phyllomyza motuoensis sp. nov., Phyllomyza prolongatusa sp. nov. and Phyllomyza striolatum sp. nov. A key to the known species of Phyllomyza from China is presented. The type specimens of the new species are deposited in the Henan Agricultural University.
An up to date checklist of Indian Pterostichinae (Coleoptera: Carabidae) with taxonomic data including type species, literature details and distribution patterns of the 159 species belonging to five tribes namely, \ Abacetini (58 species), Cratocerini (11 species), Morionini (2 species), Pterostichini (52 species) and Zabrini (36 species) are provided. Out of the 159 species, 87 are exclusively Indian and 72 species (excluding the eighty-seven exclusively Indian species) have wider range of geographic distribution. Among 87 exclusively Indian species (54.71%), 46 species (28.9%) are recorded from the Oriental region in India, 32 species (20%) from the Palaearctic and seven species from both Oriental and Palaearctic regions. Sixty species (37.7%) are endemic to the three global hotspots of biodiversity (the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka-12 species; the Himalaya-38 species and the Indo Burma-10 species) in India. First report of Abacetus guttula Chaudoir, 1869 from south India and the erroneous status of exclusively Indian genus Stomonaxellus Tschitscherine, 1901 as a subgenus of Caelostomus MacLeay, 1825 are reported.
The biting midges of the genus Atrichopogon Kieffer, 1906 have been recorded worldwide. Some suck haemolymph from blister beetles (Meloidae) and false blister beetles (Oedemeridae). We collected female biting midges attacking the blister beetle Meloe coarctatus Motschulsky, 1858 in Kanagawa, Central Japan. Our morphological analyses compared with historic specimens revealed that the midges were Atrichopogon lucorum (Meigen, 1818), which had marked morphological variation and characters similar to American and British specimens. These records are not only the new distribution records of the species from Japan but also extend the eastern limit of the previous distribution of A. lucorum and its host range. Atrichopogon femoralis Tokunaga, 1940, considered related to A. lucorum, is redescribed and compared with A. lucorum.
This article validates the note on the developmental biology of a mosquito (possibly an anopheline taxon) under the title ‘On the metamorphoses of the mosquito’ by William Gilchrist, a medical officer attached to the Madras Medical Establishment, Madras, India, which was published in the Madras Journal of Literature and Science in 1836. In today's context, Gilchrist's observations arouse interest given that they were made in Hoonsoor (now ‘Hunsur’, Karnataka, 12°18′27″N, 76°17′16″E), a remote village (town?) in the Madras Presidency in the 1820s, when magnifying optical instruments were crude and primitive even in Europe. Gilchrist's notes gain in validity especially because he made the observations approximately six decades before Ronald Ross established the connection between the mosquito and malaria. Scientific monographs and papers on Indian mosquitoes of early twentieth century are those of George Giles, who started his studies with Ronald Ross in Calcutta at the turn of the nineteenth century. Gilchrist's note precedes the work of Giles, but does not figure in Giles's papers and monographs, published nearly seven decades later.
The genus Hyperaspis Chevrolat in Dejean, 1837 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Pakistan is reviewed. Five species of the genus including three new country records, H. asiatica Lewis, 1896, H. histeroides (Faldermann, 1837) and H. leechi Miyatake, 1961 are described here. The diagnostic characteristics of the genus and identified species, their descriptions, host plants, prey and distribution records are provided. Morphological features of adult including male genital characters of all species are illustrated. Identification key of the studied species is presented.
Two new coccinellid species of the genus Epilachna Dejean from Yunnan, China viz. Epilachna monandrum sp. nov. on Elatostema monandrum and Epilachna kunmingensis sp. nov. on Rubia oncotricha are described. The type specimens are deposited in the College of Forestry, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, China.
This paper is a first among a series of papers that aims to revise the cockroach genus Periplaneta. The type species P. americana is redescribed, with detailed description of the male genital structure. Two new genera: Hobbitoblatta gen. nov., and Nazgultaure gen. nov., are described based on H. lambioae sp. nov. and N. lata comb. nov., respectively. A neotype for N. lata is designated. Periplaneta regina is redescribed and transferred to Dorylaea.
The wasp mimicking flower fly, Monoceromyia eumenioides (Saunders) is reported for the first time visiting flowers of tropical tree plant Bridelia retusa (L.) A. Juss. in April and May in Bangalore, Karnataka State India. Important identification characters of adult, male genitalia images and notes on the distribution, mimicry and its host plants are given.
Two new species of the genus Acrossus Mulsant, 1842 from China are described and illustrated: Acrossus byki sp. nov., and A. jeloneki sp. nov. Both species are closely related to Acrossus ritsemae (Schmidt, 1909) from India and Nepal. The new species are described, illustrated and compared with A. ritsemae (Schmidt, 1909). Additionally, A. ritsemae (Schmidt, 1909) is reported from China for the first time.
In northwestern Indian Himalayan region, the immature stages of greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) were found parasitised by an aphelinid parasitoid. The examination of female adults revealed the identity of the parasitoid as Encarsia formosa Gahan. This seems to be the first record of E. formosa from India. Under protected cultivation, the extent of parasitisation by E. formosa was upto 78%. The parasitoid has a potential for utilisation in management programmes of greenhouse whitefly under protected cultivation in the region.
A new species of Heligmonevra Bigot, 1858 is described and illustrated from Neora Valley National Park, presently in Kalimpong district of West Bengal, India. The new species, Heligmonevra paruii sp. n. is differentiated from its closely related species Heligmonevra cheriani (Joseph & Parui, 1980) by a J-shaped hook-like projection of lower lobe of epandrium with a row of setae at upper border, in comparison to slightly curved epandrium at apex with row of spines at upper border in H. cheriani. With this new addition the genus Heligmonevra Bigot, 1858 is now represented by 20 species from India. An identification key to all known Indian species is also provided.
Ten species of the genus Pagyda Walker, 1859 from China are studied. Two species are described as new: P. recticlavata sp. nov. and P. parallelivalva sp. nov. Photographs of adults and genitalia are provided, along with a key to all the available Chinese species and a map showing the distribution of these species in China.
The first records of the iconic lycaenid butterfly Hypolycaena amasa amasa Hewitson, , commonly known as Fluffy Tit, from Macau and Hong Kong are reported here, along with its other Chinese records. A review on the knowledge of this species across its full distribution range reveals poor information on the larval food plants, in particular. In Hong Kong, early life stages have been found grazing only on the indigenous and widespread plant Clerodendrum cyrtophyllum Turcz. (Verbenaceae). While it is possible that its sudden presence in Macau and Hong Kong, some 150 km southeast of its previously known range, may be related to artificial transport of ornamental plants from mainland China, the fact that the immature stages selectively utilised only C. cyrtophyllum as host, while ignoring completely congeneric ornamental plants species of exotic origin (i.e., C. japonicum (Thumb.) Sweet and C. thomsonae Balf.), indicates that support for this hypothesis is highly unlikely. Therefore, this may represent a new case of poleward migration of species in response to environmental fluctuations related to ongoing climatic changes, global warming in particular. It is now important to monitor these colonies and establish whether they are able to survive in the medium to long term.
This article presents a brief review of the Chinese fauna of the genus Evonima Walker, 1865. Three new species (E. shajiamaensis, E. ronkaygabori and E. lancangensis spp. n.) are described; E. xanthoplaga is reported for the first time from China. Adults and genitalia of all new species are illustrated.
Twenty species of Naarda Walker has been hitherto found in Thailand; all of them are listed in this work with reference to their first record from this country. Three species: N. inouei Tóth & Ronkay; N. lancanga Deng & Han and N. kinabaluensis Holloway are found for the first time in Thailand and their external habitus and genitalia are illustrated. The formerly unknown female of N. lancanga is presented and a new species, N. straminea sp. n., is described. With 18 figures.
One new species of genus Ramila (named Ramila sunderbanensis sp. nov.) is described and illustrated from two male specimens collected from the mangroves of Sunderban Biosphere Reserve, India. The new species is characterised by oval-shaped saccus, gnathos smaller (2/3rd) than uncus of the male genitalia and forewing without any discocellular lunule.
Secondary symmetry of pregenital sclerites and muscles, and also the presence of syntergosternite 7 + 8 and muscles between it and six segment in Diopsidae close this family to Psilidae and Nothybidae. Musculature of male genitalia in Teleopsis (Diopsidae, Diptera) is revealed and described for the first time. Morphology of hypandrium and its splitted muscles close this family to Nothybidae and advanced families of Cyclorrhapha, as Sciomyzidae, Scathophagidae and Calliphoridae.
Nothybus magnus sp.nov. from Thailand is described and depicted. The new species is similar to Nothybus longicollis by wing coloration, differing from it by the black longitudinal medial band on the metathorax and by the predominantly yellow coloration of abdominal tergites.
Ptinus japonicus Reitter is a subversive pest of stored-product throughout the world. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the antennal morphology and sensilla ultrastructure in both sexes of this pest. The antennae of P. japonicus are filiform that comprised scape, pedicel and flagellum with nine flagellomeres. Six types of sensilla were identified, including Böhm sensilla (Bs), two subtypes of sensilla basiconica (SbI-II), sensilla styloconica (Sst), four subtypes of sensilla chaetica (SchI-IV), sensilla coeloconica (Sco), two subtypes of sensilla trichodea (St I-II). The antennae of Ptinus japonicus exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism in antennal size, the type and size of the sensilla, the distribution and abundance of the sensilla. The length of antennae in males was significantly longer than these in females. Sensilla trichodea I (StI) were found only in males. The number of sensilla basiconica (Sb) and Sensilla chaetica IV (SchIV) in females were higher than in males. Bs in females was longer than in males. The results of this study provide theoretical basis and material for the further study on mating and habitant searching, and may provide a new sight into semiochemical-based control of spider beetles.
The pupae of Cyana coccinea are described in relation to the principal developmental stages of metamorphosis (ecdysis, pupa, pharate pupa and eclosion). Species identification of the pupae can be made by the presence of striation patterns on the wing buds (lateral view). Striations show individual variability but conform to a recognisable template. Both fresh exuviae and exuviae kept for over three years could be readily identified on the basis of retained markings. Males and females show slight sexual dimorphism and can also be discriminated by colour and wing pattern in the pharate stage. The ejection of the larval skin out of the cage-cocoon that is characteristic of the genus is achieved by a telescopic extension of the abdomen as it pushes the skin out of the cage with peristaltic contractions. Extension is 60% of the body length of the contracted pupae. After the removal of the larval exuviae, the lower abdominal segments undergo a series of smaller movements to enable the hooks of the cremaster to find purchase on the guy lines of the suspensory silk hammock. Eclosion is preceded by a glistening of the cuticle that indicates a release of cocoonase a few hours before emergence.
A new species, Caryanda xinpingensis Mao sp. nov., was described and illustrated. The specimens of its type are deposited in the Biological Science Museum, Dali University (BMDU), Yunnan Province, China. The complete mitochondrial genome of the species was sequenced and annotated. The obtained genome contains 15,445 bp with an A + T content of 75.3%. A phylogenetic tree constructed with all 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes showed the phylogenetic placement of C. xinpingensis Mao sp. nov. near Pseudoxya diminuta, as the sister group to a clade containing the genus Oxya, both belonging to Oxyinae subfamily as expected.
Two new species of the genus Xistra Bolívar, namely Xistra orchotibia sp. nov. and Xistra bannaensis sp. nov., are described from the Yunnan Province of China. A key to species and a distribution map are provided for Xistra. The differences among the genera Xistra, Xistrella Bolívar, Xistrellula Günther, Pseudoparatettix Günther, 1937 and Mazarredia Bolívar are briefly discussed.
A new species of the crab spider Pharta tangi sp. nov. (male and female) from Guizhou province in China is described. Photos of body and copulatory organs as well as difference comparison between the new and closely related species are given. Locality map is also provided.
Streltzoviella insularis (Staudinger, 1892) (Lepidoptera, Cossidae) is an important boring pest that damages the broad-leaved trees and fruit trees. To provide requisite background information on further chemical ecology studies, we examined the typology, morphology and distribution of sensilla on the antennae and ovipositor of Streltzoviella insularis with scanning electron microscopy. In total, six morphological sensillar types were found on the antennae: Multiporous sensilla trichodea were the most abundant and distributed over the ﬂagellum; Uniporous sensilla chaetica, Multiporous sensilla basiconica, Multiporous sensilla coeloconica and Aporous sensilla squamiformia were present in lower numbers on the ﬂagellum; Aporous Bohm’s bristles were found only on the scape and pedicel. In addition, two types of sensilla were detected on the ovipositor, i.e. aporous sensilla trichodea, and multiporous sensilla basiconica. The identification of these sensilla types could provide morphological evidence to facilitate a better understanding of the host location, mate finding and oviposition processes of this important species.
Luehdorfia chinensis (Leech, 1893) is an endemic and protected butterfly in China; thus, sequencing the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of this species is of significance. We determined the mitochondrial genomes of three populations (Huayin, Zhouzhi and Ningshan) of L. chinensis, performed a comparative analysis of these genomes and previously sequenced mitogenomes of the genus Luehdorfia, and reconstructed the phylogeny of Papilionidae to clarify whether the Ningshan population of L. chinensis represents a separate species. The mitochondrial genomes of the three populations of L. chinensis were 16028, 15580 and 15580 bp in size. They contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs) and a non-coding A+T-rich region; these occurred in the same order and orientation observed in previously sequenced mitochondrial genomes of other lepidopterans. The A+T-rich regions of the three populations, located between srRNA and tRNAMet, contained some conserved structural characteristics of lepidopterans, such as the motif ‘ATAGAA’ followed by an 11-bp poly-T stretch and a 13-bp poly-A stretch at the 3′ end. The phylogenies of 29 mitogenomes of Papilionidae constructed using ML and BI methods showed identical topology and were consistent with morphological and molecular taxonomy. The Ningshan population of L. chinensis does not represent a separate species.
The cave barklouse Psocathropos lachlani Ribaga, 1899 (Psocodea: Psyllipsocidae) occurs in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world, where it is a frequent dweller inside buildings. Numerous specimens of an egg parasitoid Dicopus psyche Girault, 1912 (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) were collected by yellow pan traps and commercial cockroach sticky traps inside houses infested with P. lachlani in two urban localities in Taiwan. This apparent association with P. lachlani is the third known host record for the genus Dicopus Enock, 1909, which is newly recorded from Taiwan. Taxonomic notes and digital images are provided for the holotype male of D. psyche from Fiji as well as for its both sexes based on specimens from Taiwan. Dicopus longipes (Subba Rao, 1984), syn. nov., originally described as Kubja longipes Subba Rao and known from Cambodia, India and Malaysia, is synonymised with D. psyche.
The present-day composition and distribution of diaspidid scale and coccinellid beetle species in the Pacific is an amalgam of endemic distribution, and naturalisations or extirpations following unintentional accidental dispersal as well as intentional dispersal as part of biological plant pest control measures. Using primary sources, historic biogeography not only allows us to untangle the nature and sequence of introductions but also to assess which species have endured. This paper is a case study of early twentieth century coccinellid beetles introductions to Micronesia. When faced with the spectre of a collapse of the local copra industry on Yap, the German colonial administration in Micronesia embarked on an ambitious program to eradicate, or at least contain the coconut scale insect. To this end numerous species of coccinellid beetles were introduced from within the Western Pacific (Saipan, New Britain) as well as from the outside (Australia, China, Philippines).
Sobarocephala is the most diverse genus of druid flies Clusiidae, known from all biogeographic regions. Two species, S. apoxys and S. triangula were known from Vietnam. Sobarocephala cattiensis sp.nov. from Vietnam is described and illustrated. The new species is close to S. megastylis and to S. cycla. This new species was collected in Cat Tien National park (Dong Nai Province), in a seasonal tropical forest.
The holotype of Hadronotus montanus Kieffer 1906 was discovered in the collection of Hungarian Natural History Museum (Budapest). This species is transferred in Calotelea Westwood, re-described and illustrated.
A new species of the genus Parallelodiplosis Rübsaamen, Parallelodiplosis andamanensis sp. nov. is described from Andaman Islands, India, and an updated key to the Indian species of Parallelodiplosis is also provided.
Taxonomic revision of the genus Cueta Navás from Pakistan is
presented by redescribing four of the five species, i.e., C. facile, C. infensa, and C. minervae in this country. Cueta omana syn. nov. is proposed as a junior synonym of Cueta thaliae, a poorly known species, only documented from Afghanistan and Pakistan. Cueta infensa is reported as a new record for Pakistan. The holotype photographs of Cueta infensa and Cueta omana are also presented.
Distributional maps, a comprehensive list of synonyms, diagnostic
characters for each studied species, and a key to species based on adult characters are provided.
A new asilid species Astochia venkataramani sp. nov. is described with supportive illustrations of male genitalia and body parts, from Sundarban Biosphere Reserve, West Bengal, India. An updated checklist of the Indian species of Astochia Becker is also included. The holotype specimen of the new species has been deposited in the National Zoological Collections of Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata. An updated identification key to the species of Astochia from West Bengal is also provided.
Cyril Beeson in his volume Ecology and control of forest insects of India and neighbouring countries, published in 1941, refers to the remarkable galls developing on the shoots of Dipterocarpus tuberculatus. These galls were found in Burma (Myanmar) in the 1920s and sent to the Forest Research Institute, Dehradun (FRI-D), India for determining the inducing agents. The entomology division staff, FRI-D, determined that the agents were coccoids (then referred to as ‘coccids’) of Insecta, Hemiptera. Edward Green who knew the coccoids of the Indian subcontinent well, because of his studies of the insects of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) earlier, determined the inducing coccids as Beesonia dipterocarpi in 1926 publishing his paper in the Bulletin of Entomological Research (BER) (London) in 1926. He named the coccoid B. dipterocarpi after Beeson and the host plant Dipterocarpus. Due to the complexity in the morphology of the coccoid, Green published his amended notes on B. dipterocarpi in BER in 1928. Green did not assign B. dipterocarpi to any family of the Coccoidea (‘Coccidae’ then). Gordon Ferris, Stanford, California, erected Beesoniidae in 1950, as a distinct family based on his finding of a novelty Beesonia napiformis from Quercus acutissima in China. From the 1980s, the Beesoniidae, a family of remarkable coccoids, has been in the limelight, thanks to the work of Sadao Takagi, Sapporo, Japan. Several species of the Beesoniidae, both suspected due to their affinity to the tropical Dipterocarpaceae and confirmed, are known today. In such a context, we, the authors of this paper, got access to the correspondence between the forest officials of Burma in the 1920s and the staff of the entomology division of FRI-D, then led by Beeson, pertaining to the finding of the Chrysanthemum flower-like galls on the shoots of D. tuberulatus. In this paper, we have chronicled the events that led to the description of these galls and the inducing insects, using copies of letters archived at FRI-D in the context of this material. At appropriate points, we have inserted our remarks, in the light of the present understanding of galls in general and those induced by the Beesoniidae in particular, to explain the complex morphology of the galls of D. tuberculatus induced by B. dipterocarpi. Host relationships of the Beesoniidae are equally complex and confusing. This paper, hopefully, will trigger interest in entomologists, so that this group of insects will be investigated more closely and their biological details are clarified in the near future.
The species Glenea beesoni Heller, 1926 is redescribed with genitalia morphology and Walnut plant (Juglans regia Linnaeus of the family Juglandaceae) is confirmed to be the host plant of this species. Distribution map, habitus and genitalia pictures are provided.
Taxonomic studies were carried out on the ant genus Lepisiota Santschi, 1926 in India, with the description of four new species, L. binghami sp. nov., L. pusaensis sp. nov., L. satpuraensis sp. nov., and L. wilsoni sp. nov., based on the worker caste. Redescription and new distribution records of five known species, L. annandalei (Mukerjee, 1930), L. bipartita (Smith, 1861), L. integra (Forel, 1894), L. layla Wachkoo, Bharti & Akbar, 2021, and L. pulchella (Forel, 1892), are provided. An identification key to the seventeen Indian species of Lepisiota based on the worker caste is presented. The male genitalia of L. bipartita are described in detail with the illustration of different morphological details. In addition, the DNA barcode of L. annandalei, L. bipartita, L. pulchella, and L. pusaensis sp. nov. is generated.