Orgão oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia

Online ISSN: 2175-8239
Print ISSN: 0101-2800
Determinações séricas de creatinina de acordo com o tempo após o transplante em receptores de enxertos renais de doador falecido com insufi ciência renal aguda.  
Non-expanded deceased donors with acute kidney failure can be a safe option to increase the number of kidneys for transplantation. Histological evaluation is fundamental to establish the functional prognosis of those grafts. Two kidney transplantations were performed from a young deceased donor with severe acute kidney failure and no structural change in the renal parenchyma. Both patients had postoperative delayed graft function, but one of them, who had good initial urinary volume, required no dialysis. Adequate renal function was present at day 30 after transplantation. Severe acute kidney failure in deceased donors is not an independent risk factor for short-term outcome of renal graft and should not be considered an absolute contraindication for transplantation.
Acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) after infection of the upper airways or skin is a kidney disease usually caused by streptococcal nephritogenic strains and may present with sudden onset of gross hematuria, hypertension, edema and, occasionally, acute renal failure, is common in childhood and little incident in adults and younger individuals. To analyze, in a descriptive way, data from the initial presentation of GNA after infection of the upper airways or skin in patients over 14 years of age, with emphasis on its epidemiological and clinical aspects. We reviewed the clinical data of 82 patients treated at our department during the period 1972-2001, divided into three groups: group 1, with individuals between 14 and 20 years (n = 52), group 2, between 21 and 30 years (n = 19) and group 3, aged ≥; 31 years (n = 11). There was a predominance of the table among younger patients (group 1), male and white, mostly preceded by infection of the skin, appearing most commonly on lower extremity edema and/or face. In some cases, even with nephrotic syndrome, and hypertension, especially in adults over 30 years (group 3), being the least frequent finding of gross hematuria, and rarely, acute renal failure. Our findings underscore the importance of studying the AGN after infection of the upper airways or skin in younger individuals and adults, seeking to better characterize its clinical, mainly because it is a group of patients where the disease is less incident.
Adinamic bone disease (ABD) is a common finding in peritoneal dialysis (PD) and is associated with higher risk of developing cardiovascular and bone disease. Data from BRAZPD indicates that 3.5 mEq/L calcium PD solutions represents the majority of PD prescriptions in the country. A positive calcium balance can contribute to ABD development. Currently guidelines suggest that PTH-i levels in end stage renal disease should be kept from 150-300 pg/mL. The purpose of this study is to evaluate 6 month PTH-i response after conversion to 2.5 mEq/L calcium PD solution in patients with baseline PTH-i levels < 150 pg/mL. Prospective, observational study of all prevalent patients (at least 90 days on therapy) on PD of a single Brazilian center from January 2008 to May 2009. Inclusion criteria (1) be in use of a PD solution with 3.5 mEq/L of calcium; (2) baseline PTH levels < 150 pg/ mL. According to clinical practice patients could be switched to PD solutions with 2.5 mEq/L of calcium. 35 patients (age 62 ± 17 years) were included. Of these 22 were converted to 2.5 mEq/L calcium solutions. Diabetic nephropathy (36%) was the main cause of renal disease followed by nephrosclerosis (25%) and glomerulonephritis (14%). Converted group presented a greater increase in PTH levels when compared with the control group (Δ194 pg/dL versus Δ 92/dL; p < 0,05). Among patients switched to low calcium solution, 41% reached the target values (PTH 150-300 pg/mL) compared to 14% whose remain with normal calcium solutions (p < 0.05). There were no differences between groups regarding calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase. In patients with PTH < 150 pg/mL conversion to low calcium solutions (2.5 mEq/L) appears to be a simple and effective strategy to bring PTH levels to the range determined by current guidelines when compared with 3.5 mEq/L calcium PD solutions.
Professor José Silvério Santos Diniz, an exponent of the Brazilian Pediatric Nephrology, died on 23 May, 2011. This editorial is a brief description of the career of this great Brazilian teacher, physician and researcher.
chArActeristics of the pAtients with tuberculosis 
evolution of the pAtients After six months And one yeAr of treAtment 
Tuberculosis is a common opportunistic infection in renal transplant patients. To obtain a clinical and laboratory description of transplant patients diagnosed with tuberculosis and their response to treatment during a period ranging from 2005 to 2013 at the Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital. Retrospective and descriptive study. In 641 renal transplants, tuberculosis was confirmed in 12 cases. Of these, 25% had a history of acute rejection, and 50% had creatinine levels greater than 1.5 mg/dl prior to infection. The disease typically presented as pulmonary (50%) and disseminated (33.3%). The first phase of treatment consisted of 3 months of HZRE (isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin and ethambutol) in 75% of the cases and HZME (isoniazid, pyrazinamide, moxifloxacin and ethambutol) in 25% of the cases. During the second phase of the treatment, 75% of the cases received isoniazid and rifampicin, and 25% of the cases received isoniazid and ethambutol. The length of treatment varied between 6 and 18 months. In 41.7% of patients, hepatotoxicity was associated with the beginning of anti-tuberculosis therapy. During a year-long follow-up, renal function remained stable, and the mortality rate was 16.7%. Tuberculosis in the renal transplant population studied caused diverse nonspecific symptoms. Pulmonary and disseminated tuberculosis were the most frequent forms and required prolonged treatment. Antituberculosis medications had a high toxicity and mortality. This infection must be considered when patients present with a febrile syndrome of unknown origin, especially during the first year after renal transplant.
National dialysis data are fundamental for treatment planning. To report data of the annual survey of the Brazilian Society of Nephrology about chronic renal failure patients on dialysis in January 2009. A survey based on data of dialysis units from the whole country. The data collection was performed by using a questionnaire filled out by the dialysis units in Brazil. 427 (69.8%) of the dialysis units in the country answered the questionnaire. National data were estimated for the overall dialysis population. In January 2009, the total estimated number of patients on dialysis was 77,589. The estimated prevalence and incidence rates of chronic renal failure on maintenance dialysis were 405 and 144 patients per million population, respectively. The estimated number of new patients starting dialysis program in 2009 was 27,612. The annual gross mortality rate was 17.1%. For prevalent patients, 39.9% were aged 60 years or older, 89.6% were on hemodialysis and 10.4% on peritoneal dialysis, 30,419 (39.2%) were on a waiting list of renal transplant, 27% were diabetics, 37.9% had serum phosphorus > 5.5 mg/dL and 42.8% hemoglobin < 11 g/dL. A venous catheter was the vascular access for 12.4% of the hemodialysis patients. The prevalence of chronic renal failure on maintenance dialysis is increasing in Brazil, although in 2009 the estimate is lower than in 2008. The data call attention to indicators of the quality of maintenance dialysis that need to be improved and highlight the importance of the census to guide chronic dialysis therapy.
National chronic dialysis data are fundamental for treatment planning. To report data of the annual survey of the Brazilian Society of Nephrology about patients with chronic renal failure who were on dialysis in 1 July, 2010. A national survey based on data from the country's dialysis centers. Data collection was performed by using a questionnaire filled out online by the dialysis centers. 340 (53.3%) centers answered the questionnaire. National data were estimated for the overall dialysis population. In July 2010, the estimated total number of patients on dialysis was 92,091. The estimated prevalence and incidence rates of end-stage chronic kidney disease patients on maintenance dialysis were 483 and 100/million population, respectively. The estimated number of patients starting a dialysis program in 2010 was 18,972. The annual crude mortality rate was 17.9%. Of those on maintenance dialysis, 30.7% were aged 65 years or older, 90.6% were on hemodialysis and 9.4% on peritoneal dialysis, 35,639 (38.7%) were on a kidney transplant waiting list, 28% were diabetics, 34.5% had serum phosphorus levels > 5.5 mg/dL, and 38.5% had hemoglobin levels < 11 g/dL. Vascular access was through a venous catheter in 13.6% of the hemodialysis patients. The number of end-stage kidney disease patients on maintenance dialysis is increasing in Brazil. Data concerning the indicators of the quality of maintenance dialysis improved compared to the prior year, and they highlight the importance of the census to guide chronic dialysis therapy.
The Nutrition Committee of the Brazilian Society of Nephrology (SBN) held in 2010 the first Brazilian Nutrition Census in hemodialysis patients. Multicenter data contribute to clinical development and nutritional intervention. To describe epidemiological and nutritional aspects of hemodialysis patients. Cross-sectional study in 36 dialysis clinics and 2,622 randomly selected participants. Socio-demographical, clinical, biochemical and anthropometric records were collected. 60.45% of the patients lived in the Brazilian Southeast. 13.53% came from Northeast region, while 12.81% from South, 10.33% from Midwest and 2.86% from North regions. Approximately 58% were male and 63.1% were below 60 years old. 58.5% of patients were married or in cohabitation. Around 80% of them depended on the government Unified Health System. Smoking showed a difference between gender and age. Presumptive etiologies were Hypertensive Nephrosclerosis (26.4%), Diabetic Nephropathy (24.6%), unknown/undiagnosed causes (19.9%), Glomerulopathies (13.6%) and others (11.2%). Both Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus affect approximately 30% of patients, especially over 60 years. Body Mass Index did not differ between genders, although it differed between age groups and when used different evaluation criteria. Men and women average waist circumference were respectively 90.5 and 88.0 cm. Lipid profile did not differ between age groups, but it did between genders. Albumin values were lower in women and in patients older than 60 years. This study characterized Brazilian hemodialysis patients in 2010, and may support further studies to monitor nutrition and epidemiological transitions of the population.
National data on maintenance dialysis are important for treatment planning. To describe the results of the dialysis census of the Brazilian Society of Nephrology for 2011 and observed trends from 2000 to 2011. A survey was conducted using questionnaire filled online by the dialysis units, with July as reference month for estimates. From a total of 645 units, 353 (54.9%) responded to the survey. The estimated number of patients on dialysis in Brazil was 91,314 in 2011 (42,629 in 2010; 92,091 in 2011). For approximately 85% of the patients the treatment was provided by the Brazilian Unified Health Care System. The estimated prevalence and incidence rates in 2011 were 475 and 149 maintenance dialysis patients per million population, respectively. For prevalent patients, 90.6% were on hemodialysis, 31.5% 65 years of age or older, 28% diabetic and 35.5% (n=32,454) on waiting list for transplantation in 2011. The estimated number of patients starting dialysis in 2011 was 28,680 (18,972 in 2010) and annual mortality rate 19.9% (17.9% in 2010). The data indicate pronounced increase in the dialysis population across the years in Brazil with a trend for stabilization in the last two years. The reason for the increase in incidence and mortality in 2011 deserves investigation. A large number of patients were on waiting list for renal transplantation. By providing a picture of the situation and trends on maintenance dialysis treatment in Brazil the census is useful to guide resources allocation and interventions to improve treatment quality.
The authors of this "fast reading" present the data they have considered as more relevant in the KDIGO 2012 as concerned to evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. The text does not correspond to their opinion, it is a brief presentation of guidelines that could be useful in clinical practice.
Distribution of the dialysis units that responded to the census (n = 255) by region, 2012 census.  
Percentage of patients with tests not showing compliance with the recommended indices of 2010-12, census 2012.  
Percentage of patients using the selected medication in 2010-12, census 2012.  
Introduction: National chronic dialysis data are fundamental for treatment planning. Objective: To report data of the annual survey of the Brazilian Society of Nephrology about chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis in July 2012. Methods: A survey based on data of dialysis units from the whole country. The data collection was performed by using a questionnaire filled out on-line by the dialysis units in Brazil. Results: 255 (31.9%) of the dialysis units in the country answered the questionnaire. In July 2012, the total estimated number of patients on dialysis in the country was 97,586. The estimated prevalence and incidence rates of chronic kidney disease on maintenance dialysis were 503 and 177 patients per million population, respectively. The estimated number of new patients starting dialysis in 2012 was 34,366. The annual gross mortality rate was 18.8%. For prevalent patients, 31.9% were aged 65 years or older, 91.6% were on hemodialysis and 8.4% on peritoneal dialysis, 30,447 (31.2%) were on a waiting list of renal transplant, 28.5% were diabetics, 36.6% had serum phosphorus > 5.5 mg/dl and 34.4% hemoglobin < 11 g/dl. A venous catheter was the vascular access for 14.5% of the hemodialysis patients. Conclusion: The prevalence and incidence rates of chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis increased, while the mortality rate tended to decrease compared with 2011. The indicators of the quality of maintenance dialysis remained stable with a trend towards decrease in levels of anemia. The data highlight the importance of the census to guide chronic dialysis therapy.
Curvas de sobrevida: (A) Sobrevida de pacientes com DRC (n = 2.151). (B) Probabilidade cumulativa de não necessitar de Terapia Renal Substitutiva (n = 2.151). (C) Probabilidade cumulativa de sobrevida sem necessidade de TRS (n = 2.151).  
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is common, severe and treatable. Its detection involves low cost tests. To evaluate the effect of a multidisciplinary (nephrologist, social worker, nurse, nutritionist, and psychologist) intervention comparing clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with CKD. A prospective study with 2,151 patients attended at the State Center for Kidney Diseases of the Vale do Paraiba, São Paulo, from February 2008 to March 2011. The kidney function was measured using albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGRF) using the MDRD formula The clinical outcomes were the occurrence of cardiovascular disease (CAD), hospitalization episodes, need of renal replacement therapy (RRT) and death. Participants had a mean (range) age of 62 years (14-101), a mean follow-up of 546 days (90-1540) and the majority was in the stage 3 of CKD (59%). The most common primary diagnoses were hypertension (41.2%) and diabetes (32.4%). Mean blood pressure values at the beginning and at the end of treatment were 143 ± 26 mmHg x 87 ± 14 mmHg and 123 ± 16 mmHg x 79 ± 9 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.001); the eGRF decreased from 58.5 ± 31 ml/min. to 56.3 ± 23 ml/min (p < 0.01). Mean value of proteinuria decreased from 1.04 ± 1.44 g/day to 0.61 ± 1.12 g/day, p < 0.001, and the fasting glicemia decreased from 137 ± 73 mg/dl to 116 ± 42 mg/dl. One hundred and twenty-two patients (5.7%) had a CAD episode, the hospitalization rate was 6.6% (n = 143 patients), 7.3% patients died (n = 156), and 1.1% (n = 23) patients needed to start RRT. The risk of cardiovascular events, hospitalization, or death was inversely related to eGRF, and the rates of these events were low compared with the international literature. The multidisciplinary care with well defined targets is effective for the preservation of renal function and reduction in morbidity and mortality of CKD patients.
Approximately 10 years ago, a member of the family of the fibroblast growth factors, the hormone FGF-23 (fibroblast growth factor 23) was discovered. Its currently known functions involve phosphorus (P) metabolism and inhibition of 1α hydroxylase, the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of calcitriol. That discovery led to a better understanding of the mechanisms of P control, an element associated with mortality, especially in chronic kidney disease. This study reviews several aspects of that hormone, such as its discovery, function, production, mechanism of action, and the most recent clinical studies about it. Afterwards, a discussion about the possible effects of those studies on clinical practice will be presented.
Creatinine concentration in plasma has been used to evaluate renal function. However, the endogenous creatinine clearance (CrCl) is more sensitive to this goal. Correlate the CrCl calculated from urinary collects of 12 h and 24 h. Ninety five volunteers (34-64 y) collected the urine for 24 h into two bottles: night, from 7 am to 7 pm and day, from 6 am to 7 pm. A fasting blood sample was used to measure plasma creatinine. Correlation between variables was determined by Pearson method (r) and the agreement between night and 24 h CrCl was determined by the Bland-Altman plot. Urines of 4 individuals were discarded because of collect errors. In the final sample (n = 91; 42 males), hypertension was found in 23 and diabetic in 5. The CrCl (mL/min/1.73 m²) was slightly lower in females in the night (77.8 ± 22.7 versus 88.4 ± 23.6; p < 0.05) and similar in males (91.2 ± 22.9 versus 97.3 ± 30.9; p > 0.05). Strong correlations were observed between the CrCl calculated from the night and day urines and the 24 h (r = 0.85 and 0.83; respectively). Agreement between the CrCl calculated from night or day urine and the 24 h urine was observed, respectively, to 85 and 83 individuals. The 12 h urine, mainly obtained at night, gives CrCl values similar to those obtained in the 24 h collect. Since urine collect is easier to outpatients at night, this period should be chosen in the clinical evaluation of the glomerular filtration rate.
populatioN charactEristics at thE basEliNE 
populatioN charactEristics aNd aNalysis of thE populatioN brokEN dowN accordiNg to imt mEdiaN valuE 
Introduction: Increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is considered a marker of early-onset atherosclerosis and it seems to predict cardiovascular events in general population. The prognostic value of IMT in patients with early-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not been clearly established. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the association between IMT and cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality in CKD patients. Methods: A cohort of CKD patients in stage 2-4 was evaluated the occurrence of CV events and death in a 24 months follow-up. Laboratory data, carotid ultrasound and coronary computed tomography were performed at baseline. Results: A total of 117 patients (57 ± 11 years-old, 61% male) were evaluated. Mean glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 36 ± 17 mL/min, 96% of patients had hypertension, 23% diabetes and 27% were obese. Coronary calcification was found in 48% of the patients, with higher prevalence among CKD stage 4 (p = 0.02). The median value of IMT was 0.6 mm (0.4-0.7 mm). When compared to patients with IMT ≤ 0.6 mm, those with IMT > 0.6 mm were older (p = 0.001), had higher prevalence of male (p = 0.001) and had lower eGFR (p = 0.01). These patients also had higher prevalence of coronary calcification (p = 0.001). During the follow-up, there were no differences in the occurrence of cardiovascular events and deaths between the two groups. Conclusion: IMT in early-stage CKD patients was related to coronary calcification, but not with the occurrence of cardiovascular events or death.
minimum, maximum, meDian anD mean values Of prOteinuria (in a ranDOm urine sample, with anD withOut creatinine cOrrectiOn, anD 24 hOurs) in 78 examinatiOns 
The urinary protein/creatinine ratio has been used instead of 24-hour proteinuria in Nephrology practice for the follow-up of glomerular diseases, considering the advantages of collection and the low cost. However, there are still doubts as to its applicability both for an isolated evaluation and for the follow-up of patients with lupus nephritis. To evaluate 24-hour proteinuria determinations and random urine samples, performing urinary creatinine correction and urinary protein/creatinine ratio in subjects with lupus nephritis. 24-hour proteinuria and urinary protein/creatinine ratio were determined by conventional methods (automated Pyrogallol for proteinuria and alkaline picrate for creatinine). Seventy-eight urine samples of 41 patients diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus, according to the American Rheumatology Association, with lupus nephritis, were analyzed, and a good correlation between 24-hour proteinuria and urinary protein/creatinine ratio (r = 0.9010 and r² = 0.813) was observed. However, a poor correlation between random proteinuria (without creatinine correction) versus 24-hour proteinuria (r = 0.635 and r² = 0.403) or versus urinary protein/creatinine ratio (r = 0.754 and r² = 0.569) was seen. 24-hour proteinuria and urinary protein/creatinine ratio were useful in the follow-up of each case. However, we observed that the absolute values were different, which did not allow the replacement of one for the other during follow-up, especially when this result is used to define the activity of the disease. Based on these results, we suggest a period of intersection from one to the other (two to three determinations by both methods), and the choice of one marker for proteinuria follow-up, if necessary.
Imagem de eletroforese de uma amostra representativa em gel agarose a 3%.  
Curva de sobrevida Kaplan-Meier para os Grupos 1, 2, 3 e 4.  
Multiple organ failure syndrome and acute renal dysfunction share many of physiologic factors involved in their development. Recent studies correlate the susceptibility to organ dysfunction in critically ill patients with genetic inheritance. Many of them consider ACE gene could be a possible candidate to elucidate a genetic predisposition or a genetic risk factor. We aimed to examine the effects of I/D and -262A > T ACE polymorphisms in the renal function in severely ill southern Brazilians patients. A multi-organic worldwide known failure score, the SOFA (sequential organ failure assessment), was used to determine the basal health state at first day (ICU admission). Considering admission SOFA score and trend of renal function (measured by daily renal SOFA scores, with daily measure of serum creatinine and diuresis), we hypothesize that ACE polymorphisms could influence in the trend of renal function in ICU patients. A total of 153 critically ill adult patients (79 men) were included in this study. We monitored the patients daily during their entire ICU and post-ICU (hospital) stay (measured from the ICU admission day to a maximum of 224 days). We observed progression to renal failure (SOFA scores 3 and 4) in first seven days of ICU stay and need for dialysis. The general genotypic frequencies in our sample were II = 0.17; ID = 0.46; DD = 0.37 and AA = 0.30; AT = 0.55; TT = 0.15, and the allelic frequencies were I = 0.40; D = 0.60 and A = 0.56; T = 0.44. This is the first study to verify the influence of I/D and -262A > T ACE polymorphisms in acute renal dysfunction among critically ill patients. No significant association was found between genotypes or allele frequencies and the trend of the renal function. The I/D and -262A > T ACE polymorphisms have no significant impact on the trend of renal function during the first week of ICU stay, neither any influence in mortality in critically ill patients.
Survival curves according to diabetes status.  
Survival curves according to age ranges. All survival rate comparisons by Log Rank were significantly different (p < 0.001).  
univAriAte AnAlysis of DeAth risk
Survival curves according to baseline serum albumin.  
MultivAriAte AnAlysis of DeAth risk by A cox regression MoDel
Brazil has the third largest contingent of patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) worldwide. However, little is known regarding survival rate and predictors of mortality risk in that population, which are the purposes of this study. A total of 3,082 patients incident on HD, from 2000 to 2004, at 25 dialysis facilities distributed among 7 out of 26 states of Brazil were followed-up until 2009. Patients were 52 ± 16 years-old, 57.8% men, and 20.4%, diabetics. The primary outcome was all causes of mortality. Data were censored at five years of follow-up. The global five-year survival rate was 58.2%. In the Cox proportional model, variables associated with risk of death were: age (hazard ratio - HR = 1.44 per decade, p < 0.0001), diabetes (HR = 1.51, p < 0.0001), serum albumin (HR = 0.76 per g/dL, p = 0.001), creatinine (HR = 0.92 per mg/dL, p < 0.0001), and phosphorus (HR = 1.06 per mg/dL, p = 0.04). The present results show that the mortality rate on HD in this Brazilian cohort was relatively low, but the population is younger and with a lower prevalence of diabetes than the ones reported for developed countries.
Chronic renal failure has alarming incidence all over the world in this century. Among the modalities of dialytic treatment, peritoneal dialysis has a major spot. This method of dialytictreatment may present complications, and among those is peritoneal fibrosis. It occurs in patients submitted to peritoneal dialysis along years. It's most dangerous form is sclerosing encapsulant peritonitis, wich leads to a need of change in modality and many times lead to death. Study the influence of using captopril on the peritoneal fibrosis induced in rats using solution with glucoses 4.25%. Prospective controlled study in 20 non-uremic Wistar rats. The animals received a peritoneal infusion of 10 ml/100g of peritoneal dialysis solution glucose 4.25% on a daily basis. The animals were divided in two groups: experimental and control. The experimental group received captopril 30 mg/kg/d, by a gastric tube. The control group did not receive any drug. The follow-up was 21 and 49 days. At the end, one surgical procedure was performed to get histological samples of visceral and parietal peritoneum. The samples were analyzed using Hematoxylin Eosin and Sirius Red, to evaluate the severity of the fibrosis. The analysis showed that the intensity of the fibrosis, the peritoneal thickness and the cell number in experimental and control groups were not statistically significant different in experimental and control groups. Our findings indicate that captopril do not decrease the intensity of fibrosis on the peritoneal membrane that happens on rats on peritoneal dialysis.
Brazil is a continental country with great diversity of population, social and cultural. This factor may determine different demographic, clinical and outcome presented by patients with chronic kidney disease on peritoneal dialysis (PD). To evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes presented by PD patients in different regions of Brazil, analyzing a cohort of patients (BRAZPD) in the period 12/2004 to 10/2007. Data were collected monthly and patients were followed until the outcome (death, renal transplantation, renal function recovery, transfer to hemodialysis or loss of follow-up). We evaluated 5.819 patients incident and prevalent. Most patients performed renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the Southeast, where the average follow up time was longer (12.3 months) and there is a higher percentage of elderly (36.4%). The prevalence of diabetes is higher in Southeast and South (38.1% and 37%, respectively). Most patients in the North region had previously hemodialysis (66.2%). The mortality was higher in the Northern region (30.1%), as well as failure of the technique (22.3%). The data shows different demographic, clinical, mortality and technique failure of PD reflecting the demographic and social peculiarities of Brazil. The geography of the DP in Brazil proves to be a mirror of the geography of Brazil. So health policies should take into account the characteristics of each region so we can improve patient survival and technique on peritoneal dialysis.
Values of plasma protein carbonyl in hemodialysis patients with normal nutritional status (NNS) and with ProteinEnergy-Wasting syndrome (PEW). 
levels of hemoglobin (hb), ferritin, lipid peroxidAtion (mdA) And protein cArbonyl (pc) in heAlth volUnteers And in hemodiAlysis pAtients 
Values of highly-sensitive serum C reactive protein (hs-CRP) in hemodialysis patients with normal nutritional status (NNS) and with Protein-Energy-Wasting syndrome (PEW). 
Introduction: Enhanced inflammatory-oxidative status is well established in chronic kidney disease. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the oxidative- inflammatory status and iron indices in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD) with serum ferritin lower than 500 ng/mL, and to correlate them with nutritional status. Method: In a cross-sectional survey 35 HD patients (23 with normal nutritional status, 12 with Protein-Energy-Wasting syndrome, PEW), and healthy volunteers (n = 35) were studied. Serum concentration of iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation, malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC), high-sensitive serum C -reactive protein (hs-CRP) and blood counts were determined. The nutritional status was determined by anthropometric and biochemical criteria. Results: HD patients showed low values of hemoglobin and higher values of ferritin, MDA and PC when compared with healthy volunteers. HD subjects with PEW had higher values of PC and hs-PCR as compared to HD patients with normal nutritional status. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the independent variables PC (Wald Statistic 4.25, p = 0.039) and hs-CRP (Wald Statistic 4.83, p = 0.028) where related with the patients' nutritional condition. Conclusion: In HD patients with serum ferritin below 500 ng/mL was observed one association of the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation with poor nutritional status independently of serum ferritin, gender and age.
The incidence and prevalence of treated end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients continue to grow throughout the world. Renal transplantation remains the preferred form of renal substitutive therapy, but given the limited number of donors, dialytic therapies are the most common modalities. To assess a registry of patients admitted for renal substitutive therapy at a single centre from 1984 to 2009. This is a retrospective epidemiological study. The following were analyzed: demographic and clinical characteristics; incidence of CKD; underlying kidney disease; dialysis modalities; mortality; and causes of death. The variables were compared by using the chi-square test, Student t test, ANOVA, and Tukey test. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate patient's survival. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. In the period studied, 878 patients were admitted to dialysis. Their mean age was 47.0 ± 16.2 years, 549 (62.5%) were males, and 712 (81.1%) were white. The major cause of CKD was hypertension in 351 (40.0%) patients, diabetic nephropathy in 174 (19.8%), and chronic glomerulonephritis in 180 (20.5%) patients. The main dialytic modality was hemodialysis. The one-year mortality rate was 10.4%. The most common cause of death was cardiovascular, affecting 126 (34.6%) patients. The cohort of patients studied had a low mortality rate. Cardiovascular disease remains the most common cause of death in end-stage chronic kidney disease. Screening for cardiovascular disease is highly recommended for those patients.
final multivariate analysis mODel fOr aBDOminal OBesity in hemODialysis patients. gOiânia, Brazil, 2010 
The presence of excess weight, especially visceral obesity contributes to the increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular complications in patients with chronic kidney disease. To determine the prevalence and associated factors with abdominal obesity in patients on hemodialysis (HD). Cross-sectional study with 344 patients older than 18 years. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circunference > 94 cm in men and > 80 cm in women. The independent variables involved socioeconomic, demographic, lifestyle, duration of HD, food consumption and body mass index (BMI). The analysis of associated factors was performed by multiple Poisson regression, remaining in the final model variables with p < 0.05. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 44.77% and was more prevalent in women (55.71%) than in men (37.25%), p = 0.001. The end result of the multivariate analysis identified factors associated with abdominal obesity in men and women: age over 40 years, protein intake below 1.2 g/kg/day and BMI > 25 kg/m². In men the economic class D/E remained associated with abdominal obesity, p < 0.05. There was a high prevalence of abdominal obesity in hemodialysis patients. Age greater than 40 years, lower socioeconomic classes, below the recommended protein intake and overweight were associated with abdominal obesity.
Recent advances in prenatal diagnosis resulted in an improvement of detection and management of urinary tract abnormalities. Prenatal ultrasonography allows to identify urological abnormalities that otherwise would not be seen until later in life, when complications occur. The voiding cystourethrogram can be reserved for selected patients. Nuclear medicine exams should be performed in cases of moderate and severe hydronephrosis. A review of the current literature on postnatal approach of prenatal hydronephrosis was performed. Data obtained were compared with the records of the Pediatric Nephrology Unit HC/UFMG regarding management and follow-up of children with uropathies detected while investigating for fetal hydronephrosis.
A previously healthy 19 year-old male presented to the hospital with anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. Laboratory studies were significant for hypercalcemia (peak calcium value of 14.8 mg/dL) and acute kidney injury (peak serum creatinine of 2.88 mg/dL). He admitted to using a parenteral formulation of vitamins A, D and E restricted for veterinary use containing 20,000,000 IU of vitamin A; 5,000,000 IU of vitamin D3; and 6,800 IU of vitamin E per 100 mL vial. The patient stated to have used close to 300 mL of the product over the preceding year. Interestingly, the young man was not interested in the massive amounts of vitamins that the product contained; he was only after the local effects of the oily vehicle. The swelling produced by the injection resulted in a silicone-like effect, which gave the impression of bigger muscles. Nevertheless, the product was absorbed and caused hypervitaminosis. The serum level of 25(OH) vitamin D was clearly elevated at 150 ng/mL (reference range from 30 to 60 ng/mL), but in most published cases of vitamin D toxicity, serum levels have been well above 200 ng/mL. His PTH level was undetectable and other potential causes of hypercalcemia were excluded. Therefore, we posit that the severity of the hypercalcemia observed in this case was the result of a synergistic effect of vitamins A and D. The patient was treated with normal saline, furosemide and zolendronic acid, with rapid normalization of calcium levels and renal function.
Little is known about the prognosis of patients beginning peritoneal dialysis (PD) as their last alternative. To describe the clinical-demographic profile of patients switching from hemodialysis (HD) to PD, due to exhaustion of the HD vascular access, and the occurrence of peritonitis among them. Review of the medical records of all patients in the PD program of the Hospital Roberto Santos in the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil. The study comprised 22 patients (median age, 47.9 years), 54.5% of whom were men, 84.2%, black or mulattoes, and 68.2% originated from the inner Bahia state. Peritoneal dialysis was the initial modality of renal substitutive therapy (RST) in only four of those patients. The remaining 18 patients began RST through HD, mainly on an emergency basis and by using double-lumen catheter (DLC). In a median of 7.7 months on HD, most patients (64.7%) used four or more DLCs. In only 7/18 (39%) patients, the switch from HD to PD was based on the patient';s choice; in most cases, 11/18 (61%), the reason for switching to PD was exhaustion of HD vascular access. Peritonitis was more frequent in patients switching to PD due to exhaustion of HD vascular access than in the rest of the group. Initiating RST on an emergency basis through HD and using DLC may lead to a fast exhaustion of vascular access, leaving PD as the only viable option. This inadequate mode of patient "selection" for PD is associated with a higher risk for peritonitis.
The complications of vascular access have been the major cause of hospitalization among patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) on Haemodialysis (HD). Despite recommendations to decrease the use of central venous catheter (CVC) it still represents the main access for children and adolescents who start HD. This study aimed to evaluate, through a retrospective cohort study, the initial type, the incidence of complications and reasons for failure of vascular access in children and adolescents aged 0 to younger than 18 years who started HD from 1997 to 2007. 251 accesses were studied in 61 patients, 97 arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and 154 temporary uncuffed CVC. 51% of study patients began HD with CVC. The mean age of patients at the start of HD was 12.5 years. The predominant underlying disease was glomerulonephritis (46%). The main cause of CVC removal was infection in 35%. The mean survival of the uncuffed CVC was 40 days. AVF primary failure was detected in 37.8% of the fistulas. Considering the patent fistulas, the main cause of failure was thrombosis (84%). Infection did not caused any loss of AVF. When comparing the two types of access we find a risk of infection 34 times higher in patients using CVC against AVF. Infection was the major cause of CVC removal, and our results suggest that uncuffed CVC must be avoided for ESRD children and adolescents on HD and replaced by AVF or cuffed CVC, whenever it is feasible. Thrombosis was the main cause of AVF loss, urging the need of implementation of a program for early detection of access failure.
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key event in renal fibrosis. The aims of the study were to evaluate acidosis induced EMT, transforming-growth-factor (TGF) β1 role and citrate effect on it. HK2 cells (ATCC 2290) were cultured in DMEM/HAM F12 medium, pH 7.4. At 80% confluence, after 24 hr under serum free conditions, cells were distributed in three groups (24 hours): A) Control: pH 7.4, B) Acidosis: pH 7.0 and C) Calcium citrate (0.2 mmol/L) + pH 7.0. Change (Δ) of intracellular calcium concentration, basal and after Angiotensin II (10-6M) exposition, were measured to evaluate cellular performance. EMT was evaluated by the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and E-cadherin by immunocytochemistry and/or Western blot. TGF-β1 secretion was determined by ELISA in cell supernatant. At pH 7.0 HK2 cells significantly reduced E-cadherin and increased α-SMA expression (EMT). Supernatant TGF-β1 levels were higher than in control group. Calcium citrate decreased acidosis induced EMT and improved cells performance, without reduction of TGF-β production. Acidosis induces EMT and secretion of TGF-β1 in tubular proximal cells in culture and citrate improves cellular performance and ameliorates acidosis induced EMT.
Choosing the antimicrobial agent for initial therapy of urinary tract infection (UTI) is usually empirical and should consider the prevalence of uropathogens in different age groups and gender. To establish prevalence rates of uropathogens in community-acquired UTI in relation to age and gender. Crosssectional study conducted in the emergency department (ED) of a general hospital, from January to December, 2010, in patients younger than 15 years old who had clinical suspicion of UTI and collected quantitative urine culture. UTI was defined as urine culture with growth of a single agent > 100.000 colony forming units (cfu)/mL in a midstream collection or > 50.000 cfu/mL in urethral catheterization. There were 63.464 visits to ED. 2577 urine cultures were obtained, of whom 291 were positive for UTI (prevalence = 11.3% of clinical suspicion and 0.46% of visits), 212 cases (72.8%) in females, median age = 2.6 years. The predominant uropathogen was E. coli (76.6%), followed by Proteus mirabilis (10.3%) and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (4.1%). Among infants < 3 months, prevalence rates of E. coli were significantly lower (50% vs 78.4%; OR = 0.276; p = 0.006). Higher prevalences of Staphylococcus saprophyticus occurred among patients > 10 years (24.4% vs 0.4%; OR = 79.265; p < 0.0001). Proteus mirabilis was significantly more prevalent in boys than girls (24.0% vs 5.2%; OR = 5.786; p < 0.001). E. coli was the most prevalent community-acquired uropathogen. Nevertheless, initial empiric antimicrobial treatment of UTI should consider the significant prevalence of other agents different from E. coli in infants < 3 months, the high prevalence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus in patients > 10 years and Proteus mirabilis in males.
In this review, phenomena involved in fluid and solute exchange through the peritoneal membrane, both in the physiologic and in the peritoneal dialysis settings, are explained. For that purpose, mathematical models developed for the study of molecule transport through the membrane, such as the "Pore Model" and the "Distributive Model" are used. Scientific accomplishments in the field are described and areas that require additional research are also cited. Knowledge about the physiologic mechanisms involved in this renal replacement therapy modality, concerning events directly related to the peritoneal membrane itself, is synthesized in this manuscript.
Evolução dos parâmetros laboratoriais bioquímicos de paciente com suspeita de síndrome de ATRA. 
Evolução dos parâmetros laboratoriais hematológicos de paciente com suspeita de síndrome de ATRA. 
This is a report of the case of a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), who had suspected all-trans retinoic acid syndrome (ATRA syndrome). The nonspecific febrile leukopenia observed justified the association with antimicrobial and antifungal therapy. Signs and symptoms contributed to the suspicion of ATRA syndrome, and renal function was impaired by the combination with antifungal agents. The decrease in renal function observed initially contributed to the suspicion of ATRA syndrome and was aggravated by antifungals. Thus, the use of ATRA was discontinued. Eight days after the pneumonia characterization, the possibility of ATRA syndrome was dismissed. In this context, ATR's nephrotoxicity and the synergic adverse effect by the use of nephrotoxic antifungal agents were discussed, particularly amphotericin B, as well as the importance of differential diagnosis between ATRA syndrome and infectious diseases.
Accidental and intentional poisonings or drug overdoses constitute a significant cause of aggregate morbidity and mortality, and health care expenditures. The nephrologist is frequently called to the emergency room and ICU as a consultant to help with the indication of measures to enhance renal depuration of toxic agents. This study reviews the use of dialysis in acute poisonings due to medications or pesticides, whose specialized toxicological support was provided via telephone by the poison control center of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (CIT-RS from Portuguese). The correlation between need for dialysis and death was assessed in a retrospective cohort (1998-2000). Of the 36,055 cases registered, 337 were identified as severe, and 245 met the inclusion criteria required. Mean age was 30 ± 18 years, and 53% of the patients were women. The most commonly involved medications were anticonvulsants and antidepressants, and the pesticides were organophosphates, bipyridyl compounds, and glyphosate. Techniques to enhance elimination included urinary alkalinization (n = 37) and dialysis. In severe poisonings, dialysis was performed in 4.5% of the cases (n = 11), 3.67 procedures/year (1/22.7 reports of severe cases). In the group undergoing dialysis, 91% involved a suicide attempt (mainly phenobarbital and paraquat). Two cases required hemoperfusion (chloramphenicol and paraquat). Death among non-dialyzed severely ill patients occurred in 25.6%, versus 36.3% of dialyzed patients (RR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.54-1.35). The findings can be explained by the statistic power associated with the number of procedures performed. The nephrologist should be aware of situations requiring the use of dialysis, even if not necessarily aimed at renal replacement, but at enhancing depuration of a toxic agent.
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) in trauma is, in most cases, multifactorial. Factors related to the initial ressuscitation protocol, degree of the systemic inflamatory response to trauma, contrast nephropathy in diagnostic procedures, rhabdomyolysis and abdominal compartment syndrome are some of those factors. Nowadays a uniformization in diagnostic criteria for AKI has been proposed by the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and as a result the incidence of AKI and its impact in outcomes in trauma patients also needs to be reconsider. In this review we aim to approach epidemiologic, physiologic and clinical relevant data in the critical care of patients victims of trauma and also to expose the risks of indiscriminate use of volume expanders and the interaction between renal replacement theraphy and intracranial hypertension.
This review will focus on long-term outcomes after acute kidney injury (AKI). Surviving AKI patients have a higher late mortality compared with those admitted without AKI. Recent studies have claimed that long-term mortality in patients after AKI varied from 15% to 74% and older age, presence of previous co-morbidities, and the incomplete recovery of renal function have been identified as risk factors for reduced survival. AKI is also associated with progression to chronic kidney (CKD) disease and the decline of renal function at hospital discharge and the number and severity of AKI episodes have been associated with progression to CKD. IN the most studies, recovery of renal function is defined as non-dependence on renal replacement therapy which is probably too simplistic and it is expected in 60-70% of survivors by 90 days. Further studies are needed to explore the long-term prognosis of AKI patients.
Several studies point out that pathophysiological changes related to stress may influence renal function and are associated with disease onset and evolution. However, we have not found any studies about the influence of stress on renal function and acute kidney injury. To evaluate the association between stressful life events and acute kidney injury diagnosis, specifying the most stressful classes of events for these patients in the past 12 months. Case-control study. The study was carried out at Hospital São Paulo, in Universidade Federal de São Paulo and at Hospital dos Servidores do Estado de São Paulo, in Brazil. Patients with acute kidney injury and no chronic disease, admitted to the intensive or semi-intensive care units were included. Controls included patients in the same intensive care units with other acute diseases, except for the acute kidney injury, and also with no chronic disease. Out of the 579 patients initially identified, 475 answered to the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) questionnaire and 398 were paired by age and gender (199 cases and 199 controls). The rate of stressful life events was statistically similar between cases and controls. The logistic regression analysis to detect associated effects of the independent variables to the stressful events showed that: increasing age and economic classes A and B in one of the hospitals (Hospital São Paulo - UNIFESP) increased the chance of a stressful life event (SLE). This study did not show association between the Acute Kidney Injury Group with a higher frequency of stressful life events, but that old age, higher income, and type of clinical center were associated.
About 10% of patients in the intensive care unit which develop acute renal failure will depend on renal replacement therapy. Although there are no data showing reduction in mortality when compared with intermittent therapy, continuous therapies provide higher cumulative doses of dialysis and greater hemodynamic stability. However, have high costs and are not available in many centers. In this context the Extended Hemodialysis gaining ground in clinical practice because it combines the hemodynamic tolerability, slow and sustained solute control and effective doses of continuous dialysis therapies associated with reduced costs and logistics facilities of intermittent therapy.
multivariatE analysis of dEath-rElatEd variablEs in patiEnts submittEd to 
The decision of when to start dialysis in Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) patients with overt uremia is strongly established, however, when blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels is < 100 mg/dL the timing of initiation of dialysis remains uncertain. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess mortality and renal function recovery AKI patients started on dialysis at different BUN levels. This was a retrospective study performed at Medical School Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil, enrolling 86 patients underwent to dialysis. Dialysis was started when BUN < 75 mg/dl in 23 patients (Group I) and BUN > 75 mg/dl in 63 patients (Group II). Hypervolemia and mortality were higher in Group I than in Group II (65.2% vs. 14.3% - p < 0.05, 39.1% vs. 68.9%- p < 0.05, respectively). Among survivors, the rate of renal function recovery was higher in Group I (71.4% and 36.8%, respectively - p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that sepsis, age > 60 years, peritoneal dialysis and BUN > 75 mg/dl at dialysis initiation were independently related with mortality. Lower mortality and higher renal function recovery rates were associated with early dialysis initiated at lower BUN leves in AKI patients.
Fisiopatologia da IRA na leptospirose. 
Leptospirosis is the most important zoonosis in the world. Patients are typically young men. Several factors are involved in acute kidney injury (AKI) in leptospirosis, including direct nephrotoxic action of the leptospira, hyperbilirubinemia, rhabdomyolysis and hypovolemia. The major histological findings are acute interstitial nephritis and acute tubular necrosis. Leptospirosis-induced AKI is usually nonoliguric and hypokalemic. Tubular function abnormalities precede a decline in the glomerular filtration rate, which could explain the high frequency of hypokalemia. Antibiotic treatment is efficient in the early and late and/or severe phases. For critically ill leptospirosis patients, the following measures are recommended: early and daily hemodialysis; low volume infusion (due to the risk of pulmonary hemorrhage); and lung-protective strategies. Mortality in leptospirosis-associated AKI is around 22%.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly prevalent in developing and developed countries and is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. Most etiologies of AKI can be prevented by interventions at the individual, community, regional and in-hospital levels. Effective measures must include community-wide efforts to increase an awareness of the devastating effects of AKI and provide guidance on preventive strategies, as well as early recognition and management. Efforts should be focused on minimizing causes of AKI, increasing awareness of the importance of serial measurements of serum creatinine in high risk patients, and documenting urine volume in acutely ill people to achieve early diagnosis; there is as yet no definitive role for alternative biomarkers. Protocols need to be developed to systematically manage prerenal conditions and specific infections. More accurate data about the true incidence and clinical impact of AKI will help to raise the importance of the disease in the community, increase awareness of AKI by governments, the public, general and family physicians and other health care professionals to help prevent the disease. Prevention is the key to avoid the heavy burden of mortality and morbidity associated with AKI.
studies Assessing the imPAct of Positive fluid bAlAnce in the moRtAlity of in PAtients in An intensive cARe unit (icu) 
Acute kidney injury (AKI) has a high hospital incidence and is associated to significant morbidity and mortality. Sepsis, major surgery and low cardiac output are the main cause of AKI worldwide. In the majority of these situations, volume expansion is part of both prevention and therapeutic management, restoring peripheral perfusion and attenuating drug nephrotoxicity. Early and aggressive volume resuscitation in septic patients halts tissue ischemia and is associated with higher survival. However, a liberal fluid infusion strategy after six hours can cause fluid overload. Fluid overload has been associated with morbidity and mortality increase in critically ill patients. Herein, we present a review of the main studies that assessed the effects of net fluid balance/fluid overload on the morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. We suggest that positive water balance may be used as a potential early biomarker of AKI in these patients.
The nephrotoxic drugs have been responsible for about 20% of AKI episodes in inpatients and outpatients. The cisplatin nephrotoxicity is a major limiting factors in 20% of patients who have received the drug, triggering injuries in renal tubular epithelialcells. Cisplatin toxicity is determined by the target tissue and cells accumulation besides the interaction with various subcellular structures and macromolecules. Cisplatin accumulates and interferes with the functioning of different organelles such as mitochondria, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, nuclei and cell membranes, causing inflammation and cell death. This review aims to define the pathophysiology and biochemistry of the cisplatin nephrotoxicity, reviewing the main molecular mechanisms that lead to tubular cisplatin toxicity.
clinicAl And lAborAtoriAl dAtA in 114 Aki pAtientS StrAtified by diAlySiS 
clinicAl And lAborAtoriAl dAtA of criticAlly ill Aki pAtientS According to outcome 
Sepsis is a leading precipitant of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and is associated with a high mortality rate. We aimed to evaluate the risk factors for dialysis and mortality in a cohort of AKI patients of predominantly septic etiology. Adult patients from an ICU for whom nephrology consultation was requested were included. End-stage chronic renal failure and kidney transplant patients were excluded. 114 patients were followed. Most had sepsis (84%), AKIN stage 3 (69%) and oliguria (62%) at first consultation. Dialysis was performed in 66% and overall mortality was 70%. Median serum creatinine in survivors and non-survivors was 3.95 mg/dl (2.63 - 5.28) and 2.75 mg/dl (1.81 - 3.69), respectively. In the multivariable models, oliguria and serum urea were positively associated with dialysis; otherwise, a lower serum creatinine at first consultation was independently associated with higher mortality. In a cohort of septic AKI, oliguria and serum urea were the main indications for dialysis. We also described an inverse association between serum creatinine and mortality. Potential explanations for this finding include: delay in diagnosis, fluid overload with hemodilution of serum creatinine or poor nutritional status. This finding may also help to explain the low discriminative power of general severity scores - that assign higher risks to higher creatinine levels - in septic AKI patients.
clinical data Of patients admitted tO the intensive care unit accOrding tO Occurrence Of aKi 
clinical data Of patients admitted tO intensive care unit With aKi accOrding tO need fOr dialysis 
WOrKup data Of patients admitted tO intensive care unit With aKi accOrding tO need fOr dialysis 
lOgistic regressiOn fOr aKi in patients admitted tO intensive care unit as a functiOn Of risK factOrs 
lOgistic regressiOn fOr death as a functiOn Of risK factOrs in the intensive care unit fOr 152 patients admitted tO intensive care unit 
To compare clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with and without acute kidney injury (AKI), to evaluate the incidence and mortality of AKI and predictors of AKI and death in patients hospitalized in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). A retrospective study analyzed 152 patients admitted to a single ICU. We assessed age, gender, reason for hospitalization, risk factors for ARF, laboratory data, the need for renal therapy substitutive and mortality. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and RIFLE were recorded on the day of ICU admission. We determined the incidence of AKI, mortality and the independent predictors of AKI and death using logistic regression model. Mean age was 57.1 ± 20 years, ranging between 19 to 88 years, and 60.1% were male. Non-dialysis dependent AKI occurred in 81 patients (53.2%) while the ARF requiring dialysis occurred in 19 patients (12.4%). The overall mortality rate in the ICU was 35.9%, whereas the mortality rate in patients with non-dialysis dependent AKI was 43.2% and the IRA with dialysis of 84.2%. In multivariate analysis, invasive mechanical ventilation, elevated creatinine and urea at admission were independent risk factors for AKI, whereas clinical diagnosis, invasive mechanical ventilation, increased lactate and urea and hypernatremia were independent risk factors for ICU mortality. The incidence and mortality of AKI in ICU were high in this study, despite the advances that have been emerging in their management.
Influenza A (H1N1) virus was first reported on April 2009 and, since then, several studies have reported the characteristics concerning the clinical presentation and pulmonary involvement. However, accurate information about the acute kidney injury (AKI) and kidney histopathological findings in these patients remain scarce. To describe the kidney histopathological findings of 6 patients with H1N1 who developed AKI and underwent kidney biopsy, correlating them with clinical features. We studied six patients admitted to Hospital de Clínicas UFPR with a PCR-confirmed diagnosis of H1N1who developed ARF and underwent kidney biopsy. We reviewed their medical file and the microscopy findings of the biopsy. Clinical and/or laboratory evidence of AKI was present in all cases, and only one did not present oliguria. Kidney tissues revealed glomerular lesions in two patients: one patient, with systemic lupus erythematosus, showed changes consistent with lupus nephritis class III A-C according to the ISN/RPS 2003 and focal thrombotic microangiopathy; the other one had intercapillary nodular glomerulosclerosis, but without clinical or laboratory evidence of diabetes. Vacuolar degenerative tubular changes were present in all cases, with focus of oxalosis in two cases. Mild to moderate atherosclerosis was found in two patients. In this study, varying degrees of vacuolar degenerative tubular changes were present in all patients, but there were no signs of acute tubular necrosis. It seems that in the present study a prerenal cause of acute renal failure was the main involved mechanim to explain the cause of renal failure in these patients.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently in critical patients, but its clinical relevance has not been determined in decompensated heart failure (DHF). To study the occurrence and prognostic value of AKI in patients with DHF and to compare the clinical and laboratory characteristics and in-hospital mortality with those without AKI. Prospective study of 85 patients hospitalized in intensive care unit (ICU) with DHF from March 2010 to February 2011. Diagnosis of heart failure (HF) was established using the Boston criteria (scale > 8) and additional tests, and AKI was defined using the AKIN classification. Patients data with and without AKI were compared using Student's t-test, chi-squared statistic and multiple logistic regression, considering statistically significant p < 0.05. Most patients were male (55%), valvular disease was the main etiology of HF (42.4%), and inadequate medication was the main cause of decompensation (22.4%). AKI occurred in 76.5% of patients (4.7% stage 1, 32.9% stage 2 and 38.8% stage 3). Patients were more anemic (p = 0.01) and had over 60 years (p = 0.02) in the AKI-group when compared to control. All patients with chronic kidney failure developed AKI. The duration of ICU stay was longer for the AKI group (group AKI 8.8 ± 6.6 days; group non-AKI 4 ± 1.4 days, p < 0.01). In-hospital mortality rate was higher in patients with AKI (p = 0.04), especially in stage 3 (p < 0.01). The duration of ICU stay was an independent predictor of AKI (p = 0.02). Only AKI was considered as independent predictor of mortality in this group (p = 0,05). AKI is frequent in DHF, especially in advanced stages, in the elderly and patients with chronic kidney disease, and was associated with longer hospitalization and higher mortality rate.
The studies which associated acute kidney injury (AKI) and trauma emerged during the Second World War, and since then we have seen a progressive evolution of healthcare aiming at AKI prevention. However, establishing the risk factors for post-trauma AKI development remains crucial and may help reduce this complication. This study aims at identifying risk factors vis-à-vis the development of AKI in patients with severe trauma and its impact on mortality. This is a retrospective study of 75 patients with severe trauma. Six were taken off because they arrived at the hospital past the point of resuscitation. The variables considered were age, gender, trauma severity according to the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), trauma mechanism, mean blood pressure upon admission, fluid replacement in the first 24 hours , serum creatinine levels, use of nephrotoxic antibiotics, length of hospital stay, need for ICU admission and mortality. The prevalence of AKI in severe trauma patients was 17.3%, and the factors associated with ARF in this sample were Head Injury and GCS < 10. Mortality, length of hospital stay and the need for ICU were significantly higher in patients who developed AKI. The identification of these risk factors is of paramount importance for the development of care strategies for patients suffering from severe trauma, for the prevention of acute kidney injury and the associated high mortality.
Creatinine remains the standard for laboratory diagnosis of AKI. Efforts to prevent nephrotoxicity have been harmed by the delay in the diagnosis of AKI criteria by using only the creatinine as a marker, therefore there is great interest in identifying early reliable biomarkers. Moreover, early treatment of ARF can be correlated with a better prognosis and identification of biomarkers for early diagnosis would improve the efficacy of a therapeutic strategy. Thus, it becomes imperative to find biomarkers that can stratify correctly the extent of renal damage that each patient has suffered and the risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here, we review the main features of emerging biomarkers in nephrology.
mean values and standard deviatiOns 
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) present anorexia, which may be related with the chronic inflammatory process. Thus the objective of this study was to evaluate if there is association between inflammation and the orexigenic hormone, acyl-ghrelin, in CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Thirty-six patients were studied (61.1% men, 46.7 ± 14.9 years, BMI 22.9 ± 3.9 kg/m²) in regular HD program (65.0 ± 46.8 months). Plasma levels of acyl-ghrelin and inflammatory markers TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP were measured by enzyme immunoassay (ELI-SA, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Anthropometric parameters were collected for assessment of nutritional status and dietary intake was assessed by food recall. The patients presented elevated plasma levels of IL-6 (83 ± 10 pg/mL), TNF-α (21.06 pg/mL [20.6-40.0]) and CRP (2.7 pg/mL [1.73.4]) compared to normal values. Acylghrelin plasma levels were (18.0 [1.3 to 77.7 pg/mL]) low when compared to healthy individuals. However, patients with high BMI (> 25 kg/m²) presented lower acyl-ghrelin plasma levels (13.6 [1.3 to 30.5] pg/mL) when compared to patients with BMI < 25 kg/m² (21.7 [7.4 to 77.7] pg/mL) (p < 0.05). Acylghrelin and BMI were negatively correlated (r = -0.38, p = 0.02) and there was no significant correlation between acyl-ghrelin and inflammatory markers. Hemodialysis patients showed low acyl-ghrelin levels and seem to present an acyl-ghrelin resistance and there was no correlation between inflammation and this orexigenic hormone.
Top-cited authors
Fernando Thome
  • Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Ricardo Sesso
  • Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Jocemir Lugon
  • Universidade Federal Fluminense
Marcus Bastos
  • Federal University of Juiz de Fora
Antonio Lopes
  • Universidade Federal da Bahia