Recent years, although great efforts have been made to improve its performance, few Histogram equalization (HE) methods take human visual perception (HVP) into account explicitly. The human visual system (HVS) is more sensitive to edges than brightness. This paper proposes to take use of this nature intuitively and develops a perceptual contrast enhancement approach with dynamic range adjustment through histogram modification. The use of perceptual contrast connects the image enhancement problem with the HVS. To pre-condition the input image before the HE procedure is implemented, a perceptual contrast map (PCM) is constructed based on the modified Difference of Gaussian (DOG) algorithm. As a result, the contrast of the image is sharpened and high frequency noise is suppressed. A modified Clipped Histogram Equalization (CHE) is also developed which improves visual quality by automatically detecting the dynamic range of the image with improved perceptual contrast. Experimental results show that the new HE algorithm outperforms several state-of-the-art algorithms in improving perceptual contrast and enhancing details. In addition, the new algorithm is simple to implement, making it suitable for real-time applications.
H(2)SO(4) doped polyaniline (PANI) has synthesized by chemical oxidation method. The prepared Polyaniline were annealed at 150 °C, 200 °C and 250 °C for 30 min in vacuum. Crystal size, percentage of crystallinity, total percentage of crystallinity properties of untreated and heat treated PANI samples were studied by using X-ray diffraction pattern. The molecular structure of untreated and heat treated samples were examined by using Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. UV study shows π-π* transition of untreated and heat treated of polyaniline were found at 328 and 636 nm. The peak at 636 nm reveals the extension of conjugated polymer. Thermal properties of untreated and heat treated PANI sample measured by using thermo gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetric spectroscopy.
The impact of fiber chromatic dispersion on the bit error rate (BER) performance of a direct sequence optical code-division multiple-access system is analyzed based on the coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equation (CNLSE). The presented to evaluate considering the expression r of the chromatic dispersion, which will be good for the analysis of the BER. The numerical results show that the system suffers a power penalty of 4.8 dB corresponding to chromatic dispersion index, r =0.4 for seven-chip m-sequence, at a BER of 10<sup>-9</sup>. It is further noticed that the number of simultaneous users are limited to 24 for r =0.4 and 20 for r =0.6, for 31-chip m-sequence, at 6-dB power penalty. The result presents that the performance of monopole code division multiple access system impacted by chromatic dispersion is worst. It shows that the bigger r, the less user accessed at the same conditions.
We have demonstrated a compact and an efficient passively Q-switched microchip Nd:YVO4 laser by using a composite semiconductor absorber as well as an output coupler. The composite semiconductor absorber was composed of an LT (low-temperature grown) In0.25Ga0.75As absorber and a pure GaAs absorber. To our knowledge, it was the first demonstration of the special absorber for Q-switching operation of microchip lasers. Laser pulses with durations of 1.1 ns were generated with a 350 μm thick laser crystal and the repetition rate of the pulses was as high as 4.6 MHz. The average output power was 120 mW at the pump power of 700 mW. Pulse duration can be varied from 1.1 to 15.7 ns by changing the cavity length from 0.45 to 5 mm. Pulses with duration of 1.67 and 2.41 ns were also obtained with a 0.7 mm thick laser crystal and a 1 mm thick laser crystal, respectively.
In this paper, 10 Gbps optical soliton transmission link using in-line semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) for already installed standard single mode fibers (SMF) at 1.3 μm wavelength has been reported. The pattern effect and the impact of chirp on pulse propagation after amplification have been investigated. The observations are based on modeling and simulation optical soliton transmission link. Optical soliton pulse transmission over distances of the order of several hundreds of kilometers has been shown with and without initial chirp.
Uncooled multiple quantum well lasers have great attraction because of their lower power dissipation and smaller size than traditional semiconductor lasers. In this study we will investigate the strain effect in barriers of 1.3 μm AlGaInAs-InP uncooled multiple quantum well lasers. We simulate a laser structure using a band-to-band transition approach. Single effective mass theory has been used for conduction band and Kohn–Luttinger Hamiltonian has been solved for valance band to obtain quantum states and envelope wave functions in the structure. In the case of unstrained barriers, the results have good agreement with a real device fabricated and presented in one of the references. Our main work is proposal of 0.2% compressive strain in the structure Barriers that cause 20% improvement in mode gain–current density characteristic. Significant reduction in leakage current density and Auger current density characteristics is also obtained at 85 °C. Optical gain–photon energy spectrum is increased more than 3% proportional to unstrained barriers.
High birefringent and low confinement loss of photonic crystal fiber is reported at wavelength 1.55 μm via Full-Vectorial Finite Element Method (FV-FEM). By suitable designing of three ring hexagonal solid core fiber and also by introducing a pair of large holes along x-axis near the core region, high modal birefringence 3 × 10−3 and low confinement loss 0.019 dB/km are found at wavelength 1.55 μm.Highlights► A Highly Birefringent Photonic Crystal Fiber (HBPCF) having low confinement loss is reported in this paper via Full-Vectorial Finite Element Method (FV-FEM). ► The three ring hexagonal solid core fiber is designed suitably by introducing a pair of large air hole along x-axis near the core region. ► A high modal birefringence 3 × 10−3 and low confinement loss 0.019 dB/km are found at wavelength 1.55 μm.
Ocular aberrations depend on pupil size and centring and the retinal image quality under natural conditions differs from that corresponding to laboratory ones. In the present article, pupil and wave aberration data supplied by the Shin Nippon CT 1000 (SN CT 1000) topography system are analysed. Two groups of eyes under natural viewing conditions are considered ((260±20) lux at the eye under study). The first group consists of 10 normal eyes (−1.25 to 3 D sphere; 0 to −1.75 D cylinder) of five young subjects (age between 18 and 33 years). For this group, five determinations per eye are performed and the repeatability of results is analysed. Pupil centre is displaced from corneal vertex towards the temporal region, the largest displacement being (0.5±0.1) mm. The variation of pupil diameter in each eye is less than 21% while the inter-subject variability is large since diameters are between (3±0.3) and (5.3±0.6) mm. Aberrations are evaluated for two different pupil sizes, the natural one and a fictitious one of 6 mm. The corneal higher-order root-mean square wavefront error (RMSHO) for a 6 mm pupil centred in the corneal vertex, averaged across all eyes, is (0.37±0.06) μm while, considering the natural pupil diameter, the average in each eye is significantly lower, up to eight times smaller. The fourth-order spherical aberration is an important aberration in the considered eyes, its maximum value for a 6 mm pupil being (0.38±0.02) μm. The second group consists of 24 eyes of 12 subjects (age between 25 and 68 years) such that four eyes are of normal adults (1.25 to +6 D sphere; 0 to −0.5 D cylinder), eight have astigmatisms (−5.5 to +3.25 D sphere; −1.5 to −4.5 D cylinder), six have post-refractive surgery (+0.5 to +3.5 D sphere; −0.5 to −4 D cylinder) and six have keratoconus (−9.5 to +1 D sphere; −1 to −4.5 D cylinder). For this group only one determination per eye is performed. Pupil centre is displaced from corneal vertex towards the temporal region except in cases of keratoconus, where there can be a dominant upwards displacement. Pupil diameters are between 2.7 and 5.6 mm. The corneal higher order root mean square wavefront error for a 6 mm pupil ranges between 0.3 (normal eye) and 5.3 μm (keratoconus).
This paper presents the comparative investigation and suitability of various data formats for optical soliton transmission links at 10 Gb/s for different chirps (−0.7 to 0.7). Here the investigations focused on data formats: NRZ, RZ soliton, RZ raised cosine and RZ super Gaussian. The comparative results and suitability of data formats is based on various performance measures such as Q-factor, eye opening, BER and jitter. It has been indicated that RZ super Gaussian yields the highest value of Q (34.08 dB), good eye opening and lowest BER.
In this paper, we have analyzed the performance and feasibility for the metropolitan area network based on arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) multiplexers and arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexers operating at the bitrate of 10 Gb/s. In the network, the data is successfully transmitted to a distance of 50 km with a very low BER of 1 × 10−40 thus improving the performance over AWG star based networks. Here, we have observed that arrayed waveguide gratings based multiplexers and demultiplexers for WDM applications prove to be capable of precise multiplexing and demultiplexing of a large number of channels with relatively low losses. This paper also presents the comparative investigation and suitability of various data formats like NRZ Rectangular, NRZ Raised cosine, RZ Rectangular, RZ Raised cosine and RZ super Gaussian for optical transmission link. It has been shown that RZ Raised cosine yields the highest value of Q, good eye opening and lowest BER.
We show the effect of varied order and width of super Gaussian pulse at 10 Gb/s in dispersion compensated optical communication system. The optical communication system consists of standard single-mode fiber of 16 ps/nm/km of a certain length, whose dispersion is compensated using pre-, post- and symmetrical-dispersion compensation schemes with proportionate length dispersion compensating fiber of −80 ps/nm/km. Performance of these three compensation schemes is compared at 14 dBm values of Er-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) power at 1st, 2nd and 3rd order RZ super Gaussian optical pulse. The pulse width, full width at half maximum (FWHM) is also varied from 5 to 30 ps to highlight the optimum performance. The graphical results obtained show a relationship among the attributes pulse width, order of RZ super Gaussian optical pulse and dispersion compensation scheme implemented. It shows that to decrease BER and timing jitter in the system, smaller width and 3rd order super Gaussian pulse should be used. It is recommended that to decrease dependency of BER and timing jitter in the communication system on the pulse width i.e. FWHM, the symmetrical compensation scheme should be implemented.
Simulations for data formats Return to Zero (RZ), Non-Return to Zero (NRZ), RZ-Soliton, Duobinary and their subcategories have been done with and without ideal dispersion compensation for optical communication systems. The results show that, in general, dispersion compensation improves timing jitter. RZ-Rectangular pulses show the smallest value of jitter without compensation. It has been observed that the RZ-Raised Cosine, and Soliton, give minimum jitter after ideal compensation. It has been reported that the BER performance of optical communication system using Duobinary data format is 10−8 and 10−37 before and after dispersion compensation, respectively. Further the comparative study shows that the timing jitter is the lowest in case of RZ-Soliton (0.0127 ns) after dispersion compensation and 0.0135 ns for RZ-Rectangular data format before dispersion compensation.
We have investigated the return-to-zero (RZ) pulse duty cycle for single-channel Standard Single mode fiber (SSMF), Non Zero Dispersion shifted fibers (normal NZDSF and anomalous NZDSF fiber) for 10 Gbps optical fiber communication system. We give a comprehensive look on the behavior of variable duty cycle optical RZ pulse indicating that lowest bit error rate for duty cycle 0.8 among the duty cycle values 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 investigated for the case of SSMF. The single repeaterless mode fiber length is increased from existing 55 km at duty cycle 0.2 to fiber length 85 km by keeping duty cycle at 0.8. The result is also emphasized through the 10 dB Q value improvement and corresponding improvement in average eye opening diagram. The normal NZDSF show similar improvement but at greater fiber length, it offers BER 10−9 at length 110 km with duty cycle 0.2. NZDSF operating length can further be increased to length 160 km by keeping duty cycle 0.8. The corresponding 8 dB Q value improvement and Average eye opening improvement also supports the result through its graphical variation. Thirdly Anomalous NZDSF for same optical communication system showed that 0.2 duty cycle value give operational length of 130 km which could be extended to 160 km if 0.8 duty cycle is kept. The corresponding 8 dB Q value improvement, average eye-opening improvement endorsed the fact in the graphs.
A number of method have been recently proposed in the literature for the encryption of 2-D information using optical systems based on the fractional Fourier fransform, FRT. In this paper a brief review of the methods proposed to date is presented. A measure of the strength/robustness of the level of encryption of the various techniques is proposed and a comparison is carried out between the methods. Optical implementations are discussed. Robustness of system with respect to misalignment and blind decryption are also discussed.
Nonlinear optical properties of Basic Violet 16 dye solution in water are studied employing different optical techniques. Experiments are performed using the second harmonic of a continuous Nd-Yag laser beam at 532 nm wavelength and 100 mW power. The effect of nonlinearity of Basic Violet 16 dye in broadening the laser beam is observed. The optical limiting behavior is investigated by measuring the transmission of the samples. The third-order nonlinearity, χ3 of Basic Violet 16 dye, is measured using Z-scan data. The nonlinear absorption coefficient is calculated using the open aperture Z-scan data, while its nonlinear refractive index is measured using the closed aperture Z-scan data. All experiments are done for different concentrations and thicknesses of Basic Violet 16 dye solution. The effect of intensity of input laser beam on the nonlinear susceptibility is studied experimentally. Results indicate that Basic Violet 16 dye is a potential candidate for low-power optical limiting applications.
In this paper, we have investigated the performance of first- and second-order path-averaged soliton long-haul transmission link including the impact of third-order dispersion (TOD) at varied chirp. Here, the varied chirp is considered keeping in view the inadvertent frequency chirp imposed on all practical sources of short optical pulses. The propagation of strongly chirped pulses in loss-managed long-haul path-averaged soliton transmission network has been shown. The investigations reveal that in first-order (N=1) path-averaged soliton transmission link at 10 and 20 Gb/s, SPM effect on the rising and falling edges of a pulse results in spectral broadening for all values of induced chirp. On the contrary, spectral narrowing of the pulses is observed in second-order negatively chirped path-averaged soliton pulses. The effect of the nonlinearity changes from narrowing to broadening of pulses if the sign of the initial chirp is changed to positive. The results ascertain that the system is capable of transmitting a pulse up to the distance of 24,500 km at bit rates of 10 and 20 Gb/s. Investigations have been carried out by varying the chirp factor in the range −1 to 1 and −1 to 0.4] for 10 and 20 Gb/s, respectively, to demonstrate the robustness of the long-haul soliton link. The observations establish that the pulse width (full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)) remains within the optimal range even at the transmission distance of 24,500 km without and at discrete values of the chirp factor.
We investigate the impact of extinction ratio of single arm sin2 LiNbO3 Mach–Zehnder (MZ) amplitude modulator on the performance of 10 and 20 Gb/s single-channel optical communication system. For different fiber lengths, the system performance has been analyzed with the increase in the extinction ratio. The effect of variation in dispersion parameter has also been illustrated. The impact of extinction ratio (ζ), dispersion parameter and length of the fiber has been further optimized with minimum bit error rate (BER) at optimal decision threshold (10−9) for 10 and 20 Gb/s bit rate. It is found that the system gives optimum performance at extinction ratio (ζ) value 20 dB. The increase in the transmission distance from 468 km for 10 Gb/s to 532 km for 20 Gb/s has been reported, and 8 dB improvement in the Q value has been observed as the value of ζ is increased from 10 to 20 dB. At 20 Gb/s, the system gives optimum performance for dispersion parameter value only up to 4 ps/nm km; however, at 10 Gb/s the system can operate for dispersion values up to 14.3 ps/nm km. Further we investigate the self-phase modulation (SPM) effect for the increase in the input power. It is observed that the SPM effect is negligible below 3 dB m input power and it increases at higher power levels.
A 2D photonic crystal optical switch is proposed based on a rods-in-air square-lattice photonic crystal by removing two cross-lines of rods from a 2D square-lattice photonic crystal to form four optical channels. The simulation results show that, when inserting a single rod along the diagonal line of the intersection area of two removed cross-lines of rods, the position of the single inserted rod determines how much incident energy goes into different channels. In the case of transverse magnetic (TM) Gaussian point source, time domain simulation shows that up to 87.3% of the incident energy can be switched into a channel, which is vertical to the source channel. Because there are two diagonal lines in the intersection area of two removed cross-lines of rods, the optical switch feature is achieved by shifting the inserted rod between two diagonal lines. It is also found that the magnitude of the reflected wave in the source channel varies greatly with spatial position of the single inserted rod. The larger the magnitude of the reflected wave in the source channel, the less the energy that goes into the switched channel. The time delay between the incident wave and the reflected wave in the source channel is also related to the position of the single inserted rod. In addition, the large time delay between the incident wave and the reflected wave in the source channel shows that the reflected wave encounters many reflections with the walls of the source channel, instead of waves reflected back from the single inserted rod.
The effects of the defect and doping on the transmission properties are investigated in two-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) with triangular rods using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The results show that the width and the central position of the photonic band gap (PBG) depend on the thickness of rods with defect or composite-defect, and the refractive index of doped dielectric rods. The transmission properties of composite-defect combined with doping are further investigated. The thinner the nested concentric triangular rod and the smaller the refractive index is, the wider the band gaps is.
The limitation of the system with dispersion compensation by chirped fiber Bragg gratings is investigated in this paper. The transmission distance of the system based on chirped fiber Bragg gratings surpasses 3000 km. The bit error rate (BER) of the system is below 10−9 for as long as 2000 km. The BER is about 10−7 at 3000 km and, when forward error correction (FEC) is added, zero BER can be achieved. It is the longest transmission system with dispersion compensation by chirped fiber Bragg gratings.