The paper examines three central problems involving punitive social control in recent decades. First, the steady increase in the number of incarcerated people (the phenomenon of great confinement), with special emphasis on the Brazilian case; second, the way criminology interprets contemporary confinement (New Penology); and finally, the lack of a (dogmatic) criminal law theory on the reality of mass incarceration. Incarceration data are presented here as premises and their inevitable ethical, social and political implications, in order to inquire about the relations between the (normative-philosophical) theories regarding the justification of punishment and the (empirical) phenomena of mass incarceration. The questions behind the current reflection are therefore about what role criminal theories play in the expansion or contraction of the power to punish (potestas puniendi) and the explanations the justification models offer to the problem of hyper-punishment.
The purpose of this article is to approach queer theories and the critical perspectives of criminology in Brazil by analyzing both the conditions of possibility and the implications of a queer criminology. Homophobic violence is seen here as the object of study of a queer criminological perspective, whose ambition is the construction of a qualified perspective that is aware of diversity, concerned with human rights and, above all, non-discriminating towards the (positive and negative) political demands of social movements represented by gays, lesbians, bisexuals and transsexuals.
This article contributes to the literature on stock market integration by developing and estimating a capital asset pricing model with segmentation effects in order to assess stock market segmentation and its effects on risk premia at the regional level. We show that the estimated degrees of segmentation vary from one region to anther and over time. Moreover, we establish that compared to developed market regions, emerging market regions have four main dissimilarities: the total risk premiums are significantly higher, more volatile, dominated by regional residual risk factors and reflect mostly regional events. However, in the recent period emerging market regions have become less segmented as a result of liberalization and reforms and the relative magnitude of the premium associated with global factors has increased.
Problem statement: Demographic changes have increased the social and cultural diversity of tourist areas with historical heritage and natural beauty in Greece, causing an expansion in the cultural and economic horizons of local people and producing at the same time conflicts in their interests, values and lifestyles. This research was focused in the concept of sustainable development in three areas in south Greece, in order to examine if tourist development can cause a danger for human values and natural environment. Approach: Three municipalities of southern Peloponnese in Greece namely Koroni, Methoni and Pilos were selected for the study. These three municipalities were selected because they constitute regions of common historical heritage, big natural beauty and high environmental importance. By using empirical social research methods, sample data of 120 questionnaires were collected on the characteristics of residents and local enterprises and land use changes in these areas. Results: The main employment is farming (24%), even though that residential land had increased at the expense of farmland. Local residents in the public or private sector supplement their low income with agricultural or tourist activities (67%). Therefore, new enterprises were found through private investments, which increase the local entrepreneurship (42%). In addition, the analysis of the multiple regression models showed that local development increases in places with more chances for employment. Also, among areas with the same cultural development those with better infrastructure were expected to have more sustainable development (6 units of difference) than those areas with worse infrastructure. Conclusion: Development of soft tourism, organic farming and better infrastructure could enhance sustainable development in tourist areas with historical heritage, big natural beauty and high environmental importance.
research comes from a postmodern perspective that harmonizes with the
qualitative investigation, this study summarizes the importance of language as
a determinant of the reality, the problem, and the solution to itself. The
purpose of the study was to analyze the narratives of 11 women with child
sexual abuse histories in order to know the image that the participants have of
themselves. They were identified dominant oppressive narratives loaded with
negative descriptions of themselves and some from the family culture. It is discussed the determinant influence
of language, family and culture in the construction of these images and it is
concluded the importance of thinking about their origin, as well as
constructing alternative realities that may result more functional for them.
This study examines the impact of COVID-19 cases on GDP growth and Unemployment in developed countries represented by Germany, France, and Spain and developing countries represented by Mexico, Uruguay, Brazil, Turkey, and China. Various statistical tests were employed; ADF-Fisher Chi-Square for stationarity, Pedroni Cointegration test, Hausemn test, and panel granger causality test. The empirical results suggest that data from developed and developing countries are stationary at I (1). The Pedroni cointegration test revealed no long-run relationship between the dependent variables (Covid cases) and independent variables represented by GDP growth and Unemployment. The Hausman test showed that the fixed effect model is suitable for this study. The fixed effect model’s estimation suggests that there is a positive and significant association between COVID-19 with unemployment rate and GDP growth in industrialized countries. However, in developing countries, the rise in COVID cases causes a decrease in GDP growth and Unemployment. The study contribution is critically significant for policymakers and scientists to set a plan for the comprehensive economic recovery for the world after the pandemic.
The study was conceptualized to distinguish contribution of urban home gardening towards household food security and quality of life while making greener environment in urban area in the context of country wise curfew during COVID-19 pandemic and challenges arisen with it. Kandy municipal area was selected as study site and questionnaire surveys over prepared grid map and field observations were the principal data collection methods used in this study. Social and physical inputs for gardening as well as material and immaterial outcomes received through the gardening were considered as major parameters in data collection. It is notable that data collected concerning situation before and during the curfew period. Data feeding and analysis were supported through IBM SPSS Statistics 25 software. Social well-being and mental health was highlighted in all three satisfaction levels of high, moderate, and low and is more than that of 50% from the total recorded responses. Stress release, collective work, family harmonization, exercise, sharing and social cohesion, knowledge and experience, and healthy foods are the outcomes received in the aspect of social well-being and mental health. As they perceive, environmental quality has amended with the outcomes through greening, aesthetic beauty, land management and erosion control, waste management and clean environment. Also, urban dwellers have assured their economic status during the pandemic situation at least fulfilling one or two diets with homemade vegetable products. Still, social well-being and mental health could be prioritized among the benefits received through home gardening; especially during the pandemic situation. Because, awareness and promotion to achieve desired harvest in the urban home gardening is challengeable in the current context. Thus, those aspects should be address in the agricultural policy preparation without compromising livelihood of large scale farmers. So the crop specification for healthy diet can promote by continuation of this home gardening trend with the experience of COVID-19 pandemic. Then only we can fear off during this kind of disastrous situation.
COVID-19, Food Security, Greener Environment, Social Well-Being, Urban Home Gardening
With the COVID-19’s impacts to humanity, some have quickly shouted, believed and thought abusively to the end of globalization. But in this paper, following to the dimension of the strategic approach of analysis, tinged with a bit of globalism, I propose to explain why globalization could not end with the COVID-19’s impacts. In total, I advance successively throughout this paper, five (5) core arguments, which together ostensibly support my central point, pointing to the impossibility of arriving at the end of globalization with the COVID-19’s impacts. These five (5) core arguments are: COVID-19 as a pro-globalization messenger: "You are living in a global village" (i), Virus Complex nature (ii), Nationalism and Unilateralism as COVID-19's counter-antidote strategies (iii), COVID-19's Impacts Nature on Social-economic activities (iv), and the Global Complex Interdependence (v). And instead of shouting to the end of globalization, humanity should rather seek to think about, understand and internalize the different lessons that COVID-19 has just come to give it—for its best survival. Otherwise, disaster is coming.