We sought to characterize the clinical utility of indium 111 ((111)In)-labeled white blood cell (WBC) scans by indication, to identify patient populations who might benefit most from this imaging modality.
Medical records for all patients who underwent (111)In-labeled WBC scans at our tertiary referral center from 2005 to 2011 were reviewed. Scan indication, results, and final diagnosis were assessed independently by 2 infectious disease physicians. Reviewers also categorized the clinical utility of each scan as helpful vs not helpful with diagnosis and/or management according to prespecified criteria. Cases for which clinical utility could not be determined were excluded from the utility assessment.
One hundred thirty-seven scans were included in this analysis; clinical utility could be determined in 132 (96%) cases. The annual number of scans decreased throughout the study period, from 26 in 2005 to 13 in 2011. Forty-one (30%) scans were positive, and 85 (62%) patients were ultimately determined to have an infection. Of the evaluable scans, 63 (48%) scans were deemed clinically useful. Clinical utility varied by scan indication: (111)In-labeled WBC scans were more helpful for indications of osteomyelitis (35/50, 70% useful) or vascular access infection (10/15, 67% useful), and less helpful for evaluation of fever of unknown origin (12/35, 34% useful).
(111)In-labeled WBC scans were useful for patient care less than half of the time at our center. Targeted ordering of these scans for indications in which they have greater utility, such as suspected osteomyelitis and vascular access infections, may optimize test utilization.
Recent reports of Plasmodium vivax associated with severe syndromes and mortality from malaria endemic areas questions the "benign" course of non-falciparum malarias.
We retrospectively analyzed data from patients reported to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with a diagnosis of malaria parasite single-species infection between 1985 and 2011. Patients classified as having severe illness were further classified according to outcome (survival versus death) and clinical syndrome.
Among all cases, .9% of Plasmodium falciparum cases resulted in death and 9.3% were classified as severe, whereas .09% of P. vivax cases resulted in death and 1.3% were classified as severe. The odds ratios for severe illness among 15 272 diagnoses of P. falciparum relative to patients diagnosed with P. vivax (n = 12 152), Plasmodium malariae (n = 1254), or Plasmodium ovale (n = 903) was 7.5, 5.7, and 5.0, respectively (P < .0001 for all); in contrast, the corresponding odds ratios for death among those severely ill was 1.6, 1.1, and .8 (P > .1 for all), respectively. Compared with P. vivax (n = 163), the odds of P. falciparum cases classified as severely ill (n = 1416) were 1.9 (P = .0006), .5 (P = .001), and 1.3 times (P = .1) as likely to present as cerebral, acute respiratory distress, and renal syndromes, respectively.
Although less common, patients presenting with non-falciparum even in the United States can develop severe illness, and severe illness in patients having malaria of any species threatens life.
Among 368 Thai men who have sex with men with paired serum samples collected before and during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, we determined influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 seroconversion rates (≥4-fold rise in antibody titers by hemagglutination inhibition or microneutralization assays). Overall, 66 of 232 (28%) participants seroconverted after the first year of A(H1N1)pdm09 activity, and 83 of 234 (35%) participants seroconverted after the second year. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 seroconversion did not differ between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (55 of 2157 [35%]) and HIV-uninfected (71 of 2211 [34%]) participants (P = .78). Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 seroconversion occurred in approximately one third of our Thai study population and was similar among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants.
Background. Most inactivated influenza vaccines contain purified and standardized hemagglutinin (HA) and residual neuraminidase (NA) antigens. Vaccine-associated HA antibody responses (hemagglutination inhibition [HAI]) are well described, but less is known about the immune response to the NA.
Methods. Serum of 1349 healthcare personnel (HCP) electing or declining the 2010–2011 trivalent-inactivated influenza vaccine ([IIV3], containing A/California/7/2009 p(H1N1), A/Perth/16/2009 [H3N2], B/Brisbane/60/2008 strains) were tested for NA-inhibiting (NAI) antibody by a modified lectin-based assay using pseudotyped N1 and N2 influenza A viruses with an irrelevant (H5) HA. Neuraminidase-inhibiting and HAI antibody titers were evaluated approximately 30 days after vaccination and end-of-season for those with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed influenza infection.
Results. In 916 HCP (68%) receiving IIV3, a 2-fold increase in N1 and N2 NAI antibody occurred in 63.7% and 47.3%, respectively. Smaller responses occurred in HCP age >50 years and those without prior 2009–2010 IIV3 nor monovalent A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccinations. Forty-four PCR-confirmed influenza infections were observed, primarily affecting those with lower pre-exposure HAI and NAI antibodies. Higher pre-NAI titers correlated with shorter duration of illness for A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections.
Conclusions. Trivalent-inactivated influenza vaccine is modestly immunogenic for N1 and N2 antigens in HCP. Vaccines eliciting robust NA immune responses may improve efficacy and reduce influenza-associated morbidity.
Since the introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae serotype b vaccine, H influenzae epidemiology has shifted. In the United States, the largest burden of disease is now in adults aged ≥65 years. However, few data exist on risk factors for disease severity and outcome in this age group.
A retrospective case-series review of invasive H influenzae infections in patients aged ≥65 years was conducted for hospitalized cases reported to Active Bacterial Core surveillance in 2011.
There were 299 hospitalized cases included in the analysis. The majority of cases were caused by nontypeable H influenzae, and the overall case fatality ratio (CFR) was 19.5%. Three or more underlying conditions were present in 63% of cases; 94% of cases had at least 1. Patients with chronic heart conditions (congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, and/or atrial fibrillation) (odds ratio [OR], 3.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-6.46), patients from private residences (OR, 8.75; 95% CI, 2.13-35.95), and patients who were not resuscitate status (OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.31-5.66) were more likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Intensive care unit admission (OR, 3.75; 95% CI, 1.71-8.22) and do not resuscitate status (OR, 12.94; 95% CI, 4.84-34.55) were significantly associated with death.
Within this age group, burden of disease and CFR both increased significantly as age increased. Using ICU admission as a proxy for disease severity, our findings suggest several conditions increased risk of disease severity and patients with severe disease were more likely to die. Further research is needed to determine the most effective approach to prevent H influenzae disease and mortality in older adults.
Standard tuberculosis case reporting captures incarceration at diagnosis only. This retrospective analysis of 106 US-born adults with prevalent tuberculosis in 2011 found that 46.2% had documented histories of being in jail or prison, including 16.0% during the year before diagnosis.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a manageable chronic disease in the United States, yet the first author's experience on a general infectious diseases (ID) consult service illustrates that certain areas of the United States still experience high rates of acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related complications.
During 2014, a complex and expanding outbreak of EVD has been recognized in West Africa. Isolation of cases and follow-up of contacts are the main components of the strategy to halt the outbreak, but it will likely take months to achieve the goal. IDSA members will play key roles in preparedness and response for imported cases and should become knowledgeable of the available clinical and public health guidance. They can guide facility preparations toward plans that are clinically responsive and use resources effectively and responsibly. The IDSA is working with colleagues at the CDC, public health agencies, and professional organizations and will update members on additional developments and new guidance including anticipated provider and facility checklists, laboratory aspects, travel, and other topics.
A web version of this communication can be found at http://www.idsociety.org/2014_ebola/.
Successful treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection can now be achieved using direct-acting antiviral agents without
interferon. In this report, we present a patient who achieved a sustained virologic response after 27 days of treatment with
sofosbuvir and ribavirin. It is imperative to identify factors that allow for shorter treatment times in some individuals.
We analyzed the impact of pretreatment variants conferring boceprevir-resistance on sustained virologic response (SVR) rates achieved with boceprevir plus peginterferon-α/ribavirin (P/R) for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-genotype-1 infection.
NS3-protease-polymorphisms emerging coincident with virologic failure on boceprevir/P/R regimens were identified as resistance-associated variants (RAVs). Baseline samples pooled from 6 phase II or phase III clinical trials were analyzed for RAVs by population sequencing. Interferon (IFN)-responsiveness was predefined as >1 log reduction in HCV-RNA level during the initial 4-week lead-in treatment with P/R before boceprevir was added. The effective boceprevir-concentration inhibiting RAV growth by 50% (EC50) was determined using a replicon assay relative to the wild-type referent.
Sequencing was performed in 2241 of 2353 patients (95.2%) treated with boceprevir. At baseline, RAVs were detected in 178 patients (7.9%), including 153 of 1498 genotype-1a infections (10.2%) and 25 of 742 genotype-1b infections (3.4%) (relative risk, 3.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], [2.01, 4.58]). For IFN-responders, SVR24 (SVR assessed 24 weeks after discontinuation of all study medications) rates were 78% and 76% with or without RAVs detected at baseline, respectively. For the 510 poor IFN-responders, SVR24 rates were 8 of 36 subjects (22.2% [11.7%, 38.1%]) when baseline RAVs were detected vs 174 of 474 subjects (36.7% [32.5%, 41.1%]) when baseline RAVs were not detected (relative likelihood of SVR24 [95% CI], 0.61 [0.32, 1.05]). Sustained virologic response was achieved in 7 of 8 (87.5%) IFN-nonresponders with baseline variants exhibiting ≤2-fold increased EC50 for boceprevir in a replicon assay, whereas only 1 of 15 (7%) IFN-nonresponders with baseline RAVs associated with ≥3-fold increased EC50 achieved SVR.
Baseline protease-variants appear to negatively impact SVR rates for boceprevir/P/R regimens only when associated with decreased boceprevir susceptibility in vitro after a poor IFN-response during the lead-in period.
Hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae (HMVKP) emerged as a cause of invasive infections in South-East (SE) Asia. It has become the most common cause of liver abscess in that region, and it is a significant causative organism in endogenous endophthalmitis and meningitis. During the past decade, cases of this uniquely virulent organism have been reported outside of SE Asia, with a propensity to affect individuals of SE Asian descent. Cases have been reported from North America including Canada.
We report a case of a patient of Filipino descent living in Canada who presented with recurrent HMVKP bacteremia in the absence of pyogenic liver abscess or other localized metastatic Klebsiella infection.
Investigations identified an immunoglobulin (Ig)G2 deficiency and low IgM indicating potential common variable immunodeficiency, and administration of intravenous immunoglobulins was associated with prevention of further recurrences.
To our knowledge, this is the first report of HMVKP associated with predisposing antibody deficiency.
The "cascade of care" displays the proportion of individuals who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), diagnosed, linked, retained, on antiretroviral treatment, and HIV suppressed. We examined the implications of including death in the use of this cascade for program and public health performance metrics.
Individuals newly diagnosed with HIV and living in Calgary between 2006 and 2013 were included. Through linkage with Public Health and death registries, the deaths (ie, all-cause mortality) and their distribution within the cascade were determined. Mortality rates are reported per 100 person-years.
Estimated new HIV infections were 680 (543 confirmed and 137 unknown cases). Forty-three individuals, after diagnosis, were never referred for HIV care. Despite referral(s), 88 individuals (18%) never attended the clinic for HIV care. Of individuals retained in care, 87% received antiretroviral therapy and 76% achieved viral suppression. Thirty-six deaths were reported (mortality rate, 1.50/100 person-years). One diagnosis was made posthumously. Deaths (20 of 35; 57%) occurred for individuals linked but not retained in care (6.93/100 person-years), and 70% were HIV-related. Mortality rate for patients in care was 0.79/100 person-years. Retained patients with detectable viremia had a death rate of 2.49/100, which contrasted with 0.28/100 person-years in those with suppressed viremia. Eight of these 15 deaths (53%) were HIV-related.
Over half of deaths occurred in those referred but not effectively linked or retained in HIV care, and these cases may be easily overlooked in standard HIV mortality studies. Inclusion of deaths into the cascade may further enhance its value as a public health metric.
Cryptococcal meningitis is associated with increased intracranial pressure (ICP). Therapeutic lumbar puncture (LP) is recommended when the initial ICP is >250 mm H2O, yet the availability of manometers in Africa is limited and not always used where available. We assessed whether intraocular pressure could be a noninvasive surrogate predictor to determine when additional therapeutic LPs are necessary.
Ninety-eight human immunodeficiency virus-infected Ugandans with suspected meningitis (81% Cryptococcus) had intraocular pressure measured using a handheld tonometer (n = 78) or optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measured by ultrasound (n = 81). We determined the diagnostic performance of these methods for predicting ICP vs a standard manometer.
The median ICP was 225 mm H2O (interquartile range [IQR], 135-405 mm H2O). The median intraocular pressure was 28 mm Hg (IQR, 22-37 mm Hg), and median ultrasound ONSD was 5.4 mm (IQR, 4.95-6.1 mm). ICP moderately correlated with intraocular pressure (ρ = 0.45, P < .001) and with ultrasound ONSD (ρ = 0.44, P < .001). There were not discrete threshold cutoff values for either tonometry or ultrasound ONSD that provided a suitable cutoff diagnostic value to predict elevated ICP (>200 mm H2O). However, risk of elevated ICP >200 mm H2O was increased with an average intraocular pressure >28 mm Hg (relative risk [RR] = 3.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55-5.92; P < .001) or an average of ONSD >5 mm (RR = 2.39; 95% CI, 1.42-4.03; P = .003). As either intraocular pressure or ONSD increased, probability of elevated ICP increased (ie, positive predictive value increased).
Noninvasive intraocular pressure measurements by tonometry or ultrasound correlate with cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure, but both are a suboptimal replacement for actual ICP measurement with a manometer.
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is no longer restricted to hospital settings, and population-based incidence measures are needed. Understanding the determinants of CDI incidence will allow for more meaningful comparisons of rates and accurate national estimates.
Data from active population- and laboratory-based CDI surveillance in 7 US states were used to identify CDI cases (ie, residents with positive C difficile stool specimen without a positive test in the prior 8 weeks). Cases were classified as community-associated (CA) if stool was collected as outpatients or ≤3 days of admission and no overnight healthcare facility stay in the past 12 weeks; otherwise, cases were classified as healthcare-associated (HA). Two regression models, one for CA-CDI and another for HA-CDI, were built to evaluate predictors of high CDI incidence. Site-specific incidence was adjusted based on the regression models.
Of 10 062 cases identified, 32% were CA. Crude incidence varied by geographic area; CA-CDI ranged from 28.2 to 79.1/100 000 and HA-CDI ranged from 45.7 to 155.9/100 000. Independent predictors of higher CA-CDI incidence were older age, white race, female gender, and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) use. For HA-CDI, older age and a greater number of inpatient-days were predictors. After adjusting for relevant predictors, the range of incidence narrowed greatly; CA-CDI rates ranged from 30.7 to 41.3/100 000 and HA-CDI rates ranged from 58.5 to 94.8/100 000.
Differences in CDI incidence across geographic areas can be partially explained by differences in NAAT use, age, race, sex, and inpatient-days. Variation in antimicrobial use may contribute to the remaining differences in incidence.
Infection with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) can be associated with hematologic malignancy, inflammatory syndromes, or infectious complications. Herein, we bring attention to HTLV-1 infection complications as we discuss a case of disseminated cryptococcosis in a patient with HTLV-1-associated T cell lymphoma.
Endothelial activation and dysfunction play a central role in the pathogenesis of sepsis and viral hemorrhagic fevers. Hantaviral disease is a viral hemorrhagic fever and is characterized by capillary dysfunction, although the underlying mechanisms for hantaviral disease are not fully elucidated.
The temporal course of endothelial activation and repair were analyzed during Puumala hantavirus infection and associated with disease outcome and a marker for hypoxia, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1). The following endothelial activation markers were studied: endothelial glycocalyx degradation (syndecan-1) and leukocyte adhesion molecules (soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and endothelial selectin). Cytokines associated with vascular repair were also analyzed (vascular endothelial growth factor, erythropoietin, angiopoietin, and stromal cell-derived factor 1).
Most of the markers we studied were highest during the earliest phase of hantaviral disease and associated with clinical and laboratory surrogate markers for disease outcome. In particular, the marker for glycocalyx degradation, syndecan-1, was significantly associated with levels of thrombocytes, albumin, IGFBP-1, decreased blood pressure, and disease severity.
Hantaviral disease outcome was associated with endothelial dysfunction. Consequently, the endothelium warrants further investigation when designing future medical interventions.
We report a rare case of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) syndrome in a patient with chronic HIV infection with acute
illness indistinguishable from acute retroviral syndrome. The patient presented with an acute febrile mononucleosis-like illness
after increasing nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy. A marked increase in HIV RNA level of 1 220 000 copies/mL from less
than 20 copies/mL occurred within 3 weeks. The diagnosis of acute HIV syndrome was made after alternative causes of illness
were ruled out.
Enteric anisakiasis is a known parasitic infection. To date, human infection has been reported as resulting from the inadvertent
ingestion of the anisakis larvae when eating raw/undercooked fish, squid, or eel. We present a first reported case of intestinal obstruction caused
by anisakiasis, after the ingestion of raw clams.
Rapid urine tests for infection (urinalysis, dipstick) have low up-front costs. However, many false positives occur, with important downstream consequences, including unnecessary antibiotics. We studied indications, collection technique, and results of urinalyses in acute care.
This research was a prospective observational study of a convenience sample of emergency department (ED) patients who had urinalysis performed between June 1, 2012 and February 15, 2013 at an urban teaching hospital. Analyses were conducted via t tests, χ(2) tests, and multivariable logistic regression.
Of 195 cases included in the study, the median age was 56 and 70% of participants were female. There were specific symptoms or signs of urinary tract infection (UTI) in 74 cases (38%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 31%-45%), nonspecific symptoms or signs in 83 cases (43%; 95% CI, 36%-50%), and no symptoms or signs of UTI in 38 cases (19%; 95% CI, 14%-25%). The median age was 51 (specific symptoms), 58 (nonspecific symptoms), and 61 (no symptoms), respectively (P = .005). Of 137 patients who produced the specimen without assistance, 78 (57%; 95% CI, 48%-65%) received no instructions on urine collection. Correct midstream clean-catch technique was used in 8 of 137 cases (6%). Presence of symptoms or signs was not associated with a new antibiotic prescription, but positive urinalysis (OR, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.7-14) and positive urine culture (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.1-12) were. Of 36 patients receiving antibiotics, 10 (28%; 95% CI, 13%-43%) had no symptoms or nonspecific symptoms.
In this sample at an urban teaching hospital ED, urine testing was not driven by symptoms. Improving practice may lower costs, improve efficiency of care, decrease unnecessary data that can distract providers and impair patient safety, decrease misdiagnosis, and decrease unnecessary antibiotics.
Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD). Reverse cholesterol transport from macrophages may be inhibited by HIV and contribute to increased CVD. Human studies have not investigated longitudinal effects of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on cholesterol efflux.
Subjects with acute HIV infection were randomized to ART or not. Cholesterol efflux capacity was determined ex vivo after exposure of murine macrophages to apolipoprotein B-depleted patient sera obtained at baseline and after 12 weeks.
After 12 weeks, HIV RNA decreased most in subjects randomized to ART. Available data on cholesterol demonstrated that efflux capacity from Abca1(+/+) macrophages was increased most by sera obtained from ART-treated subjects (20.5% ± 5.0% to 24.3 % ± 6.9%, baseline to 12 weeks, P = .007; ART group [n = 6] vs 18.0 % ± 3.9% to 19.1 % ± 2.9%, baseline to 12 weeks, P = .30; untreated group [n = 6] [P = .04 ART vs untreated group]). Change in HIV RNA was negatively associated with change in Abca1(+/+) macrophage cholesterol efflux (r = - 0.62, P = .03), and this finding remained significant (P = .03) after controlling for changes in HDL-cholesterol, CD4(+) cells, and markers of monocyte or macrophage activation.
In subjects acutely infected with HIV, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-mediated cholesterol efflux was stimulated to a greater degree over time by apolipoprotein B-depleted serum from subjects randomized to ART. The improvement in cholesterol efflux capacity is independently related to reduction in viral load.
Avian influenza A/H5N1 has threatened human health for nearly 2 decades. Avian influenza A vaccine without adjuvant is poorly immunogenic. A flexible rapid tactic for mass vaccination will be needed if a pandemic occurs.
A multicenter, randomized, blinded phase 1 clinical trial evaluated safety and antibody responses after point-of-use mixing of influenza A/Indonesia/05/2005 (H5N1) vaccine with MF59 adjuvant. Field-site pharmacies mixed 3.75, 7.5, or 15 mcg of antigen with or without MF59 adjuvant just prior to intramuscular administration on days 0 and 21 of healthy adults aged 18-49 years.
Two hundred and seventy subjects were enrolled. After vaccination, titers of hemagglutination inhibition antibody ≥1:40 were achieved in 80% of subjects receiving 3.75 mcg + MF59 vs only 14% receiving 15 mcg without adjuvant (P < .0001). Peak hemagglutination inhibition antibody geometric mean titers for vaccine + MF59 were ∼65 regardless of antigen dose, and neutralizing titers were 2- to 3-fold higher. Vaccine + MF59 produced cross-reactive antibody responses against 4 heterologous H5N1 viruses. Excellent safety and tolerability were demonstrated.
Point-of-use mixing of H5N1 antigen and MF59 adjuvant achieved target antibody titers in a high percentage of subjects and was safe. The feasibility of the point-of-use mixing should be studied further.
The immunogenicity results from 3 phase I trials of the Merck DNA human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine have previously been reported. Because preventive DNA vaccine strategies continue to be leveraged for diverse infections, the safety and tolerability results from these studies can inform the field moving forward, particularly regarding adverse reactions and adjuvants. No serious vaccine-related adverse events were reported during the 3-dose priming phase. Pain at the injection site was more common with adjuvanted formulations than with the phosphate-buffered saline diluent alone. Febrile reactions were usually low grade. Although the AlPO4 or CRL1005 adjuvants used in these studies did not significantly enhance the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine, adverse events were numerically more common with adjuvanted formulations than without adjuvants.
During peak weeks of seasonal influenza epidemics, severe respiratory infections without laboratory confirmation are typically attributed to influenza.
In this prospective study, specimens and demographic and clinical data were collected from adults admitted with respiratory symptoms to 4 hospitals during the 8-10 peak weeks of 2 influenza seasons. Specimens were systematically tested for influenza and 13 other respiratory viruses (ORVs) by using the Luminex RVP FAST assay.
At least 1 respiratory virus was identified in 46% (21% influenza, 25% noninfluenza; 2% coinfection) of the 286 enrolled patients in 2011-2012 and in 62% (46% influenza, 16% noninfluenza; 3% coinfection) of the 396 enrolled patients in 2012-2013. Among patients aged ≥75 years, twice as many ORVs (32%) as influenza viruses (14%) were detected in 2011-2012. During both seasons, the most frequently detected ORVs were enteroviruses/rhinoviruses (7%), respiratory syncytial virus (6%), human metapneumovirus (5%), coronaviruses (4%), and parainfluenza viruses (2%). Disease severity was similar for influenza and ORVs during both seasons.
Although ORV contribution relative to influenza varies by age and season, during the peak weeks of certain influenza seasons, ORVs may be a more frequent cause of elderly hospitalization than influenza.