Open Access Library Journal

Published by Open Access Library
Online ISSN: 2333-9721
Print ISSN: 2333-9705
Publications
-The total cross sections of the radiative neutron capture on 10 B. Experimental data: black triangle (▲)-the capture cross section at 25 meV from Bartholomew & Campion (1957), points (•)-the total summed cross section of the neutron capture on 10 B from Igashira et al. (1994), circles ()-the total capture cross section to the GS, open squares (□)-the total capture cross section to the second ES, black squares (■)-the total capture cross section to the fourth ES, and open triangles ()-the total capture cross section to the ninth ES from Igashira et al. (1994), open reversed triangles ()-the capture cross section at 25 meV from (Mughabghab 2006; Firestone et al. 2008), open rhombus (◊)-the summed total capture cross section from Igashira et al. (1994) taking into account the transition to the third ES. Lines: the short dashed line is the cross section of the E1 transition 2 / 3 6 2 / 5 6 P S  from the S scattering wave with potential of Eq. (6) to the GS with potential (4), the general dashed line is the capture cross section to the second ES of Eq. (9), the dotted line is the capture cross section of the transition 2 / 3 6 2 / 5 6 P S  to the third ES of Eq. (10), the dot-dashed line is the cross section of the transition to the fourth ES of Eq. (11), the dot-dot-dashed line is the cross section of the transition from the S scattering waves to the ninth ES with potential of Eq. (12), the solid line is the total summed cross section of all considered transitions.
-The total cross sections of the radiative neutron capture on 10 B. Experimental data: points (•)-the total summed cross section of the neutron capture on 10 B from Igashira et al. (1994), open rhombus (◊)-the summed total capture cross section from Igashira et al. (1994) taking into account the transition to the third ES. Lines: the dashed line is the summed cross section of the E1 transitions, shown in Fig. 1 by the solid line, the dotted line gives the cross section of the M1 transition to the GS of Eq. (8) from the resonant 6 Р 5/2 scattering wave for potential of Eq. (7), the dot-dashed line is the cross section of the transition from the resonant 6 Р 5/2 scattering wave to the second ES of Eq. (9), the dot-dot-dashed line shows the cross
-The total cross sections of the radiative neutron capture on 10 B. Experimental data: the same as in Fig. 3. Lines: the dashed line is the capture cross section for the E1 processes shown in Fig. 1 by the solid line, the dotted line shows the cross section of the M1 transition to the GS of Eq. (8) from the resonance 6 Р 5/2 scattering wave for potential of Eq. (16), the dot-dashed line is the cross section of the transition from the resonance Р 5/2 scattering wave of Eq. (16) to the second ES with potential of Eq. (9), the solid line shows the total summed cross section.
The possibility of the description of the available experimental data for cross sections of the neutron capture reaction on 10B at thermal and astrophysical energies, taking into account the resonance at 475 keV, was considered within the framework of the modified potential cluster model with forbidden states and accounting for the resonance behavior of the scattering phase shifts.
 
, below summarizes the particle [and antiparticle where applicable] content of interstellar space. The density of the particles, and their related mean distance apart are such as to militate against any significant number of encounters, whether aided by Coulomb attraction or not. [Excepting solar wind, which is local to star's nearby environment, most of the interstellar medium is Hydrogen atoms, not ions.] [Gravitation can be ignored here, it being decades of orders of magnitude weaker than Coulomb attraction.] 
-The favored Big Bang concept is that the original symmetry was skewed, the universe now being all matter, all antimatter having annihilated. -The mechanism of matter/antimatter annihilation is analyzed. A total annihilation of original antimatter could not have occurred; the skewing is unnecessary; and the universe must contain equally both forms of matter. -Current detection of cosmic matter/antimatter annihilations is Gamma Ray Bursts [GRB's]. However, the conviction that the universe is now all matter with no antimatter has left that possibility rejected and uninvestigated and left standing the massive supernovae core collapse hypothesis for GRB's. -It has recently been reported that the rate of GRB's increases with red shift z for z = 0 to 4 as (1 + z)^1.5. The indication is that the rate increases significantly with time into the past at least back to z = 4 [and probably back to the Big Bang]. -That finding is inconsistent with the massive supernovae core collapse hypothesis for GRB's and supports GRB's being cosmic matter/antimatter annihilations.
 
Parameter of squeezing, r (dashed line), and entropy of entanglement, Sent (continuous line), with respect to the value of the scale factor, a.
In this paper it is presented the model of a multiverse made up of entangled pairs of universes. The arrow of time obtained from the principles of thermodynamics and the arrow of time given by the thermodynamics of entanglement for single universes are analyzed. The latter requires that the single universes expand once they have crossed the quantum barrier at the Euclidean regime. The possible relationship with respect to the grow of local structures in a single universe is also discussed.
 
In this paper, we consider the slack due-window assignment model and study a single machine scheduling problem of linear time-dependent deteriorating jobs and a deteriorating maintenance activity. The cost for each job consists of four components: earliness, tardiness, window location and window size. The objective is to schedule the jobs and to assign the maintenance activity and due-windows such that the total cost among all the jobs is minimized. A polynomial-time algorithm with the running time not exceeding $O(n^2logn)$ to give a solution to this problem is introduced, where $n$ is the number of jobs.
 
Modern quantum theory introduces quantum structures (decompositions into subsystems) as a new discourse that is not fully comparable with the classical-physics counterpart. To this end, so-called Entanglement Relativity appears as a corollary of the universally valid quantum mechanics that can provide for a deeper and more elaborate description of the composite quantum systems. In this paper we employ this new concept to describe the hydrogen atom. We offer a consistent picture of the hydrogen atom as an open quantum system that naturally answers the following important questions: (a) how do the so called "quantum jumps" in atomic excitation and de-excitation occur? and (b) why does the classically and seemingly artificial "center-of-mass + relative degrees of freedom" structure appear as the primarily operable form in most of the experimental reality of atoms?
 
Density-dependent relations among saturation properties of symmetric nuclear matter and hyperonic matter, properties of hadron-(strange) quark hybrid stars are discussed by applying the conserving nonlinear $\sigma$-$\omega$-$\rho$ hadronic mean-field theory. Nonlinear interactions that will be renormalized as effective coupling constants, effective masses and sources of equations of motion are constructed self-consistently by maintaining thermodynamic consistency to the mean-field approximation. The coupling constants expected from the hadronic mean-field model and SU(6) quark model for the vector coupling constants are compared; the coupling constants exhibit different density-dependent results for effective masses and binding energies of hyperons, properties of hadron and hadron-quark stars. The nonlinear $\sigma$-$\omega$-$\rho$ hadronic mean-field approximation with or without vacuum fluctuation corrections and strange quark matter defined by MIT-bag model are employed to examine properties of hadron-(strange) quark hybrid stars. We have found that hadron-(strange) quark hybrid stars become more stable in high density compared to pure hadronic and strange quark stars. Comment: 15 pages, 7 figures.
 
In this paper we de?ne a mathematical model for the inverse beta decay in a uniform magnetic field. With this model we associate a Hamiltonian with cutoffs in an appropriate Fock space. No infrared regularization is assumed. The Hamiltonian is selfadjoint and has a ground state. We study its essential spectrum and determine its spectrum. Conditions for uniqueness of ground state are given. The coupling constant is supposed suffciently small.
 
We consider a Bianchi type-I Polytropic bulk viscous fluid cosmological model with variable G and {\Lambda}. To get a deterministic model, we assume some conditions of A, B, C, and polytropic relation to find the results. physical significance of the cosmological models have also been discussed.
 
In order to explain the present accelerating expansion of the universe and the related dark energy with negative pressure, the scalar model and cosmological factor have been widely studied. Relatively, the spinor field is unreasonably overlooked. Considering the facts that all fermions are described by spinors and the uniform scalar field can hardly explain the galactic structure, so the dark spinors may be partially responsible for dark matter. In this paper, we give a detailed investigation on the state functions of spinors, such as the mass-energy density and equation of state, in the context of cosmology. Here the spinors are quantized and identified by nonlinear potentials, and their state functions are derived from standard statistical and variation principles. The results provide us some interesting consequences and new insights: (I) The negative pressure exists, and the equation of state can be designed by adjusting the nonlinear potential. (II) The initial singularity of the space-time can be removed by the nonlinear potential. (III) A short period of inflation exists and in this period the scale factor inflates much faster than the exponential function.
 
An initial state for the observable universe consisting of a finite region with a large vacuum energy will break-up due to near horizon quantum critical fluctuations. This will lead to a Friedmann-like early universe consisting of an expanding cloud of dark energy stars and radiation. In this note we point out that this scenario provides a simple explanation for the present day density of dark matter as well as the level of CMB temperature flucuations. It is also predicted that all dark matter will be clumped on mass scales ~ 10E3 solar masses. Comment: 9 pages
 
A new variational method for studying the equilibrium states of an interacting particles system has been proposed. The statistical description of the system is realized by means of a density matrix. This method is used for description of conduction electrons in metals. An integral equation for the electron distribution function over wave vectors has been obtained. The solutions of this equation have been found for those cases where the single-particle Hamiltonian and the electron interaction Hamiltonian can be approximated by a quite simple expression. It is shown that the distribution function at temperatures below the critical value possesses previously unknown features which allow to explain the superconductivity of metals and presence of a gap in the energy spectrum of superconducting electrons.
 
The study of the dust structure around a clump of star forming region sp1 has been performed at +01.9˚ latitude in the Infrared Science Archive (IRAS)map. The two different fits images of 60 μm and 100 μm are downloaded from sky view virtual observatory and a clump is selected as a study region. The flux densities at different points have been calculated using Aladin software. By analyzing two different Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) images of 60 μm and 100 μm the average temperature is obtained about 34.43 K. The average diameter of this clump is found to have 4.47 pc. The plot of flux densities along diameter is found to have a Gaussian curve. Mass of the clump is found 0.036185 Mʘ, whereas the jeans mass for that clump is about 27,896.75 Mʘ. Hence from those results, we find that the system is self-isolated with radiating dense core and there is no possibility of any star formation in that region.
 
Values for the standard free energy of adsorption ∆G o ads of the solution of the inhibitor in 1.0 M HCl at different temperatures.
Steel corrosion is a major and costly problem to industrialists and construction workers. The inhibiting effect of dioctyl phthalate on the corrosion of mild steel was carried out in 1.0 M solution of HCl as the corrosion medium using the weight loss method. The adsorption of the dioctyl phthalate on the surface of the mild steel in 1.0 M HCl was found to follow the physisorption mechanism and also follow the first order rate law. The corrosion rate was found to be directly proportional to the temperature of the medium, and inversely proportional to the concentration of the inhibitor in solution. The activation energy increases with increase in the concentration of the inhibitor. Values of standard free energy change, ∆Gads are consistently below 20 kJ/mol. This solidly established that the adsorption mechanism of the dioctyl phthalate on mild steel surface is physisorption. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were used, with Freundlich isotherm as best fit for the modelling of the adsorption process. The value nF in Freundlich isotherm which, indicates the intensity of adsorption, was found to be in the average of 0.717 not far from the typical value of 0.6 nF
 
Introduction: The management of congenital heart diseases in countries with limited technical facilities poses real problems to practitioners. Yet, a good medical follow- up permits to improve these children’s life quality before any eventual surgery. Our study aims at examining the evolutionary and prognostic aspects of these congenital heart diseases in order to understand their evolution in our context. Materials and Methods: Our work is a continuation of a prospective, transversal and descriptive survey concerning all the children with congenital heart diseases in hospitalization or in consultation led from January 1st 2012 to December 31st 2012 in the Charles De Gaulle Center Pediatric Teaching Hospital (CDG-PTH) in Ouagadougou. Results: In 2012, we kept under observation 101 cases of congenital heart diseases representing 69.18% of the 146 cases of heart diseases with an impact of 0.79% of the 12,838 patients who were admitted at CDG-PTH. The interventricular septal defect occupied the first place of all malformative heart diseases with 43.56% of cases. The average age of patients at the moment of the diagnosis was 17 months old with extremes ranging from two (2) days old to fifteen (15) years old. The sex-ratio was 1.06. Throughout the follow-up of the children until the end of the six months’ survey, it was possible for us to meet again 52 patients, we had no longer been in touch with 22 patients and 27 were dead. At the moment of the diagnosis, surgical treatment was recommended for 63.37% of the patients (64 cases) and only 7.81% (5 cases) were operated. The complicated cases were: Eisenmenger syndrome (6 cases representing 5.94%). We recorded a rate of 26.73% of death. Conclusion: Congenital heart diseases are relatively common at CDG-PTH. The high rate of mortality noticed is due to the lack of heart surgery and catheterism units in our country.
 
This paper aims to study the magnetic data collected in block 10B of the central basin in the Democratic Republic of Congo. This block includes lineaments mainly of internal geodynamic origin. This is work that further deepens knowledge of the lineaments of the central basin, although analyzes and maps for oil research purposes remain complex (location, detection techniques, and enhancements). The lineaments play great importance in mining prospecting than in oil prospecting. Because often the lineaments are studied to know their relationship with the mineralization. This is why more or less objective interpretations by focusing on residual anomalies have been made in this paper. Indeed, the determination of the lineaments in blocks 10B is done to better understand the geological structures playing a petroleum interest. Thus, the interpretations of the various maps produced have revealed the prolongations of the lineaments in-depth, very useful for tracing the history of the migration of hydrocarbons and probable structures that could trap them. The particularity of this work is that it not only emerges from the groups of lineament and their extension in this area but also it is written among the rare works of interpretation of magnetic data in this region.
 
The average activity concentrations (A S and A L ) of 137 Cs radionuclides and their average distribution coefficient (K d ) for soil samples. Zone A S (×10 −3 ) (Bq•g −1 ) A L (×10 −5 ) (Bq•mℓ −1 ) K d (mℓ•g −1 ) 
137Cs is one of a few radio contaminants. It stems from the radiation leakage that is left in measurable quantities in Palestine. The transfer factor (TF) from soil to plant, and the distribution coefficient (Kd) of fallout radionuclides 137Cs in soil samp...
 
This review of literature applied a comprehensive approach to corroborate and/or contradict the findings of previous research that has been disseminated to education practitioners. Disengagement from school amongst 14 - 16 year olds has become a recurrent phenomenon, thus identifying and implementing timely interventions to address it should be a key aim for schools. This paper therefore examines previous literature on the subject matter. It investigates factors that could help to break down the barriers to learning and which could inspire affected learners to re-focus on learning and achieve. A thorough and methodical search strategy using Google and Google Scholar was used to locate relevant literature for the research and this yielded the following resources: online research reports and publications, research journals, BERJ (British Educational Research Journal), NFER (National Foundation for Educational Research) and DFE (Department for Education) websites, media and trade union publications, the University of Greenwich library and electronic resources. All similarities on the subject matter were compiled, examined and applied to a critical review of re-engagement. The last step was to examine their implications and applications at school level.
 
The bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766), the only representative of the Pomatomidae family, is a key fishing resource that represents a sub- stantial part of the landings at RESEX-Mar of Arraial do Cabo-RJ. The species is broadly distributed throughout the continental shelf in tropical and warm temperate waters of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. It forms pelagic, large and fast moving shoals in relatively deep offshore waters, and draws close to the coast when temperatures reach from 12 ̊C to 15 ̊C. Its displace- ment is conditioned to the movement of shoals of small fish such as herings; shrimp and squid, all of which are preyed upon. This work had the main purpose of evaluating the growth of bluefish through the distribution of length frequency (One-Way-ANOVA) and the Relationship between Total Length—TL (mm) and Total Weight—TW (g)-LWR; from daily data collections from March/2017 to March/2018. The analyzed specimens were obtained at fish markets of Arraial do Cabo-RJ and fish landings at the Fisher- men’s Harbor of Praia dos Anjos. They were randomly sampled from frag- mented cohorts of the local stock. A total of N = 2057 specimens were pri- mary analyzed. TL values varied from 201 mm (minimum) in February/2018 to 915 mm (maximum) in September 2017. The average TL was of 541 mm and the average TW of 1428.5 g. The value of angular coefficient “b” in the potential flow was 2.6, and the value of “a” was 9E−05, expressed by the equationW=aLb foroverall, where W=TW and L=TL. Values ofW=3E−05L2.7 were found for females and W = 2E − 05L2.8 for males. Knowledge over their general biology is extremely important when it comes to knowing the ecology of this species for subsidize a future and adequate fishery management.
 
Introduction: Malaria infection and HIV infection are major public health issues in several parts of the world. Together they have caused more than a million deaths per year. Africa, and Sub-Saharan in particular are the most affected. Our study objective is to determine the prevalence of Malaria/HIV co-infection and describe its immunological, virological, parasitic and biological characteristics. Methodology: This is a descriptive, transversal and multi centric study done on 18 years old and above HIV positive patients, for a period extending from December 2008 to October 2009 in 5 different HIV treatment centres. Parameters studied were gender, age, CD4 count, viral load, parasite density and haemoglobin level. The HIV diagnosis was made according to the AIDS National Program and malaria according to the Malaria National Program. Statistic analyses were done using Epi Info 7 software and the Yates corrected Chi Square test or the Fischer Exact test (when recommended) was used to check any link between different parameters studied. Statistical significance was fixed at <0.05. Results: 405 HIV seropositive patients were compiled. The malaria prevalence in these patients was 6.9%. Majority of co-infected patients were aged between 26 and 49 years (67.9%), and had a CD4 count <200 μl (67.9%), a parasitic density <10,000 trophozoites/μl (75%) and an Hb level <11 g/dl. With regards to correlations between co-infected patients parasitic density and the CD4 count, viral load and Hb level, none of the studied parameters showed any statistic significance difference. Conclusion: A prevalence of 6.9% among HIV/malaria co-infected patients and 67.7% of these patients had a CD4 count less than 200 cells/μl. Thus, both national programs must promote an early testing for HIV infected patients and reinforce preventive measures in the management of malaria.
 
In the 18th and 19th century of English literature, there were two generations of English Romantic poetry in Britain, who have produced great influences on the literature world. Those romantic poets were inspired more or less by the French Revolution, and advocated to the people to pursue beauty and inner freedom in nature or art. The most extraordinary features found in their poems are the abundant Greek and Roman mythological figures. But two generations of romantic poetry have shown different purposes in employing the Greek and Roman mythology, which needs further reading and exploration. The present study centers on the comparison of characters preference in poems between the two generations and shed light on the critical difference in their purposes and impacts.
 
Backward bifurcation.
Forward bifurcation.
Cumulative death case at 1 0.05,1 η = and 52.
Hospitalized population at 1 0.05,1 η = and 5.
Description of Variable and Parameter for Covid-19 Model.
The emergence of novel coronavirus (Covid-19) in 2019 sprung a sudden outbreak across the globe, presenting clinical and public health management challenges which led to global cancellation of conferences, travel restrictions, social distancing and closure of institutions. Thus, in considering the grave implications of the continuous spread of coronavirus disease, a SEIHRD epidemic model was formulated to gain insight into disease transmission dynamics with impacts of proposing control measures. The model captures the impact of undetected infectious individuals and detected hospitalized individuals with saturated treatment on the spread, death and recovery of Covid-19 patients in Nigeria. The model epidemic threshold and equilibria are determined, and their stabilities are analyzed. The model is validated by fitting it to data from January 28 to December 5, 2020. Results obtained suggest that decreasing the transmission rate for infective alone is not sufficient to eradicate the disease because of the presence of backward bifurcation, and we recommend that Nigerians must also adhere strictly.
 
Social inequalities are concerning along the bladder cancer (BC) continuum especially within the malignancy outcomes and treatment effects and complications. Moreover, the COVID-19 crisis and its variants have uncovered major inequalities between communities and added more pressure on socioeconomic (SE) status along with the COVID-19-associated variants. Within this global situation, discerning the societal risk factors that render specific communities vulnerable is crucial to ensure more effective management of BC malignancy. In this paper, we aimed to investigate the status and the impact of SE variables and disparities on BC survival as reported in recent studies and give an update on the impact of social environment on treatment outcomes within COVID-19 pandemic. Several studies showed that SE status is a significant predictor of survival for BC patients. Recent evidence found that BC outcomes are directly affected by social deprivation. Our results confirm that there are major and recurrent SE disparities in BC survival. Together, the findings demonstrate the considerable impact in public data-based centers, albeit reportings are partial and inaccurate, of SE and health inequities in severely segregated neighborhoods under the weight of the COVID-19. The findings show the major influence of healthcare inequalities SE deprivation in a distinctly segregated community within the COVID-19 burden and death in centers according to public statistics, even if reports are unfinished and partial.
 
Top-cited authors
Djamel Ghernaout
  • University of Hail
Noureddine Elboughdiri
  • University of Hail
Saad Ghareba
Isa Olalekan Elegbede
  • Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus - Senftenberg
Saheed Matemilola
  • Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus - Senftenberg