# Ocean Engineering

Published by Elsevier

Print ISSN: 0029-8018

Published by Elsevier

Print ISSN: 0029-8018

Publications

This paper considers acoustic plane wave scattering from a rough seabed on a transition sediment layer overlying an elastic sea basement. The transition sediment layer is assumed to be fluid-like, with density and sound speed distributions behaving as generalized-exponential and inverse-square functions, respectively. This specific class of density and sound speed profiles deserves special attentions not only because it is geologically realistic, but also renders analytical solutions to the Helmholtz equation, making it particularly useful in the study of ocean and seabed acoustics. Based upon a boundary perturbation approach, the computational algorithm for the spatial spectrum in terms of the power spectral density of the scattered field has been developed and implemented. The results have shown that, while the coherent field mainly depends upon the gross structure of the seabed roughness, e.g., RMS roughness, the scattered field is significantly affected by the details of the roughness distributions specialized by the roughness power spectrum and the spatial correlation length of the rough surface. The dependence of the power spectral density of the scattered field on the various types of sediment stratifications, including the constant and the k<sup>2</sup>-linear sound speed distributions, is also included in the analysis.

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This paper presents soft computing approach for estimation of missing wave heights at a particular location on a real-time basis using wave heights at other locations. Six such buoy networks are developed in Eastern Gulf of Mexico using soft computing techniques of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Genetic Programming (GP). Wave heights at five stations are used to estimate wave height at the sixth station. Though ANN is now an established tool in time series analysis, use of GP in the field of time series forecasting/analysis particularly in the area of Ocean Engineering is relatively new and needs to be explored further. Both ANN and GP approach perform well in terms of accuracy of estimation as evident from values of various statistical parameters employed. The GP models work better in case of extreme events. Results of both approaches are also compared with the performance of large-scale continuous wave modeling/forecasting system WAVEWATCH III. The models are also applied on real time basis for 3 months in the year 2007. A software is developed using evolved GP codes (C++) as back end with Visual Basic as the Front End tool for real-time application of wave estimation model.

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The interaction between current and flexural gravity waves generated due to a floating elastic plate is analyzed in two dimensions under the assumptions of linearized theory. For plane flexural gravity waves, explicit expressions for the water particle dynamics and trajectory are derived. The effect of current on the wavelength, phase velocity and group velocity of the flexural gravity waves is analyzed. Variations in wavelength and wave height due to the changes in current speed and direction are analyzed. Effects of structural rigidity and water depth on wavelength are discussed in brief. Simple numerical computations are performed and presented graphically to explain most of the theoretical findings in a lucid manner.

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A 1:50 scale physical model was constructed for the 17th Street Canal region, New Orleans, on the southern coast of Lake Pontchartrain, as part of the Interagency Performance Evaluation Task Force (IPET) study of Hurricane Katrina. The purpose of the 1350 m2 physical model that represented about 3.4 km2 of the local area was to aid in defining wave and water velocity conditions in the 17th Street Canal during the time period leading up to the breaching of the floodwall within the Canal. In the immediate period following this disaster, there were many hypothesis of failure put forth in the media. Some of these hypothesis indicated wave action may have been the underlying cause of the failure of the 17th Street Canal floodwall. Some performed numerical work with inappropriate boundary conditions, which indicated strong wave-generated currents may have caused erosion along the floodwalls. This physical model study indicated a number of wave-attenuating processes occurring as waves approached the location of the breach. Wave height reduction resulted due to: (1) refraction of wave energy over the shallower submerged land areas surrounding the harbor away from the canal; (2) reflection of energy off vertical walls in the region between the entrance to the canal near the Coast Guard Harbor and the bridge; and (3) interaction of the wave with the Hammond Highway bridge, including reflection and transmission loss. Wave heights near the lakeside of the bridge were 0.3–0.9 m in height, reduced from 1.8 to 2.7 m wave heights in the open lake. Waves on the south side of the bridge, near the breach, were further reduced to heights below 0.3 m. These results supported the conclusion that waves were not a significant factor for the 17th Street Canal floodwall failure. Other IPET investigations determined floodwall failure was of a geotechnical nature due to the high surge water level. The physical model also provided calibration information for numerical wave models. The effects of debris on flow and waves after the breach was formed were also investigated.

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This paper describes a new numerical algorithm for solving 2.5D hydrodynamic theory, which is based on the high-speed slender body assumptions where the free-surface condition is 3D but the control equation and body surface condition are 2D. This numerical algorithm is accomplished using boundary integral equations formed in the inner fluid field domain and outer fluid field domain and matched on a fixed control surface. Theoretically predicted vertical hydrodynamic coefficients by this method is verified by the theoretical results computed by 2.5D theory based on time domain boundary integral equations. This paper also shows that the matched boundary integral equations can be used to calculate the hydrodynamic characteristics of high-speed displacement vessels with a large flare.

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A review is made of linear slender-body methods for predicting the squat of a ship in shallow open water, dredged channels or canals. The results are summarized into a general formula based on Fourier transforms, and the method is extended to cater to stepped canals. An approximate solution for canals of arbitrary cross-section is proposed.

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Research was conducted to study the hydrodynamic efficiency of a foil with aft-swept wing tips. A potential flow based time domain panel method was formulated to predict the performance of a lunate and rectangular foil in large amplitude, unsteady motion. Skin drag was approximated and boundary layer growth and separation were also estimated. Hydrodynamic efficiency was evaluated in terms of propulsive efficiency and thrust coefficient of the foil. Results are presented for a lunate shaped planform and for a rectangular foil. Predictions show that the lunate shaped planform has a substantially higher propulsive efficiency (13% higher) than the rectangular foil under heavy load conditions when the feathering parameter is zero, throughout a range of reduced frequencies (0.2 to 1.8). Under a medium load condition, however, the rectangular foil gave a higher propulsive efficiency at reduced frequencies less than 0.5 and the same efficiency value at a reduced frequency of 1.8. For a practical range of reduced frequencies between 0.5 and 1.0, the lunate tail gave higher propulsive efficiency. The lunate planform gave a lower thrust coefficient at a heavy load and higher thrust at a medium load condition than the rectangular planform for all reduced frequencies.

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In this paper, a hybrid finite volume-finite difference scheme is applied to study surf zone dynamics. The numerical model solves the 2DH extended Boussinesq equations proposed by Madsen and Sørensen (1992) where nonlinear and dispersive effects are both relevant whereas it solves NSWE equations where nonlinearity prevails. The shock-capturing features of the finite volume method allow an intrinsic representation of wave breaking and runup; therefore no empirical (calibration) parameters are necessary. Comparison with laboratory measurements demonstrates that the proposed model can accurately predict wave height decay and mean water level setup, for both regular and solitary wave breaking on a sloping beach. The model is also applied to reproduce two-dimensional wave transformation and breaking over a submerged circular shoal, showing good agreement with experimental data.

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A finite differences (FD) solution method is proposed for the numerical treatment of the dynamic equilibrium problem of 2D catenary risers. The method is based on the so-called Box approximation, which in the scope of the present contribution is applied to the complete nonlinear model as well as to the reduced linearized formulation. The application of the Box method transforms the original governing systems into convenient sets of algebraic equations, which in turn are solved efficiently by the relaxation method. Extensive numerical calculations are presented that describe the dynamic behaviour of the structure and evaluate the amplification in loading due to the dynamic components. The effect of the geometric nonlinearities is assessed through comparative calculations that concern both mathematical formulations examined in the present, i.e. the complete nonlinear, and the reduced linearized model. Special attention is paid to the heave excitations as they amplify significantly the magnitudes of the loading components.

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Nonlinear interactions between large waves and freely floating bodies are investigated by a 2D fully nonlinear numerical wave tank (NWT). The fully nonlinear 2D NWT is developed based on the potential theory, MEL/material-node time-marching approach, and boundary element method (BEM). A robust and stable 4th-order Runge–Kutta fully updated time-integration scheme is used with regriding (every time step) and smoothing (every five steps). A special φn-η type numerical beach on the free surface is developed to minimize wave reflection from end-wall and wave maker. The acceleration-potential formulation and direct mode-decomposition method are used for calculating the time derivative of velocity potential. The indirect mode-decomposition method is also independently developed for cross-checking. The present fully nonlinear simulations for a 2D freely floating barge are compared with the corresponding linear results, Nojiri and Murayama’s (Trans. West-Jpn. Soc. Nav. Archit. 51 (1975)) experimental results, and Tanizawa and Minami’s (Abstract for the 6th Symposium on Nonlinear and Free-surface Flow, 1998) fully nonlinear simulation results. It is shown that the fully nonlinear results converge to the corresponding linear results as incident wave heights decrease. A noticeable discrepancy between linear and fully nonlinear simulations is observed near the resonance area, where the second and third harmonic sway forces are even bigger than the first harmonic component causing highly nonlinear features in sway time series. The surprisingly large second harmonic heave forces in short waves are also successfully reproduced. The fully updated time-marching scheme is found to be much more robust than the frozen-coefficient method in fully nonlinear simulations with floating bodies. To compare the role of free-surface and body-surface nonlinearities, the body-nonlinear-only case with linearized free-surface condition was separately developed and simulated.

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In addition to reducing the incoming wave energy, submerged breakwaters also cause a setup of the sea level in the protected area, which is relevant to the whole shadow zone circulation, including alongshore currents and seaward flows through the gaps. This study examines such a leading hydraulic parameter under the simplified hypothesis of 2D motion and presents a prediction model that has been validated by a wide ensemble of experimental data. Starting from an approach originally proposed by Dalrymple and Dean [(1971). Piling-up behind low and submerged permeable breakwaters. Discussion note on Diskin et al. (1970). Journal of Waterways and Harbors Division WW2, 423–427], the model splits the rise of the mean water level into two contributions: one is due to the momentum flux release forced by wave breaking on the structure, and the other is associated with the mass transport process. For the first time, the case of random wave trains has been explicitly considered.

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Non-linear loads on a fixed body due to waves and a current are investigated. Potential theory is used to describe the flow, and a three-dimensional (3D) boundary element method (BEM), combined with a time-stepping procedure, is used to solve the problem. The exact free-surface boundary conditions are expanded about the still-water level by Taylor series so that the solution is evaluated on a time-invariant geometry. A formulation correct to second order in the wave steepness and to first order in the current speed is used. Numerical results are obtained for the first-order and the second-order oscillatory forces and for the second-order mean force on a fixed vertical circular cylinder in waves and a current. The second-order oscillatory forces on the body in waves and current are new results, while the remaining force components are verified by comparison with established numerical and analytical models. It is shown that the current can have a significant influence on the forces, and especially on the amplitude of the second-order oscillatory component.

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A new three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic free surface flow model is presented. For simulating water wave motions over uneven bottoms, the model employs an explicit project method on a Cartesian the staggered gird system to solve the complete three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations. A bi-conjugated gradient method with a pre-conditioning procedure is used to solve the resulting matrix system. The model is capable of resolving non-hydrostatic pressure by incorporating the integral method of the top-layer pressure treatment, and predicting wave propagation and interaction over irregular bottom by including a partial bottom-cell treatment. Four examples of surface wave propagation are used to demonstrate the capability of the model. Using a small of vertical layers (e.g. 2–3 layers), it is shown that the model could effectively and accurately resolve wave shoaling, non-linearity, dispersion, fission, refraction, and diffraction phenomena.

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This work provides a general hydrodynamic circulation model that can be used to understand density driven flows, which may arise in the case of suspension of fine-grained materials. The research is expected to provide a better understanding of the characteristics of spatial and temporal variability of current, which is associated with the period of ebb and flood tidal cycles.The model development includes extending the existing three-dimensional (3D) ADCIRC model with (1) baroclinic forcing term and (2) transport module of suspended and soluble materials. The transport module covers the erosion, material suspension and deposition processes for cohesive type sediment. In the case of an idealized tidal inlet in stratified water, the inclusion of baroclinic term can demonstrate the prevailing longshore sediment transport. It is shown that the model has application to the transport of the cohesive sediments from the mouth of the Mississippi River along the north shore of the Gulf of Mexico towards and along the Texas coast.

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The oscillating flow around an infinite array of circular cylinders at low Keulegan-Carpenter numbers and Reynolds numbers is investigated numerically using a 3D mathematical model. Three different regimes of the Tatsuno and Bearman (1990) map are investigated; the first one is a 2D symmetric regime, whereas the second and the third are asymmetric and 3D. In each regime, the gap between two neighboring cylinders has been varied in a very wide range, from the case of practically isolated cylinder to the case of very strong interference.As regards the isolated cylinder, the mean value of the inertia coefficient is much more affected by the 3D effects than that of the drag coefficient. Conversely, the variation along the axial direction of the sectional drag coefficient is much stronger than that found for the sectional inertia coefficient.In all cases investigated, the reduction of the gap between cylinders has two main effects: first, it causes the reduction of the Morison coefficients; second, in the 3D regimes, the gap enhances 3D motion in the range of moderate values due to the interaction between vortex structures released by two neighboring cylinders, whereas a further reduction of the gap in the range of small values tends to reduce the three-dimensionality of flow field up to a complete suppression occurring for very small values of the gap.Finally, we propose a very simple parameterization that gives the Morison coefficients as a function of the gap once the values for the case of isolated cylinder are known.

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A three-dimensional (3D) numerical model of fixed Oscillating Water Column system (OWC) is presented and validated. The steady-state potential flow boundary value problem due to regular wave interaction with the OWC is solved by a first order mixed distribution panel method. Ocean response predictions are derived using a deterministic statistical model based on a spectral analysis method. The model validation focusses on diffraction predictions and involves convergence tests and numerical comparisons with independent potential flow computations. Predictions of both regular and irregular wave responses are also compared against experimental results. Sample results including the yearly-averaged power conversion efficiency are presented in the final section to illustrate the method’s suitability to a 3D hydrodynamic design optimisation.

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Interactions between water waves and non-wall-sided cylinders are analyzed based on velocity potential theory with fully nonlinear boundary conditions on the free surface and the body surface. The finite element method (FEM) is adopted together with a 3D mesh generated through an extension of a 2D Delaunay grid on a horizontal plane along the depth. The linear matrix equation for the velocity potential is constructed by imposing the governing equation and boundary conditions through the Galerkin method and is solved through an iterative method. By imposing the gradient of the potential equal to the velocity, the Galerkin method is used again to obtain the velocity field in the fluid domain. Simulations are made for bottom mounted and truncated cylinders with flare in a numerical tank. Periodic waves and wave groups are generated by a piston type wave maker mounted on one end of the tank. Results are obtained for forces, wave profiles and wave runups. Further simulations are made for a cylinder with flare subjected to forced motion in otherwise still open water. Results are provided for surge and heave motion in different amplitudes, and for a body moving in a circular path in the horizontal plane. Comparisons are made in several cases with the results obtained from the second order solution in the time domain.

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The submerged 3D turbulent jet flow behavior around a pile on a rigid bed and on a scoured bed was studied experimentally and numerically. ADV was used to obtain the jet velocity distributions and Realizable k–ε turbulence model was used for the prediction of flow field around a pile. The jet flow area was three-dimensional and thus numerical model was a three-dimensional model. The numerical results were used to predict the velocity close to the pile and bed shear stress on the bed. In general, the results indicated that the flow field was also in agreement with the findings of previous experiments in literature and the related principles in the subject area. The experimental results demonstrated that Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) measurements were almost identical with the Realizable k–ε turbulence model results for turbulence intensity I=10%.

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In this paper, a novel high order panel method based on doublet distribution and Gaussian quadrature was adopted to deal with the potential flow problem. In the geometry representation we employed both the exact surface and NURBS surface form to construct the surface panel. These data were calculated directly from the mathematical shape definition. Furthermore, no fixed order of doublet density distribution was assumed on each panel. Not only the number of panels could be chosen, but also the Gaussian order of each panel. The numerical results for sphere, ellipsoid and Wigley hull demonstrated here indicated that the present method was adapted to the potential flow problem. Moreover, the NURBS surface geometry representation was capable of further potential flow optimal calculation.

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The purpose of the present paper is to develop a potential-based panel method for determining the steady potential flow about three-dimensional hydrofoil under free surface. The method uses constant-strength doublets and source density distribution over the foil body surface and thereby Dirichlet-type boundary condition is used instead of Neumann-type condition. On the undisturbed free surface source density is used to meet the free surface condition that is linearised in terms of double-body model approach and is discretised by a one-side, upstream, four-point finite difference operator. After solving the doublets on the foil and sources on the free surface, the numerical results of pressure, lift and resistance coefficients and also wave profiles can then be calculated for different Froude number and depth of submergence to demonstrate the influence of free surface and aspect ratio effects on performance of the hydrofoil.

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Time-domain computations of 3D ship motions with forward speed are presented in this paper. The method of computation is based upon transient Green function. Both linear and nonlinear (large-amplitude) computations are performed where the included nonlinearities are those arising from the incident wave, but the diffraction and radiation forces are otherwise retained as linear. The incident wave can be described by any explicit nonlinear model. Computations over a variety of wave and speed parameters establish the robustness of the algorithm, which include high speed and following waves. Comparison of linear and nonlinear computations show that nonlinearities have a considerable influence on the results, particularly in predicting the instantaneous location of the hull in relation to the wave, which is crucial in determining forefoot emergence and deck wetness.

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During laboratory tests designed to measure the torque required to actuate the emergency forebody release device of the research submersible Alvin, the coefficient of static friction was determined for the contacting metals, Monel K-500 and phosphor bronze A. Three conditions were investigated: surfaces clean and dry, surfaces immersed in seawater, and surfaces greased. Coefficient values fell in the range 0.12–0.24.

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This work deals with the estimation of the bispectrum of wind waves during severe storms containing abnormal or freak waves. It presents the basic definitions of higher-order spectra and of the bispectra in particular and further suggests how to interpret some of the results to identify non-linearity in the wave time series. Different estimation methods are used and compared so as to identify the differences in the estimated bispectra that results from the estimation procedure and the ones that result from the physics of the sea states. It is found that as a result of the second-order self-coupling the phase distribution of the wind wave during the severe storms differs from the uniform one and is well approximated by the distribution proposed by Tayfun and Lo [1989. Envelope, phase and narrow-band models of sea waves. Journal of Waterway Port Coast and Ocean Engineering 115(5), 594–613.].

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The paper is intended to extend the investigations about the nature of abnormal waves that have been reported in the work of Guedes Soares et al. (Characteristics of abnormal waves in North Sea states. Applied Ocean Research 25, [337–344]). The same dataset gathered at the oil platform North Alwyn in the North Sea during the November storm in 1997 is used along with the time series from the Draupner platform, in which an abnormal wave occurred. The data are reanalyzed from the viewpoint of the applicability of second-order models to fit large waves. The observed results confirm that the second-order approximation is not adequate to describe highly asymmetric and abnormal waves.

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Regular waves were applied in a laboratory flume to investigate the evolutions of the velocity fields near above a fine sandy bed (d50=0.073 mm) during fluidized responses. Measurements of 2D velocity components and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) at 1 cm above the bed in addition to water surface displacements and sub-soil pore pressures were carried out with an acoustic Doppler velocimeter and an optical probe. The results have shown similar three typical soil responses including one unfluidized and two fluidized responses to previous report in other fine-grained soil beds. In the post- and pre-fluidized stages of a resonantly fluidized response, amplitudes of horizontal velocity component can be decreased by a maxima value of 50% while vertical components can be amplified up to 5 times larger. The developments of near-bed velocity field become less significant in consecutive non-resonantly fluidized responses. Particularly, the evolutions of the velocity field are closely dependent on the deepening of fluidized surface soil layers df and the characteristics of soil fluidization responses. The amplified vertical velocity components are clearly contradictory to the dissipated overloading waves near above a fluidized bed but are critical to much drastic sediment suspensions by interactions between overloading waves and fluidized bed soils.

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A numerical wave tank is first established using the Navier–Stokes equations and the VOF method assuming laminar flow. The standard k–ε, realizable k–ε and RNG k–ε turbulent models are then incorporated to the numerical tank. An effective numerical method for wave absorption utilizing the energy-dissipating property of porous media is also included. To validate the accuracy of the proposed models, the propagation of a solitary wave, where analytical solution is available for comparison, is first simulated. This is followed by the simulation of irregular wave runup on a composite seawall, wave propagation over submerged bars and wave refraction and diffraction over an elliptic shoal, where experimental data are available for comparison. All computed results agree well with either the analytical solution or the experimental data.

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A parametric study was carried out to investigate the hydrodynamics of a cylindrical wave energy absorber. Established methods of hydrodynamic analysis were applied to the case of a damped vertically oriented cylinder pivoted near the sea floor in intermediate depth water. The simple geometry provides a canonical reference for more complex structure shapes and configurations that may be considered for either wave energy conversion or wave energy absorption. The study makes use of the relative velocity Morison equation, with force coefficients derived from radiation and diffraction theory. Viscous effects were accounted for by including a drag term with an empirically derived coefficient, CD. A non-linear first-order formulation was used to calculate the cylinder motion response in regular waves. It was found that the non-linear drag term, which is often neglected in studies on wave energy conversion, has a large effect on performance. Results from the study suggest a set of design criteria based on Keulegan–Carpenter (KC) number, ratio of cylinder radius to water depth (a/h), and ratio of water depth to wavelength (h/L). Respectively, these parameters account for viscous, wave radiation, and water depth effects, and optimal ranges are provided.

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The motions and time-mean horizontal drift forces of floating backward-bent duct buoy wave energy absorbers in regular waves are calculated taking account of the oscillating surface-pressure due to the pressure drop in the air chamber above the oscillating water column within the scope of the linear wave theory. The present numerical results show that the time-mean drift forces of backward-bent duct buoys are in the reverse direction of propagation of the incident waves over specific frequency ranges as found by McCormick through his experimental work. The drift force has been calculated by the near-field method. A brief discussion on Maruo’s formula which shows that the time-mean drift force must be in the direction of propagation of the incident waves, has also been presented.

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Simplified analytical solutions are presented to model the interaction of linear waves with absorbing-type caisson breakwaters, which possess one, or two, perforated or slotted front faces which result in one, or two, interior fluid regions (chambers). The perforated/slotted surfaces are idealized as thin porous plates. Energy dissipation in the interior fluid region(s) inside the breakwater is modelled through a damping function. Under the assumption of potential flow and linear wave theory a boundary-value problem may then be formulated to describe wave interaction with the idealized structure. A solution to this simplified problem may be obtained by an eigenfunction expansion technique and an explicit analytical expression may be obtained for the reflected wave height. Using the experimental work of previous authors, damping coefficients are determined for both single and double chamber absorbing-type caisson breakwaters. Based on the damping for a single perforated-wall breakwater, a methodology is proposed to enable the estimation of the damping coefficients for a breakwater with two chambers. The theoretical predictions of the reflection coefficients for the two-chamber structures using the present model are compared with those obtained from laboratory experiments by other authors. It is found that the inclusion of the damping in the interior fluid region gives rise to improved agreement between theory and experiment.

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This paper describes a theoretical analysis of the ocean wave energy absorption by a periodic linear array of oscillating water columns (OWCs) of arbitrary planform. The analysis is based on classical linear water wave theory and uses the expressions for the wave field resulting from time-harmonic pressure distributions on the free surface. The water depth is assumed finite and constant. The cases of oblique and normal incidence are analysed. A linear power take-off mechanism is assumed, but a complex characteristic constant (allowing for phase control) and air compressibility are considered. Special analytical expressions are derived for OWCs of rectangular and circular planforms. Numerical results for circular chambers show that the hydrodynamic interaction can substantially change the maximum energy absorption, depending on array and chamber geometry and on angle of incidence.

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Littoral sediment transport is the main reason for coastal erosion and accretion. Therefore, various types of structures are used in shore protection and littoral sediment trapping studies. Offshore breakwaters are one of these structures. Construction of offshore breakwaters is one of the main countermeasures against beach erosion. In this paper, offshore protection process is studied on the effect of offshore breakwater parameters (length, distance and gap), wave parameters (height, period and angle) and on sediment accumulation ratio, one researched in a physical model. In addition to the experimental studies, numerical model in which the formulae of the sediment discharge (i.e. the formulae of CERC and Kamphuis), was used was developed and employed. The results of the experimental and numerical studies were compared with each other.

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Oscillating bodies constitute a major class of wave energy converters, especially for offshore deployment. In general, such converters use as power take-off system either a hydraulic system (high-head water turbine or high-pressure-oil hydraulic motor) or a directly driven linear electric generator. The paper addresses the former case, especially when a gas accumulator is employed as energy storage device that provides a smoothing effect to the electric power output. Although there are several wave energy projects currently at different stages of development (including prototype testing) that fit this description, the paper is intended to be a general modelling study rather than to concentrate on a particular device. Special attention is devoted to power take-off performance and design, and to the control of the system.

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A method is presented for the numerical simulation of the three-dimensional geometric behavior of cable-towed acoustic array systems (as well as other series-connected marine structures). The simulation is verified by comparison with laboratory and ocean experiments. The lumped element method is used to generate ordinary differential equations for the motion of nodes on the system. Numerical integration of the equations is performed by standardized, error-controlled software for stiff systems. Input consists of the system structural definition (component parts) and a scenario (deployment method; environment). Output includes integration statistics and plots/tables of state variables and element tensions angles. Features include modular part deginitions; unrestricted constrained motions; cable winching and parallel stress elements (VIMs). Input specification of non-linear tensions, non-uniform drag and general currents and force fields are by analytic functions or data tables for maximum flexibility. The properties of individual nodes may be altered to account for special cases of gravitational or inertial mass, buoyancy and spherical drag. The report includes comparisons with other published methods.

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An exact study on reradiation of an acoustic field due to radial/axial vibrations of a baffled spherical piston, while eccentrically positioned within a fluid-filled thin spherical elastic shell, into an external fluid medium is presented. This configuration, which is a realistic idealization of a liquid-filled spherical acoustic lens with focal point inside the lens when used as a sound projector, is of practical importance with multitude of possible applications in ocean engineering and underwater acoustics. The formulation utilizes the appropriate wave field expansions along with the translational addition theorems for spherical wave functions to develop a closed-form solution in form of infinite series. Numerical results reveal that in addition to frequency, cap angle, radiator position (eccentricity), cap surface velocity distribution, and dynamics of the elastic shell can be of significance in sound radiation.

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Plane-wave reflection from a rough surface overlying a fluid half-space, with a sound speed distribution subject to a small and random perturbation, is considered. A theory based upon a boundary perturbation method in conjunction with a formulation derived from Green's function for the coherent field in the random medium have been applied to a typical oceanic environment to study their effects on the plane-wave reflection. By considering the coherent field itself, the plane-wave reflection may be obtained straightforwardly through a procedure consistent with the formalisms currently employed in rough surface scattering. The results show that both the rough surface and medium inhomogenieties may reduce the plane-wave reflection, however, the characteristics of the curves representing their effects are different, enabling us to identify the dominant scattering mechanism. The results for the coherent reflection due to the individual scattering mechanism are compatible with those found in the existing literature.

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We have developed a seafloor acoustic ranging system as a possible future application to monitoring seafloor crustal movement with the DONET (Development of Dense Ocean-floor Network System for Earthquake and Tsunami) cabled observatory system. In 2007 we carried out an experiment for the seafloor acoustic ranging system. We deployed two precision acoustic transponders (PXPs) with about 750 m spacing in Kumano-nada at a water depth of about 2035 m. We collected 660 ranging data in this one-day experiment. The round-trip travel time shows a variation with peak-to-peak amplitude of about 25 mm in the range. It was confirmed that most of the variation could be explained by the change in sound speed estimated from measured temperature and pressure. The remaining fluctuation in the acoustic measurements is ±2 mm.

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Reducing overall power consumption is core issue in low power, high sampling rate, large storage data loggers necessary for long-term underwater acoustics research and other applications. A low-power microprocessor MSP430 offers a solution for the development of long-term deployment remote systems. In this paper, we present a multi-MSP430, master-slave architecture to resolve the power limitation issue. The proposed design is scalable in nature. For every additional slave unit installed in the array, the data sampling and streaming rate can be increased proportionally. We demonstrate the advantages of this concept using a multi-channel underwater acoustic recorder with a 100 kHz sampling rate. The performance of the system is demonstrated by a field acoustic experiment in which the reflection coefficient of the seafloor is measured. The proposed architecture will be applicable to many underwater long-term deployment systems. With its flexibility in configuration and synchronization of multi-channel sampling, it also provides a simple architecture for the construction of hydrophone arrays.

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Automation of complicated underwater tasks require acoustic image based object recognition. This paper presents an acoustic image based real-time object recognition system. We proposed an acoustic image predictor to estimate an object's shape in advance. Depending on the acoustic camera's position, the predictor generates optimal template for recognition. The proposed method is implemented in our autonomous marine vehicle. For real-time processing, efficient recognition strategies are addressed. The vehicle detects an object and localizes it for recognition. In the detection process, the acoustic image's specific characteristics are used as the detection cues. In the localization process, the vehicle's horizontal and vertical positioning strategies are described. Efficient template generation method to minimize computing power is addressed. This realizes real-time recognition using the vehicle. To estimate the proposed system's accuracy and reliability, a recognition test was carried out in the field. The vehicle successfully recognized two different objects with high accuracy.

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Directional energy spectra of nearshore surface waves were measured for a 3-year period (2004–2007) at a site with mean depth 14 m and mean tidal range 2.1 m. Triaxys surface-following wave buoys reported hourly directional wave energy spectra and wave parameters near the offshore end of the Savannah River Entrance Channel, Georgia, USA. An acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was located beside the wave buoy for 3 months. Directional and non-directional surface wave energy spectra and the corresponding bulk wave parameters (height, period, and direction) are compared for the two systems. Most parameters derived from the spectra agree closely; the most significant differences were found at the upper and lower frequency measurement limits, where signal-to-noise ratios were lower. The wave buoy consistently reports a small amount of energy below 0.05 Hz that does not appear in the ADCP-derived spectra and does not appear to be related to the mooring system. This leads to larger mean and peak periods reported by the buoy. All directional spectra were computed using the Maximum Entropy Method for both instruments, but the buoy, with spectra derived from six independent time series, provides lower directional resolving power than the ADCP, which utilizes twelve time series. Both systems gave similar results defining mean and peak wave directions, with the primary difference being that the ADCP indicates energy to be more tightly concentrated around the peak direction.

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This paper presents an integrated navigational algorithm for unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) using two acoustic range transducers and strap-down inertial measurement unit (SD-IMU). A range measurement model is derived for a UUV having one acoustic transducer and cruising around two reference transponders at sea floor or surface. The proposed algorithm, called pseudo long base line (PLBL), estimates the position of the vehicle integrating the SD-IMU signals corrected with the two range measurements. Extended Kalman filter was applied to propagate error covariance, to update measurement errors and to correct state equation whenever the external measurements are available. Simulations were conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the PLBL using the 6-d.o.f. nonlinear numerical model of a UUV at current flow, excluding bottom-fixed DVL. This paper also shows the error convergence of the vehicle's initial position by the additional range measurements without velocity information.

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The mechanical cable is an essential element in towing operations, remote control of equipment, salvage operations, civil engineering applications, etc.Failure of these cables can result in loss of life and loss of equipment worth hundreds of thousands of dollars. Obviously then, sensors that can indicate the condition of these cables so that the risk to their continued use and their remaining safe life can be determined when in operation are very important from the point of view of commercial and military interest.This paper presents a brief review of research into failure mechanisms of various cables and the acoustic emission signatures of the various cables under simulated loading. The development of a specific operational monitor for a towed cable system is also given.

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The accuracy of predicting wave transformation in the nearshore is very important to wave hydrodynamics, sediment transport and design of coastal structures. An efficient numerical model based on the time-dependent mild-slope equation is presented in this paper for the estimation of wave deformation across the surf zone. This model incorporates an approximate nonlinear shoaling formula and an energy dissipation factor due to wave breaking to improve the accuracy of the calculation of wave height deformation prior to wave breaking and also in the surf zone. The model also computes the location of first wave breaking, wave recovery and second wave breaking, if physical condition permits. Good agreement is found upon comparison with experimental data over several one-dimensional beach profiles, including uniform slope, bar and step profiles.

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A numerical model, coupling an analysis of beach groundwater flow with an analysis of swash wave motion over a uniform slope, is presented. Model calculations are performed to investigate the variations of swash-induced filtration flows across the beach face for different input parameters. Swash zone sediment transport under the influence of such filtration flow across the beach face is investigated through modification of effective weight of sediment particle and modification of swash boundary layer thickness. These effects are quantified based on a bed load transport model with a modified Shields parameter.

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The hybrid Cartesian/immersed boundary method is applied to simulate effects of flexibility on propulsive force acting on a heaving foil in a viscous flow. Immersed boundary nodes are distributed inside an instantaneous fluid domain. Velocity vector is reconstructed at the immersed boundary node based on an interpolation along a local normal line. Using the staggered/non-staggered grid method, the demand for pressure at boundary nodes is removed. Elastic deformation of the flexible foil is modelled based on the dynamic thin-plate mechanics. The developed code is validated through comparisons with other computations on flow fields around a flapping foil. The generation of the reverse Karman vortex street is investigated. Forces acting on heaving foils are compared for flexible and rigid cases and the increased thrust of the flexible foil is attributed to the deformed configuration near the tip. The flexibility of the heaving foil decreases vertical force and improves propulsion efficiency. The variations of force and deformation are investigated according to bending stiffness of the foil.

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In designing the coastal structures, the accurate estimation of the wave forces on them is of great importance. In this paper, the influences of the phase difference on wave pressure acting on a composite breakwater installed in the three-dimensional (3-D) wave field are studied numerically. We extend the earlier model [Hur, D.S., Mizutani, N., 2003. Coastal Engineering 47, 329–345] to simulate 3-D wave fields by introducing 3-D Navier–Stokes solver with the Smagorinsky's sub-grid scale (SGS) model. For the validation of the model, the wave field around a 3-D asymmetrical structure installed on a submerged breakwater, in which the complex wave deformations generate, is simulated, and the numerical solutions are compared to the experimental data reported by Hur, Mizutani, Kim [2004. Coastal Engineering (51, 407–420)]. The model is then adopted to investigate 3-D characteristics of wave pressure and force on a caisson of composite breakwater, and the numerical solutions were discussed with respect to the phase difference between harbor and seaward sides induced by the transmitted wave through the rubble mound or the diffraction. The numerical results reveal that wave forces acting on the composite breakwater are significantly different at each cross-section under influence of wave diffraction that is important parameter on 3-D wave interaction with coastal structures.

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Wave forces acting on submerged circular cylinders moving forward with a constant velocity in regular waves are investigated experimentally. Hydrodynamic forces acting on the cylinder forced to surge in a steady are also measured and hydrodynamic coefficients were obtained. Wave force coefficients obtained from wave force measurements are compared with the hydrodynamic coefficients from surging tests, and the similarity and difference between them are discussed. Experiments show that these coefficients are quite different from those of the cylinder without a forward velocity.

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The interaction between waves and artificial reefs (ARs; a hollow cube weighing 8.24 kN (0.84 t) and a water pipe weighing 1.27 kN (0.13 t)) in shallow waters was investigated with respect to variations in design weight, orientation (for cube; 45° and 90° angles, for pipe; 0°, 90°, and 180° angles to flow), depth (1–20 m), and bottom slope (10−1, 30−1, and 50−1). Physics equations and FLUENT software were used to estimate resisting and mobilising forces, and drag coefficients. Drag coefficients for the hollow cube were 0.76 and 0.85 at 45° and 90° angles to the current, respectively, and 0.97, 0.38, and 1.42 for the water pipe at 0°, 90°, and 180° angles to the current, respectively. Deepwater offshore wave conditions at six stations were transformed into shallow nearshore waters representative of the artificial reef site. Waters deeper than 12 and 16 m are safe to deploy blocks with angles of 45° and 90°, respectively. However, water pipes constructed at angles of 90° and 180° to the current were estimated as being unstable for 365 out of 720 cases at all stations (only one station was stable for all cases). Water pipes angled at 0° were found to be stable in all 360 cases. Slope had a significant effect on weight and depth. Results from this study provide an important reference for engineers performing projects aiming to increase the performance and service life of ARs.

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The characteristics of wave damping for the vertically stratified porous breakwaters are investigated under oblique wave action. It is found that for common angles of incidence, the wave damping efficiency of a vertically stratified porous structure behaves very similar to a simple structure. The reflection coefficient decreases with increasing angle of incidence while the transmission coefficient only slightly increases as the angle of incidence increases. It is shown that the wave energy loss is in direct proportional to the structure thickness and its porosity regardless of the angle of incidence. Considering small transmission coefficient as a basic requirement and if a moderate reflection coefficient is accepted, a structure thickness of b/h=1 is proposed. In this situation, since the structure does not have a very large thickness, adopting a vertically stratified structure is not an effective way to improve its wave damping efficiency.

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Various measures including material experiments, centrifuge modeling tests and FEM numerical analyses were performed to study systematically the action mechanism of the geotextile-reinforced cushion under breakwater on soft ground and the effects of the strata characterization and the reinforcement condition on the stability of the breakwater-ground system. In the aspect of controlling the deformation, the geotextile-reinforced cushion under breakwater constrains the lateral displacement of both the embankment and the ground. From the viewpoint of stress, the reinforcement suppressed the range of high stress level in the system. In general, the weaker the ground is and the greater the modulus of the geotextile is, the more effective the reinforcement is. The tensile force in the geotextile is greater in the range of the main part of the embankment.

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This paper presents an adaptive nonlinear controller for diving control of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). So far, diving dynamics of an AUV has often been derived under various assumptions on the motion of the vehicle. Typically, the pitch angle of AUV has been assumed to be small in the diving plane. However, these kinds of assumptions may induce large modeling errors and further may cause severe problems in many practical applications. In this paper, through a certain simple modification, we break the above restricting condition on the vehicle's pitch angle in diving motion so that the vehicle could take free pitch motion. Proposed adaptive nonlinear controller is designed by using a traditional backstepping method. Finally, certain numerical studies are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of proposed control scheme, and some practical features of the control law are also discussed.

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