Virtually every coastal country in the world is affected by harmful algal blooms (HABs, commonly called “red tides”). These phenomena are caused by blooms of microscopic algae. Some of these algae are toxic, and can lead to illness and death in humans, fish, seabirds, marine mammals, and other oceanic life, typically as a result of the transfer of toxins through the food web. Sometimes the direct release of toxic compounds can be lethal to marine animals. Non-toxic HABs cause damage to ecosystems, fisheries resources, and recreational facilities, often due to the sheer biomass of the accumulated algae. The term “HAB” also applies to non-toxic blooms of macroalgae (seaweeds), which can cause major ecological impacts such as the displacement of indigenous species, habitat alteration and oxygen depletion in bottom waters.
Agenda 21, the 40-chapter action plan, agreed to by all nations participating in the 1992 Earth Summit represents an ambitious effort to provide policy guidance across the entire spectrum of environment, development, and social issues confronting mankind. In the area of oceans and coasts (Chapter 17 of Agenda 21), the Earth Summit underscored that the management of oceans and coasts should be ‘integrated in content and anticipatory in ambit.’To assist those responsible for implementing the Earth Summit guidelines on ocean and coastal management, this article first reviews the fundamental shift in paradigm reflected in the Earth Summit agreements as well as the specific recommendations contained in Chapter 17. Next, the article examines the central concept of ‘integrated management,’ noting both its importance and its limits. A general or ‘synthesis’ model of ‘integrated coastal management’ is then presented, addressing such questions as management goals, what is being managed, where, how, and by whom.In a concluding section, methods are proposed whereby the general or ‘synthesis model’ can be tailored to diverse national contexts, involving varying physical, socio-economic, and political conditions.
This paper addresses the current lack of internationally recognized standards for quality management practices in Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). The application of the ISO 14001 standard for environmental management systems to MPAs can provide a flexible and adaptive management system that can be integrated with existing MPA management practices as a standardized quality management process designed for the continuous improvement of MPA management. The paper provides a framework for applying ISO 14001 to MPAs and discusses the results of a practical case study in northern Chile wherein ISO 14001 was used as a benchmark for evaluating and improving the proposed management plan for a Chilean marine reserve.
This paper examines the progress made in Malaysia in implementing Chapter 17 in Agenda 21 since 1992. The progress is measured against the programme areas identified in Chapter 17 and the challenges which are faced by those involved in marine environment management in the country. In summary these challenges are reduction, prevention and elimination of marine pollution, improving the management of Malaysia’s coastal areas, conservation of marine and coastal biological diversity and sustainable management of marine resources. As it stands there is no overall programme to implement Chapter 17 in Malaysia, and present activities consist of largely individual initiatives at agency or departmental level. The lack of integration and an overarching policy on marine matters in general, are found to be the main obstacles to marine environment protection. However, efforts are being made to at least identify and define key concepts such as integrated coastal zone management.
The Mediterranean was the first sea in which the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Regional Seas Programme was initiated. An Action Plan was launched (1975) and a Convention was adopted (1976) to pursue, on the regional scale, the goals defined by the UN Conference on the Human Environment (1972). In 1995 the Mediterranean was the first sea to move towards a sustainable development-aimed programme by the adoption of a new Convention, legally regarded as the amendment of the 1976 Convention, and the correlated adoption of the Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP), Phase II. Thus, the Mediterranean has always served as an arena in which to define goals and targets and to design legal and institutional tools. In the current phase it is useful to focus on the evolution of the Mediterranean co-operation carried out in the framework of the Regional Seas Programme putting it in relation to the goals designed by, as well as the crucial issues highlighted in, Chapter 17 of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) Agenda 21.
This article examines social conditions in a bay experiencing population growth, gear conflict, overfishing, and general resource decline. Sample surveys of fishing households carried out in 1980 and 1993 in nine villages of San Miguel Bay reveal patterns of continuity and change. The key continuity is sustained overall population growth in fishing villages. Among the key forms of change are those which demonstrate a degree of adaptation to resource decline: decreased participation in fishing; greater reliance of fishing households on nonfishing income; increased dependence on remittances of nonhousehold children; increased participation of women in nonhousehold labor; and dramatic growth in the number of fishing organizations involved in resource management. The findings suggest that resource management policies should be patterned after spontaneous adaptations to resource decline.
On 4 August 1995, the UN Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks adopted an Agreement for the conservation and management of straddling and highly migratory fish stocks. The mandate given by the General Assembly required that the results of the Conference be fully consistent with the UN Law of the Sea Convention. The purpose of this article is to examine the significance of the agreement for the law of the sea as embodied in the Convention. It shows that the agreement constitutes an important contribution to the Convention in that it facilitates the implementation of the Convention's provisions, strengthens the Convention's regime, and further develops general or framework rules of the Convention. The most significant contribution lies in the development of the law with respect to such issues as the precautionary approach to fisheries, compatibility of conservation and management measures adopted for areas under national jurisdiction and those for the adjacent high seas areas, the role of regional organizations or arrangements, duties of the flag State, enforcement against foreign vessels on the high seas, and port State jurisdiction.
Over the last several decades, harmful algal bloom (HAB) events have been observed in more locations than ever before throughout the United States. The 2005 bloom of Alexandrium fundyense was the most widespread and intense in New England waters since a similar event more than three decades ago. In this study, using historical data from the National Marine Fisheries Service, the Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries, and other sources, we develop estimates of the direct economic impacts of the 2005 event on commercial shellfish fisheries in Maine and Massachusetts. Results of our regression analyses suggest that the 2005 event had broad spatial and temporal effects on the shellfish market. In response to a supply shortage resulting from local closures, there was an increase in shellfish imports to New England during the red tide. Further, shellfish closures in Maine were the most likely cause of observable price changes on the Fulton Fish Market in New York.
Coastal and island states of the Western Indian Ocean lack scientific and management capacity to draw sustainable benefits from their Exclusive Economic Zones. Declining ecosystem services and unregulated fishing has prompted nine riparian countries to develop a regional framework for capacity building and scientific development towards collective management of shared resources. Supported by the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the Agulhas and Somali Currents large marine ecosystems programme consists of three inter-related modules, supported by different agencies: land-based impacts on the marine environment (UNEP); productivity, ecosystem health and nearshore fisheries (UNDP) and transboundary shared and migrating fisheries resources (World Bank). The latter is the South Western Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), a 5-year joint data gathering and fisheries assessment initiative. SWIOFP is a prelude to long-term cooperative fisheries management in partnership with the newly established FAO–South Western Indian Ocean Fisheries Commission (SWIOFC). We describe the development of SWIOFP as a model of participatory regional scientific cooperation and collective ocean management.
The 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity has set ambitious targets for the establishment and management of protected areas. For the oceans, the overall aim is to establish, by 2012, an effectively managed, representative, global system of marine protected areas (MPAs) covering 10% of all marine ecological regions, comprising both multiple use areas and strictly protected areas. An analysis of data for three countries in Eastern Africa, where considerable efforts to promote MPAs by many agencies have been made over the past decade, shows that rapid progress has been made towards achieving this target. Since the first MPAs were established in the 1960s and 1970s, 8.7% of the continental shelf in Kenya, 8.1% in Tanzania and 4.0% in Mozambique has been designated, with the size of recently protected sites markedly larger than earlier sites. Commitments to expand the MPA networks in these countries would, if implemented, largely achieve the 10% coverage target. The location of existing marine protected areas shows good correlation with known sites of high species diversity; and coral reefs and Important Bird Areas are well represented. Management effectiveness of MPAs is also improving. However, there are major constraints to meeting the MPA target in these countries. Many habitats and species are not yet fully represented, the area closed to fishing is less than the recommended 20–30%, and capacity building is needed to improve many aspects of management. Furthermore, despite considerable investment in monitoring of coral reefs and other coastal habitats, the data available do not show clearly whether biodiversity and socio-economic objectives are being met. Although East African countries need to be congratulated for their vision, the results thus far indicate the urgency of both improving monitoring systems for measuring progress towards the targets, and also taking further steps to expand and improve management of existing MPAs.
Progress has been made in the Pacific region to implement the decisions taken by leaders at the Earth Summit. There has been investment in the environment and in sustainable development initiatives in the Pacific, and island countries have managed to place their concerns and special circumstances clearly on the international agenda. By the very nature of Pacific islands, Agenda 21 and its off-shoot, the Barbados Programme of Action, have influenced ocean and coastal management. However, the extent to which this has changed the fundamental approach to development in islands is less clear. While it may not be possible to determine categorically the state of implementation of Agenda 21 or how far Pacific island countries have gone down the path towards sustainable development, there are some sound indicators of change. This paper examines a number of these indicators of progress to implement Agenda 21 in the Pacific at the national, regional and international levels, and identifies some challenges for the future.
A broad spectrum of events come under the category of harmful algal blooms (HABs), the common denominator being a negative impact on human activities. Harmful algal blooms involve a wide diversity of organisms, bloom dynamics, and mechanisms of impact. Here we review the effects of natural and man-induced environmental fluctuations on the frequency and apparent spreading of these phenomena. This article highlights the need for interdisciplinary research aimed at shedding light on basic mechanisms governing the occurrence and succession of microalgae in coastal seas. Information integrated from various discipline coupled with improved, sustained monitoring systems, will help predict and manage problems caused by HABs over a wide range of space and time scales.
Integrated coastal management should ideally be a government-driven process linking private-sector forces with public resources and voluntary action by NGOs and local communities in an effort to establish and implement mutually agreed upon policy. Perceptions of problems, and the capacity for any of these elements of society to participate in the management process, are critical factors which will influence which management issues are identified, the scale and the scope of a management plan and its implementation. This paper presents a case study of an NGO-driven effort to build capacity and begin implementing effective collaborative coastal management in the Samaná bay region of the Dominican Republic. A participatory and consensus-building planning process was used to identify priority problems and strategies for solving them. Strategies were discussed jointly by local community and user groups, then combined into a preliminary regional management plan. To help the process endure and become more integrated an iterative and cyclical management approach will need to be adopted. It is uncertain whether the lack of government involvement hindered this community-based effort; however, the government's active involvement will be essential in the near future as the effort expands.
Integrated Coastal Management in the Russian Federation is in its infancy. For the Kaliningrad Region, which has a strategically important coastline, coastal planning and coastal management practitioners will be important in the future. An academic partnership between Kaliningrad State Technical University in the Russian Federation and Southampton Institute in the United Kingdom has developed a specialization in Integrated Coastal Management within the established undergraduate fishery science courses. Materials development has been drawn from western sources, Kaliningrad Region case study opportunities and external links. Initial research into prospects for graduates from this course of study is encouraging and students interest in the new course has been significant. Future aspirations include broadening the academic network within the Russian Federation and Baltic area, and developing additional Russian language teaching material.
This paper re-examines recent trends in fish landings in the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins separately for each GFCM (General Fisheries Council for the Mediterranean) statistical area and compares estimates of production in different basins using comparable units of measurement, namely the productivity in tonnes per surface area of continental shelf. Comparisons were based on Geographical Information System (GIS) databases, and maps of catches were created per type of fishery per statistical and continental shelf area. Despite generally high exploitation rates, the overall Mediterranean landings for all species continued to rise in the 1970s and 1980s (Fishery fleet statistics, 1970, 1975, 1980–1989. Bulletin of Fishery Statistics. FAO, Rome, 1991, Vol. 30, 344pp.). This is not easy to explain in terms of steady state fisheries theory, given that landings were expected to decline as effort further increased and stocks became depleted. An examination of human-induced environmental trends over the last few decades pointed to the likely importance of nutrient enrichment for increasing fishery productivity within the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, seas where biological and fishery productivity were formerly considered to be strongly limited by low nutrient levels. It seems from the GFCM statistics that an increase in fishery production in the 1970s and early 1980s was particularly evident for semi-enclosed basins such as the Black Sea and Adriatic, where nutrient enrichment from land and river runoff has been more pronounced than for the generally nutrient-poor regions of the eastern Mediterranean and around Sardinia. The effects of large inputs of nutrients, as for the Aegean Sea (receiving nutrient-rich water from the Black Sea outflow), and the Gulf of Lions (from the Rhone river), also appear to be reflected in recent landing trends, as well as where there is a more diffuse discharge of nutrients from human activities on shore. The still largely oligotrophic nature of water masses in the southern Mediterranean appears to be reflected in the significantly lower productivities in terms of tonnes of fish production per shelf area.
This paper examines variations in social acceptability of a Marine Protected Area (MPA) prior to implementation. The influence of a number of factors, including socio-economic characteristics, perception of coral resources state of health and attitudes towards non-compliance with regulations are analysed. During May 2006, 640 questionnaires were distributed to school children around Reunion Island, Western Indian Ocean, for completion by their parents, following an informal educational activity made in school. From a 73% (n = 469) response rate, results showed that 78% of participants were in favour of the MPA. Analysis further identified that those supportive of the MPA were generally from higher socio-professional categories, had a negative perception of the coral reef ecosystem's health and were not originally from Reunion. In contrast, locals (born in Reunion) from lower socio-professional categories or with no employment activity and having a positive perception of the health status of coral reefs offered no opinion on the MPA. Attitudes towards enforcement and compliance highlighted that SCUBA divers, fishers and jet skiers attributed a higher value to the protection of the coral reef environment through enforcement of MPA regulations than to their own use of the coral reef resource. When asked about the use of penalties to deter non-compliance, swimmers were awarded the lowest fines, followed by SCUBA divers, fishers then jet skiers being awarded the highest fines. Thus, the more severe the act of non-compliance by a resource user group was perceived to be, the more these users themselves disapproved of non-compliant behaviour and supported use of high penalties. The survey design through focusing on school children's parents, demonstrated a simple and cost-effective method for data collection while providing environmental education, which could be employed in similar case studies elsewhere.
China is seeking direct access to the Sea of Japan by way of the Tumen River, principally for the benefit of the northeastern provinces of Jilin and Heilongjiang. The boundary between the Soviet Union and North Korea follows this river some 17 km from the vicinity of Khasan to its mouth. The historic port of Hunchun cannot meet the needs of modern marine commerce, and alternatives to its redevelopment for that purpose are analyzed. Relative to the alternate proposals is a discussion of precedents for the use of ‘international rivers’, rights of access to the sea by landlocked countries, the various maritime jurisdictional claims of littoral states on the Sea of Japan, and the history of the establishment of the USSR-DPRK boundary.
This paper assesses the views of various environmental groups on access control in fisheries, as stated in documents prepared by these groups. The views range from outright opposition to tentative promotion. Differing views on the definition of conservation, the appropriate make-up of the fishing industry and the likely make-up with and without access control, and the appropriate nature of property rights for fisheries are highlighted. An important aspect of the last issue is the concern over potential ‘takings’ problems under the Fifth Amendment to the US Constitution when management is imposed in rights-based fisheries regimes.
Marine parks worldwide are under assault from illegal fishing, pollution and a burgeoning tourism industry. However, their principal mission of environmental protection and conservation is too often hampered by lack of funds. In recent years a number of studies have been done on the willingness of users to pay entrance fees to fund marine park management particularly those where coral reefs occur. In this analysis, we examine 18 such reports from which we conclude that there is overwhelming public approval to pay for entry to marine parks, with all studies indicating a general acceptance for the introduction of fees or an increase in those where charges already exist. Factors that positively influence this include visitors income, level of education, environmental awareness, residency and desire to provide a legacy to future generations. However, there are also aspects that deter including trust in the fee collection agency and openness in how the money is spent. This analysis endeavours to highlight those aspects that positively influence users of marine parks to contribute willingly to their management and help close the funding gap that confronts so many.
This article is about factors that influence local government implementation of state coastal policies with specific application to public shoreline access. Although the national government delegates authority for coastal zone management to state governments, local jurisdictions are ultimately responsible for public shoreline access program implementation. Local budgets provide the funds and staff that impact public access development in addition to daily maintenance of public access sites. However, since local governments are creatures of the state, local implementation naturally involves a reciprocal relationship with state governments. Local governments get grants and technical support from state governments while the states get successful state policy implementation at the local level. Previous shoreline public access evaluations only reviewed how well each state agency met federal objectives. Such evaluations gave little attention to local government programs, despite acknowledging that local governments are the “primary implementers of state coastal policies and programs” through the use of land use powers and infrastructure improvements. Understanding of local government's relationship with state agencies is an essential ingredient for the formulation of public shoreline access programs and to gain insight into national coastal policy success and failure.Forty-five local public shoreline access programs were examined in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Florida. Although no single indicator explained local compliance with state public beach access policy; selected economic, political and demographic variables were statistically associated with compliance. Public officials and others interested in shoreline access need to be aware of how such capacities can influence policy implementation.
Coastal and marine areas the world over provide food, transportation, recreation, and energy resources to increasing numbers of people each year. As demands for these resources rise, the potential for user conflicts is radically heightened. This situation can be avoided or counteracted by instigating proactive multiple use planning. Multiple use zoning plans can only exist in a concrete management framework: marine and coastal protected areas provide just such a foundation. Nature-based or ecotourism can be encouraged in coastal protected areas aimed at achieving sustainability. Well-planned tourism provides economic and political incentives for management and for conservation, and may bring additional benefits to local communities and regional economies. Examples where nature-based tourism has been or is becoming successfully integrated into multiple use planning can be found in Quintana Roo, Mexico; the Lesser Antilles; and Australia, among other areas.
The Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP), established in 1969, is a scientific advisory body on marine pollution and marine environmental protection, sponsored by eight United Nations (UN) bodies (International Maritime Organization (IMO), Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), World Health Organization (WHO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and United Nations (NY) (UN)). The group provides scientific advice in five areas—assessment of the potential effects of marine contaminants; scientific basis for research and monitoring programs; international exchange of scientific information relevant to assessment and control of marine pollution; scientific principles for control and management of anthropogenic effects on the marine environment; and the scientific basis and criteria relating to legal instruments and other measures for prevention, control and abatement of marine pollution. In recent years, it has expanded its responsibility to include key topics related to marine environmental protection and integrated coastal management. Members are natural and social scientists, coastal managers and resource economists nominated by the sponsoring agencies but working in their individual capacity as marine specialists. Problems are technically reviewed and assessed through working groups composed of members and other specialists, drawing upon the world-wide oceanographic, marine science and coastal management communities. Members and working group specialists have come from over 50 countries. Since 1976, GESAMP has produced 47 reports on technical topics related to marine pollution, protection and conservation. The group has produced four global State of the Marine Environment reports. Its longest running working group evaluates the hazards of substances carried by ships for the MARPOL 73/78 Convention (Annexes II and III). Over its history, GESAMP has contributed to the landmark Stockholm Conference (1972), MARPOL 73/78, the UN Convention on Law of the Sea, the Bruntland Commission's report on sustainable development (1987), the Rio Conference (UNCED) and Agenda 21 (1992), and the Washington Declaration on LBA—land-based activities (1995). Its current program includes advice on the state of the marine environment (two reports published in 2001), oil inputs into the sea from sea-based activities, aquaculture in the context of IC(Z)M, hazards of harmful substances carried by ships, and endocrine disrupting compounds in marine ecosystems, and contributions to key ocean conferences.
This paper describes the application of the methodology called Rapid Appraisal of Fisheries Management System (RAFMS) to assess quickly the situation in tsunami-affected coastal fisheries in Aceh Province, Indonesia. As a diagnostic tool, the RAFMS is introduced in terms of its conceptual framework and procedures. The RAFMS was used to appraise the status of the fisheries sector in selected 15 villages. Information generated concerning level of fishing effort, marketing patterns and community perspectives on livelihood options are used as three illustrative examples. The paper also provides some insights in applying the RAFMS methodology in the context of disasters and in the broader context of tropical fisheries management.
Achieving sustainable fisheries management is an enormous challenge and involves the enhancement of scientific and technological management capacities worldwide. The improvement of this capacity building (CB) is particularly crucial to developing countries with massive fisheries such as Mexico. To understand the current status of CB in Mexico, the contemporary development of its academic research system was examined by undertaking a bibliographic review of specialized literature, including research institutions and postgraduate programs. The resulting information was considered as Mexican CB indicators and its theoretical and spatio-temporal analysis revealed capabilities are increasingly supporting research topics related to advancing sustainable fisheries development. However, because the recent and tumultuous development of the Mexican academic research system, much of the knowledge accumulated centers on commercial resources, and the renovation of the system itself is geographically inconsistent. In this paper, some key insights on how to improve Mexican CB process are highlighted.Highlights► Mexican capacity building for fisheries management is being updated, albeit gradually. ► A new generation of scientists and institutions is using interdisciplinary approaches. ► The domestic capacities continues to support a single-species management system. ► The renovation of the scientific system in Mexico is geographically inconsistent. ► The current challenge is to update the research system considering regional priorities.
Although a great deal of effort has been directed toward attempts to use sound to reduce or eliminate marine mammal incidental capture in fisheries and predation on fish, there is little evidence of the effectiveness of such methods in solving marine mammal-fishery conflicts. Passive methods of increasing a net's reflectivity are hypothesized to result in lowered marine mammal bycatch rates, by making it easier for the animals to detect and avoid nets. However, so far, substantial decreases in cetacean bycatch have not been demonstrated, either from comparisons of catch rates in commercial fisheries or from observational studies of deterrence. The goal of active acoustic methods is the production of sound to warn the animals of the gear, or to cause them to leave the area. Various attempts have been made to use active methods to deter pinnipeds from areas of fishing activity (generally to avoid predation on the fish), and to warn cetaceans of the presence of a net (to reduce incidental catch). Net alarms have greatly reduced large whale entrapment in fish traps in Canadian waters, but despite extensive testing, have generally not shown similar success in reducing small cetacean bycatch in a number of gillnet fisheries. Overall, most attempts to use sound to reduce or eliminate marine mammal-fishery interactions have been based upon trial and error, with few controlled scientific experiments, making evaluation of the effectiveness of these methods difficult. Much more basic research on marine mammal echolocation behavior and on behavioral interactions between marine mammals and fisheries needs to be done before substantial success using acoustic methods can be expected.
Coastal and ocean environments worldwide are coming under increasing pressure from resource development. In some cases, integrated coastal zone management programs have been successfully adopted. However, with the collapse of offshore fisheries and competition among industries for use of the seabed, many maritime countries are recognizing that more data are needed to support the sustainable management of offshore resources. Developments in multibeam mapping technology, in concert with traditional geoscience survey techniques, now provide the capability to image the sea floor in high resolution. Examples from the Canadian Atlantic continental margin are used to demonstrate the application of high-resolution sea floor mapping techniques to develop data bases and maps; these maps are fundamental information for the future management of offshore resources.
The oceans have been and will continue to be disposal sites for a wide variety of waste products. Often these wastes are not dumped at the designated sites or transport occurs during or after dumping, and, subsequent attempts to monitor the effects the waste products have on the environment are inadequate because the actual location of the waste is not known. Acoustic mapping of the seafloor with sidescan sonar is a very effective technique for locating and monitoring dredge-spoil material and other debris. Sidescan sonar provides an acoustic image or sonograph of the sea floor that is similar to a satellite image of the Earth's land surface. In effect sidescan sonar allows the water column to be stripped from the sea floor, thereby providing a clear, unobstructed view of the sea bed.
The Sulu-Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion (SSME) is an outstanding ecoregion situated within the center of global marine biodiversity. Three countries—Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines—share, and directly benefit from, the rich resources of the SSME. The deterioration of environmental conditions in the ecoregion indicates that the resource extraction has exceeded the natural capacity of this marine ecosystem for recovery. Shared boundaries, ecosystem dynamics and resources, as well as transboundary environmental issues (including human migration) justify an ecoregion approach to conserve the SSME.In 1999, the World Wide Fund (WWF) for Nature and its partners launched the SSME Conservation Program. The Program adopts a two-pronged approach: planning for the conservation of the SSME and the implementation of immediate conservation actions on the ground. The ecoregion planning process involves the formulation of a Biodiversity Vision—a 50-year conservation goal—and the development of a stakeholders’ Ecoregion Conservation Plan (ECP) based on the ecoregion's Biodiversity Vision. Notable was a shift from a non-government organization-facilitated to a government-led planning process, and the establishment of interim governance mechanisms to ensure coordination in the development of the ECP. These interim mechanisms that operate within country and across countries during the planning phase of the SSME Program are perceived to evolve into formal institutional arrangements that are appropriate for the implementation of the ECP.
Canada and the United States are working cooperatively in three, independent transboundary ecosystem management initiatives in the shared waters of the east coast Bay of Fundy/Gulf of Maine, the interior Great Lakes, and the Georgia Basin/Puget Sound on the west coast. These programs have placed the international boundary, which separates these systems jurisdictionally, into the background in favour of the natural boundaries which define these shared ecosystems. This paper examines the motivation behind the establishment of these three US–Canada cooperative ecosystem management programs, their goals, objectives and priorities, institutional structures, challenges, and progress to date. The experiences and approaches of these three programs, individually and collectively, provide insights that have already proven useful for each initiative and offer valuable perspective for other cooperative ecosystem-based management arrangements worldwide.
The new arrangement of the Spanish State's territory following the Constitution of 1978 led to the decentralization of many administrative decisions on such subjects as territorial planning, coastal management and urban planning, which were transferred to the different regional governments. Ten years later, the States General of Spain passed a new Shores Act (1988). The result of these two actions has been the creation of a new framework for coastal management in which the three administrative levels: government, regional governments and town councils, carry out their jurisdictions.
Although much has been written about the federal consistency process of the Coastal Zone Management Act, almost no empirical analysis has been done on the program. In 1988, we surveyed state coastal zone management program officials for data on federal consistency submissions reviewed during the 1987 calendar year. In addition to questions about the frequency and types of consistency reviews conducted, state officials were asked questions about the effectiveness of the consistency mechanism and their relationships with various federal agencies. This article summarizes the results of our assessment and reviews the evolution of federal consistency and its implementation prior to the 1990 amendments.
In recent years in the Canadian Arctic, participatory and pluralistic approaches have become common in several areas of environmental management relevant to the resolution of multiple-use conflicts: fish and wildlife, protected area planning, integrated coastal zone management, ecosystem health monitoring, contaminants research, environmental assessment, and climate change. This paper analyzes the emergence and development of aboriginal participation in resource management in each of these areas, with emphasis on the Canada Oceans Act. Policy change seems to parallel the emergence of aboriginal land claims and the general political movement towards greater self-government. Increasing political power of northern populations in general, and aboriginal groups in particular, have led to a modification of the environmental decision-making process, and to the incorporation of local values, priorities, and traditional environmental knowledge in environmental research and management. Especially important in this process has been the emergence of traditional environmental knowledge as a mechanism by which participatory approaches can be implemented.
This review article examines the importance of valuing environmental resources in the context of sustainable development. The different values stemming from ocean and coastal resources, relevant methodologies and issues raised by valuation approaches are reviewed. The authors then present practical policy-relevant valuation examples, and conclude by outlining progress since 1992 and remaining challenges. It is argued that while the Rio summit has shifted somewhat the emphasis from classical cost–benefit analysis to safe minimum standards through the adoption of the precautionary principle, economic valuation still provides useful information to decision-makers and should be part of a holistic decision-making process. It should be recognised, however, that although valuation techniques have been refined and linked to reliability protocols, they remain imperfect and for some commentators controversial. Further progress is needed on assigning monetary values but also on decision-making systems that better integrate monetary, social, and natural science criteria.
Integrated coastal management (ICM) is a management process used by stakeholders in decision making to determine how coastal areas will be used and what activities can take place in them. While many ICM Programs are national government initiatives, some ICM Programs are ‘decentralized’, managed by community groups or local governments. This paper describes the Atlantic Coastal Action Program (ACAP), an ICM Program in Atlantic Canada, and the Xiamen ICM Program, in Xiamen, China, and discusses their major differences. The most important difference between the two ICM Programs is that ACAP is a community-based program that uses a multi-stakeholder approach and consensus decision making, while the Xiamen ICM Program is managed by a coordinating office within a local government. After comparing the two programs, some general lessons learned about decentralized ICM from these case studies are noted. It is concluded that the appropriate use of either model for ICM depends on the cultural, economic and political environment of the program. However, stakeholder involvement, scientific consultation and the use of a detailed management plan are important components of any decentralized ICM program.
The countries surrounding the Northwest Pacific marginal seas have different levels of economic development and different political systems. With the rapid economic development in the region, the marine environment received high pressure, which requires high attention of the governments concerned, and urgent actions.As the Northwest Pacific marginal seas shared by several countries, regional co-operation and co-ordination are the effective means to address the marine environmental problems in the region. The Northwest Pacific Action Plan, the Northeast Asian Regional GOOS are providing the intergovernmental mechanism to facilitate the regional co-operation and co-ordination. Effective implementation of these projects is a critical task facing to all countries in the region.
The paper outlines the peculiarities and importance of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Region as an ocean gateway between the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean domain through the Mediterranean Sea. It reviews the Region's major environmental problems that were recognized by the governments of the Region and hence led to the adoption of the Action Plan in 1982. For some years, the implementation of the Action Plan was hampered by various economic and political difficulties, the lack of financial and human resources and weak political will in some countries of the Region. However, clear progress was recently achieved in furthering cooperative efforts in the region that culminated in the launching of the Region's Strategic Action Programme, and the preparation of the Regional Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities. In order to meet the present and future challenges facing the Region, concerted action is imperative. The paper proposes a multi-track approach with concrete actions suggested, revolving around four main axes of management, mitigation, cooperation/coordination and facilitation. The suggested actions clearly require two major imperatives, namely government commitment and public awareness.
Persian Gulf is a semi-enclosed sea located in the Middle East and is connected to oceans through the narrow 55-km Strait of Hormuz. The Persian Gulf holds an estimated 57–66% of the world's known reserves of oil. The occurrence of three major battles in the Gulf region during the past three decades has created an atmosphere of commotion and uncertainty. Because of its marine geology, geographical location, and geopolitical sensitivity, coastal management in the Gulf region cannot be considered independently of its vast oil and natural gas reserves and environmentally related matters. The Regional Organization for Protection of Marine Environment (ROPME) forum was established in Kuwait in 1979 and quickly ratified by seven new member states (Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates). Rapid growth of ROPME and shared coastal and marine environmental issues among littoral States have resulted in numerous successful plans laying the basis for future coastal management and development in the Persian Gulf region.
This paper presents integrated coastal management (ICM) relevant information on the Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP) of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and its hitherto and future involvement in the initiation and establishment of the ICM process in the region. The conceptual, legal and institutional basis of MAP, as established in 1975, is described. The MAP 1975–1995 period is characterized by a gradual refocusing from a programme for the protection of the marine environment towards a complex programme oriented at environmental protection of coastal areas and rational management of resources within the context of integrated planning and coastal management. The major ICM-related activities and achievements of MAP are presented and commented upon. The concept, contents and impacts on ICM of the revised Barcelona Convention and of the MAP Phase II documents, adopted in 1995, are presented and analyzed. Some prerequisites for a successful further involvement of MAP Phase II in ICM are listed. Finally, the organization of a Mediterranean Conference on ICM is proposed, as well as the opportunity of adoption of a MAP Protocol on ICM.The MAP Phase II programme, if properly implemented, should significantly contribute to the attainment of the critical momentum for the establishment and permanent implementation of the ICM process in all the countries of the region.
In response to potential commitments and obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), many nations are preparing national climate change action plans that identify management strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to the potential impacts of long-term climate change. The successful implementation of these plans and their management strategies within individual countries will depend to a large measure on the extent of their integration into the implementation of other national and sectoral management plans, including coastal management plans. This document provides guidance on integrating coastal management programs and national climate-change action plans.
The Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities (GPA) represents an ambitious attempt to make the leap between the rhetoric of protecting and preserving the marine environment and action. With degradation of the marine environment from land based activities posing one of the most serious threats to the quality and productivity of the coastal and marine environment, the GPA can only be viewed as a milestone rather than a destination, as so much work remains to be done in this field.States supporting the GPA are entering the most challenging phase of the program, that of implementation. But the international community in taking on this challenge is not without a few signposts. The failure of the Montreal Guidelines to be implemented, provides States with many important lessons. This paper suggests that if the GPA is to have an impact on the complex problem of land-based activities then several tasks need to be grappled with. Substantial financial support needs to be generated, a proactive and cooperative secretariat established and the nexus between the GPA and United Nations Environment Programme Regional Seas Programme examined. The importance of people and training to the capacity building process needs to be recognised and a wider variety of stakeholders engaged in the follow up phase. Pivotal to the aforementioned is the need to generate political will to address the problem, without which the GPA will become yet another dusty volume on the bookshelf.
Offshore waters are in a process of transition, revealing diverse and heterogenic interests in marine resources. This increasing complexity leads to limits in developing and managing the different and often spatially overlapping maritime activities independently of one another. On a showcase basis we discuss ways and manners as well as the preconditions of an offshore co-management approach for the fledgling actor groups offshore wind farmers and mariculturists. Both groups may benefit through the integration of operation and maintenance (O&M) activities. Their resources in terms of offers, needs and constraints characteristics and thereof deduced potentialities for interaction is a prerequisite for initiating a co-management process. This process is more likely to develop and succeed if an interface management that acts as a moderator, disclosing the interests of the actor groups and offering possibilities for concerted action, guides it. It is concluded that such an institutional arrangement may in the long term contribute to a sound methodological tool for a co-management approach between different offshore maritime sectors.
This study analyzes the incident involving the accidental spill of toxic substances from the mining dam of Aznalcóllar and the immediate and long-term effects on the coastal ecosystems and the coastal-marine socioeconomic activities (fishing, mariculture, tourism and marine protected areas). The paper also evaluates the performance of each of the actors involved in the process: the authorities (both national and regional), the fishing sector, the tourism sector, the scientific community, the environmentalists, the mass media, and the mining company. The relevance of this case study lies, firstly, in the fact that the Aznalcóllar incident was one of the most ecologically catastrophic accidents in Europe during the last two decades of the 20th Century. It has had very important consequences from environmental, socioeconomic, political, and legal perspectives. The current productive model that this case study documents is unsustainable, environmentally incompatible, and socially unbalanced. The case of Aznalcóllar is a good case for reflection about integrated environmental management, given the potential and actual ecological damage.
Marine pollution from land-based activities (MPLBA) poses one of the most serious threats to the coastal and marine environment. This paper outlines the nature of the problem and focuses on recent initiatives taken by the Australian government to tackle it. This paper suggests that a solid foundation has been laid for a concerted effort to combat MPLBA in Australia with the release of the first State of the Marine Environment Report and Commonwealth Coastal Policy, development of a National Water Quality Management Strategy and National Waste Minimisation and Recycling Strategy in addition to strong public interest. Yet serious shortcomings are identified, in some initiatives, that stem from a failure to view MPLBA as primarily a waste management problem rather than a water quality or coastal and marine issue. Tentative suggestions are made as to where future action may be taken.
This study is a first step towards valuing the Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem (GCLME), one of the five world's most productive marine areas that are rich in fishery resources, petroleum production, and an important global region of marine biological diversity. The area is highly degraded and thus demands urgent attention to recover and sustain depleted fisheries; restore degraded habitats; and reduce land and ship-based pollutions. Achieving this goal would be a mirage if the actual value of the ecosystem's contribution to the society is not known. Valuation can help identify the main beneficiaries of conservation and the magnitude of benefits they receive, and help design measures to capture some of these benefits and contribute to financing of conservation. Hence this study used the direct output approach to estimate the value of relevant marine activities in the area. The result shows that the total value of output in GCLME when some outputs namely, marine fishery, offshore oil production, NTFP (periwinkle) and mining, are considered as $49,941.4 million. Among these uses, offshore oil production has the highest value accounting for 59.79% of the total estimate. These estimates provides sufficient evidence to show that GCLME provide enormous value and should be managed appropriately to sustain the gains if the economic development would be guaranteed especially considering that most countries in the GCLM depend on natural resources for their survival. Evolving a well defined property rights regime and an efficient governance system for management is recommended.
This paper examines constraints and enabling factors towards ‘integration’ as they are perceived by actors involved in an ongoing strategy development process. The paper examines stakeholder perspectives on current progress in coastal flood risk management in London and the Thames Estuary. The case-study suggests that important steps have been taken towards an integrated and adaptive strategy development process, particularly through the development of informal stakeholder networks. However, constraints in enabling learning within the strategy development process mean that practical pathways of integration in such a large, global-scale city remain challenging to identify and perhaps even more so to implement.
In examining the division of responsibility for the formulation and implementation of the Common Fisheries Policy, three areas of weakness are identified: a lack of clear objectives, an illogical system of decision making and a fragmentation of management responsibilities. Although the formulation of strategic policy rests with Brussels, its implementation is largely the responsibility of the separate member states. It is at the level of implementation that a need is recognised for a remodelling of the relationships between the regulators and the resource user groups. Using the UK as an example, the paper examines the case for the development of devolved management systems incorporating the relevant fishermen's organisations.
We conduct a survey to elicit responses from experts and decision makers serving the Florida Keys regarding vulnerability to global climate change. Study findings reveal deep concern among federal, state and local experts and decision makers about adverse impacts at the local level. A large majority of respondents recognize the increasing likelihood of dynamic, potentially irreversible, socioeconomic and ecological repercussions for the Florida Keys. However, very few experts and decision makers report that their respective agencies have developed formal adaptation plans. Respondents identify significant institutional and social barriers to adaptation and convey their support for a host of strategic measures to facilitate adaptation on an urgent basis. The implications of our findings are discussed in the context of enhancing adaptive capacity and resilience in the Florida Keys and beyond. Information generated from this study can provide functional guidance for improving decision-support systems and promoting adaptation policies.
Coastal areas are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise. These impacts will exacerbate the risks posed by the continuing environmental degradation confronting the coastal communities.Adopting a participatory research approach, the study examines the vulnerability of socioeconomic groups among the coastal population in Cavite City, Philippines, their current adaptation strategies and their adaptive capacity to cope with the impacts of climate variability and extremes and sea-level rise. Under a future scenario of a 1-m accelerated sea-level rise (ASLR), the study also looks into its potential effects on these urban coastal communities and ecosystems.In the context of poverty reduction and sustainable development, this study suggests a local framework for integrating adaptation strategies and actions into integrated coastal management (ICM) planning. It also recommends appropriate policy and institutional reform, capacity building and improved knowledge management towards increasing the resilience and adaptive capacity of these coastal communities to current and future climate risks.
The coastal zone provides highly valuable resources for its residents and visitors. Increasing pressure for development and conservation of the natural environment can lead to conflict in the management of these areas. The Coastal Lake Assessment and Management (CLAM) tool is an approach to the development of an iterative decision support tool for management within the coastal zone, including coastal lakes, inlets, lagoons and estuaries. The CLAM tool assists in identifying trade-offs between social, cultural, economic and ecological values within a coastal lake and its catchment for various future management scenarios. This paper describes the lessons learnt from applying the CLAM tool approach many times in New South Wales (Australia) and how this has been used to adapt and improve the process. Learning indicates that not only does a decision support tool need to be adaptive in order to best use available resources, but the approach to developing such tools also needs to be adaptive and improve in response to the successes and shortfalls of each application.
The Great Lakes Program and The Chesapeake Bay Program represent the two primary precursors to the development of adaptive estuary management in the United States. Many of the lessons and experiences of these two programs have been incorporated within the design of the National Estuary Program. This paper assesses the suitability of the National Estuary Program's Management Conference process for managing estuarine ecosystems. Based upon the characteristics of marine ecosystems, it appears that there are several requirements for the design of governance institutions for estuarine ecosystems; namely flexibility, adaptation, and ultimately a capacity to learn. On the basis of this analysis, it appears that the Management Conference process is flexible enough to stimulate the selection of the diverse issues and remedial actions that are required to address the environmental concerns appropriate for each estuary. Because of the lack of sufficient experience, it remains to be determined if a state's ‘ecological capacity’ will limit the implementation of the Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plans (CCMPs) that are produced by each estuary program. However, these limitations should be recognized both during the plans preparation and implementation. This paper also suggests that adaptive implementation approaches be adopted instead of viewing the CCMP as a static blueprint for an estuary's protection.