We have previously shown that dietary inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) and myo-inositol prevent fatty liver in rats fed a casein-based diet containing 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT). This study was performed to examine the comparative effects of dietary equimolar amounts of sodium IP6 (1.02%) and myo-inositol (0.2%) on the development of DDT-induced fatty liver and hypercholesterolemia in rats fed 20% casein-type amino acid mixtures designed to exclude a possible myo-inositol contaminant in casein. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 rats each for: a control group, myo-inositol-supplemented group, IP6-supplemented group, DDT-treated group, DDT + myo-inositol-supplemented group, and a DDT + IP6-supplemented group. Dietary IP6 clearly suppressed the rises in serum concentrations of cholesterol and phospholipids because of DDT feeding, but myo-inositol had no significant influence on such elevations. Dietary IP6, but not myo-inositol, caused significant body weight gain with or without DDT intake. Supplemental IP6 and myo-inositol significantly increased hepatic-free myo-inositol regardless of DDT intake and prevented fatty liver in rats fed DDT. In conclusion, dietary IP6 and myo-inositol exert similar effects on DDT-induced fatty liver and myo-inositol status but distinct effects on DDT-induced hypercholesterolemia and growth rate in rats fed casein-type amino acid mixtures.
In vitro and animal studies indicate that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) suppress carcinogenesis. This study presents a new insight on effectiveness of marine phospholipids for suppression of colon carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate growth inhibition and apoptosis inducing effects of n-3 PUFA in the form of marine phosphatidylcholine (PC) on chemically induced (1,2-dimethylhydrazine) colon cancer in rats. Growth inhibition of Caco-2 cells was determined by colorimetric sodium 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (WST-1) dye reduction assay. For animal studies, the rats were fed 5 different diets containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-ethyl ester, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-ethyl ester, squid meal PC (rich in DHA), starfish PC (rich in EPA), and corn oil. The 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (30 mg/kg) or saline was injected 48 hours before the experiment. Rats were anesthetized, and apoptotic as well as mitotic cells in crypt were counted based on morphological criteria in isolated crypts. Squid meal and starfish PC potently inhibited the growth of Caco-2 cells. The experimental diets containing n-3 PUFA suppressed colon cancer in rats. Rats that consumed diets containing DHA-ethyl ester, EPA-ethyl ester, squid meal PC, and starfish PC showed increased apoptosis (P < .01) and suppressed proliferation. These results suggest that marine PC-containing diets might be an effective dietary protective factor against colon cancer.
Identification and characterization of compounds that enhance the growth, development, and health of infants who are not breastfed continues to be a goal for nutritional science. This study explored the effects of one dietary component, (1,3/1,6)-β-d-glucan (Wellmune WGP), on lung immune development in the neonatal piglet. The hypothesis was that supplementation with WGP, a pathogen-associated molecular pattern, would enhance pathogen-responsive elements of the immune system, for instance, by increasing the size of the cytotoxic T-cell population or the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Piglets were fed a control formula or formula plus WGP at 1.8, 18, or 90 mg/kg body weight per day. Serum, thoracic lymph nodes (TLNs), mediastinal lymph nodes, and lung were collected at days 7 or 21. Immune parameters including tissue messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and T-cell phenotypes were analyzed. Normal developmental changes were observed, with a decrease in T-helper cells and an increase in cytotoxic T cells in both TLN and mediastinal lymph node, but there was no effect of WGP. Dietary WGP reduced the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor (TGF) β2 and tended to reduce the mRNA expression of TGF-β1 in lung tissue. With the exception of reducing TGF-β mRNA in the lung and tending to decrease the ratio of T helper to cytotoxic T cell in the TLN, dietary WGP did not affect lung-associated adaptive immunity in piglets.
Previous reports have demonstrated that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) acts on body fat accumulation in a variety of animal models. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cis (c)-9,trans (t)-11 and t10,c12 CLA isomers on the number and size of adipocytes from the inguinal and retroperitoneal fats in Wistar male rats. A 5.1% palm oil-based diet was supplemented with CLA isomers as follows: 0.6% of c9,t11, 0.6% of t10,c12, 1.3% of c9,t11 and t10,c12 isomers in mixture, and a control nonsupplemented group for comparative purposes. Fat tissues were prepared on microscope slides for histologic examination using an image-analysis software to count the number of adipocytes and measure cell sizes. The results showed that CLA isomers did not affect (P > .05) either final body and fat depot weights or serum lipids (with the exception of triacylglycerols) and adipocytokines (leptin and adiponectin). Animals fed the c9,t11 CLA isomer diet showed larger adipocytes when compared to other groups. Independently of the CLA dietary treatment, retroperitoneal fat showed larger adipocytes (3319 microm(2)) and therefore a smaller number of adipocytes per unit of area, compared to inguinal fat (3055 microm(2)). Taken together, the data suggest that a palm oil-based diet supplemented with the c9,t11 CLA isomer in Wistar rats, in contrast to the t10,c12 isomer and the mixture of both isomers, increases adipocyte dimensions in inguinal and retroperitoneal fat depots, while having a minor effect in serum lipids and adipocytokines.
Prenatal undernutrition affects offspring phenotype via changes in the epigenetic regulation of specific genes. We hypothesized that pregnant females that were fed a calcium (Ca)-deficient diet would have offspring with altered hepatic glucocorticoid-related gene expression and altered epigenetic gene regulation. Female Wistar rats ate either a Ca-deficient or control diet from 3 weeks before conception to 21 days after parturition. Pups were allowed to nurse from their original mothers and then euthanized on day 21. Methylation of individual cytosine-guanine dinucleotides in the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Ppara), glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1), 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (Hsd11b1), and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (Hsd11b2) promoters was measured in liver tissue using pyrosequencing. For each gene, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess mRNA levels in liver tissue. Overall Hsd11b1 methylation was lower in the Ca-deficient group than in the control group; however, overall methylation of each other gene did not differ between groups. Serum corticosterone levels in male pups from Ca-deficient dams were higher than those in control pups. Expression of Pck1 and Nr3c1 was lower in the Ca-deficient group than in the control group. A Ca-deficient diet for a dam during gestation and early nursing may alter glucocorticoid metabolism and lead to higher intracellular glucocorticoid concentrations in the hepatic cells of her offspring; moreover, this abnormal glucocorticoid metabolism may induce the metabolic complications that are associated with Ca deficiency. These findings indicated that prenatal nutrition affected glucocorticoid metabolism in offspring in part by affecting the epigenome of offspring.
In recent decades, diets have changed rapidly in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) because the Western diet is replacing the traditional Arabic diet. This has resulted in an alarming increase in the number of overweight and obese children and adolescents in KSA. It is well documented that lifestyle is strongly associated with the development of obesity. Nevertheless, this remains to be demonstrated in adolescents from a rapidly developing country in the Middle East such as Saudi Arabia. This study tested the hypothesis that the new current dietary habits are related to the increase in overweight and obese Saudi Arabian adolescents. In 2006, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 239 adolescents (13-18 years old) who were selected by cluster sampling from schools in Jeddah, KSA. The nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric and biochemical parameters at the Saudi German Hospitals Group, Jeddah. Dietary habits were evaluated by a 3-day dietary recall (food diary) and a food frequency questionnaire. The mean age of the participants was 15.5 ± 2.5 years. The mean body mass index was 27.43 ± 4.61 kg/m(2). A total of 44.6% of the adolescents were overweight, and 56.6%, 30.5%, and 13.0% of energy was derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, respectively. Compared with the Dietary Reference Intake, carbohydrate and fat intakes were higher, and calcium, iron, and zinc intakes were lower. Higher cholesterol and lower hemoglobin levels were found in 30.5% and 53.6% of the adolescents, respectively. In summary, increased weight status of 13- to 18-year-old Saudi adolescents was related to their inadequate dietary habits. This indicates the importance of rapidly promoting a healthier lifestyle among Saudi Arabian adolescents.
Studies examining an association between consumption of added sugars (AS) and weight measures in children are inconclusive. This study examined the association between intake of AS and 5 measures of weight or adiposity using a nationally recent representative sample of children. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2003-2006 24-hour recall data from children 6 to 18 years (n = 3136) were used. United States Department of Agriculture's definition of AS and MyPyramid Equivalents Database were used to estimate daily intake. Multiple linear regression and squared partial correlation coefficients were used to estimate the strength of association between weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI Z scores, waist circumference, and triceps and subscapular skinfolds as dependent variables with AS as the independent variable. Covariates were age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty income ratio, total energy intake (kJ), and physical activity. Mean intake of AS was 23 ± 0.55 teaspoons (tsp) (21 tsp for 6-11 years and 25 tsp for 12-18 years) accounting for 17% of total energy intake for both groups. The percent variance explained in BMI Z scores was 3.9% in children 6 to 11 years, with AS contributing only 0.03%. In children 12 to 18 years, the percent variance explained in the BMI Z scores was 6.5% with 0.18% coming from AS. No significant associations were observed between intake of AS and weight or adiposity measures. Consumption of AS did not contribute significantly to BMI Z scores in children 6 to 18 years. Longitudinal studies using more robust and precise measures of dietary intake are needed to further investigate the role of AS and weight in children.
There is limited research examining the relationship of candy consumption by adults on diet and health. The purpose of this study was to determine total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption and their effect on energy, saturated fatty acid and added sugar intake, weight, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and diet quality in adults 19 years and older (n = 15,023) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake. Covariate-adjusted means ± SE and prevalence rates were determined for candy consumption groups. Odds ratios were used to determine the likelihood of cardiovascular risk factors and MetS. A total of 21.8%, 12.9%, and 10.9% of adults consumed total, chocolate, and sugar candy, respectively. Mean daily per capita intake of total, chocolate, and sugar candy was 9.0 ± 0.3, 5.7 ± 0.2, and 3.3 ± 0.2 g, respectively; intake in consumers was 38.3 ± 1.0, 39.9 ± 1.1, and 28.9 ± 1.3 g, respectively. Energy (9973 ± 92 vs 9027 ± 50 kJ; P < .0001), saturated fatty acid (27.9 ± 0.26 vs 26.9 ± 0.18 g; P = .0058), and added sugar (25.7 ± 0.42 vs 21.1 ± 0.41 g; P < .0001) intake were higher in candy consumers than nonconsumers. Body mass index (27.7 ± 0.15 vs 28.2 ± 0.12 kg/m(2); P = .0092), waist circumference (92.3 ± 0.34 vs 96.5 ± 0.29 cm; P = .0051), and C-reactive protein (0.40 ± 0.01 vs 0.43 ± 0.01 mg/dL; P = .0487) levels were lower in candy consumers than nonconsumers. Candy consumers had a 14% decreased risk of elevated diastolic blood pressure (P = .0466); chocolate consumers had a 19% decreased risk of lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .0364) and a 15% reduced risk of MetS (P = .0453). Results suggest that the current level of candy consumption was not associated with health risks.
This study examined the association of whole grain consumption with body weight measures and prevalence of overweight/obesity in a recent, nationally representative sample of adults. A secondary analysis of 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data was conducted using adults 19 to 50 years of age (y) (n = 7,039) and 51+ y (n = 6,237). Participants were categorized by whole grain consumption: ≥ 0 to <0.6, ≥ 0.6 to <1.5, ≥ 1.5 to <3.0, and ≥ 3.0 servings/day. Main outcome measures included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and prevalence of overweight/obesity. Sample weights were applied and the number and percentages of adults in whole grain consumption groups were determined. Least-square means and standard errors were calculated for body weight measures. Two regression models were developed and compared. Model 1 covariates included age, gender, ethnicity, and total energy intake; Model 2 was extended to include cereal fiber. Trend analysis was conducted to test for differences between least-square means. Significance was set at P ≤ .05. Adults 19-50 and 51+ y consumed a mean of 0.63 and 0.77 servings of whole grains/day, respectively. A significant trend was observed in both age groups for increased consumption of whole grains with lower BMI, WC, and percentage overweight/obese (Model 1); however, a significant trend was not observed when cereal fiber was added as a covariate (Model 2). Results confirm overall whole grain intake well below recommendations, and adults who consumed the most servings of whole grains had lower body weight measures. Results also suggest that fiber in whole grain foods may mediate associations with weight measures in adults. Intake of whole grain foods should be encouraged by health professionals.
Epidemiological studies examining potential associations between dried fruit consumption, diet quality, and weight status are lacking. The goal of this study was to examine the association of dried fruit consumption with nutrient intake, diet quality, and anthropometric indicators of overweight/obesity. A secondary analysis of dietary and anthropometric data collected from adult (19+ years) participants (n = 13 292) of the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was conducted. Dried fruit consumers were defined as those consuming amounts ⅛ cup-equivalent fruit per day or more and identified using 24-hour recalls. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index 2005. Covariate-adjusted means, SEs, prevalence rates, and odds ratios were determined to conduct statistical tests for differences between dried fruit consumers and nonconsumers. Seven percent of the population consumed dried fruit. Mean differences (P < .01) between consumers and nonconsumers in adult shortfall nutrients were dietary fiber (+6.6 g/d); vitamins A (+173 μg retinol activity equivalent per day), E (+1.5 mg α-tocopherol per day), C (+20 mg/d), and K (+20 mg/d); calcium (+103 mg/d); phosphorus (+126 mg/d); magnesium (+72 mg/d); and potassium (+432 mg/d). Dried fruit consumers had improved MyPyramid food intake, including lower solid fats/alcohol/added sugars intake, and a higher solid fats/alcohol/added sugars score (11.1 ± 0.2 vs 8.2 ± 0.1) than nonconsumers. The total Healthy Eating Index 2005 score was significantly higher (P < .01) in consumers (59.3 ± 0.5) than nonconsumers (49.4 ± 0.3). Covariate-adjusted weight (78.2 ± 0.6 vs 80.7 ± 0.3 kg), body mass index (27.1 ± 0.2 vs 28.1 ± 0.2), and waist circumference (94.0 ± 0.5 vs 96.5 ± 0.2 cm) were lower (P < .01) in consumers than nonconsumers, respectively. Dried fruit consumption was associated with improved nutrient intakes, a higher overall diet quality score, and lower body weight/adiposity measures.
The purpose of this study was to determine the association of out-of-hand nut (OOHN) consumption with nutrient intake, diet quality, and the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Data from 24-hour recalls from individuals aged 2+ years (n = 24,385) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The population was divided into children aged 2 to 11, 12 to 18, and adults 19+ years, and each group was dichotomized into OOHN consumers and nonconsumers. Out-of-hand nut consumers were defined as those individuals consuming ¼ oz of nuts or more per d. Means, standard errors, and covariate-adjusted analyses of variance were determined using appropriate sample weights. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Significance was set at P < .05. The percent of OOHN consumers increased with age: 2.1% ± 0.3%, 2.6% ± 0.3%, 6.5% ± 0.5%, and 9.6% ± 0.5% those aged 2 to 11, 12 to 18, 19 to 50, and 51+ years, respectively. The 2 latter groups were combined into a single group of consumers aged 19+ years for subsequent analyses. Consumers of OOHN from all age groups had higher intakes of energy, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, copper, and magnesium and lower intakes of carbohydrates, cholesterol, and sodium than did nonconsumers. Diet quality was higher in OOHN consumers of all age groups. In children aged 2 to 11 years, consumers had a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity. In those aged 12 to 18 years, weight and percent overweight were lower in consumers. Adult consumers had higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, red blood cell folate, and serum folate levels and lower insulin, glycohemoglobin, and C-reactive protein levels than did nonconsumers. Adult consumers also had a 19% decreased risk of hypertension and a 21% decreased risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Data suggested that OOHN consumption was associated with improved nutrient intake, diet quality, and, in adults, a lower prevalence of 2 risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Consumption of OOHN, as part of a healthy diet, should be encouraged by health professionals.
Consumption of lean meat is a valuable addition to a healthy diet because it provides complete protein and is a rich source of vitamin B(12), iron, and zinc. The objective of this study was to examine the nutritional contribution of total beef and lean beef (LB) to the American diet using the USDA definition of LB as defined in MyPyramid. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data from adults 19 to 50 years of age (n = 7049) and 51+ years (n = 6243) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 were assessed. Lean beef was defined as beef with <9.28 g fat per 100 g (excess was discretionary fat). Fifty percent of adults 19 to 50 years and 41% of adults 51+ years consumed beef on the day of the dietary recall. Total beef consumed among adults 19 to 50 and 51+ years was 49.3 +/- 1.4 g (1.74 oz/d) and 37.1 +/- 1.2 g (1.31 oz/d), respectively. In adults 19 to 50 and 51+ years, LB contributed 3.9% and 3.7% to total energy; 4.5% and 4.1% to total fat, 3.8% and 3.6% to saturated fatty acids; 13% and 11% to cholesterol intake; 15% and 14% to protein; 25% and 20% to vitamin B(12); 23% and 20% to zinc; and 8% and 7% to iron, respectively. Beef was also an important food source of many other nutrients, including niacin, vitamin B(6), phosphorus, and potassium. In addition, beef provided only 1% of total sodium intake. Consumption of beef contributed significantly to intake of protein and other key nutrients by US adults.
Recently, phosphatidylserine (PS) has received attention for its anti-inflammatory effect; however, the molecular mechanisms of its action have not been fully understood. Thus, we hypothesized that PS might have antiarthritic and anti-inflammatory effects. To test this hypothesis, the in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of soybean-derived PS was tested on interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated fibroblast-like synoviocytes from rheumatoid arthritis patients (RA-FLS) by measuring the levels of IL-6, IL-8, prostaglandin E2, and vascular endothelial growth factor by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The analgesic and antiarthritic activities of PS were investigated in rat models of carrageenan-induced acute paw pain and arthritis. The former was evaluated with a paw pressure test; the latter, by measuring paw volume and weight distribution ratio. In addition, the participation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in the anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic effects of PS was investigated in RA-FLS. Phosphatidylserine inhibited the production of inflammatory mediators IL-6; IL-8; vascular endothelial growth factor; and, in particular, prostaglandin E2 in IL-1β-stimulated RA-FLS. These effects were associated with abrogation of inhibitor of nuclear factor-κBα phosphorylation and suppression of p38 and c-jun amino terminal kinase but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation. In rats, PS also showed a significant inhibitory effect on arthritic and nociceptive symptoms induced by carrageenan. These findings suggest that PS has anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic effects in vitro and in in vivo animal models; thus, PS should be further studied to determine its potential use as either a pharmaceutical or dietary supplement for alleviating arthritic symptoms.
Few studies have explored the relationship between sugar content in cereal and health outcome among children and adolescents. This study was designed to investigate the associations between ready-to-eat cereals, categorized by sugar content, with weight indicators and nutrient intake profiles. Data collected from 6- to 18-year-old US children and adolescents (N = 9660) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-06 were used to analyze cereal consumption. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age, waist-to-height ratio, percent overweight or obese, mean day-1 intake, and usual daily intake of macronutrients and micronutrients were the dependent variables; day-1 cereal intake, categorized by tertiles of sugar content, was the main independent variable. Weighted regression with adjustment for the survey design was used to model the dependent variables as a function of day-1 cereal intake, adjusting for age group, sex, race/ethnicity, total day-1 intake of energy, calcium and sugar, the Healthy Eating Index-2005 total score, and household income. For all tertiles of sugar classifications of cereal, children who consumed cereal had significantly lower BMI compared with children who consumed no cereal (P's < .05). Similarly, when compared with children who consumed no cereal, those who ate cereal consumed significantly less fat and cholesterol and significantly more carbohydrates, sugar, whole grains, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B(6), folic acid, vitamin B(12), vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Lower weight and positive nutrient profiles were associated with cereal consumption regardless of sugar content.
We tested the hypothesis that racial differences in vitamin D levels are associated with racial disparities in insulin resistance between blacks and whites. Among 3628 non-Hispanic black and white adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001 to 2006, we examined the association between race and insulin resistance using the homeostasis assessment model for insulin resistance. We conducted analyses with and without serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D). We adjusted for age, sex, educational level, body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Blacks had a lower mean serum 25(OH)D level compared with whites (14.6 [0.3] ng/mL vs 25.6 [0.4] ng/mL, respectively; P < .0001). Blacks had a higher odds ratio (OR) for insulin resistance without controlling for serum 25(OH)D levels (OR, 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-2.20). The association was not significant (OR, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-1.82) after accounting for serum 25(OH)D levels. The higher burden of insulin resistance in blacks compared with whites may be partially mediated by the disparity in serum 25(OH)D levels.
Type 2 diabetes has been shown to occur in response to environmental and genetic influences, among them nutrition; food intake patterns; sedentary lifestyle; body mass index; and exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Nutrition is essential in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and has been shown to modulate the toxicity of PCBs. Serum carotenoid concentrations, considered a reliable biomarker of fruit and vegetable intake, are associated with the reduced probability of chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our hypothesis is that fruit and vegetable intake, reflected by serum carotenoid concentrations, is associated with the reduced probability of developing type 2 diabetes in US adults with elevated serum concentrations of PCBs 118, 126, and 153. This cross-sectional study used the Center for Disease Control and Prevention database, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004, in logistic regression analyses. Overall prevalence of type 2 diabetes was approximately 11.6% depending on the specific PCB. All 3 PCBs were positively associated with the probability of type 2 diabetes. For participants at higher PCB percentiles (eg, 75th and 90th) for PCB 118 and 126, increasing serum carotenoid concentrations were associated with a smaller probability of type 2 diabetes. Fruit and vegetable intake, as reflected by serum carotenoid concentrations, predicted notably reduced probability of dioxin-like PCB-associated risk for type 2 diabetes.
Because dairy products provide shortfall nutrients (eg, calcium, potassium, and vitamin D) and other important nutrients, this study hypothesized that it would be difficult for Americans to meet nutritional requirements for these nutrients in the absence of dairy product consumption or when recommended nondairy calcium sources are consumed. To test this hypothesis, MyPyramid dietary pattern modeling exercises and an analyses of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 were conducted in those aged at least 2 years (n = 16 822). Impact of adding or removing 1 serving of dairy, removing all dairy, and replacing dairy with nondairy calcium sources was evaluated. Dietary pattern modeling indicated that at least 3 servings of dairy foods are needed to help individuals meet recommendations for nutrients, such as calcium and magnesium, and 4 servings may be needed to help some groups meet potassium recommendations. A calcium-equivalent serving of dairy requires 1.1 servings of fortified soy beverage, 0.6 serving of fortified orange juice, 1.2 servings of bony fish, or 2.2 servings of leafy greens. The replacement of dairy with calcium-equivalent foods alters the overall nutritional profile of the diet and affects nutrients including protein, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, riboflavin, vitamins A, D and B(12). Similar modeling exercises using consumption data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey also demonstrated that nondairy calcium replacement foods are not a nutritionally equivalent substitute for dairy products. In conclusion, although it is possible to meet calcium intake recommendations without consuming dairy foods, calcium replacement foods are not a nutritionally equivalent substitute for dairy foods and consumption of a calcium-equivalent amount of some nondairy foods is unrealistic.
Whole grain (WG) foods have been shown to reduce chronic disease risk and overweight. Total dietary fiber is associated with WG and its health benefits. The purpose was to determine whether associations exist between WG intake (no-WG intake, 0 ounce equivalent [oz eq]; low, >0-<3 oz eq; high, ≥3 oz eq) and total dietary fiber intake among Americans 2 years and older. One-day food intake data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2010 (n = 9042) showed that only 2.9% and 7.7% of children/adolescents (2-18 years) and adults (≥19 years) consumed at least 3 WG oz eq/d, respectively. For children/adolescents and adults, individuals in the high WG intake group were 59 and 76 times more likely to fall in the third fiber tertile, respectively, compared with those with no-WG intake. Total dietary fiber intake from food sources varied by WG intake group for children/adolescents and adults with more total dietary fiber consumed from ready-to-eat (RTE) and hot cereals and yeast breads/rolls in the high WG intake group compared with the no-WG intake group. Major WG sources for children/adolescents and adults included yeast bread/rolls (24% and 27%, respectively), RTE cereals (25% and 20%, respectively), and oatmeal (12% and 21%, respectively). Among those with the highest WG intake, WG RTE cereal with no added bran was the greatest contributor to total dietary fiber compared with other RTE cereal types. Whole grain foods make a substantial contribution to total dietary fiber intake and should be promoted to meet recommendations.
The 2010 US Dietary Guidelines recommended limiting intake of sodium to 1500 mg/d for people older than 50 years, African Americans, and those suffering from chronic disease. The guidelines recommended that all other people consume less than 2300 mg sodium and 4700 mg of potassium per day. The theoretical feasibility of meeting the sodium and potassium guidelines while simultaneously maintaining nutritional adequacy of the diet was tested using food pattern modeling based on linear programming. Dietary data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2002 were used to create optimized food patterns for 6 age-sex groups. Linear programming models determined the boundary conditions for the potassium and sodium content of the modeled food patterns that would also be compatible with other nutrient goals. Linear programming models also sought to determine the amounts of sodium and potassium that both would be consistent with the ratio of Na to K of 0.49 and would cause the least deviation from the existing food habits. The 6 sets of food patterns were created before and after an across-the-board 10% reduction in sodium content of all foods in the Food and Nutrition Database for Dietary Studies. Modeling analyses showed that the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for sodium were incompatible with potassium guidelines and with nutritionally adequate diets, even after reducing the sodium content of all US foods by 10%. Feasibility studies should precede or accompany the issuing of dietary guidelines to the public.