Published by MDPI
Online ISSN: 2072-6643
Simplified representation of iron metabolism. Adapted from [12]. Iron is absorbed in the intestine, with non-heme iron being imported by divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). Ferrous iron is reduced to ferric iron and then exported by ferroportin. Within an aqueous solution, iron is stored within transferrin. Transferrin-bound iron is imported with the help of the transferrin receptor into the liver, heart and other storage areas, where it is stored within ferritin. Hepcidin, produced by the liver, helps to regulate iron metabolism by binding to ferroportin and, thus, inhibiting iron export. Within the bone marrow, iron is incorporated into hemoglobin for incorporation into erythrocytes. Macrophages recycle iron from erythrocytes, largely in the spleen. There is no mechanism for iron excretion by the kidneys or liver, though small amounts are lost via feces. Menstruation, pregnancy and lactation result in iron loss in women. 
Iron deficiency is a global problem across the life course, but infants and their mothers are especially vulnerable to both the development and the consequences of iron deficiency. Maternal iron deficiency during pregnancy can predispose offspring to the development of iron deficiency during infancy, with potentially lifelong sequelae. This review explores iron status throughout these "first 1000 days" from pregnancy through two years of age, covering the role of iron and the epidemiology of iron deficiency, as well as its consequences, identification, interventions and remaining research gaps.
Effects of a fatty acid mixture* ( ■ ), linoleic acid ( ■ ), cis- 9, trans- 11 ( ■ ), trans- 10, cis- 12 ( ■ ) and phytanic acid ( □ ) on concanavalin A stimulated proliferation of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells ( n = 3) in the alamar blue assay (means ± standard deviation). * containing 29.8% palmitic acid, 6.7% palmitoleic acid, 17.4% stearic acid and 46.1% oleic acid according to Rukkwamsuk et al . [22]. a–d: different letters indicate significant differences within the same fatty acid, *, #, $ indicate significant differences between fatty acids at the same concentration, p < 0.05, Tukey test. 
Primer sequences and concentrations used for real-time PCR analysis.
Effects of a fatty acid mixture* ( ■ ), linoleic acid ( ■ ), cis- 9, trans- 11 ( ■ ), trans- 10, cis- 12 ( ■) and phytanic acid (□) on concanavalin A stimulated proliferation of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells ( n = 3) in the BrdU assay (means ± standard deviation). * containing 29.8% palmitic acid, 6.7% palmitoleic acid, 17.4% stearic acid and 46.1% oleic acid according to Rukkwamsuk et al . [22]. a–c: different letters indicate significant differences within the same fatty acid, *, #, $ indicate significant differences between fatty acids at the same concentration, p < 0.05, Tukey test 
Effects of the combination of the fatty acid mixture* (60%) with either 40% linoleic acid ( ■ ), cis -9, trans -11 ( ■ ) or trans- 10, cis- 12 ( ■ ) or all 3 of them (each 13.3%, ■ ) on concanavalin A stimulated proliferation of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) ( n = 3) in the alamar blue assay (means ± standard deviation). * containing 29.8% palmitic acid, 6.7% palmitoleic acid, 17.4% stearic acid and 46.1% oleic acid according to Rukkwamsuk et al . [22]. Med-Con = PBMC incubated without fatty acids and DMSO. a–c: different letters indicate significant differences within the same fatty acid, p < 0.05, Tukey test. 
Effects of the combination of the fatty acid mixture* (60%) with either phytanic acid (40%, □ ) or phytanic acid (20%) and cis- 9, trans- 11 (20%, ■ ) or phytanic acid (20%) and trans- 10, cis- 12 (20%, ■ ) on concanavalin A stimulated proliferation of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) ( n = 3) in the alamar blue assay (means ± standard deviation). * containing 29.8% palmitic acid, 6.7% palmitoleic acid, 17.4% stearic acid and 46.1% oleic acid according to Rukkwamsuk et al . [22]. Med-Con = PBMC incubated without fatty acids and DMSO. a–c: different letters indicate significant differences within the same fatty acid, p < 0.05, Tukey test. 
Fatty acids may have an impact on immune functions, which is important in times of increased mobilization of body fat, e.g., around parturition. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the CLA isomers cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12, phytanic acid (PA), linoleic acid (LA) and a fatty acid (FA) mixture (containing 29.8% palmitic acid, 6.7% palmitoleic acid, 17.4% stearic acid and 46.1% oleic acid) on the proliferation of bovine blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro using alamar blue (AB) and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed to evaluate the expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in response to cis-9,trans-11 and LA. The IC50 values did not differ between the investigated FA, but there were differences within the proliferation in the response of these FA in a concentration range between 20 and 148 µM (e.g., increased proliferation after treatment with lower concentrations of LA). No differences occurred when different FA combinations were tested. ConA stimulation increased the expression of TNF-α and IFN-γ, whereas IL-10 decreased. In general, neither the baseline expression nor the ConA-stimulated mRNA expression of cytokines and PPAR-γ were affected by the FA. In conclusion, all FA inhibit the proliferation of PBMC dose dependently without significantly altering the induced cytokine spectrum of activated bovine PBMC.
Changes in the number of MCF-7 (a) or MCF-10A (b) cells after exposure to trans vaccenic acid (TVA) or c9, conjugated linoleic acid (t11-CLA) at the concentration of 0, 50, 100 and 200 mM for 72 h. Cell growth was measured by the uptake of MTT dye and absorbance at 550 nm. Results of the MTT data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA. SD values are shown as error bars (n = 8). Lower cases indicate significantly different (p < 0.05) in TVA group; while the upper cases indicate significantly different (p < 0.05) in CLA group. The asterisk indicates significantly different (p < 0.05) between TVA group and CLA group.
Representative protein expression images (a) bar diagram of (b) Bcl-2; (c) caspase-8; and (d) procaspase-9 in MCF-7 cells exposed to TVA or c9, t11-CLA for 72 h. Western blotting data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA. SD values are shown as error bars (n = 3). Lower cases indicate significantly different (p < 0.05) in TVA group; while the upper cases indicate significantly different (p < 0.05) in CLA group.
Efficient suppression of stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) mRNA expression after siRNA transfection (a) and changes in the number of SCD-depleted MCF-7 cells after exposure to (b) TVA or (c) c9, t11-CLA. MTT data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA. SD values are shown as error bars (n = 8). Values not labeled with the same letter are significantly different (p < 0.05). Lower cases indicate significantly different (p < 0.05) in scramble group; while the upper cases indicate significantly different (p < 0.05) in siRNA group. The asterisk indicates significantly different (p < 0.05) between scramble group and siRNA group. CCTACGCCACCAATTTCGT (scrambled), GAGAUAAGUUGGAGACGAU (siRNA1), GAUAUGCUGUGGUGCUUAA (siRNA2), GGGCATAACAGCAGGAGCT (siRNA3), and GGAGATGGAAACTA CAAGA (siRNA4).
Trans vaccenic acid (TVA; trans-11 18:1) is a positional and geometric isomer of oleic acid and it is the predominant trans isomer found in ruminant fats. TVA can be converted into cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (c9, t11-CLA), a CLA isomer that has many beneficial effects, by stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) in the mammary gland. The health benefits associated with CLA are well documented, but it is unclear whether trans fatty acids (TFAs) from ruminant products have healthy effects. Therefore, the effects of TVA on the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells and MCF-10A human breast epithelial cells were investigated in the present study. Results showed that TVA inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells but not MCF-10A cells by down-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 as well as procaspase-9. In addition, the suppressive effect of TVA was confirmed in SCD1-depleted MCF-7 cells. Our results suggested that TVA exerts a direct anti-carcinogenic effect on MCF-7 cells. These findings provided a better understanding of the research on the anti-carcinogenic effects of TVA and this may facilitate the manufacture of TVA/c9, t11-CLA fortified ruminant products.
Recent research has shown that the pattern of change over time, or trajectory, of body mass index (BMI) varies among children. However, the factors that underlie the heterogeneity in these trajectories remain largely unexplored. Our aim was to use a growth mixture model to empirically identify classes of BMI trajectories (from birth to 11.5 years) and examine the effects of breastfeeding, introduction of solids, as well as food and nutrient intake at 18 months on these BMI trajectories. We identified three BMI growth trajectories between birth and age 11.5 years, separately in boys and girls. Breastfeeding duration less than six months and the early introduction of solids did not adversely influence BMI trajectories in our sample but high intakes of meat, particularly high fat varieties, and high intakes of carbohydrate at age around 18 months were associated with a high BMI trajectory in boys. It is not clear whether these dietary factors confer a direct risk of higher BMI in childhood or are markers for other dietary patterns that are present early and/or develop through childhood and contribute to higher BMI.
Metabolic pathway of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate (10-HCO-H4folate) formed from tetrahydrofolate (H4folate) and [ring 2-carbon]histidine, [3-carbon]serine, [2-carbon]glycine, and formate. Enzymes include: (1) 5-formiminotetrahydrofolate transferase-cyclodeaminase; (2) glycine-cleavage system; (3) serine hydroxylmethyltransferase; and (4) 10-HCO-H4folate synthetase. 10-HCO-H4folate is incorporated into the carbons 2 (C2) and 8 (C8) of the purine ring by AICAR and GAR transformylases, respectively. 
Percentage 13 C-enrichment at C2 and C8 of uric acid in urine voids after ingesting 2-13 C-histidine. Subjects I and II had 26 and 21 urine voids, respectively. Closed bars represent percentage 13 C-enrichment at C2, and open bars represent percentage 13 C-enrichment at C8. Note that the scales on the y-axes are different between C2 and C8. 
Diurnal changes in mean percentage 13 C-enrichment at C2 after ingesting 2-13 C-histidine. These are based on the data at six 4-h periods (Figure 2). Each column from left to right includes data from 6, 6, 12, 11, 6, and 6 urine voids. Vertical line represents SEM. In order to make the figure more compact, the top of this error bar (08:00-12:00) was cut off. 
We determined whether ring-2 carbon of histidine is folate-dependently transferred to carbons 8 (C8) and/or 2 (C2) in urinary uric acid in humans. Two adults collected each urine void for four days. Aliquots of urine for the first day were used for baseline values; then the subjects ingested 0.7 g (3.3 mmol) of l-[ring-2-13C]histidine and collected urine for three experimental days. Aliquots were analyzed for percentage 13C-content at C2 and C8 by a liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Percentage enrichment was determined by subtracting time-of-day paired baseline percentage 13C-content from experimental percentage 13C-content for each void. C2 was predominantly 13C-enriched in the majority of voids. The percentage enrichments at C2 for two subjects were 0.14 (±0.028 [SEM], n = 26) and 0.18 (±0.049, n = 21), whereas at C8, they were 0.008 (±0.006) and -0.005 (±0.008), respectively. The mean C2-enrichments were significantly greater than zero (p < 0.01), whereas those of C8 were not (p > 0.2). The enrichment had a diurnal rhythm peaking in the morning. Our results may be useful in the estimation of the timing for the administration of drugs that interfere with purine nucleotide biosynthesis in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune disease.
Effect of the aqueous extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus , Hibiscus acetosella , Manihot esculenta and Pteridium aquilinum on the ethylene amount, produced by an advanced lipid peroxidation. Solutions of plant extracts at the final concentrations given under the histograms, 1 mM vitamin C and 20 μL Fe(II) were loaded to 1 mL emulsion of linoleic acid 0.64 mM in phosphate buffer pH 7.4. The flasks were hermetically sealed and kept overnight at 37 °C in the dark. Ten microliters of the gaseous phase were manually injected in the column of a GC apparatus. For the control, i.e. , linoleic emulsion without plant extracts set as 100% ethylene production (Ctrl, black histogram), an equivalent volume of the buffer was used instead of the plant extracts. The values are presented as average of the relative percentage vs. Ctrl ± standard deviation (SD). *** p -value < 0.001 for all samples vs. Ctrl. For the same extract at the same concentration, not heated vs. boiled samples: no significance ( p > 0.05 overall). Abel = Abelmoschus , Hib = Hibiscus , Man = Manihot , Pter = Pteridium . 
Effect of the aqueous extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus , Hibiscus acetosella , Manihot esculenta and Pteridium aquilinum on the formation of lipid hydroperoxides by lipid peroxidation. Vitamin C (1 mM), 90 μL phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), extract solutions at the final concentration given under the histograms, and Fe(II) 5 mM were loaded to 700 μL emulsion of linoleic acid 0.45 mM. The tubes were hermetically closed and stored for 4.5 h at 37 °C in the dark. Two milliliters of chloroform were added before centrifugation (400× g , 10 min, 20 °C). The aqueous layer was discarded and the organic phase was evaporated with nitrogen gas. The peroxidation products were monitored by adding 300 μL ethanol, 3 mL DMPD solution and 50 μL Fe(III) into the tubes. The absorbance was immediately read at 517 nm using ethanol as blank (Hewlett Packard Spectrophometer). The control (Ctrl, black histogram; set as 100% production of lipid hydroperoxides) consisted of the complete lipoperoxidation system with an equivalent volume of phosphate buffer instead of the plant extracts. The values are presented as average of relative percentage vs. Ctrl, ± standard deviation (SD). Samples vs. Ctrl: ns no significance; * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001. For the same extract at the same concentration, not heated vs. boiled samples: # p < 0.05; ## p < 0.01; all other comparisons 
Total polyphenol and flavonoid content estimated with spectroscopic methods.
Effect of the aqueous extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus , Hibiscus acetosella , Manihot esculenta and Pteridium aquilinum on the ROS production by PMA activated HL-60 monocytes. Monocytes (10 6 /mL) were incubated for 45 min with 41 μM 
IC 50 values (µg/mL) for the inhibition of the production of lipid hydroperoxides in the UV-visible assay with DMPD. Values are expressed as average ± standard deviation (SD);
Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae), Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N'-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD). The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in "inflammation like" conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells) activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration.
We have found an inadvertent error in our paper published in Nutrients [1]. One standard error was not converted into standard deviation and this affected the following effect sizes and intelligence quotient (IQ):[...].
The effects of breakfast type on body weight and blood lipids were evaluated in university freshman. Seventy-three subjects were instructed to consume a breakfast with eggs (Egg Breakfast, EB, n = 39) or without (Non-Egg Breakfast, NEB, n = 34), five times/week for 14 weeks. Breakfast composition, anthropometric measurements and blood lipids were measured at multiple times. During the study, mean weight change was 1.6 ± 5.3 lbs (0.73 ± 2.41 kg), but there was no difference between groups. Both groups consumed similar calories for breakfast at all time-points. The EB group consumed significantly more calories at breakfast from protein, total fat and saturated fat, but significantly fewer calories from carbohydrate at every time-point. Cholesterol consumption at breakfast in the EB group was significantly higher than the NEB group at all time points. Breakfast food choices (other than eggs) were similar between groups. Blood lipids were similar between groups at all time points, indicating that the additional 400 mg/day of dietary cholesterol did not negatively impact blood lipids.
This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29) completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.
Absolute 13 C-urea breath test (UBT) values before and after supplementation 
Percentage of change of 13C UBT after placebo and PylopassTM . 
Absolute 13 C UBT values before and after supplementation with PylopassTM as 
Comparison of freeze-dried and spray-dried L. reuteri supplement in terms of change of 13C UBT after placebo and PylopassTM . 
Prevalence of infections by Helicobacter pylori, a pathogen involved in a number of gastrointestinal diseases, remains high in developing countries. Management of infections by eradication is not always an option. Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) DSMZ17648 (Pylopass™/Lonza) specifically co-aggregates H. pylori in vitro and was shown to reduce 13C urea breath test in vivo. In this pilot study, we tried to replicate previous findings in an independent sample and to evaluate effects of spray-drying vs. freeze-drying of cultures. A single-blinded, placebo-controlled study was done in 22 H. pylori positive, asymptomatic adults. H. pylori levels were determined by 13C-urea-breath method after 14 days of supplementation, as well as after 6, 12, and 24 weeks follow-up. In the test group, but not in the placebo group, a significant reduction of H. pylori was observed. For the first time, spray-dried cells of L. reuteri DSMZ17648 have been used in a human study and results are in line with the first study results, supplementing with freeze-dried material. This is of special interest as spray-drying results in dead cell material, meaning that the effect of L. reuteri must be independent of its probiotic activity. These results confirm the potential of Pylopass™ as a novel way to reduce the load of H. pylori.
Covariate-adjusted mean energy, macronutrient, calcium, vitamin D, sodium, potassium intake by dairy consumption groups 1 . 
Covariate-adjusted mean value of obesity or adiposity indicator by dairy consumption groups 1 . 
Covariate-adjusted mean value of obesity or adiposity indicator by calcium intake 1 . 
Covariate-adjusted mean value of obesity or adiposity indicator by vitamin D intake 1 . 
The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005-2008). Using 24-hour recall data, children 8-18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of <1, 1 to <2, or 2+ dairy servings, and yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt during at least one of two dietary intake interviews. NHANES anthropometric measurements were used, and BMI and BMI-for-age percentiles were calculated. Yogurt and dairy consumption were associated with higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Yogurt intake was associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and body fat as measured by subscapular skinfold thickness. This study supports consumption of yogurt and higher amounts of dairy as eating patterns associated with greater intake of specific shortfall nutrients, and lower body fat in U.S. children.
Number of all abstracts consulted, in both adults and children, with the number of excluded and included articles in this review article. 
Number and study design of the selected articles reviewed. 
Reviewed studies on antioxidant nutrients, vitamins, and Mediterranean diet in children and adolescents and their association with allergic diseases.
Allergic diseases are an important health problem. However, epidemiological studies concerning childhood diet-related allergic diseases are scarce. This review examines published articles dealing with diet, dietary patterns and nutrition in relation with allergic diseases among population aged 0 to 18 years. Studies and trials were identified using MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and were limited to those published in English or French from 1992 until 2012. This manuscript also reviews the evidence for maternal diet during pregnancy and diet during early childhood and their association with childhood atopic diseases, taking into account the methodology used to evaluate dietary patterns. The evidence reviewed is derived from large epidemiological studies exploring the effects of different food categories on asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis in children. Overall, maternal diet during pregnancy and a childhood diet rich in antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids are considered as healthy diets that could be protective for allergic diseases in childhood.
Mortality in 30–35 year old subjects in 1846 according to C282Y allele frequencies in a number of French departments. The Y -axis depicts the death probabilities q ( x ) for every age ( x ) computed for that period. The X -axis represents the C282Y allele frequency in the different departments. 
Overview of annual excess mortality, decline in potato yields and C282Y mutation frequency in various European countries.
The view of scurvy being exclusively a nutritional disorder needs to be updated. Genetic polymorphisms of HFE and haptoglobin (Hp) may explain the geographic variability of mortality caused by the European famine of the mid-19th century. In this period, potatoes had fallen victim to the potato blight and Ireland was more severely hit than continental Europe. Hereditary hemochromatosis is a genetic disorder with mutations in the HFE gene, characterized by iron overload (with a reduced vitamin C stability) and with a predominance of affected men. The Irish have the world's highest frequency of the C282Y mutation and the particular iron metabolism of the Irish helps to understand the size of the catastrophe and the observed overrepresentation of male skeletons showing scurvy. Hp is a plasma α2-glycoprotein characterized by 3 common phenotypes (Hp 1-1, Hp 2-1 and Hp 2-2). When the antioxidant capacity of Hp is insufficient, its role is taken over by hemopexin and vitamin C. The relative number of scurvy victims corresponds with the Hp 2-2 frequency, which is associated with iron conservation and has an impact on vitamin C stability. As iron is more abundant in males, males are overrepresented in the group of skeletons showing scurvy signs.
The relationship between risk of glioma and alcohol consumption has been widely studied, but results have been conflicting. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to systematically assess the relationship between alcohol drinking and risk of glioma. Two electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE) were searched from inception to 8 August 2013 to identify pertinent studies that linked alcohol drinking with glioma risk. We used a random-effects model to calculate the overall relative risk (RR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Fifteen case-control and four cohort studies were identified for this analysis. The combined RR for total alcohol drinkers versus non-drinkers was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.89-1.04). In the subgroup analysis by geographic area, a significant association was observed in North American studies (RR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.65-0.93), but not in European or Asian/Australian studies. In the subgroup analysis by study design, a borderline significant association emerged in population-based case-control studies (RR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68-0.99), but not in hospital-based case-control studies (RR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.99-1.01) or cohort group (RR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.88-1.20). Our results show no material association between alcohol consumption and risk of glioma existed. Further prospective evidences are needed to confirm this association.
Direct and indirect mechanisms for the regulation of gene expression by estrogen. E1, E2, and E3 are the three predominant naturally occurring forms of estrogen. 17 β -HSD catalyzes the reversible conversion of E1 and E2. Three types of estrogen receptors were identified: nuclear receptors ER α and ER β , as well as transmembrane G-protein coupled estrogen receptor ER1 (alias GPER). The classical pathway for direct gene transcription is the binding of E2 to ER α and ER β and activation of target genes containing ER response elements (ERE) (Vertical signaling). Activation of ER1 by E2 can in turn activate the classical ER α and ER β pathways through the signaling cascade governed by PI3K/AKT protein kinases (Vertical signaling). Alternatively, PI3K/AKT triggers activation of other transcription factors (TF) that do not contain ERE (Horizontal signaling). 17 β -HSD, 17 β -Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; ER α , estrogen receptor alpha; ER β , estrogen receptor beta; GPER, G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor one (alias ER1, GPER or GPR30); P13K, phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B; AKT, protein kinase B. 
Sex hormones and SREBP selectively regulate expression of Aldh1. ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, and ALDH1A3 are members of the ALDH1 enzyme family that convert Rald to RA. E2 suppresses Aldh1a2 and Aldh1a3 in adipose tissue. Androgens can stimulate Aldh1a3 expression. Aldh1a3 expression is elevated in the visceral fat of ovariectomized mice. Hypothetical feed-forward pathway for Aldh1a1 regulation in females ( green line ). SREBP-1c can up-regulate Aldh1a1 and Aldh1a2 in animals fed a high-fat diet. However, in females E2 can suppress Aldh1a2 . RA produced by ALDH1A1 can activate the RAR/RXR transcriptional complex, which in turn activates SREBP-1c. C/EBP β and mucin1 can regulate Aldh1a1 in breast cancer cells. RA production can stimulate adipogenesis through ZFP423 and PPAR γ . In multiple myeloma B cell lines, RA suppresses oncogenes ( Hoxa10 and Ap1 ) through ZFP423 and PPAR γ activation. Rald suppresses adipogenesis through inhibition of RXR and PPAR γ . Rald, retinaldehyde; ALDH1A1, retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1; ALDH1A2, retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A2; ALDH1A3, retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A3; SREBP-1c, sterol regulatory binding protein 1; C/EBP β , CCAAT/ enhancer-binding protein beta; RA, retinoic acid; ZFP423, zinc finger protein 423; PPAR γ , peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma; RXR, retinoid X receptor. 
Schematic presentation of the sex-specific change in the retinoid balance in male and female VF. In VF of mice, Aldh1a1 was predominantly expressed compared to Aldh1a2 and Aldh1a3 (indicated by size of the letters). Aldh1a2 and Aldh1a3 levels are lower in females (pink circle) compared to those seen in males (blue circle) due to suppression of Aldh1a3 by estrogen. Deficiency in Aldh1a1 ( black circle with “ − ” symbol ) further reduces expression of Aldh1a2 and Aldh1a3 in females, which leads to decreased Rald catabolism. Rald was detected in the VF of female mice. In Aldh1a1 − / − male mice, 
The spectrum of disorders that are influenced by ALDH1A1. Android obesity, which is marked by the accumulation of fat around the inner organs (viscera) is dependent on Aldh1a1 . In the figure, (+) represents upregulation of the gene in a specific disease, where as ( − ) represents down-regulation of this gene and elucidates that up-regulation or down-regulation of the gene contributes to development of the disease or condition. Visceral fat is decreased in Aldh1a1 − / − female mice and also in obese WT female mice 
Schematic presentation of sex hormone production in gonads and peripheral tissues. Sex hormones are secreted from the male and female gonads. The testes secrete testosterone into the blood stream while in the ovaries aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol prior to secretion into the blood stream. In the peripheral adipose tissue, aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol. 
In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding vitamin A-dependent regulation of sex-specific differences in metabolic diseases, inflammation, and certain cancers. We focus on the characterization of the aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 family of enzymes (ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3) that catalyze conversion of retinaldehyde to retinoic acid. Additionally, we propose a "horizontal transfer of signaling" from estrogen to retinoids through the action of ALDH1A1. Although estrogen does not directly influence expression of Aldh1a1, it has the ability to suppress Aldh1a2 and Aldh1a3, thereby establishing a female-specific mechanism for retinoic acid generation in target tissues. ALDH1A1 regulates adipogenesis, abdominal fat formation, glucose tolerance, and suppression of thermogenesis in adipocytes; in B cells, ALDH1A1 plays a protective role by inducing oncogene suppressors Rara and Pparg. Considering the conflicting responses of Aldh1a1 in a multitude of physiological processes, only tissue-specific regulation of Aldh1a1 can result in therapeutic effects. We have shown through successful implantation of tissue-specific Aldh1a1-/- preadipocytes that thermogenesis can be induced in wild-type adipose tissues to resolve diet-induced visceral obesity in females. We will briefly discuss the emerging role of ALDH1A1 in multiple myeloma, the regulation of reproduction, and immune responses, and conclude by discussing the role of ALDH1A1 in future therapeutic applications.
1H NMR spectra were recorded of methanolic extracts of seven soybean varieties (Glycine max.), cultivated using traditional and organic farming techniques. It was possible to identify signals belonging to the groups of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids and aromatic substances in the spectra. In the aromatic zone, the isoflavone signals were of particular interest: genistein, daidzein, genistin, daidzin, malonylgenistin, acetylgenistin, malonyldaidzin signals were assigned and these compounds were quantified, resulting in accordance with published data, and further demonstrating the potential of the NMR technique in food science.
PCA score plot of baseline and post treatment samples ( a ) GDL acidified milk 2 2 patient group baseline and post treatment samples ( n = 58). R X (1) = 0.516, R X (2) = 0.178 
Assignments of observed 1 H-NMR peaks in blood serum of a patient suffering from IBS.
Metabolite identification based on limit discriminant weight plots. Limit discriminant weight plots of back-scaled OPLS-DA data from GDL milk and probiotic 
Relative concentration of lactate and 3-hydroxybutyrate based on signal intensity. ( a ) Lactate; ( b ) 3-hydroxybutyrate. Boxes represent 25th to 75th percentile of data and whiskers represent data spread. Asterisk (*) indicate that post treatment value is significantly different from baseline, P ≤ 0.05 . 
D - and L -lactate measurements. GDL acidified milk patient group ( n = 10). 
The effects of a probiotic acidified milk product on the blood serum metabolite profile of patients suffering from Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) compared to a non-probiotic acidified milk product was investigated using (1)H NMR metabonomics. For eight weeks, IBS patients consumed 0.4 L per day of a probiotic fermented milk product or non-probiotic acidified milk. Both diets resulted in elevated levels of blood serum L-lactate and 3-hydroxybutyrate. Our results showed identical effects of acidified milk consumption independent of probiotic addition. A similar result was previously obtained in a questionnaire-based evaluation of symptom relief. A specific probiotic effect is thus absent both in the patient subjective symptom evaluations and at the blood serum metabolite level. However, there was no correspondence between symptom relief and metabolite response on the patient level.
Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG). This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for children/adolescents (n = 14,973) and adults (n = 24,809). Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1) g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19-50 years (y) was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001-2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+ y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01) oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19-50 y was 0.61 (±0.02) oz eq/day and for adults 51+ 0.86 (±0.02) oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001-2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%), grain mixtures (16.3%), other foods (15.8%) and fruits (11.3%). For adults 19+ y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%), other foods (14.3%), grain mixtures (12.0%) and fruits (11.1%). Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (31%), yeast breads/rolls (21%) and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%). The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%), RTEC (23%) and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%). Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S.) population.
Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US adults is needed to help with public health efforts to implement feasible and appropriate dietary recommendations. To determine the food sources of energy and 26 nutrients consumed by US adults the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 24-h recall (Day 1) dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample of adults 19+ years of age (y) (n = 9490) were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed for NHANES 2003-2006 using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked. The highest ranked sources of energy and nutrients among adults more than 19 years old were: energy - yeast bread/rolls (7.2%) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7.2%); protein-poultry (14.4%) and beef (14.0%); total fat - other fats and oils (9.8%); saturated fatty acids - cheese (16.5%) and beef (9.1%); carbohydrate - soft drinks/soda (11.4%) and yeast breads/rolls (10.9%); dietary fiber - yeast breads/rolls (10.9%) and fruit (10.2%); calcium - milk (22.5%) and cheese (21.6%); vitamin D - milk (45.1%) and fish/shellfish (14.4%); and potassium - milk (9.6%) and coffee/tea/other non-alcoholic beverages (8.4%). Knowledge of primary food sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce excess energy consumed by US adults and increase the nutrient adequacy of their diets.
Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332) in the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy - milk (7% of energy) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%); protein - milk (13.2%) and poultry (12.8%); total carbohydrate - soft drinks/soda (10.5%) and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%); total sugars - soft drinks/soda (19.2%) and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%); added sugars - soft drinks/soda (29.7%) and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%); dietary fiber - fruit (10.4%) and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%); total fat - cheese (9.3%) and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%); saturated fatty acids - cheese (16.3%) and milk (13.3%); cholesterol - eggs (24.2%) and poultry (13.2%); vitamin D - milk (60.4%) and milk drinks (8.3%); calcium - milk (33.2%) and cheese (19.4%); potassium - milk (18.8%) and fruit juice (8.0%); and sodium - salt (18.5%) and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%). Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient density of children's diets.
Fully adjusted differences in macronutrient intake * and anthropometric outcomes between adult cranberry beverage consumers † and non-consumers, NHANES 2005–2008. 
Adjusted means for macronutrient and body composition measures across levels of cranberry beverage consumption *, NHANES 2005–2008. 
Flavonoids, present in high levels in cranberries, are potent bioactives known for their health-promoting benefits, but cranberry beverages (CB) are not typically recommended as part of a healthy diet. We examine the association between CB consumption with macronutrient intake and weight status. Data for US adults (≥19 years, n = 10,891) were taken from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Survey 2005-2008. Total CB consumption was measured over two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Linear and logistic regression models adjusting for important covariates were used to examine predicted differences between CB consumers and non-consumers on macronutrient and anthropometric outcomes. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. CB consumers (n = 581) were older (>50 year) non-Hispanic black females. They consumed an average 221 mL (7.5 oz) CB per day. In fully adjusted models CB consumers (vs. non-consumers) had higher carbohydrates and total sugars and lower percent energy from protein and total fat (all p < 0.001), but no difference in total energy. A significantly higher proportion of CB consumers were predicted to be normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2; p = 0.001) and had to have lower waist circumferences (p = 0.001). Although there was not a significant trend across level of CB intake, low and middle level CB consumers compared to non-consumers were more likely to be normal weight (p < 0.001) and less likely to be overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, p < 0.001). Despite having slightly higher daily macronutrient intakes, CB consumers have more desirable anthropometric measures compared to non-consumers.
Adjusted associations between low-calorie sweetener (LCS) use by product category and Healthy Eating Index (HEI 2005) score and SoFAAS 1 subscore. Analysis adjusted for age group, gender and race/ethnicity. NHANES 1999-2008. 
The possibility that low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) promote lower quality diets and, therefore, weight gain has been noted as a cause for concern. Data from a representative sample of 22,231 adults were obtained from five cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2008 NHANES). A single 24-hour recall was used to identify consumers of LCS beverages, foods and tabletop sweeteners. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI 2005) and its multiple subscores. Health behaviors of interest were physical activity, smoking and alcohol use. LCS consumers had higher HEI 2005 scores than did non-consumers, largely explained by better SoFAAS subscores (solid fats, added sugar and alcohol). LCS consumers had better HEI subscores for vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy, but worse subscores for saturated fat and sodium compared to non-consumers. Similar trends were observed for LCS beverages, tabletop LCS and LCS foods. Consumers of LCS were less likely to smoke and were more likely to engage in recreational physical activity. LCS use was associated with higher HEI 2005 scores, lower consumption of empty calories, less smoking and more physical activity.
Descriptive statistics of adult tree nut consumers participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010. 
Usual intake and percentage of the population above the adequate intake in tree nut consumers compared with non-tree nut consumers. 
Usual intake and percentage of the population below the estimated average requirement in tree nut consumers compared with non-tree nut consumers. 
Least-square means of Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) component scores by consumption of tree nuts in adults 19+ years of age. 
Nutrient adequacy of tree nut consumers has not been examined. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010 data were used to assess the association of tree nut consumption by adults 19+ years (n = 14,386) with nutrient adequacy and diet quality. Covariate adjusted usual intake was determined using two 24-h dietary recalls and the National Cancer Institute method. Percentages of the consumption groups below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or above the Adequate Intake (AI) were determined. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI) score. Usual intake data showed consumers of tree nuts had a lower percentage (p < 0.0001) of the population below the EAR for vitamins A (22 ± 5 vs. 49 ± 1), E (38 ± 4 vs. 94 ± 0.4) and C (17 ± 4 vs. 44 ± 1); folate (2.5 ± 1.5 vs. 12 ± 0.6); calcium (26 ± 3 vs. 44 ± 1); iron (3 ± 0.6 vs. 9 ± 0.4); magnesium (8 ± 1 vs. 60 ± 1); and zinc (1.5 ± 1 vs. 13 ± 1). Tree nut consumers had a higher percentage (p < 0.0001) of the population above the AI for fiber (33 ± 3 vs. 4 ± 0.3) and potassium (12 ± 3 mg vs. 2 ± 0.2 mg). HEI-2005 total score was higher (p < 0.0001) in tree nut consumers (61 ± 0.7 vs. 52 ± 0.3) than non-consumers. Health professionals should encourage the use of tree nuts as part of a dietary approach to healthy eating.
Percent contribution of zinc intake among Australian children aged 2–16 years from major food groups: comparison of 1995 and 2007 surveys. 
Percentage of children meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and exceeding Upper Level of Intakes (UL) for zinc; 2007 Children's Survey *.
The current Australian Nutrient Reference Values (NRV) use different Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) for zinc for adolescent boys and girls compared to the previous recommendations. The adequacy of zinc intakes of 2-16 years old children (n = 4834) was examined in the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Zinc intakes were estimated from two 24-h recalls and compared with age- and gender-specific NRV. Food sources of zinc were assessed and compared with those of the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. The mean (SD) zinc intake was 10.2 (3.0) mg/day for all children. Nearly all children met the EAR for zinc except for 14-16 years old boys (29% did not meet EAR). Children (2-3 years) were at highest risk of excessive zinc intakes with 79% exceeding the Upper Level of Intake. Meat and poultry; milk products; and cereals and cereal products contributed 68% of total zinc intake. The contribution of cereals to total zinc intake has increased significantly since 1995, due to the greater market-availability of zinc-fortified breakfast cereals. We conclude that sub-groups of Australian children are at-risk of inadequate (boys 14-16 years) or excessive (children 2-3 years) zinc intakes, and monitoring of zinc status is required.
Misreporting of energy intake (EI) is a common problem in national surveys. The aim of this study was to identify misreporters using a variety of criteria, examine the impact of misreporting on the association between EI and weight status, and to define the characteristics of misreporters in the 2007 Australian Children's Survey. Data from the 2007 Australian Children's Survey which included 4800 children aged 2-16 years were used to examine the extent of misreporting based on EI, physical activity level (PAL), age, gender, height and weight status. Three options for identifying misreporters using the Goldberg cut-offs were explored as was direct comparison of EI to energy expenditure (TEE) in a subset of children. Linear regression was used to determine the impact of misreporting on the association between EI and weight status. The prevalence of under-reporting among all children varied from 5.0% to 6.7%, and over-reporting from 1.6% to 3.0% depending on the option used. Direct comparison of EI to TEE revealed similar results. Regression analysis showed that excluding misreporters provided the best model to examine cross-sectional associations between EI and BMI. Characteristics associated with under-reporting included older age, female, higher BMI, higher PAL, living in an urban location, lower parental education level and feeling unwell on the survey day. Over-reporting was more common among children with a lower BMI and lower PAL. In conclusion, misreporting of EI is present among various subgroups of the 2007 Australian Children's Survey. The impact of misreporting on the association between EI and body weight should be recognised by users of this survey.
Observational and ecological studies are generally used to determine the presence of effect of cancer risk-modifying factors. Researchers generally agree that environmental factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet, lack of physical activity, and low serum 25-hdyroxyvitamin D levels are important cancer risk factors. This ecological study used age-adjusted incidence rates for 21 cancers for 157 countries (87 with high-quality data) in 2008 with respect to dietary supply and other factors, including per capita gross domestic product, life expectancy, lung cancer incidence rate (an index for smoking), and latitude (an index for solar ultraviolet-B doses). The factors found to correlate strongly with multiple types of cancer were lung cancer (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer), energy derived from animal products (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer, inverse with two), latitude (direct correlation with six types, inverse correlation with three), and per capita gross national product (five types). Life expectancy and sweeteners directly correlated with three cancers, animal fat with two, and alcohol with one. Consumption of animal products correlated with cancer incidence with a lag time of 15-25 years. Types of cancer which correlated strongly with animal product consumption, tended to correlate weakly with latitude; this occurred for 11 cancers for the entire set of countries. Regression results were somewhat different for the 87 high-quality country data set and the 157-country set. Single-country ecological studies have inversely correlated nearly all of these cancers with solar ultraviolet-B doses. These results can provide guidance for prevention of cancer.
Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding by infant age, Timor-Leste, 2009-2010 (n = 975). 
Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in Timor-Leste, 2009-2010 (n = 975). 
Exclusive breastfeeding is known to have nutritional and health benefits. This study investigated factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged five months or less in Timor-Leste. The latest data from the national Demographic and Health Survey 2009-2010 were analyzed by binary logistic regression. Of the 975 infants included in the study, overall 49% (95% confidence interval 45.4% to 52.7%) were exclusively breastfed. The exclusive breastfeeding prevalence declined with increasing infant age, from 68.0% at less than one month to 24.9% at five months. Increasing infant age, mothers with a paid occupation, who perceived their newborn as non-average size, and residence in the capital city Dili, were associated with a lower likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding. On the other hand, women who could decide health-related matters tended to breastfeed exclusively, which was not the case for others whose decisions were made by someone else. The results suggested the need of breastfeeding promotion programs to improve the exclusive breastfeeding rate. Antenatal counseling, peer support network, and home visits by health workers could be feasible options to promote exclusive breastfeeding given that the majority of births occur at home.
The Australasian section of the American Oil Chemists Society (AAOCS) held their biennial meeting in Adelaide, Australia on 8–11 November 2011. Over 70 scientists, researchers and industry representatives gathered for three days of talks and discussions on lipid related topics. A highlight was the hot topic symposium on the new olive oil standard being introduced in Australia. Paul Miller, Australian Olives Association, gave a compelling address on why the standard was needed. He demonstrated that the increase in price and demand for high quality olive oils has led to products falsely or misleadingly labelled. Furthermore, the genetic and seasonal variation in minor components of olive oil has led to misclassifications. An extensive scientific and political process in Australia and overseas led to development of this new standard. Dr. Leandro Ravetti, Mordern Olives, demonstrated the development of two new methods, for analysis of pyropheophytins and diacylglycerols, are good indicators of modification by deodorisation of oils and show excellent correlation with organoleptic assessment with aging/degradation of extra virgin olive oils. Professor Rod Mailer finished this session with studies of actual adulteration cases in Australia and overseas, further highlighting the need for this new standard. [...]
The Australasian section of the American Oil Chemists Society (AAOCS) held their biennial meeting in Newcastle, Australia from 6 to 8 November, 2013. Over 150 scientists, researchers and industry representatives gathered for three days of talks and discussions on a variety of lipid related topics. The AAOCS awarded its inaugural AAOCS Award for Scientific Excellence in Lipid Research to Dr Allan Green from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). Dr Green is deputy chief of the CSIRO Division of Plant Industry and has been active in lipid research for several decades. His main research focus is on plant breeding and genetic engineering techniques to develop improved oilseeds with enhanced human nutritional value and novel industrial uses. Refer to "AAOCS Award for Scientific Excellence in Lipid Research" for more detail of his contributions [1].
I read with interest the recently published review article titled "The gluten-free diet: testing alternative cereals tolerated by celiac patients" by Comino et al. [1] in Nutrients. However, there is very sparse data on so-called minor cereals and no data on candidate wild graminoids, which have been gathered in the past.
Classic histological findings of eosinophilic esophagitis: hypereosinophilia, usually with >15–20 eosinophils per high-powered field. Eosinophils in the squamous mucosa are visible (arrows). (Courtesy of Dr. Ezio David, MD, Molinette Hospital, Turin, Italy.)  
Celiac disease is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder, characterized by small intestinal inflammation and villous atrophy after the ingestion of gluten by genetically susceptible individuals. Several extraintestinal manifestations have been associated to celiac disease. Eosinophilic esophagitis is a primary disorder of the esophagus characterized by upper gastrointestinal symptoms, absence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and more than 15 eosinophils per high-power field in biopsy specimens. Both celiac disease and eosinophilic esophagitis are caused by aberrant, but distinct, immune responses to ingested antigens and can be responsive to restricted food intake. The aim of this review is to assess whether there is an association between these two pathologies. In the majority of the studies examined, including the studies in pediatric population, the prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in subjects with celiac disease was about 10-times that of the general population. We suggest searching for eosinophilic esophagitis in all children undergoing endoscopy for suspicious celiac disease.
1 H NMR spectra of the chloroform extracts of Cannabis sativa trichomes. 
The 5th International Conference on Natural Products for Health and Beauty (NATPRO 5) was held at the Moevenpick Resort and Spa Karon Beach, Phuket, Thailand on 6-8 May 2014. NATPRO was established in 2005 by Professor Maitree Suttajit, Mahasarakham University with the aim of building research networking on natural products. NATPRO 2, 3 and 4 were subsequently organized by Naresuan University, Rangsit University and Chiang Mai University in 2008, 2011 and 2012, respectively. [...].
The annual conference and scientific meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand took place in Queenstown, New Zealand from 28th–29th August, 2014. The meeting was part of Queenstown Research Week, established in 1991, which includes the Queenstown Molecular Biology Meeting, the New Zealand Medical Sciences Congress, and the Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and Toxicologists New Zealand Scientific Meeting. Various societies take part in the different meetings; this was the first year that the Nutrition Society of New Zealand was included. The theme of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand in 2014 was "Balancing Views". The plenary session "Weighing up the Evidence: Nutrition Controversies" was provided to address ongoing debate in New Zealand about the role of saturated fat in chronic disease, particularly cardiovascular disease. [...]
Health care-induced diseases constitute a fast-increasing problem. Just one type of these health care-associated infections (HCAI) constitutes the fourth leading cause of death in Western countries. About 25 million individuals worldwide are estimated each year to undergo major surgery, of which approximately 3 million will never return home from the hospital. Furthermore, the quality of life is reported to be significantly impaired for the rest of the lives of those who, during their hospital stay, suffered life-threatening infections/sepsis. Severe infections are strongly associated with a high degree of systemic inflammation in the body, and intimately associated with significantly reduced and malfunctioning GI microbiota, a condition called dysbiosis. Deranged composition and function of the gastrointestinal microbiota, occurring from the mouth to the anus, has been found to cause impaired ability to maintain intact mucosal membrane functions and prevent leakage of toxins - bacterial endotoxins, as well as whole bacteria or debris of bacteria, the DNA of which are commonly found in most cells of the body, often in adipocytes of obese individuals or in arteriosclerotic plaques. Foods rich in proteotoxins such as gluten, casein and zein, and proteins, have been observed to have endotoxin-like effects that can contribute to dysbiosis. About 75% of the food in the Western diet is of limited or no benefit to the microbiota in the lower gut. Most of it, comprised specifically of refined carbohydrates, is already absorbed in the upper part of the GI tract, and what eventually reaches the large intestine is of limited value, as it contains only small amounts of the minerals, vitamins and other nutrients necessary for maintenance of the microbiota. The consequence is that the microbiota of modern humans is greatly reduced, both in terms of numbers and diversity when compared to the diets of our paleolithic forebears and the individuals living a rural lifestyle today. It is the artificial treatment provided in modern medical care - unfortunately often the only alternative provided - which constitute the main contributors to a poor outcome. These treatments include artificial ventilation, artificial nutrition, hygienic measures, use of skin-penetrating devices, tubes and catheters, frequent use of pharmaceuticals; they are all known to severely impair the microbiomes in various locations of the body, which, to a large extent, are ultimately responsible for a poor outcome. Attempts to reconstitute a normal microbiome by supply of probiotics have often failed as they are almost always undertaken as a complement to - and not as an alternative to - existing treatment schemes, especially those based on antibiotics, but also other pharmaceuticals.
The concentration of curcumin in the turmeric samples used in this study. 
The effect of turmeric on 14 C-Betaine transport by the SLC22A4 503F variant. DF 
The effect of turmeric on the transcription of the IL-10 − 1082 A variant. RLU refers to relative luminescence units and a positive value indicates an increase in promoter transcription. The data are expressed as the mean difference (± SEM) of three independent replicates compared to the untreated sample. A significant difference between untreated and treated cells indicated by ** p < 0.01, or *** p < 0.001. 
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing disease. Genetic predisposition to the disease reduces an individual's capacity to respond appropriately to environmental challenges in the intestine leading to inappropriate inflammation. IBD patients often modify their diet to mitigate or reduce the severity of inflammation. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) has historically been used in Chinese, Hindu, and Ayurvedic medicine over several centuries to treat inflammatory disorders. To understand how turmeric may influence the consequences of a genetic predisposition to inappropriate inflammation, we used HEK293 cells to examine the in vitro capacity of turmeric extract and fractions to affect the functionality of two gene variants, solute carrier protein 22 A4 (SLC22A4, rs1050152) and interleukin-10 (IL-10, rs1800896) associated with IBD. We found that a turmeric extract and several chromatographically separated fractions beneficially affected the variants of SLC22A4 and IL-10 associated with IBD, by reducing inappropriate epithelial cell transport (SLC22A4, 503F) and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine gene promoter activity (IL-10, -1082A). The effect of turmeric on the IL-10 variant was strongly associated with the curcumin content of the extract and its fractions.
Fluid kinetics by time period ( n = 19). 
Individual fluid turnover based on sweat losses, fluid intake, and urine output (n = 19).
Group fluid turnover based on sweat losses, fluid intake, and urine output ( n =19). 
Sweat loss estimation vs. actual sweat loss. † Indicates sweat loss estimation significantly less than actual sweat loss ( p < 0.001). 
This study examined 24-h post-run hydration status and sweat loss estimation accuracy in college age runners (men = 12, women = 8) after completing a 1-h self-paced outdoor run (wet bulb globe temperature = 19.9 ± 3.0 °C). Sweat losses (1353 ± 422 mL; 1.9% ± 0.5% of body mass) were significantly greater (p < 0.001) than perceived losses (686 ± 586 mL). Cumulative fluid consumption equaled 3876 ± 1133 mL (218 ± 178 mL during) with 37% of fluid ingested lost through urine voids (1450 ± 678 mL). Fluid balance based on intake and urine production equaled +554 ± 669 mL at 12 h and +1186 ± 735 mL at 24 h. Most runners reported euhydrated (pre-run urine specific gravity (USG) = 1.018 ± 0.008) with no changes (p = 0.33) at hours 12 or 24 when both genders were included. However, USG was higher (p = 0.004) at 12 h post-run for men (1.025 ± 0.0070 vs. 1.014 ± 0.007), who consumed 171% ± 40% of sweat losses at 12 h vs. 268% ± 88% for women. Most runners do not need intervention concerning between bout hydration needs in temperate environments. However, repeated USG measurements were able to identify runners who greatly under or over consumed fluid during recovery. Practitioners can use multiple USG assessments as cheap method to detect runners who need to modify their hydration strategies and should promote assessment of sweat losses by change in body mass, as runners had poor perception of sweat losses.
The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of black adzuki bean (BAB) extract on adipocytes, and to elucidate the cellular mechanisms. In order to examine the proliferation of preadipocytes and differentiating adipocytes, cell viability and DNA content were measured over a period of time. Lipid accumulation during cell differentiation and the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of BAB on the transcriptional factors involved, with their anti-adipogenic effects, were also identified. We observed that BAB exhibits anti-adipogenic effects through the inhibition of proliferation, thereby lowering mRNA expression of C/EBPβ and suppressing adipogenesis during the early stage of differentiation. This, in turn, resulted in a reduction of TG accumulation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treating the cells with BAB not only suppressed the adipogenesis-associated key transcription factors PPARγ and C/EBPα but also significantly decreased the mRNA expression of GLUT4, FABP4, LPL and adiponectin. The expression of lipolytic genes like ATGL and HSL were higher in the treatment group than in the control. Overall, the black adzuki bean extract demonstrated an anti-adipogenic property, which makes it a potential dietary supplement for attenuation of obesity.
Flowchart on the progress of the study. 
The linear regression line for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) at 12 months in relation to vitamin D intake from diet and supplements at 9–12 months. The dashed horizontal line at 50 nmol/L is the cut-off line applied for a sufficient vitamin D status, and the dashed vertical line at 10 μ g indicates the Nordic recommended intake (RI). 
The objective was to assess the vitamin D status in healthy 12-month-old infants in relation to quantity and sources of dietary vitamin D, breastfeeding and seasons. Subjects were 76 12-month-old infants. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) ≥ 50 nmol/L were considered indicative of vitamin D sufficiency and 25(OH)D < 27.5 nmol/L as being indicative of increased risk for rickets. Additionally, 25(OH)D > 125 nmol/L was considered possibly adversely high. Total vitamin D at 9-12 months (eight data collection days) included intake from diet and supplements. The mean ± SD of vitamin D intake was 8.8 ± 5.2 μg/day and serum 25(OH)D 98.1 ± 32.2 nmol/L (range 39.3-165.5). Ninety-two percent of infants were vitamin D sufficient and none at increased risk for rickets. The 26% infants using fortified products and supplements never/irregularly or in small amounts had lower 25(OH)D (76.8 ± 27.1 nmol/L) than the 22% using fortified products (100.0 ± 31.4 nmol/L), 18% using supplements (104.6 ± 37.0 nmol/L) and 33% using both (110.3 ± 26.6 nmol/L). Five of six infants with 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L had no intake of supplements or fortified products from 0 to 12 months. Supplement use increased the odds of 25(OH)D > 125 nmol/L. Breastfeeding and season did not affect vitamin D status. The majority of infants were vitamin D sufficient. Our findings highlight the need for vitamin D supplements or fortified products all year round, regardless of breastfeeding.
General characteristics and selected nutrient intakes of 412 Korean adults by gender. 
Riboflavin intakes of 412 Korean adults by gender and by riboflavin supplementation. 
Urinary riboflavin excretion of 149 Korean adults by gender and by riboflavin supplementation. 
Percentile values of dietary and total riboflavin intakes of Korean adults. 
Correlations between riboflavin intakes and urinary riboflavin excretion. 
A recent Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey indicated inadequate riboflavin intake in Koreans, but there is limited research regarding riboflavin status in South Korea. The purpose of this study was to determine riboflavin intake and status of Korean adults. Three consecutive 24-h food recalls were collected from 412 (145 men and 267 women) healthy adults, aged 20-64 years, living in South Korea and urine samples were collected from 149 subjects of all subjects. The dietary and total (dietary plus supplemental) riboflavin intake was 1.33 ± 0.34 and 2.87 ± 6.29 mg/day, respectively. Approximately 28% of the subjects consumed total riboflavin less than the Estimated Average Requirement. Urinary riboflavin excretion was 205.1 ± 190.1 μg/g creatinine. Total riboflavin intake was significantly positively correlated to the urinary riboflavin excretion. (r = 0.17171, p = 0.0363). About 11% of the Korean adults had urinary riboflavin <27 μg/g creatinine indicating a riboflavin deficiency and 21% had low status of riboflavin (27 μg/g creatinine ≤ urinary riboflavin < 80 μg/g creatinine). Thus, one-third of Korean adults in this study had inadequate riboflavin status. In some adults in Korea, consumption of riboflavin-rich food sources should be encouraged.
Demographics and characteristics of participants. 
Percent of participants achieving adequate intakes of each of the five food groups. 
Demographic and health factors predicting food group intake. 
Mean food consumption of each food group based on estimated caloric value. 
As the population of the United States continues to age, it has become increasingly more important to recognize the food intake and eating habits of older adults. The objective of this study was to describe the food group intake, factors predicting food group intake, and the food choices of community-dwelling Kansans, 80 years of age and older who participate in congregate meal programs. Participants completed a short questionnaire querying demographic information, current health status, and dietary supplement use. Participants (n = 113) were then followed up via telephone to complete two 24-hour diet recalls. Data were analyzed to determine adequacy of food group intake and mean intake. Regression analyses were used to determine factors predicting intake and frequency analysis established food typically consumed. Female participants were significantly more likely to consume more fruit servings than males. Intake was low for all five of the food groups, especially dairy. Chronic health conditions and dietary supplement use were consistently predictive factors of the amount of each food group consumed.
Distribution of RFC-1 80A>G alleles and genotypes in Down Syndrome mothers and control mothers. 
A common polymorphism (c.80A>G) in the gene coding for the reduced folate carrier (SLC19A1, commonly known as RFC-1) has been associated with maternal risk of the birth of a child with Down Syndrome (DS), but results are controversial. We searched major online databases to identify available case-control studies, and performed a meta-analysis to summarize the data concerning this association. Nine independent case-control studies were identified for a total of 930 DS mothers (MDS) and 1240 control mothers. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using both fixed and random effects models. An increase in the risk of having a birth with DS was observed for carriers of the homozygous GG genotype (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.04-1.57; p = 0.02, fixed effects model), even after removal from the meta-analysis of published data with deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) in controls (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.02-1.55; p = 0.03, fixed effects model). Moreover, the pooled OR under the fixed effects model showed an increase in the maternal risk for the G allele (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.30; p = 0.03). Present results suggest that the maternal RFC-1 80A>G polymorphism might be associated with an increased risk of having a birth with DS, particularly among carriers of the GG genotype.
Distribution of salty taste threshold (a) and preference (b) in men and women.
General characteristics of study subjects a .
The joining effects of α ENaC A663T genotypes and available zinc intake on salty taste threshold in women. 
Salty taste threshold and preference by tertiles of zinc intake in men and women a .
Salty taste threshold and preference and zinc intake by αENaC A663T genotype in men and women a .
Salty taste perception affects salt intake, of which excess amounts is a major public health concern. Gene polymorphisms in salty taste receptors, zinc status and their interaction may affect salty taste perception. In this study, we examined the relationships among the α-epithelial sodium channel (αENaC) A663T genotype, zinc intake, and salty taste perception including salty taste acuity and preference in healthy young adults. The αENaC A663T genotype was determined by the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 207 adults. Zinc intake was examined by one 24-h recall and a two-day dietary record. Salty taste acuity and preference were determined by measuring the salty taste recognition threshold and the preferred salinity of beansprout soup, respectively. Men had significantly higher thresholds and preferences for salty taste than women did (p < 0.05). In women, the salty taste threshold was significantly lower in the highest tertile of available zinc intake than in the lowest tertile (12.2 mM and 17.6 mM, respectively, p = 0.02). Interestingly, a significant inverse association between available zinc intake and salty taste threshold was found only in women with αENaC AA homozygotes (β = -0.833, p = 0.02), and no such association was found in T663 allele carriers. The salty taste preference was not associated with the αENaC A663T genotype or available zinc intake in either sex. In conclusion, our data suggest that gene-nutrient interactions between the αENaC A663T genotype and available zinc intake play a role in determining the salty taste acuity in young women.
Background of the test subjects. 
Fractional absorption (FA) of CaCO3 and AAACa by dual stable isotope method. 
With the use of stable isotopes, this study aimed to compare the bioavailability of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa), obtained from oyster shell powder heated to a high temperature, with an additional heated seaweed component (Heated Algal Ingredient, HAI), with that of calcium carbonate. In 10 postmenopausal women volunteers aged 59 to 77 years (mean ± S.D., 67 ± 5.3), the fractional calcium absorption of AAACa and CaCO(3) was measured by a dual stable isotope method. (44)Ca-enriched CaCO(3) and AAACa were administered in all subjects one month apart. After a fixed-menu breakfast and pre-test urine collection (Urine 0), (42)Ca-enriched CaCl(2) was intravenously injected, followed by oral administration of (44)Ca-enriched CaCO(3) without carrier 15 minutes later, and complete urine collection for the next 24 hours (Urine 24). The fractional calcium absorption was calculated as the ratio of Augmentation of (44)Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24/ augmentation of (42)Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24. Differences and changes of (44)Ca and (42)Ca were corrected by comparing each with (43)Ca. Fractional absorption of AAACa (mean ± S.D., 23.1 ± 6.4), was distinctly and significantly higher than that of CaCO(3 )(14.7 ± 6.4; p = 0.0060 by paired t-test). The mean fractional absorption was approximately 1.57-times higher for AAACa than for CaCO(3). The serum 25(OH) vitamin D level was low (mean ± S.D., 14.2 ± 4.95 ng/ml), as is common in this age group in Japan. Among the parameters of the bone and mineral metabolism measured, none displayed a significant correlation with the fractional absorption of CaCO(3) and AAACa. Higher fractional absorption of AAACa compared with CaCO(3) supports previous reports on the more beneficial effect of AAACa than CaCO(3) for osteoporosis.
Focus group schedule. 
Objective: In Australia, vitamin D supply in food is limited, and sun exposure is the main source of vitamin D. However skin cancer risk is high, and the need to gain some sun exposure for adequate vitamin D is challenging public health messages to use protection in the sun. The complex vitamin D public health message may be confusing the public and, in particular, those at highest risk for vitamin D deficiency. This study explored vitamin D and sun exposure attitudes, knowledge and practices of some groups considered at risk of vitamin D deficiency and those delivering healthy sun exposure messages to children. Method: 52 adults participated in six focus groups. Results: Results corroborated with previous research showing low levels of vitamin D knowledge. Individual and environmental barriers to receiving adequate sun exposure were also identified. Conclusions and implications: The message advocating balanced sun exposure to produce adequate vitamin D needs to be made clearer and be more effectively communicated. Findings provide insights to aid development of appropriate public health messages for safe sun exposure and vitamin D, especially for vulnerable groups.
Summary of adverse effects of omega-3 deficient diets and high fructose, corrected by the omega-3 diet [102].
Network of interrelated functions, connected by physiological mechanisms, controlled by heredity and influenced by environmental factors [29]. (Reproduced with permission).
The effects of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + dochosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the composition of the EPA + DHA in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids and their relationship to insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia and chronic diseases (obesity, T2DM, hypertension, coronary artery disease). (Modified from Reference [31]).
The effects of dietary Fructose and its relationship to insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia and chronic diseases (liver steatosis, obesity, T2DM, hypertension, coronary artery disease).
Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health.
Top-cited authors
Philip C Calder
  • University of Southampton
Anitra C Carr
  • University of Otago
William Burgess Grant
  • Sunlight, Nutrition and Health Research Center
Hua-Bin Li
Silvia Maggini