This paper describes a curriculum innovation that responds to the need for a clinical education course to prepare Australian clinical educators for their role in supporting students of nursing to develop clinical skills and gain confidence in the practice of nursing. The course is underpinned by two major theoretical approaches: learning community and transformative education. This paper reviews the literature on the strengths and challenges of online learning and describes the teaching and learning strategies, assessment, and online presentations that were designed to promote transformative learning and solidarity amongst participants.
AIM: To describe the experience of a group of postgraduate Norwegian nurses with academic writing and its impact on their engagement with continuing education. BACKGROUND: Nurses are required to be lifelong learners and increasing numbers are seeking further knowledge and skills for clinical practice through courses in institutions of higher education. In higher education they are often being assessed on their ability to produce an academic essay not on the development of their clinical competence. METHOD: A descriptive design was used, where participants were asked to complete in writing two open-ended statements. The data was then subject to inductive content analysis to extract categories and themes to describe the phenomenon. FINDINGS: Participants had little experience and were challenged by academic writing. It was perceived as difficult, time consuming and of little relevance to their clinical practice. CONCLUSION: There is disconnection between the assessment of learning in higher education and increased workplace competency. Rather than promoting a deep approach to learning educators may be creating barriers to engagement with lifelong learning through using traditional assessment practices. There is an imperative to develop assessments which allow demonstration of understanding, ability to use current evidence and the development of critical analytic skills for reflection on problems encountered in participants' work lives.
This paper is to demonstrate the use of the Roper-Logan-Tierney model [The Elements of Nursing: A Model for Nursing Based on a Model for Living, fourth ed. Churchill Livingstone, London 1996] (RLT) in assessing, planning, implementing and evaluating the care of an infant in a neonatal intensive care setting. The paper also provides an insight into student's reflection upon learning during the programme and preparation of a care study. The RLT model provided a clear framework to guide the nursing care of Neonate. However, despite the lack of evidence as to the benefits the use of this model, individualisation of nursing practice [Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28 (1), (1998) 77] was a particular benefit that emerged during this study. Rather than focusing on the medical and routine day to day aspects of care in the neonatal unit, the use of the model allowed for the construction of a plan of care based on the baby's own specific physical, social and emotional needs. If models are here to stay, it is imperative that empirical evidence is generated to underpin their use in practice. Outcome measures, including outcome and satisfaction would contribute greatly to knowledge in this area. In addition, nurse's views of their use needs to be more clearly and widely articulated.
Hochschild (1983) suggests that emotional labour involves the induction or suppression of feeling in order to sustain in others a sense of being cared for in a convivial safe place. James (1993) highlights the similarities and differences between emotion al and physical labour, with both requiring experience and skill which are subject to immediate conditions, external controls and gendered divisions of labour.
Emerging in 2001, the journal Nurse Education in Practice, according to Crookes (2001: 1), aimed to support "the brave new world of university-based nurse education". As a primarily a practice based journal, this journal aimed to support nurse educators to not only share their research endeavours, but also to share experiences and evidence of good practice. Ten years on it is interesting to analyse the extent to which this journal achieved these aims.
This paper aims to take a look back at patterns and trends, within the journal Nurse Education in Practice, over the past 10 years.
A triangulation approach was used, whereby all papers (n=466) were subjected to quantitative analysis of trends. Underlying patterns and trends, and inherent meanings were also explored from a qualitative perspective.
Most papers had primarily an educational focus (n=452, 97%), rather than specifically health care (n=14, 3%). The largest majority of papers were classified as case studies.
Findings reveal that the journal has achieved its goal of supporting nurse educators to share both their research endeavours, and practice experience. Key challenges ahead appear to relate to interprofessional education and clinical roles of educators working in health care.
The Publisher regrets that this article is an accidental duplication of a Book Review that has already been published, doi: 10.1016/j.nepr.2009.07.002. The duplicate article has therefore been withdrawn.
In this paper, I reflect on what can be learned by engaging in future thinking within our discipline, and what implications the results of that thinking may have for the development of nursing education. Recognizing the marvelous diversity of perspective within our discipline with regard to what will and ought to be our future mandate, it seems reasonable to search for some grounding in what might ensure that we enter that future wisely. We all know that change is a fundamental characteristic of all future projections, and yet that insight seems a weak justification for failure to plan. Nurse educators hold a particular obligation to ensure that they are preparing the professionals who will take that future forward. Although we have always recognized that they must nurse for today with an eye on tomorrow, it is inordinately difficult to come to some agreement on how we can best bridge that gap within our educational programs and strategies. Toward this end, I draw on lessons that can be drawn from our professional history as a rich and vibrant context to propose some key issues for that future theorizing.
The Practice Education Support Unit at Thames Valley University is committed to improving the quality of students' practice experience. Recent changes to the delivery of the Pre-Registration nursing curriculum have included the instigation of a 35-day practice orientation programme for students on the common foundation programme. The Brent and Harrow 'Student Experiences Group' developed and facilitated a 35-day programme for the March 2007 cohort within their learning community. Subsequent evaluation of the programme revealed that students were more positive in relation to taught elements of the programme, as opposed to self-directed elements. These results are significant due to the requirement for students to develop self-direction skills in order to become competent registered nurses. The evaluation results did indicate the need for changes to be made to the subsequent development of the 35-day programme for the September 2007 cohort. In particular, the programme was redesigned to create a better balance between taught and self directed elements. A staged introduction to self-directed learning may promote student acceptance and confidence in this vital skill.
When designing learning and assessment environments it is essential to articulate the underpinning education philosophy, theory, model and learning style support mechanisms that inform their structure and content. We elaborate on original PhD research that articulates the design rationale of authentic medication dosage calculation problem-solving (MDC-PS) learning and diagnostic assessment environments. These environments embody the principles of authenticity, building knowledge and skills and competency assessment and are designed to support development of competence and bridging of the theory-practice gap. Authentic learning and diagnostic assessment environments capture the features and expert practices that are located in real world practice cultures and recreate them in authentic virtual clinical environments. We explore how this provides students with a safe virtual authentic environment to actively experience, practice and undertake MDC-PS learning and assessment activities. We argue that this is integral to the construction and diagnostic assessment of schemata validity (mental constructions and frameworks that are an individual's internal representation of their world), bridging of the theory-practice gap and cognitive and functional competence development. We illustrate these principles through the underpinning pedagogical design of two online virtual authentic learning and diagnostic assessment environments (safeMedicate and eDose™).
Motivated by a shortage of Aboriginal nurses and recurring difficulties in recruitment and retention of Aboriginal peoples in nursing education, a critical ethnography was conducted to examine the experiences of undergraduate Aboriginal nursing students in two Canadian schools of nursing. We conducted audiotaped interviews with Aboriginal nursing students (n=31), Aboriginal nurses (n=5), nursing faculty members (n=24), and individuals who were identified as knowledgeable about the context that might shape the experiences (n=16). Other data sources included reflexive and descriptive fieldnotes from 200h of fieldwork in classroom and laboratory practice sessions and 135 texts from the participating schools. Nursing textbooks, course syllabi, policies, procedures, clinical evaluation forms and websites were randomly selected and analyzed to explicate how texts shaped the students' experiences. In this paper, we discuss the findings of the study and briefly share our recommendations.
This article aims to assist readers with developing an abstract for a conference in order to have a paper accepted for presentation at a conference, whether it is in poster or an oral format. This is important as the authors argue that use of conferences as a method of disseminating research findings and good practice is expanding each year. Drawing on author experiences, both as members of scientific review panels and as submitters of abstracts, the article includes a practical review about the meaning of an abstract, how to get started and then breaks down in clear sections what reviewers look for in a good abstract. There are also some key points on the actual process of review, which are helpful in understanding of what happens to an abstract following submission.
Alcohol abuse is a worldwide public health concern. Nurses, representing the largest body of health care providers, are a potential resource to provide screening and brief intervention for patients with alcohol problems. This study evaluates the effect of an educational intervention on the attitudes, beliefs, and confidence levels of nurses regarding screening and brief intervention for alcohol problems. One hundred eighty-one students at Vanderbilt University School of Nursing participated in a four-hour educational intervention to train providers in brief negotiated intervention (BNI) for screening, early detection and brief treatment of alcohol problems. Participants completed questionnaires before and after this training. Analysis of the data using paired t-test and one-way analysis of variance showed statistically significant positive change in the nurses' attitudes, beliefs, and confidence levels regarding alcohol abuse and its treatment after the educational intervention. For example, the percentage of nurses who reported always having confidence in assessing patients' readiness to change their behavior increased from 8.3% to 23.5% after training. In conclusion, the BNI educational intervention can be effective in promoting positive changes among nurses in attitudes, beliefs, and confidence levels regarding alcohol abuse and its treatment.
Because there have been very few recent studies focusing on the nursing studies of Chinese male learners in Hong Kong, this paper reports some findings on the educational experiences of such students from a local university, giving them a chance to voice out their concerns and express their feelings. In this qualitative ethnographical study, 18 second- to fourth-year male nursing students were recruited by purposive snowball sampling and invited to participate in individual semi-structured interviews for the collecting of data. The taped recordings were transcribed and translated. Following this, five themes were identified for content analysis. The findings of this study suggest that people would be more likely to accept male nurses; and male nursing students would be more able see their role as nurses with the acceptance of some feminine subjects in the nursing curriculum. This study provided male nursing students the chance to express their thoughts and experiences on nursing education, which will suggest further modifications to the curriculum design and implementation.
The Faculty of Society and Health at Buckinghamshire New University is committed to the widening participation agenda and to providing support that enables our students to achieve the requirements of the programme and registration. Literacy and numeracy skill development is an integral part of the academic modules of our current pre-registration curriculum. E-Support4U was launched in semester two of 2008 with the aim of extending academic writing support beyond the confines of the University and into the practice arena. Evaluation of the project tentatively suggests that the scaffold approach to academic writing, based on Salmon's 5-stage framework, may have contributed to a 100% pass rate for the reflective practice-based assignment for this cohort of students. However, participants experienced issues around access; differing levels of IT skills, dispersed placements that contributed to a lack of active collaboration within the group. Recommendations include early introduction of blended learning and incorporation of web 2.0 technology into the curriculum.
Global trends in internationalisation have influenced the mix of students traditionally occupying classrooms and clinical laboratories in nursing. Nursing faculties are faced with an increased mix of students that represent a diversity of cultures; this presents challenges for students and nurse academics in the resulting transcultural encounters. This paper documents the findings of a systematic literature review exploring the implications of cultural diversity in academia across a number of countries and disciplines. Many research studies have focused on university experiences of indigenous students, local students from non-English speaking backgrounds and international students, and have proposed methods and skills that could assist educators. This review has examined both research and descriptive papers to present a broad range of ideas. Discussion includes the implications for teaching and learning strategies for enhancing educational experiences of students and their educators in the academic settings.
Within schools of nursing, students are expected to produce academic assignments which demonstrate their abilities, to find, appraise and apply research findings in clinical practice. The main objective of academic education is to develop lifelong learning skills in the student (Jerlock et al., 2003) with lecturers being expected to educate students who are competent, knowledgeable, and able to successfully complete both academic and clinical assignments and assessments. However, little is known about how student nurses acquire such skills or whether they perceive such skills to be valuable to their future role as qualified nurses.
To explore student nurses' experiences of learning to search for and use evidence in order to support their academic assignments, and unearth their perceptions of the value of such skills to their future role as qualified nurses.
An exploratory pilot study at two schools of nursing in the United Kingdom, using questionnaires, with a sample size of 110, Year 3 nursing students from adult and children's nursing fields of practice.
The findings indicate that students value specific teaching sessions (taught by members of library staff) delivered at the beginning of the programme. Students make good use of in-house search engines where these are provided and are mainly searching for nursing literature with a small minority appearing to have no clear search strategy. Students appear to associate literature searching skills as potentially valuable in their future role as a qualified nurse, however, consider that such skills are more closely associated with further academic study rather than with clinical practice.
It seems that more work is required by educators in order to help students to associate literature searching skills with nursing practice.
High quality formative assessment has been linked to positive benefits on learning while good feedback can make a considerable difference to the quality of learning. It is proposed that formative assessment and feedback is intricately linked to enhancement of learning and has to be interactive. Underlying this proposition is the recognition of the importance of staff perspectives of formative assessment and their influence on assessment practice. However, there appears to be a paucity of literature exploring this area relevant to nurse education. The aim of the research was to explore the perspectives of twenty teachers of nurse education on formative assessment and feedback of theoretical assessment. A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was adopted. The interview data were analysed and the following themes identified: purposes of formative assessment, involvement of peers in the assessment process, ambivalence of timing of assessment, types of formative assessment and quality of good feedback. The findings offer suggestions which may be of value to teachers facilitating formative assessment. The conclusion is that teachers require changes to the practice of formative assessment and feedback by believing that learning is central to the purposes of formative assessment and regarding students as partners in this process.
Consumer participation in mental health care is increasingly becoming an expectation. A review of the literature suggests that the negative attitudes of mental health professionals towards people diagnosed with mental illness constitutes a significant barrier to the realization of this goal. The education of health professionals has been identified as a major strategy for reducing the negatively of such attitudes, and to promoting a more participatory relationship between consumer and provider. This paper describes the process of the development and implementation of an academic role for a consumer of mental health services in teaching psychiatric nursing students. A personal case study by the consumer academic is provided to illustrate the process of this collaborative venture. This paper contributes to the development of framework to guide the implementation of similar positions.
To explore the appropriateness of clinical academic coaching role as a tool for enhancing student learning and the development of advanced academic and clinical practice skills for nurses.
Coaching involves a relationship between individuals characterised by analyzing and communicating mutually understood objectives and motivating others. Coaching is beneficial for developing those entering new positions with higher level responsibilities.
A two stage evaluation involved analysis of structured questionnaires distributed to students registered for a postgraduate advanced clinical practice programme and ten interviews with students and coaches. Data was analysed to develop understanding of how coaches were experienced by students as an aid to learning.
Data indicates the role supported students through transition and provided learning support at crucial times in the academic journey. Specific skills and behaviours enhanced the coach-student relationship. The coach's understanding of the clinical context was pivotal, as was effective preparation to undertake the coaching role.
Supporting students to make the transition into advanced practice roles is a prominent issue within current healthcare literature. Clinical coaching enhances learning through a strong and coherent partnership between the student, their practice context and the academic journey.
This paper is an amended and abridged version of a seminar given at the NET/NEP 1st Nurse Education International Conference in Vancouver, Canada. The topic of the paper arose from our growing concerns about the state of nurse education and its position in the university at the start of the twenty-first century. We share the fears expressed by Readings that the university has lost its way and is increasingly driven by a business agenda and a quest for ever-greater efficiency. Our biggest concern is with the impact that the so-called 'posthistorical university' is having on the study of nursing, particularly the growing pressure on nurse academics to focus their attention and energy on output at the expense of process, and on research at the expense of practice and practitioner development. We suggest that the solution might lie with Jean-Francois Lyotard's notion of postmodern philosophy as a way of opening up debate and, in his words, saving the honour of thinking.
In Sweden, regulations from the National Agency for Higher Education advocate an education that equips students with independence as well as critical, problem-based thinking, i.e. academic literacy skills. However, some research findings indicate that students may leave higher education without mastering these skills effectively. As part of quality-assuring a nursing programme at a university college in south-east Sweden we explored the nursing student's view of crucial academic literacy skills, such as critical thinking and appraisal and academic writing, by conducting a descriptive, qualitative study. Informants were recruited through an advertisement posted on the university's e-learning tool. Eight focused interviews were conducted during autumn 2010. The transcribed interviews were analysed - inspired by content analysis - and two categories became apparent: constantly questioning and formality before substance. The latter revealed a gap between the student's perception of academic writing and that of the educators, thus implying that nursing students might not be equipped with the tools they need to develop within academia. We suggest that students could benefit in their academic endeavours from theoretical educational models that integrate several academic skills simultaneously and which could be incorporated into the development of syllabuses and curriculums.
To compare how health care professional students perceive their academic learning environment in one Higher Education Institution (HEI).
The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM), a scale that measures students' perceptions of their academic classroom learning environments, and demographic items were completed by 673 undergraduate students enrolled in health professional courses at the University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom. Respondent scores, partitioned by demographic variables, were obtained on the total DREEM scale and on the individual sub-scales. Analysis of variance techniques were utilized to investigate associations between demographic variables on the total DREEM score and sub-scale scores.
All students from all year levels reported total DREEM scores between 101 - 150, indicating a more positive than negative perception of their academic learning environments. Both profession and year of study were found to be significantly associated with total DREEM scores, with occupational therapists, physiotherapists and nurses scoring higher than operating department practice students; and first year students scoring higher than third year students. A significant interaction between these two factors was found to exist, indicating that the impact of the year of study does not apply equally over the different professional groups of students.
Students in this study reported positive perceptions about their academic classroom learning environments and teaching delivered. Further interrogation of the DREEM sub-scale dimensions at a programme/cohort level may offer course teams' further information to inform continuous quality improvement.
To examine the experiences of graduate-entry (accelerated) nursing students through a review of research-based literature.
Australian graduate-entry nursing degrees began in the mid 1990s and minimal research of these students has been undertaken. Comparatively, the United States introduced accelerated pathways in the early 1970s and a limited collection of corresponding research exists. Such courses are increasing globally and there is a need to gain a deeper understanding of student educational experiences.
Multiple electronic databases were searched for literature published between 1996 and 2010. Twelve studies examining accelerated nursing students' course experiences met the criteria and were reviewed.
Graduate-entry nursing students revealed a matrix of course detractors and course facilitators unique to the accelerated environment.
This review identified the scarcity of research examining accelerated nursing students' course experiences. Future research will provide a deeper understanding of factors impacting upon students undergoing accelerated nursing programs leading to registration. Such knowledge may lead to refinement of existing courses, and the development of more efficacious future programs.
This article gives an account of a case study which seeks to explore the potential for using technology to deliver learning in the workplace: a syringe driver course for nurses. We provide a brief overview of workplace learning, continuing professional development and learning technology in the health sciences. The paper then draws upon a three-year project that involved the transition of a traditionally taught, institution-based face-to-face course to work-based learning using technology. Through the evaluation and discussion of the case study we address key issues that have emerged, such as, marketing of the product; in our case it was decided that the most cost-effective way to provide the course and recuperate some costs was to accredit the course by the Institution. Registered practitioners in the workplace assess learning and are linked to the quality assurance mechanisms of the Institution. We also consider some of the major barriers to implementation, highlighting critical areas for consideration for those undertaking a similar project. These include the lack of technical knowledge in the Group, which resulted in a steep learning curve for all members. This and numerous iterations of materials (including video and animations) lengthened the project considerably whilst technological advances meant other more sophisticated technological solutions that became available during the production process were incorporated. A cost benefit analysis would show that the product has been delivered across Scotland and production costs covered and that there have been unquantifiable gains, including improving the external profile of the academic institution and the NHS Trust, developing the technical skills of the Group and providing invaluable experience of working in a cross-disciplinary collaborative working environment.
This paper explores access to learning resources for nursing students when on placement. It also examines, in parallel, the impact of the move to enquiry based learning has on learning resources use by nursing students. The increased time spent learning in the clinical setting means that a deeper understanding of the use of learning resources by nursing students is necessary. A questionnaire survey was completed by 247 nursing students at Northumbria University around their use of learning resources on placement. This corresponded with focus groups being run with University and NHS providers of learning resources to establish the impact of enquiry based learning. It was found that effective collaboration between different stakeholders was especially important. Nursing students are also becoming increasingly sophisticated in their use of electronic learning resources. The nature of support for effective learning resources use by nursing students whilst on placement in the NHS has also been identified as key. The work has shown that it is very difficult to establish the impact of enquiry based learning on learning resources, as there are so many other variables.
The example of educational provision considered here is an elective module on an Interprofessional Masters programme that demonstrates the use of research based accounts and clinical anecdotes to effect learning and so, potentially, to enhance professional practice. Those who have suffered a significant loss, whether of an individual, or, part of their physical, psychological, social or spiritual selves, will present in most health and social care settings. An educational forum provides the opportunity to explore theory that promotes an understanding of loss and the process of grief as well as an awareness of the levels of support available for the bereaved. The nursing presence in health care has fuelled experienced nurses' adeptness at niche roles, and filling gaps in service provision. Interprofessional education potentially strengthens competence and enhances confidence in cross-boundary working, increasing the permeability of professional boundaries and reflecting role overlap. An interprofessional context also allows a sharing of views that enhances a collegiate ambience. The inherent challenge is to identify the educational process that best makes theory accessible and meaningful in practice. Module evaluation confirmed that students were able to evaluate the relevance of theory in practice and that the teaching sequence that had evolved resembled a modified constructivist format.
The new standards of proficiency for Nurse and Midwife prescribers have been in place for 4 years and have provided a challenge for education providers and students alike. Many students find the pass mark of 100% for numeracy a frightening prospect, the way numeracy is assessed can vary across the higher education institutions adding to the complexity of the problem. Drug calculation remains a challenge for the nursing profession and the standards for numeracy assessment in nurse prescribing add more to the debate.
The concept of counselling as a helping process, focusing attention on the interrelatedness of individuals and their world, is a critical aspect of contemporary nursing. Counselling skills also have implications for nurses involved in mentoring pre-registration nursing students, particularly where accurate, credible and accountable assessment hinges on how well students and mentors have invested in a learning dialogue. Such concerns become especially relevant to those students on the borderline of achieving clinical learning outcomes. This paper highlights a reconstructed narrative between a mentor and this author concerning a student on the borderline of achievement in clinical practice. The use of counselling skills in helping mentors to focus on complex assessment issues relating to pre-registration nursing students are subjected to a detailed critical analysis. The fragility of such encounters is underlined, as well as a need for mentors to engage in reflexive practice.