Nurse Education Today

Published by Elsevier
Online ISSN: 0260-6917
Publications
Article
Despite a growing literature on postmodernism in nursing and other healthcare disciplines, it continues to be dogged by mistrust, misunderstanding and outright hostility. Presenting the philosophy of postmodernism is a particularly difficult task, and most attempts fall into one of two traps: either the writer is a well-read and committed postmodernist in which case the writing tends to make too many assumptions about the background knowledge of the reader; or else the writer has only a passing knowledge of 'popular' postmodernism, in which case the writing often falls back on over-simplistic concepts which do not do justice to the issues and which are often completely misconceived. The problem is further compounded by the difficulty of writing about one discourse (I am using the word in its postmodern sense-all such 'jargon' is explained in the paper) from within a different and potentially hostile one. For the postmodernists, rational debate with their modernist colleagues is all but impossible, since (as we shall see) the logic and language of the dominant discourse of modernism rules out and refuses to acknowledge that of postmodernism (and vice versa). Postmodern texts therefore rely less on rational argument than on persuasive narrative and a deliberate subversion of many of the usual practices of writing. This introduction to postmodernism for healthcare workers attempts to straddle the two discourses in both its form and its content, and offers a mixture of argument, example and speculation.
 
Article
Assessing nurses' practical capability was a challenge in the past as it is today. In 1901 New Zealand established state registration of nurses, with a standardised three-year hospital-based training system and state final examinations. Nurses' practical capability was assessed in an oral and practical examination and in general nursing questions in written medical and surgical nursing papers. This historical research identifies the practical component of nursing assessed in these examinations, categorising it as nursing the patient, the room and the doctor. It considers changes in the nursing profession's view, 1900-1945, of the best way to assess nurses' practical capability. This shifted from the artificial setting of the oral and practical examination held by doctors and matrons, to a process of senior nurses assessing candidates in the more realistic setting of a ward. The research also considers whether the nursing or medical profession defined nursing practice. By the end of the time period, the nursing profession was claiming for itself the right to both determine and assess the practical component of nursing.
 
Article
The purpose of this article is to explore the ambiguous position of sister tutors, within the nursing and hospital hierarchy between 1918 and 1960. The function of the sister tutor was to train the probationers (student nurses). However, I will argue that the students' education was to come second to the service needs of the hospital, the authority of the matron and desire of the medical profession to maintain control over the nursing curriculum and nursing practice. Therefore sister tutors were caught 'in-between' several opposing forces which together militated against the individual sister tutor's work and the ability of the nursing profession to recruit adequate numbers of senior nurses into the classroom. The recruitment issue was further hampered by the widespread knowledge that much of the sister tutor's work was not student education at all, but organising lectures by medical staff and marking students' notes. In order to gauge the 'official' attitudes to the sister tutors and also the experiences of those who either worked as sister tutors or were taught by them, I used both archival and oral evidence in the research for this article. Pseudonyms have been used throughout for the oral history respondents.
 
Article
The recent decision from the Nursing and Midwifery Council to make nursing a graduate profession has for some been the culmination of over a century of expectation. From the 1890s there were voices within the nursing and medical professions that nursing should be taught in universities. The purpose of this article is to explore two attempts in the mid-20th century to establish a degree in nursing at an English University; neither of which was successful. It will be demonstrated that there were too many conflicting ideas and personalities for these to have been achieved. The doctors wanted skilled assistants, many in the nursing profession considered that nurses should have 'common-sense, courtesy and kindness', in that order, the universities considered nursing to be a practical vocation, and the governments did not want the increased spending that such a move would necessitate.
 
Article
The aim of this study is to identify what were desirable and undesirable student nurse characteristics in the 1950/1960s and relate them to those who had successfully completed the programme and gained State Registration and those who had not. A further aim was to undertake comparisons with modern day values of what are viewed as desirable traits in nurses. In the 1950/1960s student nurses were hospital employees. Nurse training was based in hospital training schools and coordinated by sister tutors. Learning about nursing largely took place in clinical settings where there was limited supervision of student nurses by qualified nurses. Content analysis approaches were used whereby positive and negative comments related to successful and unsuccessful completers were identified. Data were extracted from individual training records relating to 641 student nurses. The records dated from 1955 to 1968. Clinical and training school reports were summarized by senior hospital figures such as the hospital matron. These reports were the focus of the analysis. Desirable student nurse traits identified in the analysis were being a 'nice person', who is kind, compassionate and attentive to patients, conscientious, bright and intelligent. Other values such as being hard-working, reliable and punctual reflect that the students studied were primarily employees. Amenable to discipline and unquestioningly obeying a doctor's order also were part of the conventions of the time. Most negative comments related to the unsuccessful completers. New insights into what was viewed as desirable and undesirable nursing characteristics in the 1950/1960s are identified. These insights have national and international relevance.
 
Article
The aim of this article is to examine the experiences of the first 25 years of undergraduate nurses at the University of Edinburgh using a quantitative historical methodology. In 1960, the University of Edinburgh, Nursing Studies Unit commenced the first undergraduate degree with nursing in the United Kingdom. By 1967, nursing was a component of the academic award itself. A questionnaire was sent to 225 graduates of nursing at the University of Edinburgh through the alumni office. The questionnaire combined biographical data and a Likert scale. DATA/RESULTS: Quantitative data can provide the historian with wide-ranging information about large groups of people, in this case undergraduate nurses. Although some of the responses may be more positive than what the participants felt at the time, the material provides useful information as to the experiences of early undergraduate nurses. This article has generated a previously unknown material related to the experiences of the early undergraduate nurses at Edinburgh. For example, the respondents did not feel that the course was too difficult and it appears that the University was accepting nursing as an academic subject. The additional qualitative data provided by the respondents has offered potential for further study.
 
Article
Twenty years ago The Fleming Nuffield Child Psychiatry Unit, under the aegis of the Adult Education Department of the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, began a new post registration course for training registered nurses in the psychological management of children and adolescents. The writer, who participated in the first training scheme is now honorary tutor to the course, gives a practical account of her experience and views.
 
Article
When nurse education has moved away from a hospital based apprenticeship to a higher education institutions and new EU legislature enabled nurse workforce mobility, the term "competence" became an important concept in nurse education and practice. However, there is still a lot of confusion about its definition, how it should be assessed and implemented and which competences does a contemporary nurse need. To find publishing patterns in the nursing competence research literature production, focusing on publishing dynamics, identifying prolific research entities, most cited papers, and visualising the content of the research. A bibliometric analysis of 370 information sources (288 original papers and 82 review articles) found in the Scopus database using the search string "nursing competenc*" for the period 1981-2012 was conducted. The SciMago database was used to identify country and source title ranks. Common elements of bibliometric data were extracted from each information source. Descriptive, correspondence and text analyses were used on the retrieved bibliometric data. The production of research literature has a positive trend. The research on nursing competences is being performed on all five continents, however is not yet published in top journals. Most prolific countries are the United States of America, the United Kingdom and Australasia, and most prolific source titles are the Journal of clinical nursing, the Journal of nursing education and Public health nursing. The results confirmed the still persisting confusion in the definition of the competence and the emergence of the need for defining new nursing competences. Study confirmed that there are still open questions in the nursing competence research that will require actions on different levels including policy makers, educators and practising nurses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
 
Article
Interest in profiling of student progress has spread in recent years from general education. Nurse educationalists have been searching for alternative methods of monitoring continuous assessment schemes. The advantages, disadvantages and rationale for the introduction of student profiling of clinical progress into a mental health nursing course are discussed. The role, function and support required by clinical supervisors are considered in the operationalisation of a 'Profile Grids' format of student profiling. An example of a student profile document for a psychodynamic nursing elective experience is included, depicting statements of competence set out in profile grids format. Guidelines for completion of documentation and monitoring of the Central Manchester Health Authority scheme are also described.
 
Article
There is little doubt that changes in the National Health Service (Government White Paper 1989), the amalgamations of Schools/Colleges of Nursing and often Midwifery and their links with Higher Education will have significant implications for the provision and education of future health care teachers. This paper discusses three key features which emerge from the development of an undergraduate course for preparing health care teachers; the development of specialisms for teachers; the multi-faceted role of the teacher; the reflective practitioner. Central to the success of the course is the notion of 'Partnership' both with the students and the Education Centres providing practice experience. Partnership with the students is exemplified by the experiential nature of the course. Partnership with Accredited Education Centres has resulted in a shift of the locus of control from Higher Education to the practice setting thereby acknowledging the equal status of the partners. It is within this framework that three key features are explored.
 
Article
The development of Project 2000 will lead to the reorganisation of nursing knowledge as nurse education enters higher education. This paper explores the implications of these changes for the future of role of nurse teachers and the new choices for professional development as teachers evolve into nursing theorists, lecturer practitioners and educational managers. The paper also explores changing pedagogic relationships with students, changing assessment strategies, their new supernumerary position in clinical environments, and reference groups likely to be selected by students. Finally it examines the ways in which links with higher education and the contributions of non-nurse academics may lead to the reorganisation of course management structures.
 
Article
For over a decade general education has been aware of the advantages of linking initial teacher training with in-service provision for qualified teachers. This relationship brings together student teachers and qualified experienced teachers in a way that is mutually beneficial to both parties. It provides opportunities for the student to observe and reflect on the teaching style and approaches of established professionals who in turn will gain much from working closely with trainers and students from colleges of education. This paper develops a series of issues relating to IT-INSET including educational accountability, reflective practice, and the provision of quality education.
 
Article
This paper considers some of the evidence that can help nurse teachers more effectively prepare nurses for practice. In particular it is concerned with how students learn and how teachers can improve the learning environment. There are four main sections to the paper. The first looks at learning styles and considers the importance of matching teaching style to the learning style of the student. The second section considers the research into the process of integrating theory and practice in nursing education and the relationship between theory, the classroom and the clinical area. The next section of the paper looks at factors influencing the process of becoming a nurse. Socialising agents such as people and techniques are reviewed in the light of research evidence from nursing and similar professions. Finally the paper represents a series of ways in which it is possible to assess and improve the learning environment for the student nurse, including human aspects, equipment and information.
 
Article
With the development of Project 2000, nurse education is being increasingly drawn into higher education with the expansion of diploma and degree courses. This paper explores the implications of these new relationships, drawing on the sociology of the curriculum and education in its analyses. It examines the impact of these changes on the professional standing of nurses and nursing and the reorganisation of the curricular codes that underpin nurse education. A movement towards higher education will introduce a new educational culture into nurse training and the wide multi-disciplinary base of nursing knowledge and practice will offer new challenges to nurse educators. The changes in nurse education add a new dynamic to the old tensions between academic and vocational training and raise new questions about the relationship of nurse education to the academic tribalism of higher education.
 
Article
Within the last decade nurse educators have been required to introduce research into the curriculum of every pre- and post-registration programme. This has lead to a debate concerning what practitioners need to know about research and about the best way to teach the research component of any educational programme. Two main approaches may be identified: facilitating research awareness and learning research by 'doing'. Both approaches raise a number of logistical and ethical problems. Certain of these problems are compounded by the large numbers of nurses who may be required to undertake a research project as a course component. Moreover, the absence of research evidence about the most effective means of educating nurses to become discerning consumers of research leaves the teacher without a sound framework to guide educational practice. In the light of recent educational reforms, this paper considers the unprecedented opportunities for nurse and midwife teachers to explore the role of research in the curriculum and in teaching.
 
Article
The learning of biosciences is well-documented to be problematic as students find the subjects amongst the most difficult and anxiety-provoking of their pre-registration programme. Studies suggest that learning consequently is not at the level anticipated by the profession. Curriculum innovations might improve the situation but the effectiveness of applied interventions has not been evaluated. To undertake an integrative review and narrative synthesis of curriculum interventions and evaluate their effect on the learning of biosciences by pre-registration student nurses. Review methods A systematic search of electronic databases CINAHL, Medline, British Nursing Index and Google Scholar for empirical research studies was designed to evaluate the introduction of a curriculum intervention related to the biosciences, published in 1990-2012. Studies were evaluated for design, receptivity of the intervention and impact on bioscience learning. The search generated fourteen papers that met inclusion criteria. Seven studies introduced on-line learning packages, five an active learning format into classroom teaching or practical sessions, and two applied Audience Response Technology as an exercise in self-testing and reflection. Almost all studies reported a high level of student satisfaction, though in some there were access/utilization issues for students using on-line learning. Self-reporting suggested positive experiences, but objective evaluation suggests that impacts on learning were variable and unconvincing even where an effect on course progress was identified. Adjunct on-line programmes also show promise for supporting basic science or language acquisition. Published studies of curriculum interventions, including on-line support, have focused too heavily on the perceived benefit to students rather than objective measures of impact on actual learning. Future studies should include rigorous assessment evaluations within their design if interventions are to be adopted to reduce the 'bioscience problem'.
 
Article
This paper reports on a four-year longitudinal study of the implementation of Project 2000. Interviews were conducted with a variety of staff involved in the changes, as well as with a sample of students who were seen at several points during the course and once after completion. The rationale for adopting a qualitative methodology is explored and the strengths of this approach for gaining an understanding of such a complex series of changes are outlined. Some of the findings pertaining to the introduction of the Diploma course are presented and some points for consideration as courses are reviewed and developed are included.
 
Article
In this paper the author argues that two major issues for nurse educational planning in the 1990s are developing a higher education ethos within the colleges and the contracts for educational provision. Underpinning each is the concept of educational accountability.
 
Article
The main purpose of the study was to identify nursing students' orientations to nursing, their experiences of caring and nursing, the meaning of nursing and the expectations applied to a nursing career, and to report the changes in the orientations between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s. Another aim was to determine the extent to which students' age, sex, having children, pre-educational caring experiences and intentions to leave nursing might explain the changes in nursing orientations. There is a worldwide shortage of nurses but at the same time there is an ever decreasing number of applicants that are entering nursing education. Young people are less interested in choosing nursing as a career option than they were one or two decades ago. A sample of 426 nursing students in 1997 and 660 students in 2006-2007 from the Universities of Applied Sciences in different parts of Finland completed a questionnaire containing questions concerning the students' background factors and 26 Likert-type statements concerning their nursing orientations. The following orientations were identified: personal responsibility, idealistic nursing, selfactualization, and family centrality. Statistically significant changes were found in all of the orientations between the two periods. Fewer nursing students in the 2000s were oriented to idealistic nursing or emphasised self-actualization. Instead, there were more family centrality oriented nursing students in the mid-2000s than in the mid-1990s. The results reflect the changes in the student generation applying for nursing education. The results challenge nurse educators to use teaching methods that promote students' awareness of their individual nursing orientations.
 
Article
Clinical teaching has become increasingly complex and difficult for nursing instructors. Pressures for public accountability in nursing education and patient care, economic stresses, marked changes in the nursing curricula, and the growth of collective bargaining units have all complicated the task of educating student nurses. Traditional issues focusing on teaching strategies, academic and clinical evaluation concerns have been extensively researched. What are the current issues facing nurse educators? Our project aimed to identify some current student nurse issues in selected nursing programmes. Using a convenience sample, data were collected from the chairmen of nursing education in selected agencies. Analysis following the Fox and Diamond framework (1965) revealed recurring issues relating to mature students, stress and the clinical environment, and the mentor needs are a few of the issues discussed in this paper.
 
Article
This paper concerns the impact of disability legislation on nurse education, nurse educators and student nurses, in relation to academic work and clinical placement, with regard to dyslexia. The two United Kingdom acts considered are the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA), 1995 and the Special Educational Needs and Disability Act (SENDA), 2001, which is an amendment to the DDA. The paper examines and defines the main points of the acts, such as discrimination; less favourable treatment and its justification; reasonable adjustments; making adjustments in advance; disclosure and confidentiality requests; substantial disadvantage; current systems and regulations and concludes by raising issues which require clarification.
 
Article
Primary source material related to St Mary's Hospital, Paddington and the London Homoeopathic Hospital, and St Marylebone and Kensington Infirmaries, from the late 19th to the early 20th century is examined. Descriptions of nurse probationers by matrons and sisters are analysed. Character traits rather than intellectual ability are stressed as important. More recent literature, from the 1970s till the present time, is examined to chart the shift in terms of prescription for nurse socialisation, with increasing stress on the nurse as 'knowledgeable doer'.
 
Article
Healthcare educators face numerous challenges including technological change, information overload, and the need to maintain clinical expertise and research knowledge across multiple specialities. Students also need to develop their capacity for critical thinking, using and discriminating between diverse sources of knowledge in order to advance their own practice. To investigate student perceptions of the affordances of a novel web 2.0-based tool--the Web Resource Appraisal Process (WRAP), designed to support the development of critical thinking skills, and to identify how student's understanding of critical thinking and their use of web 2.0 resources might inform the cross-disciplinary development of the WRAP. A two phase, action research study of student perceptions of the WRAP and their ability to source and identify valid information sources. Implemented at the University of South Australia, development of the WRAP is an international project with the University of Westminster, UK. Students from international locations participated in the project. A mixed methods approach was adopted involving a two phase action research study. In phase one, student perceptions of the WRAP were obtained using a modified course feedback questionnaire. This informed the development of a subsequent questionnaire used to survey student perceptions of their usage of online resources, the ease of access of such resources and their approaches to determining their validity. Results suggest that students mainly use traditional resources when preparing work for assessment and they either do not understand the concept of, or do not exercise, critical thinking skills in such activities. However, the feedback from students using the WRAP, demonstrated that they found it instructive and useful. To ensure that practice developments are based on authoritative evidence, students need to develop critical thinking skills which may be facilitated by tools such as the WRAP.
 
Article
The need for academic validation of Project 2000 courses has implications for schools/colleges who intend to offer such courses. These include not only academic aspects of the course curriculum, but also the development of students and the need for joint validation. In this paper, these aspects are discussed from the particular perspective of university accreditation, but it is probable that most of the issues raised will be relevant irrespective of the validating body. The issues will have been the concern of nurse educators in the past, and the intention here is to place these issues in the context of academic validation. The paper is based on the writers' experience of taking part in the validation of such a course, as a university lecturer who has also worked in a school of nursing.
 
Article
This article explores the theory-practice gap in the context of Project 2000. Drawing on the findings of empirical research into the implementation of Project 2000 in one district health authority, we conclude that tensions between education and service staff have far from disappeared with the advent of Project 2000. The article discusses firstly the difference in emphasis between education and service staff over the question of equipping students with practical skills during their Common Foundation Programme. Secondly, we discuss the fact that whilst educationalists are intent on fostering self-directed learning in students, service staff are more concerned with producing safe practitioners. The article concludes on an optimistic note, suggesting that although service and education staff may differ in the relative importance they attach to teaching students particular types of skill; and although they may be operating on different timescales, fundamental disagreements between the two groups are absent.
 
Article
The changes in nursing education underway in the UK and the USA are designed to educate a new type of practitioner. These new practitioners will be emancipated, critically reflective, creative and autonomous in their practice. This paper looks at the progress of the revolution, with particular reference to the UK, by critically examining the literature arising out of it. The implications for nursing education and educators are examined.
 
Article
The following edited papers were presented at a National Conference in March 1990 under the Chairmanship of Mr Colin Ralph, Registrar and Chief Executive of the United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting. Portsmouth District, Royal Naval and Royal Isle of Wight School of Nursing and Midwifery, The Associate School of Health Studies Portsmouth Polytechnic organised this day conference to describe how one integrated school of nursing is tackling the radical changes in nurse education and the new initiatives that are taking place. These papers have been collated for a special edition of Network. Papers: Managing the dynamic organisation — Jean Hooper MSc, BA, RG, RGN, RNT; From Project 2000 to diploma of higher education — curriculum and course development — Susan Frost MPhil, BA, RGN, HV, RNT Principal; curriculum development and research — Project 2000: the higher education context — Mark Mitchell BA, MSc, Head of School of Social and Historical Studies, Postsmouth Polytechnic; A District General Manager's perspective — Christopher West MSc, AHSM, District General Manager, Portsmouth & South East Hampshire Health Authority.
 
Article
Project 2000 was established in the UK in 1984. The project report, published 2 years later, embraced the whole of the educational system for nursing, midwifery and health visiting. It is useful, 10 years on, to note what actually happened in what became an enormous undertaking and the biggest ever change in nursing, midwifery and health visiting training. But how well were policy formulation and implementation planned? Has the policy process been successful? What are the outcomes to date? This policy review chronicles policy initiation and formulation, decisions within the political system and policy outputs, implementation and outcomes in the context of the environment, using a combination of two policy models as the guiding framework. The focus is on implementation in England. The extent to which the original proposals in the project report have been realized is identified, together with policy changes and additions which occurred during the policy process. This macro-review of the whole of the policy process avoids the common faults of separating policy initiation from its implementation, or policy content from policy process. The record will enable past actions and events to be taken into account in the context of future plans for the 21st century.
 
Article
It is evident that the Scottish colleges have designed and provided very different curricular arrangements to support students' learning to practise in placements. Evaluation has demonstrated that some of these arrangements are of fundamental importance in facilitating or constraining the educational experience of students, including opportunities for reflection on experience, students' preparation for placements, the role of tutors in students' placement learning, the preparation of mentors and the utility of instruments for the assessment of students' practice-based learning. In addition to the formal provision in support of students' learning to work, students have developed their own informal strategies in order to meet their (sometimes conflicting) needs to maximize practical learning opportunities, ease entry into the nursing team and achieve favourable assessment of learning. Some of these involve working in order to learn. This paper is based on the work of the National Board-funded Evaluation of Project 2000 in Scotland (1992–96). The remit of the evaluation was to examine the teaching/learning processes of the Project 2000 nursing programmes and the new midwifery programmes, and their relationship to the educational outcomes for individual students, giving particular emphasis to the experience of students.
 
Article
High wastage rates associated with the nursing profession were a contributory factor driving recent reforms in the form of Project 2000 (P2000). Such changes beg the question: to what extent has this new educational initiative affected current wastage patterns among nursing students? This paper examines whether or not this new initiative is having an effect on student wastage at a first-wave college of nursing, midwifery and health visiting which implemented P2000 in 1989. Thus far, 10 cohorts of students have been admitted on to the course, seven full-time and three part-time. It is hoped other institutions involved in nurse education and training may gain some beneficial insights from the lessons learnt and measures taken to stem wastage at the college described in this case study.
 
Article
The author's recent research study (Project 2000 assessment of clinical competence: an investigation) plus others (Jowett et al 1991, McEwen et al 1993, Davies et al 1994) have highlighted the Project 2000 students' need for a survival kit in the form of 'practical skills' before going to their allocated practice placements. Interviews at three colleges of nursing and midwifery with 70 students and 80 practitioners and data from 300 student questionnaires and 155 named practitioner questionnaires confirm that which has been echoed ever since Project 2000 began. Students have expressed anxieties and worry about their perceived lack of preparation by the college tutorial staff for practice placements. Their concerns fall into three main categories: (1) fear of doing the patients harm; (2) not belonging to the nursing/caring team; and (3) not being fully competent on registration. Students believe that if they are given the opportunities to practise nursing procedures and caring skills which they and nurse practitioners identify as 'basic nursing care' needed to care for patients without fear of endangering them and feel secure and provide a sense of belonging by being part of the caring team, irrespective of the length of the exposure to that client group and caring team, then their fears and insecurities will be alleviated.
 
Article
This research paper gives an account of an unique initiative using interactive drama with Project 2000 student nurses, to facilitate health promotion with pupils at secondary school level. Through an open-ended play lasting 12 minutes (entitled Debbie) and workshops, student nurses communicated sexual health promotion and how to make choices to a group of 14-18 year olds in a large comprehensive school. The initiative, which uses participant action research (Altricher 1993), was designed to assess whether student nurses could effectively communicate health promotion to pupils with whom they were comparable in age, and the educative effects on the students as a result of engaging in the initiative. It was clear from the findings that several student nurses were unprepared for the impact that the initiative would have on them. The play had immense power and they had empathy with the pupils. Perceived personal and professional benefits gained by the students (as reported by them) included a sense of belonging, more independence, more openness, less inhibition, increased knowledge, improved communication skills, confidence, assertiveness, self-esteem, and the ability to educate people. The author argues that a creative approach to teaching the theoretical underpinning of health promotion alongside practical dramatic skills of communication to empower, as well as promote change, can enable effective facilitation amongst young people.
 
Article
This paper discusses an attempt to introduce liberal studies into a Project 2000 nurse education course. The paper reviews the origins of liberal studies and other attempts to nurture the 'whole person' in further and higher education, and describes a 'contract learning' approach to liberal studies adopted at one college of nursing. The results of an evaluative questionnaire completed by students about the liberal studies component of the course are outlined, and the implications discussed.
 
Article
Project 2000 has changed the role of nurse teachers. Thus evaluation of Project 2000 should incorporate a theoretical framework that not only evaluates the individual school/college of nursing curriculum but also enhances the teachers' professional development. This paper suggests that teacher professional development would be enhanced by teacher self-evaluation (action research). A collaborative approach between teachers and an evaluation co-ordinator would ensure that the quality of the curriculum is maintained (MacDonald 1991). It is argued that the implementation of monitored innovation would fulfil the criteria for the developing school/college of nursing put forward by Holly et al (1989).
 
Article
The contribution of nursing homes to nurse education in the UK is growing. This article presents educational issues raised by nine senior Nurse Managers from nursing homes in one Scottish health board. The Managers were interviewed as part of a larger Scottish study of employers' views of the skills of newly qualified Project 2000 staff nurses. Perceptions of the adequacy of the skills of newly qualified diplomates in first staff nurse posts in nursing homes following registration were explored. Impressions were mixed but generally favourable. The perceived strengths - confidence, knowledge and a questioning approach, and perceived limitations - in practical and organisational skills, matched closely those of senior Nurse Managers in the NHS sector. Managers noted the significance for learning of the business and customer care ethos of nursing home care and of the exacting skill requirements of specialist and increasingly acute care demands within this sector. There was uncertainty about and concern to strengthen preceptorship support. Matters for debate include the adequacy of telephone support versus in person on-site support for newly qualified nurses, whether expectations of initial performance are realistic and whether skill requirements differ between independent and NHS sectors. The potential value of NHS and independent health care inter-sectoral dialogue and networking is suggested.
 
Article
As part of an English National Board funded research study, the authors sent questionnaires to 2500 individuals with community nursing qualifications. The survey was complemented by a series of interviews with community nurse managers. Data indicated that community nurses were spending very considerable amounts of time with students. The number of placements provided per year varied considerably from one respondent to another, as did the average duration of a placement. Community nurses were providing community experience for a variety of types of nursing students, as well as students of other professions, and the time commitment involved placed them under considerable strain. The authors conclude that there is a need to recognise the time given by community nurses to work with students, and the resource implications of this commitment.
 
Article
This paper discusses the findings related to the perceptions of nurse teachers regarding the preparation for their role in Project 2000 programmes. Data were collected by utilising three rounds of a Delphi survey with a panel of experts made up of Grade 2 nurse teachers. The panel of 201 respondents was obtained from 25 of the 28 colleges of nursing and midwifery that had implemented Project 2000 between September 1989 and April 1991. The profile of the respondents revealed that 68% work in general nurse courses, 18% in mental health, 8% in mental handicap and 6% in child care. Over half of the respondents hold a degree related to health care and over a quarter are studying for one. The findings suggest that the nurse teachers working in Project 2000 programmes consider their teacher preparation course an important means of preparation for the activities within their role. Degree and diploma courses are also considered important along with additional professional qualifying courses and subject related courses. What did not appear evident was any preparation for the many specific activities they carry out apart from teaching. Experience came out strongly as an important means of preparation for all the activities. Staff development programmes were said by 52% of respondents to be organised within their colleges and perceived by many as an important means of preparation.
 
Article
In the UK, Project 2000 nurse education, introduced over the last eight years, aimed to increase the professional status of nurses and enhance skills, focusing on wider community care. This paper reports some of the results from a research project conducted between 1994 and 1996, funded by the Department of Health (Project 2000 Fitness for Purpose 1996). It was hypothesized that the changes in Project 2000 training might attract those more academically qualified and lead to more rapid career progression. The results found in this study did not support either of these hypotheses and suggestions are made about the reasons for the negative findings.
 
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