Nuclear Engineering and Technology

Online ISSN: 1738-5733
Publications
Article
Many kinds of procedures have been used to reduce the operators' workload throughout various industries, such as in the aviation, the chemical and the nuclear industry. It is remarkable that, however, significant portion of accidents or incidents was caused by procedure related human error due to non-compliance of procedures.In this study, to investigate the operators' non-compliance behavior, emergency-training records were collected using a full scope simulator. And three types of the operators' behavior (such as strict adherence, skipping redundant actions and modifying action sequences) observed from collected emergency training records were compared with both their work experience and the complexity of procedural steps.As the results, three remarkable relationships are obtained. They are: (1) the operators who have an intermediate work experience seem to frequently adopt non-compliance behavior to conduct the procedural steps, (2) the operators seem to frequently adopt non-compliance behavior to conduct the procedural steps that have an intermediate procedural complexity, and (3) the senior reactor operators seem to accommodate their non-compliance behavior based on the complexity of procedural steps. Therefore, it is expected that these relationships can be used as meaningful clues not only to scrutinize the reason for non-compliance behavior but also to suggest appropriate remedies for the reduction of non-compliance behavior that can result in procedure related human error.
 
Article
In complex systems such as the nuclear and chemical industry, the importance of human performance related problems is well recognized. Thus a lot of effort has been spent on this area, and one of the main streams for unraveling human performance related problems is the execution of HRA. Unfortunately a lack of prerequisite information has been pointed out as the most critical problem in conducting HRA. From this necessity, OPERA database that can provide operators’ performance data obtained under simulated emergencies has been developed. In this study, typical operators’ performance data that are available from OPERA database are briefly explained. After that, in order to ensure the appropriateness of OPERA database, operators’ performance data from OPERA database are compared with those of other studies and real events. As a result, it is believed that operators’ performance data of OPERA database are fairly comparable to those of other studies and real events. Therefore it is meaningful to expect that OPERA database can be used as a serviceable data source for scrutinizing human performance related problems including HRA.
 
Article
Directional correlation measurements for the Co-60 and Cs-134 cascade gamma-rays have been performed in the angular range from 90 to 180 by use of the fast coincidence scintillation spectrometer incorporated with a gamma-ray polarimeter based on the Compton scattering effect to determine the polarization correlations. The experimental method together with the theoretical background is described, and the results are shown graphically to represent the consistency of the measurement with approximate theoretical estimates.
 
Article
The wall thickness of a pressure tube is increased in order to reduce the probability of failure in a pressure tube of CANDU type reactor. It is presented here that the variation of wall thickness changes stress, hydrogen concentration and delayed hydride cracking in Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube. When the wall thickness is increased from 4.2 mm to 5.2 mm, the stress exerted on the tube and the deuterium taken up during operation are reduced by 19%. Further, the calculated allowable depth of the surface flaw over which delayed hydride cracking(DHC) is susceptible increases by 50%. DHC initiation is controlled by the stress and by the hydrogen concentration in the pressure tube. The results are therefore very significant in such a respect that increased wall thickness may reduce DHC initiation. Ac the wall thickness increases the hydrostatic tension will increase. Its impact on the acceleration of the crack growth rate of DHC deserves further studies.
 
Article
Hydride blisters were formed on the outer surface of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube by a non- uniform steady thermal diffusion process. A thermal gradient was applied to the pressure tube with a heat bath kept at a temperature of 415 and an aluminum cold finger cooled with flowing water of 15. Optical microscopy and tree-dimensional laser profilometry were used to characterize the hydride blisters with different hydrogen concentrations and thermal diffusion time. Hydride blisters were expected to start at a hydrogen concentration of 30 - 70 ppm and a thermal diffusion time of 4 - 610 sec. The hydride blister size increases with higher hydrogen concentrations and longer thermal diffusion time . Some of the samples revealed cracks on the hydride blisters. The ratio of hydride blister depth to height was estimated as approximately 8: 1.
 
Article
This study is to assess the effects of increasing wall thickness on the safety margin of pressure tube in operating and of lowering initial hydrogen concentration on the DHC growth in respect to the improvement of the reliability of pressure tube in CANDU reactors. The pressure tube with thicker wall of 5.2 mm shows much higher safety margin for flaw tolerance by 25% than the current 4.2mmm tube. The thicker pressure tubes have a great benefit in LBB assessment including the initial crack depth at which DHC occurs, the crack length at onset of leaking and the available time for action. The resistance for the pressure tube ballooning at LOCA accident is also increased with the thicker tube. The calculations for Heq concentration after 20 years of operation as a function of wall thickness and initial hydrogen concentration show that the 5.2 mm nil thickness tube with 5 ppm initial hydrogen concentration is the most resistant to DHC. with the lower initial hydrogen concentration, TSS temperature for the precipitation or hydride decreases and the crack growth during cooldown reduces.
 
Article
3-PM liquid scintillation counting using the geometry-efficiency variation technique has been applied to the activity measurement of , which decays to and E.C., respectively. The TDCR values K have been derived over a wide range, 0.78 < K < 0.97, by displacing the detectors up to 50 mm away from an unquenched liquid scintillation sample . The derived plots of the logic sums of double coincidences very K vary linearly in the observed regions. The fractions of losses due to electron capture decay have been taken into account by employing a PENELOPE Monte Carlo simulation. The calibrated activity is 102.3 kBq at a reference date of July 1st, 2002 (UT) with a combined uncertainty of . This is consistent with the value determined by means of the CIEMAT/NIST method at KRISS.
 
Article
The experimental fission cross-section data of U-238, Np-237 and Th-232, published up to the end of 1970, are reviewed and analyzed between their respective thresholds and 20.0 MeV. The results of a statistical analysis of the available data, performed with a weighted Least-squares Orthogonal Polynomial Pitting computer programme are presented in the form of point-wise cross-section values together with their uncertainties, and in the form of graphs of the fitted curves with an indication of a region of 95% statistical confidence level. An estimate of the fission spectrum weighted average cross-sections and their respective uncertainties is also given.
 
Article
For tile rapid production of fluorine-18 for medical use, the up-to-date methods of separation such as the recoil separation, the alumina column chromatography, and the distillation are reviewed. The amount of the residue, the gamma emitting impurity, and the tritium content in the product obtained by each separation method are determined. The product obtained by the nuclear recoil separation or by the alumina column chromatography is inferior to that obtained by the distillation in the purity point of view. Thus, the separation by the distillation is tile most effective especially in the case of using a natural lithium carbonate target. Carrier free fluorine-18 of about 2 mCi can routinely be produced by irradiating 7g of the natural lithium carbonate under the neutron flux of about 110 n//sec for 3 hrs, and subsequent separation by the distillation. The over-all processing time is 35-40n1in.
 
Article
In order to clarify an effective procedure of labelling organic chloro compounds by Cl, phenyl chloro derivatives(7 kinds), chloro nitrobenzenes(6 kinds), chloro anisoles(2 kinds), chloro anilines(3 kinds), chloro toluenes(3 kinds), benzyl cholorides(4 kinds), and other comparing samples(3 kinds) were irradiated in the TRIGA Mark-II research reactor and the inorganic Cl yields were compared with the irradiation times after extracting the inorganic portion with an aqueous solution of alkali. It was found that the relative change between the inorganic Cl yield and the irradiadiation time depends a great deal on the state of the sample, and a solid sample gave a lower and steady inorganic yield. The inorganic Cl yield was decreased in the order of phenyl chloro derivatives < chloro tol uene
 
Article
The objective of this study is to evaluate the reliability of the High Head Safety Injection System (HHIS) of KNU 5, 6, 7 and 8 following the removal of safety injection signal (s-signal) from the mini-flow bypass line valves of charging/safety injection pumps. The unavailability of HHSIS and the rupture probability of a charging/safety injection pump have been computed for two different cases; with s-signal on and removed. The results show that when the s-signal is removed from the mini-flow bypass line valves, the unavailability of HHSIS slightly increases while the rupture probability of a charging/safety injection pump is significantly reduced. Hence, based upon the results of this study we conclude that it is more reasonable to remove the s-signal from the mini-flow bypass line valves of KNU 5, 6, 7 and 8 in the normal plant operation. And to improve the availability of HHSIS, the modification of operational procedures and the emphasis on operator training are recommended.
 
Article
Fatigue tests in air and in room temperature water were performed to obtain comparable data and stable crack measuring conditions. In air environment, fatigue crack growth rate was increased with increasing temperature due to an increase in crack tip oxidation rate. In room temperature water, the fatigue crack growth rate was faster than in air and crack path varied on loading conditions. In simulated light water reactor (LWR) conditions, there was little environmental effect on the fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) at low dissolved oxygen or at high loading frequency conditions. While the FCGR was enhanced at high oxygen condition, and the enhancement of crack growth rate increased as loading frequency decreased to a critical value. In fractography, environmentally assisted cracks, such as semi-cleavage and secondary intergranular crack, were found near sulfide inclusions only at high dissolved oxygen and low loading frequency condition. The high crack growth rate was related to environmentally assisted crack. These results indicated that environmentally assisted crack could be formed by the Electrochemical effect in specific loading condition.
 
Article
The gamma-ray shielding effects of magnetite concretes have been measured using a broad beam Co-60 gamma-ray source. Mathematical formulae for a trans-mission ratio-to-shield thickness relation were derived from the attenuation curve obtained experimentally and are I (x) = I (ο) exp(-X) exp(1.0310 X-3.3810 X+5.2910 X) when X< 20 cm, I (x) =I (ο) exp(-X) exp(4.6610 X+2.1210 ) when X>20 cm. Here I (x) is radiation intensity after passing through a thickness X of absorber, I(o) is the initial radiation intensity, is the linear attenuation coefficient of magnetite concrete and is given by (0.0532+ 0.0083) / in accordance with an earlier study, and X is the thickness of absorber. In addition, a model shield which is a rectangular magnetite concrete box with walls of 8cm thickness walls and internal demensions of 404040 cm was constructed and its shielding effect has been measured. The emergent radiation flux appears to be greater with this configuration than with a slab shield of equal thickness.
 
Article
The reaction cross-sections of Ti(p,X) V, Fe(p,X) Co, Cu(p,X) Zn and Mo(p,X) Tc for TLA application are calculated in the frame of the ECIS-GNASH code system up to 60 MeV. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data taken from the EXFOR at the NEA Data Bank. A preliminary calculation with the global optical parameters of Varner et al. shows considerable differences from the experimental data at low energy range. The global optical parameters for the imaginary volume potential and the diffuseness of the imaginary potential are adjusted to achieve a better description of the experimental data in the vicinities of peak position below 16 MeV. 16 MeV.
 
Article
This paper presents an approach to control that if a result of modern control theory, and is based on tile control philosophy of feeding back all tile state variable through constant gain frequency independent elements. The values of these elements or feedback coefficients are determined by equating like coefficients of the desired system transfer function to the transfer function of the system containing the unspecified coefficient s. This application of modern control law is a simple design method depending on feedingback all the system variables for reactor control and it is particuraly amenable to the control of Pressurized Water Reactor.
 
Article
In order to evaluate the effect of gamma ray irradiation to the soils added with several organic matters on release sad fixation of , a soil incubation test was carried out by use of an acidic and a calcareous soil. The results obtained were summarized as follows : DTPA extractable decreased gradually with elapsed time of incubation owing to fixation of by the soils but after four weeks DTPA extractable was reached an equilibrium state. The most parts of activity in the equilibrium state was found in the solid phase. The extent of zinc fixation in acidic Keumgok and calcareous Jecheon soils represented as activity basis was 89 and 93.7 per cent of applied respectively. Increased tendency of DTPA extractable zinc was shown by irradiating gamma ray to both soils because of fixation could be decreased by irradiation. The extractability of fixed by DTPA solution was 38.9 per cent in acidic Keumgok soil and only 9.5 per cent in calcareous Jecheon soil. Release of fixed by irradiation of gamma ray is closely related to pH of both soils. Much more could be released under low pH condition. Effect of gamma ray irradiation to organic matter sources on release of could not be differentiated. But in the case of nonirradiated soils, however, glucose treated soils couldrelease much more the extractable zinc as compared to those of the straw or cellulose treatment.
 
Article
The levels of strontium-90 in milk produced in Korea were determined during the past six years. Milk samples were collected from dairies and market shops in seoul area. Strontium-90 in milk was separated from calcium using fuming nitric acid and purified radiochemically. After seculear equilibrium was completed, the radioactivity of yttrium-90 was counted in a low background beta counting system. The determination of stable calcium in milk was also made by volu-metric method using 0. 1 N potassium permanganate solution. The highest value of 34.9 pCi Sr/g-Ca was determined in August, 1966 and the lowest value was 7.5 pCi Sr/g-Ca in August, 1967. From the result we can say that levels of strontium-90 are decreasing year after year and are far bellow the maximum permissible level recommended by International Committe on Radiation Protection.
 
Article
To limit both the large displacement and acceleration response of the structure efficiently, the relationships between acceleration and displacement responses of the structure under several earthquakes are investigated for various horizontal stiffness of the base isolation system to determine the effective stiffness of the base isolation system in this paper. An example structure is a five-storey steel frame building as the primary structure and the secondary structures are assumed to be located on the fifth floor of the primary structure. Input motions used in the structural analysis are El Centre 1940, Taft 1952, Mexico 1985, San Fernando 1971 Pacoima Dam, and artificially generated earthquakes. The relationships of the absolute peak acceleration and the displacement at the top of the structure are calculated for various natural periods of base isolators under various earthquakes. The peak acceleration response of the fifth floor in the base isolated structure is significantly reduced by a factor of 2.1 through 6.25. Also, the relative displacement response of the floor to the base of the superstructure is very small. The results of this study can be utilized to determine the effective stiffness of the base isolation system.
 
Article
This study was performed to comparatively evaluate selected Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods which mainly focus on cognitive error analysis, and to derive the requirement of a new human error analysis (HEA) framework for Accident Management (AM) in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). In order to achieve this goal, we carried out a case study of human error analysis on an AM task in NPPs. In the study we evaluated three cognitive HEA methods, HRMS, CREAM and PHECA, which were selected through the review of the currently available seven cognitive HEA methods. The task of reactor cavity flooding was chosen for the application study as one of typical tasks of AM in NPPs. From the study, we derived seven requirement items for a new HEA method of AM in NPPs. We could also evaluate the applicability of three cognitive HEA methods to AM tasks. CREAM is considered to be more appropriate than others for the analysis of AM tasks, HRMS is also applicable to the error analysis of AM tasks. But, PHECA is regarded less appropriate for the predictive HEA technique as well as for the analysis of AM tasks. In addition to these, the advantages and disadvantagesofeachmethodaredescribed.
 
Article
The present review report introduces the existing analysis codes and physical modeling of two-phase flow associated with initiating event of HCDA in Liquid Metal Reactors for the effective study in the future, because the related research has not been systematically carried out in Korea compared with other areas. The description in this report is specifically addressed to the results yielded from careful review of the technical concepts on the two-phase flow modeling in the SAS2A code which was developed in ANL. The report is prepared in 2 parts based on the definite physical phenomena. The liquid slug and gas behavior models are main representations in the part (I) and (II), respectively. In this regard, it is expected that this report provide a fundamental knowledge on the two-phase flow model in LMR and, thus, contribute to establishment of the necessary HCDA analysis technology concerned with the LMR development in Korea.
 
Article
Accident Management involves all measures to prevent core damage and retain the core within the reactor vessel, maintain containment integrity and minimize off-site releases. The accident management approach includes : (1) advanced evaluation of candidate strategies, (2) development of procedures to execute appropriate actions efficiently, and (3) identification and provision for materials, tools, and possible modifications to the plant system that may be needed for such execution. When assessing accident management strategies it effectiveness, adverse effect and its feasibility, including information needs and compatibility with existing procedures, must be considered. The objective of this paper is to introduce analytical tools of decision trees and influence diagrams to develop a framework for modeling and assessing severe accident management strategies. The characteristics associated with these took are presented. Based on decision trees and influence diagrams, the framework is applied to a simple example associated with a single decision.
 
Article
An integrated framework of modeling the human operator cognitive behavior during nuclear power plant accident scenarios is presented. It incorporates both plant and operator models. The basic structure of the operator model is similar to that of existing cognitive models, however, this model differs from those existing ones largely in too aspects. First, using frame and membership function, the pattern matching behavior, which is identified as the dominant cognitive process of operators responding to an accident sequence, is explicitly implemented in this model. Second, the non-task-related human cognitive activities like effect of stress and cognitive biases such as confirmation bias and availability bias, are also considered. A computer code, OPEC is assembled to simulate this framework and is actually applied to an SGTR sequence, and the resultant simulated behaviors of operator are obtained.
 
Article
KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) is at present preparing a preliminary performance assessment to set up the HLW disposal concept of Korea. The solubility of the radionuclides contained in HLW is necessary as a source term in order to predict their potential migration in both the near and far fields. The solubility of actinides (Th, Am, U, Np and Pu) for a reference deep groundwater of Korea has been calculated using a geochemical code with thermodynamic data selected by a peer review of existing thermodynamic databases and literature. The solubilities from the experimental study and/or field observations from natural analogue studies are compared. The sensitivity of solubility to the variability of three main parameters of groundwater (pH, Eh, and carbonate concentration) is also investigated. The results of the sensitivity analysis show that the solubility of actinides strongly depends on the parameters considered. Within the range of parameter values studied (pH=7 to 10, Eh=-0.4 to -0.1V, and carbonate concentration=1.E-5 to 1.E-2 mol/L), the solubility of each actinide exists between 1.4E-10 and 1.6E-6 mol/L for Am, 4.9E-9 and 2.8E-6 mol/L for Th, 3.2E-9 and 5.7E-4 mol/L for U, 1.1E-9 and 1.0E-7 mol/L for Np, and 4.0E-11 and 2.8E-6 mol/L for Pu, respectively.
 
Article
An innovative concept for a passive reactor shutdown system, so called self-actuated shutdown system(SASS), is inevitably required for the inherent safety in liquid metal reactor, which is designed with the totally different concept from the usual reactor shutdown system in LWR. SASS using Curie point electromagnet(CPEM) was selected as the passive reactor shutdown system for KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid MEtal Reactor). A mock-up of the SASS was designed, fabricated and tested. From the test it was confirmed that the mockup was self-actuated at the Curie point of the temperature sensing material used in the mockup. An articulated control rod was also fabricated and assembled with the CPEM to confirm that the control rod can be inserted into core even when the control rod guide tube is deformed due to earthquake. The operability of SASS in the actual sodium environment should be confirmed in the future. All the design and test data will be applied to the KALIMER design.
 
Article
A Nonlinear model-based Hybrid Controller (NHC) is developed which consists of the adaptive proportional-integral-feedforward (PIF) gains and variable structure controller. The controller has the robustness against modeling uncertainty and is applied to the trajectory tracking control of single-input, single-output nonlinear systems. The essence of the scheme is to divide the control into four different terms. Namely, the adaptive P-I-F gains and variable structure controller are used to accomplish the specific control actions by each terms. The robustness of the controller is guaranteed by the feedback of estimated uncertainty and the performance specification given by the adaptation of PIF gains using the second method of Lyapunov. The variable structure controller is incorporated to regulate the initial peak of the tracking error during the parameter adaptation is not settled yet. The newly developed NHC method is applied to the power tracking control of a nuclear reactor and the simulation results show great improvement in tracking performance compared with the conventional model-based control methods.
 
Article
Nuclear energy programs around the world increasingly find themselves at the nexus of potentially conflicting demands from both domestic and international stakeholders. On one side, the rapid growth in demand for electricity coupled with the goal of reducing carbon emissions calls for a significant expansion of nuclear energy. On the other, stakeholders are seeking ever greater safety, environmental, security, and nonproliferation assurances before consenting to the construction of new nuclear energy facilities. Satisfying the demand for clean energy supplies will require nuclear energy operators to find new and innovative ways to build confidence among stakeholders. This paper discusses two related concepts which can contribute to meeting the needs of key stakeholders in cost effective and efficient ways. Structured processes and tools for assessing stakeholder needs can build trust and confidence while facilitating the "designing-in" of information collection systems for new facilities to achieve maximum efficiency and effectiveness. Integrated approaches to monitoring facilities and managing the resulting data can provide stakeholders with continued confidence while offering operators additional facility and process information to improve performance.
 
Article
The national long-term R&D program, updated in 1997, requires Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) to complete by the year 2006 the basic design of Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor(KALIMER), along with supporting R&D work, with the capability of resolving the issue of spent fuel storage as well as with significantly enhanced safety. KALIMER is a 150 MWe pool-type sodium cooled prototype reactor that uses metallic fuel. The conceptual design is currently under way to establish a self-consistent design meeting a set of major safety design requirements for accident prevention. Some of the current emphasis includes those for inherent and passive means of negative reactivity insertion and decay heat removal, high shutdown reliability, prevention of and protection from sodium chemical reaction, and high seismic margin, among others. All of these requirements affect the reactor design significantly and involve extensive supporting R&D programs. This paper summarizes some of the results of conceptual engineering and design analyses performed for the safety of HAMMER in the area of inherent safety, passive decay heat removal, sodium water reaction, and seismic isolation.
 
Article
Air-water countercurrent flow limitation at perforated plates with four holes was investigated in a vertical tank to see the effects of the plate thickness, the number of hole, and the diameter of the hole on the onset of CCFL. The thickness of plates was 1 cm and 4 cm, with a relatively large hole diameter of 5 cm. The collapsed water level formed on the perforated plate and its distribution in the upper plenum were measured. The gas flow rate in the multi-hole plate is relatively higher than one in the single tube because some of holes in the multi-hole plate provide a flow path fur liquid with less air-liquid resistance than in the single tube. The onset of CCFL occurred at nearly the same air flow rate regardless of the plate thickness. The negligible effect of the plate thickness on CCFL means that the flooding is initiated at the top of the plate rather than at its bottom. It turns out that and better fit the data than when hole diameter is greater than 2.86 cm. In our experimental ranges, the collapsed water levels at the onset of CCFL ranged from 7.5 cm to 10.5 cm. There was no three dimensional distribution of water level before and after the onset of CCFL.
 
Article
This paper presents the experimental results on flooding of countercurrent flow in vertical multirod channels, which consists of falling water film and upward air flow. In particular, the effects of spacer grids, with and without mixing vane, and of blockage in the multirod bundle on the behaviour of flooding were investigated. The 55 zircaloy tube bundle was used for the test section. The comparison of previous analytical models and empirical correlations with present data on flooding showed that the existing models and correlations predict much higher flooding curves. The spacer grid causes the lower flooding air flow rate to compare with the bare rod bundle. However, the mixing spacer grids need a higher flooding air flow rate for a constant liquid flow rate than the spacer grids without mixing vanes. The bundle containing blockages has the highest flooding air flow rate among the bundles with spacer grids and blockages. Empirical flooding correlations for the three types of test section have been made.
 
Article
Development and implementation of food irradiation was driven by needs pertaining to food safety improvement, food spoilage reduction, and quarantine/trade. The need for food safety is caused by the increasing morbidity and mortality caused by food-borne diseases worldwide, and it affects national economy and world-trade. Radiation technology can serve to ameliorate the vulnerability of our food supply system.
 
Article
As disposal packaging concepts of spent fuels generated from the domestic NPP, two types, one is to package PWR and CANDU spent fuels in different containers and the other is to package them together, were proposed. The configuration of the containers and the layout of underground repository, such as the container spacing and the deposition tunnel spacing, were developed. The layout of underground repository satisfies the thermal constraint of the bentonite buffer surrounding disposal container, which should be lower than in order to keep the physical and chemical properties of bentonite From the spent fuel packaging concepts and container emplacement methods, seven options were developed. With a typical pair-wise comparison methods, AHP, the most promising disposal concept was selected based on the technology Point of view.
 
Article
Margin benefits are quantatively assessed when a Digital Monitoring System(DMS) is assumed to be installed to an operating Westinghouse analog type plant. Applied plant and cycle is YongGwang Unit 1 Cycle 6. The referenced digital monitoring system is the COLSS (Core Operating Limit Supervisory System) of ABB-CE. Considered fuel design limits are DNBR and LDCA Fq. 2003-D Power distributions within the present CAOC (Constant Axial Offset Control) limits are calculated for the analysis. The most limiting DNB prevention event of CEA Withdrawal is analyzed with the ROPM (Required OverPower Margin) concept of ABB-CE. The result show that the DMS can bring around 7% more margins for both DNB and LOCA Fq standpoints of view. The DMS can also monitor the PCI (Pellet-Cladding Interaction) limits.
 
Article
We have extended the source projection analytic nodal discrete ordinates method (SPANDOM) for more flexible applicability in analysis of hexagonal assembly cores. The method (SPANDOM-FH) does not invoke transverse integration but instead solves the discrete ordinates equation analytically after the source term is projected and represented in hybrid form of high-order polynomials and exponential functions. SPANDOM-FH which treats a hexagonal node as one node is applied to two fast reactor benchmark problems and compared with TWOHEX. The results of comparison indicate that the present method SPANDOM-FH predicts accurately and flux distributions in hexagonal assembly cores. In addition, SPANDOM-FH gives the continuous two dimensional intranodal scalar flux distributions in a hexagonal node. The reentering models between TWOHEX and SPANDOM were also compared and it was confirmed that SPANDOM's model is more realistic. Through the results of benchmark problems, we conclude that SPANDOM-FH has the sufficient accuracy for the nuclear design of fast breeder reactor (FBR) cores with hexagonal assemblies.
 
Article
This work is concerned with the development of an analytical model to predict the friction in longitudinally finned rod bundles. Such bundles are currently considered in KMRR design. The present model assumes the validity of the Law of the Wall over entire flow area. The flow channel area is divided into the interfin region and a number of element channels, and the algebraic form of the Law of the Wall is integrated over each element channel and interfin region to yield an analytic expression for the pressure drop. The model reasonably predicts the 6 fin KMRR data, and overpredicts the 8 fin data about 15 percent.
 
Article
More realistic calculation models for evaluating man's annual intakes of radionuclides released from operating nuclear facilities were established. For the application of these models, the harvest years of food and feed crops consumed in the year of dose assessment and every year's average concentrations of a radionuclide in air and in water for the whole period of real operation had to be taken into account. KFOOD, an existing equilibrium food chain computer code for the Korean dose assessment, was modified according to the models. Sample runs of the modified code on the assumption of a constant release during 10 years' operation were made with three kinds of the input data files enabling the dose assessment in the improved method, the KFOOD method and another existing method, respectively, and the results were compared. Annual committed effective doses to Korean adult by intakes of Mn-54, Co-60, Sr-90, I-131 and Cs-137 calculated in the improved method were about 11, 2, 5, 60 and 3%, respectively, lower than the corresponding KFOOD dose. To the intakes of the radionuclides except Sr-90 evaluated in the improved method, foliar uptake contributed much more than root uptake did but, in the case of Sr-90, the result was opposite.
 
Article
Radiation has stochastic aspects in its generation, its choice of interaction mode during traveling in media, and its impact on living bodies. In certain circumstances, like in high dose environments resulting from low-LET radiation, the variance in its impact on a target volume is negligible. On the contrary, in low dose environments, especially when they are attributed to high-LET radiation, the impact on the target carries with it a large variance. This variation is more significant for smaller target volumes. Microdosimetric techniques, which have been developed to estimate the distribution of radiation energy deposited to cellular and subcellular-sized targets, contrast with macrodosimetric techniques which count only the average value. Since cells and DNA compounds are the critical targets in human bodies, microdosimetry, or dose estimation by microscopic approach, helps one better analyze the biological effects of radiation on the human body. By utilizing microbeam systems designed for individual cell irradiation, scientists have discovered that human cells exhibit radiosensitive reactions without being hit themselves (bystander effect). During the past 10 or more years, a new therapeutic protocol using discontinuous multiple micro-slit beams has been investigated for its clinical application. It has been suggested that the beneficial bystander effect is the essence of this protocol.
 
Article
The hafnium shroud is used to control the excess reactivity and power distribution in KMRR. The core analysis is performed by the diffusion code VENTURE using the 5 group macroscopic cross sections homogenized for an assembly. Investigated are the applicability of the diffusion calculation by homogenized cross sections to the analysis of control assembly which features unusual geometry such that hafnium shroud surrounds a multiplying medium inside. Comparative calculation is performed for the excess reactivity and power levels by the transport code TWOTRAN. The results show the acceptability of the diffusion calculation by the homogenized cross sections without significant error.
 
Article
The present work is aimed at further discussing the effectiveness of dimensionless parameters recently proposed for the analysis of flow stability in heated channels with supercritical fluids. In this purpose, after presenting the main motivations for the introduction of these parameters in place of previously proposed ones, additional information on the theoretical bases and on the consequences of this development is provided. Stability maps, generated by an in-house program adapted from a previous application to boiling channels, are also shown for different combinations of the operating parameters. The maps are obtained as contour plots of an amplification parameter obtained from numerical discretization and subsequent linearization of governing equations; as such, they provide a quantitatively clear perspective of the effect of different boundary conditions on the stability of heated channels with supercritical fluids. In order to assess the validity of the assumptions at the basis of the in-house model, supporting calculations have been performed making use of the RELAP5/MOD3.3 computer code, detecting the values of the dimensionless parameters at the threshold for the occurrence of instability for a heated channel representative of SCWR proposed core configurations. The obtained results show reasonable agreement with the maps, supporting the applicability of the proposed scaling parameters for describing the dynamic behaviour of heated channels with supercritical fluids.
 
Article
A safety assessment computer code CALM (Computer program of Assessment for LILW Management) is developed for the theoretical prediction of long-term safety of low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal. CALM is composed of three submodels, which are the resaturation model, the geosphere migration model, and the radiation dose model. For the verification of its usefulness, the safety assessment of an assumed waste repository is performed. The results show that the computer code, CALM developed through this study can be a useful tool for the safety assessment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste repository.
 
Article
A quality assurance safety assessment database, called QUARK (QUality Assurance Program for Radioactive Waste Management in Korea), has been developed to manage both analysis information and parameter database for safety assessment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) disposal facility in Korea. QUARK is such a tool that serves QA purposes for managing safety assessment information properly and securely. In QUARK, the information is organized and linked to maximize the integrity of information and traceability. QUARK provides guidance to conduct safety assessment analysis, from scenario generation to result analysis, and provides a window to inspect and trace previous safety assessment analysis and parameter values. QUARK also provides default database for safety assessment staff who construct input data files using SAGE(Safety Assessment Groundwater Evaluation), a safety assessment computer code.
 
Article
A simplified model to assess the performance of engineered barrier for the retardation of radionuclide release in a low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste repository was developed. The model is based on the repository design concept being suggested in Korea, and considers two types of release scenario ; a design-bas release for the design of engineered barrier and a realistic release for the performance assessment. For the numerical illustration, the sample calculations were performed for five radionuclides with different chemical characteristics, and the results were analyzed.
 
Article
The objective of the present work is to assess the analysis capability of two wall film condensation models, the default and the alternative models, of RELAP5/MOD3.2 on condensation experiments in the presence of noncondensable gas in a vertical tube of PCCS of CP-1300. In the calculation of a base case the default model of RELAP5/MOD3.2 under-predicts the heat transfer coefficients, and Its alternative model over-predicts them throughout the condensing tube, Also, both models over-predict the void fractions. The nodalization study shows that the variation of the node number does not change both modeling results of RELAP5/MOD3.2 Sensitivity study for varying input parameters shows that the inlet steam-air mixture flow rate, the inlet air mass fraction, and the inlet saturated steam temperature give significant changes of their heat transfer coefficients Run statistics show that the grind time of the default model is always higher than that of the alternative model by about 23%.
 
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In this study, data on radionuclide migration and retardation processes in the engineered and natural barriers of High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) repository have been reviewed and compiled for use in the performance assessment of a HLW disposal system in Korea. The status of the database on radionuclide migration and retardation that is being developed in Korea is investigated and summarized in this study. The solubilities of major actinides such as D, Th, Am, Np, and Pu both in Korean bentonite porewater and in deep Korean groundwater are calculated by using the geochemical code PHREEQC (Ver. 2.0) based on the KAERI-TDB(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute-Thermochemical Database), which is under development. Databases for the diffusion coefficients ( values) and distribution coefficients ( values) of some radionuclides in the compacted Korean Ca-bentonite are developed based upon domestic experimental results. Databases for the rock matrix diffusion coefficients ( values) and distribution coefficients ( values) of some radionuclides for Korean granite rock and deep groundwater are also developed based upon domestic experimental results. Finally, data related to colloids such as the characteristics of natural groundwater colloids and the pseudo-colloid formation constants ( values) are provided for the consideration of colloid effects in the performance assessment.
 
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Recently, efficient operation and practical management of power plants have become important issues in the nuclear industry. In particular, typical aging parameters such as stress and cumulative usage factor should be determined accurately for continued operation of a nuclear power plant beyond design life. However, most of the major components have been designed via conservative codes based on a 2-D concept, which do not take into account exact boundary conditions and asymmetric geometries. The present paper aims to suggest an effective fatigue evaluation methodology that uses a prototype of the integrated model and its transfer functions. The validity of the integrated 3-D Finite Element (FE) model was proven by comparing the analysis results of individual FE models. Also, mechanical and thermal transfer functions, known as Green's functions, were developed for the integrated model with the standard step input. Finally, the stresses estimated from the transfer functions were compared with those obtained from detailed 3-D FE analyses results at critical locations of the major components. The usefulness of the proposed fatigue evaluation methodology can be maximized by combining it with an on-line monitoring system, and this combination, will enhance the continued operations of old nuclear power plants.
 
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An empirical formula for determining water content as functions of uranium concentration and nitric acid normalities in uranyl nitrate solutions has been derived from a least-squares analysis of experimental data, i.e., uranium concentration, nitric acid normalities and solution densities for a large number of UO(NO) solutions. The formula derived is Q=1-0.3628C-0.0327H where Q, C, and H stand for water content (g/cc), uranium concentration (g/cc), ana nitric acid normality, respectively. Atom number densities and nuclear criticality for hypothetical uranyl nitrate solutions have been calculated by using the empirical formula, ana compared with the results obtained on the basis of uranium concentration, nitric acid normality, and solution density. The empirical formula derived in this study seems to be useful in uranium concentrations ranging from 0.295g/cc down to 0.004g/cc and nitric acid normality from 5.06 to 1.00..00.
 
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Numeric characters are printed at the end part of nuclear fuel rod containing nuclear pellets. Fuel rods are discriminated and managed systematically by these characters in the process of producing fuel assembly. The characters are also used to examine manufacturing process of fuel rods in the survey of burnup efficiency as well as in inspection of irradiated fuel rod. Therefore automatic character recognition is one of the most important technologies in automatic manufacture of fuel assembly. In this study, character recognition system is developed. In the developed system, mesh feature extracted from each character written in the fuel rod has been compared with reference feature value stored in database, and the character is thus identified. In the result of experiment, 95.83 percent recognition rate is achievable.
 
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In this work a method to detect the vibrational peak and to decide the vibrational mode of detected peak for core internal vibration monitoring system which is particularly concerned on the core support barrel (CSB) and fuel assemblies is developed. Flow induced vibration and aging process in the reactor internals cause unsoundness of the internal structure. In order to monitor the vibrational status of core internal, signals from the ex-core neutron detectors are transformed into frequency domain. By analyzing transformed frequency domain signal, an analyst can acquire the information on the vibrational characteristics of the structures, i.e., vibration frequencies of each component, vibrational level, modes of vibration, and the causes of the abnormal vibration, if any. This study is focused on the development of the automated monitoring system. Several methods are surveyed to define the peaks in power spectrum and fuzzy theory is used to automatic detection of the vibrational peaks. Fuzzy algorithm is adopted to define the modes of vibration using the peak values from fuzzy peak recognition, phase spectrum, and coherence spectrum.
 
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A novel framework for quantitative estimates of the benefits of signals on nuclear power plant availability and economics has been developed in this work. The models developed in this work quantify how the perfect signals affect the human operator's success in restoring the power plant to the desired state when it enters undesirable transients. Also, the models quantify the economic benefits of these perfect signals. The models have been applied to the condensate feedwater system of the nuclear power plant for demonstration.
 
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The physicochemical, mineralogical, hydraulic, swelling and mechanical properties of a domestic bentonite for use as the buffer material in a high-level waste repository have been measured. The bentonite is identified to be a Ca-bentonite, and the hydraulic conductivity of the compacted bentonite with the dry density higher than 1.4 Mg/㎥ is lower than 10 m/s When the dry densities are 1.4 to 1.8 Mg/㎥, the swelling pressures are in the range of 6.6 to 143.5 kg/. The unconfined compressive strength is about 94 kg/, and the coefficient of volume change and the coefficient of consolidation are in the range of 0.O0249 to 0.02142 /MN and 0.018 to 0.115/year, respectively.
 
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A Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) is a graph-based data structure that calculates an exact top event probability (TEP). It has been a very difficult task to develop an efficient BDD algorithm that can solve a large problem since it is highly memory consuming. In order to solve a large reliability problem within limited computational resources, many attempts have been made, such as static and dynamic variable ordering schemes, to minimize BDD size. Additional effort was the development of a ZBDD (Zero-suppressed BDD) algorithm to calculate an approximate TEP. The present method is the first successful application of a BDD truncation. The new method is an efficient method to maintain a small BDD size by a BDD truncation during a BDD calculation. The benchmark tests demonstrate the efficiency of the developed method. The TEP rapidly converges to an exact value according to a lowered truncation limit.
 
Top-cited authors
Jeong Ik Lee
  • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Jae Eun Cha
  • Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI)
Seong Jun Bae
  • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Yoonhan Ahn
  • Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI)
Seong Kuk Cho
  • Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology