Novon A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature

Published by Missouri Botanical Garden Press
Print ISSN: 1055-3177
Publications
Pandanus ankaranensis Callm. & Laivao.-A. Apex, mid-section and base of a leaf.-B. Syncarp.-C. Lateral view of a drupe.-D. Apical view of a drupe showing the stigmas.-E. Longitudinal section of a drupe. Drawn from the holo-and isotype Randrianaivo et al. 1515 (MO, TAN) and paratype Callmander & Toly 49 (TAN). 
Pandanus ankaranensis Callm. & Laivao.-A. Habit showing leaves persistent on the branches.-B. Base of decumbent trunk with prop roots. Photos by M.W. Callmander from the paratype collection Callmander & Toly 49. 
A new species, Pandanus ankaranensis Callm. & Laivao (Pandanaceae), is described from the karst region of Ankarana in northern Madagascar. It resembles P. grallatus B. C. Stone, another member of Pandanus sect. Mammillares H. St. John occurring in the area. The new taxon can be distinguished by its larger and wider leaves that are persistent on the branches, the stipe often lying on the rocks where plants grow, and its larger syncarps. Pandanus ankaranensis is classified as Vulnerable based on the IUCN Red List criteria.
 
Pandanus sermolliana Callmander & Buerki. —A. Lateral view and longitudinal section of a monoloculate drupe. —B. Syncarp. —C. Apex and base of a leaf. —D. Habit. —E. Lateral view of a pluricarpellate drupe showing the stigmas. —F. Longitudinal section of a pluriloculate drupe. Drawn from the holotype, Callmander et al. 367 (MO).  
Pandanus sermolliana Callmander & Buerki (Pandanaceae) is described from humid forests in the Galoka mountain chain in northwestern Madagascar. The new species can be easily distinguished from the other members of the genus it most closely resembles, P. insuetus Huynh and P. perrieri Martelli, by several morphological characters including drupes that are incompletely fused, with each of the dome-like carpels separated from the base of the pileus, and stigmas that are sub-vertical or rarely sub-horizontal, slightly spinescent, and raised on an incompletely united base. This distinctive species is rare and is classified as Critically Endangered based on IUCN threat criteria.
 
From Gabon, Central Africa, a new species of Baphia is described that is distinct in having a cymose arrangement of its flowers.
 
Due to the priority of the epithet, a new combination, Alafia erythrophthalma (K. Schumann) Leeuwenberg, is needed; Alafia grandis Stapf is placed into synonymy. Two new species, A. falcata Leeuwenberg and A. velutina Leeuwenberg, have been discovered among the collections made in Gabon by Le Testu.
 
Pectis hassleri and P. pumila are new species, the former from the Gran Chaco area of Paraguay and the latter from southwester Encuador and northwestern Peru. Pectis hassleri differs from P. odorata by leaves that are glandular-punctaoten the adaxial as well as the abaxial surfaces, by longer and wider ligules of the ray florets, and by ray pappi of awns and shorter bristles. Pectis pumila differs from the closely related P. arida by its wider leaves and by its sessile or subsessile capitula with campanulatein volucresa nd obovatep hyllaries.A hexaploid chromosome count of 2n = 361 is newly reported for P. pumila.
 
Seven species in four sections of Carex are described as new from North America: C. acidicola Naczi, C. calcifugens Naczi, C. paeninsulae Naczi, E. L. Bridges & Orzell, and C. thornei Naczi (all sect. Griseae); C. kraliana Naczi & Bryson (sect. Laxiflorae); C. gholsonii Naczi & Cochrane (sect. Granulares); and C. infirminervia Naczi (sect. Deweyanae). Carex acidicola, C. calcifugens, C. paeninsulae, and C. thornei, all members of the C. oligocarpa complex, have distichous perigynia and purple-red shoot bases. Carex acidicola, from a few sites in Alabama and Georgia, is distinctive in having the bases of the proximal bract blades whitish. Carex calcifugens occurs in a few populations in Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. It is characterized by having the purple-red coloration at the plant base less extensive than in other members of the C. oligocarpa complex, the vegetative shoots exceeding the reproductive ones, and by bearing the proximal-most spikes at the bases of the shoots. Carex paeninsulae is restricted to a few sites in Florida. It is unique in the C. oligocarpa complex in having relatively long rhizomes. Carex thornei occurs in a few sites in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia. It has short bract blades and terminal spikes with long peduncles. Carex kraliana is widespread and frequent throughout most of the southeastern United States. It is distinctive in its lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, wide bract blades. Carex gholsonii occurs in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. It is rare in all portions of its range except for parts of Florida. It is distinctive in being loosely caespitose, having short ligules, short bract blades, long and wide terminal spikes, and long perigynia. The chromosome number of C. gholsonii, determined from two populations in Florida, is 16 II + 1 IV. Carex infirminervia is widespread but infrequent throughout much of the western United States and western Canada. It is unique in its combination of papillose culms, long ligules, perigynium beaks occupying a high percentage of the perigynium length, and toothless or short-toothed perigynium apices. The new combination C. digitalis var. floridana (L. H. Bailey) Naczi & Bryson (Carex sect. Careyanae) is proposed to replace C. digitalis var. asymmetrica Fernald because of the priority of Bailey's epithet.
 
Because of extensive morphological intermediacy, plants formerly distinguished at the species level as Gnaphalium beneolens, G. microcephalum, G. thermale, and G. wrightii are treated as intergrading races of the widespread G. canescens. The new combinations, G. canescens subsp. beneolens, G. canescens subsp. microcephalum and G. canescens subsp. thermale are made.
 
A key to and some remarks on Maprounea in the Neotropics are presented. Maprounea guianensis var. obtusata is discussed and raised to specific rank with the new name Maprounea amazonica. Maprounea brasiliensis is accepted as distinct from M. guianensis. The taxa are separated mainly by characters of the leaves and by fruit size. Additionally, Maprounia glauca is established as a new synonym of Mabea taquari, and a lectotype is designated for the latter.
 
During agronomic evaluation of introduced accessions of Stylosanthes Swartz in Colombia and Queensland, Australia, a genotype differing in morphology, chromosome number, and genetic markers was discovered. The new species Stylosanthes seabrana is closely related to S. scabra Vogel and has been collected in Bahia, Brazil. Two cultivars, 'Primar' and 'Unica,' of this species now newly recognized were released in Queensland, Australia, in 1996 for use as pasture legumes. Available from: http://edepot.wur.nl/16481 and http://biostor.org/reference/64304
 
A new species of Solanum sect. Cyphomandropsis (Solanaceae), S. hibernum, is described from the western part of Dept. Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Its strongly discolorous leaves densely covered below with white dendritic hairs distinguish it from the other species in the section. Journal Article
 
A new species endemic to Bolivia, Solanum maternum, is described. Solanum maternum belongs to a group of taxa formerly recognized as the genus Cyphomandra. Solanum maternum is morphologically very similar to the tree tomato, Solanum betaceum, and may be its closest wild relative. Journal Article
 
Psychotria carrascoana Delprete & E. B. Souza. A. Branch with immature fruits. B. Short-shoot with solitary, terminal flower bud. C. Flower in anthesis. D. Style. E. Section of open corolla. F. Mature fruit. A and F from photos of living material; B-E, from Araujo 1054 (types, EAC, NY).
Psychotria carrascoana (Rubiaceae, Psychotrieae) is here described and illustrated. It is endemic to carrasco vegetation, a closed, shrubby, xerophilous vegetation on quartzitic sand soils, on the plateaus of the Serra da Ibiapaba and Serra do Araripe, at altitudes of 800 to 900 m, state of Ceará, Brazil. Because of its reduced, triangular stipules, leaves drying pale green, commonly solitary flowers, and dorsally tricostate pyrenes, this species is placed in Psychotria subg. Heteropsychotria.
 
Prunus 3 incam Ingram ex R. Olsen & Whittemore. Flowering and fruiting branches. Drawn by R. Olsen from living material of P. 3 incam ‘Okam  ́’ (NA 18355-CL) at the U.S. National Arboretum. 
The name Prunus x incam Ingram ex R. Olsen & Whittemore is validated here. Introduced as a cultivated variety in 1947, Ingram's name Prunus x incam has been in use as a nomen nudum in horticultural literature and the nursery trade for artificial crosses involving the parent taxa P. incisa Thunberg x P. campanulata Maximowicz. Prunus x incam is an early flowering tree with two or three flowers in each persistent involucre, spreading sepals, and pink, deeply emarginate petals. Ingram's original introduction, the cultivated variety 'Okame',' is the most widely grown form.
 
The new name Solanum habrochaites S. Knapp & D. M. Spooner is coined to replace the homonym Solanum agrimoniifolium (Dunal) J. F. Macbride, which has been used for the wild tomato species known in Lycopersicon as Lycopersicon hirsutum Dunal.
 
A species from the Crystal Mountains in Gabon, whose name was previously invalidly published, is here named Pogonophora letouzeyi to honor René Letouzey.
 
Two new species are described, Passiflora kawensis of subgenus Astrophea and Passiflora exura of subgenus Passiflora. Both species are common in northeastern French Guiana on Montagne de Kaw. Passiflora kawensis has an umbrellashaped structure on the androgynophore shared with only three species from southern Brazil and Bolivia. Passiflora exura is easily distinguished from related species by the structure of the corona and the size of the awn on the sepals.
 
A new species, Sarcopera flammifera, and a new subspecies, Sarcopera tepuiensis subsp. coccinea, are described. Three new combinations, Sarcopera aurantiaca, Sarcopera tepuiensis, and Marcgraviastrum pendulum, are validated.
 
A new species of Xyris has been found in the wet savanna lands of the Rupununi District, Guyana. Xyris dilatatiscapa is described, illustrated, and discussed as to its relationships with other Xyris.
 
This is the third and last installment of a treatment of Andean Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae) species with hermaphroditic flowers and covers species with solid stems and moderately pubescent or glabrous leaves. Eighteen species treated are new to science: O. choquetangensis van der Werff, O. smithii van der Werff, and O. solomonii van der Werff from Bolivia, O. fusagasugensis van der Werff and O. hammeliana van der Werff from Colombia, O. condorensis van der Werff, O. limiticola van der Werff, O. longipetiolata van der Werff, and O. pichinchensis van der Werff from Ecuador, O. alveata van der Werff, O. caesifolia van der Werff, O. cuscoensis van der Werff, O. gymnoblasta van der Werff, O. latipetiolata van der Werff, and O. mollivillosa van der Werff from Peru, and O. cuspidata van der Werff, O. vergelensis van der Werff, and O. pedanomischa van der Werff from Ecuador and Peru. The well-known name O. helicterifolia (Meisn.) Hemsl. is placed in synonymy of O. macrophylla Kunth. Lectotypes are designated for O. albida Mez & Rusby, O. piurensis Mez, and O. veraguensis (Meisn.) Mez [= Sassafridium veraguense Meisn.].
 
A revision of the Andean species of Ocotea Aubl. occurring above 1000 m elevation with unisexual flowers and dense pubescence on the lower leaf surface or with erect pubescence or with domatia is presented. A key to and descriptions of the 35 recognized species are provided. Twenty-one species are described as new: O. antioquiensis van der Werff, O. argyrea van der Werff, O. otara van der Werff, O. santamartae van der Werff, and O. subparamicola van der Werff from Colombia; O. aquila van der Werff, O. euryphylla van der Werff, O. oreophila van der Werff, O. pastazensis van der Werff, and O. rufotomentella van der Werff from Ecuador; O. crassipedalis van der Werff, O. crinita van der Werff, O. kolera van der Werff, O. megistophylla van der Werff, O. palcazuensis van der Werff, O. papyracea van der Werff, O. satipensis van der Werff, and O. tarmensis van der Werff from Peru; O. adusta van der Werff and O. carchiensis van der Werff from Colombia and Ecuador; and O. recurvata van der Werff from Ecuador and Peru. Ocotea caesariata van der Werff is published as a replacement name for Pleurothyrium velutinum Meisn., incorrectly called O. calophylla Mez.
 
A revision of the Andean species of Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae) with hermaphrodite flowers and the lower leaf surface completely covered by the pubescence is presented. A key to the 22 recognized species is provided. Fourteen species are described as new: O. comata van der Werff, O. micrantha van der Werff, and O. stenophylla van der Werff from Bolivia; O. gentryi van der Werff, O. pedicellata van der Werff, and O. umbrina van der Werff from Colombia; O. loxensis van der Werff, O. palaciosii van der Werff, O. pautensis van der Werff from Ecuador; O. andina van der Werff, O. glabriflora van der Werff, O. pajonalis van der Werff, and O. trematifera van der Werff from Peru; and finally, the single species O. guaramacalensis van der Werff from Venezuela. Lectotypification is provided for the name O. jelskii Mez.
 
This is the fifth installment of a treatment of Ocotea Aubl. occurring above 1000-m altitude in the Andean countries of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. This part covers species with unisexual flowers lacking distinctive characters such as presence of domatia or erect or dense pubescence on leaves. Twenty-six species are treated, of which 12 are new to science. These are O. nidiae van der Werff from Venezuela; O. erugata van der Werff, O. gymnantha van der Werff, and O. lorda van der Werff from Colombia; O. ceronii van der Werff, O. depilis van der Werff, O. homeieri van der Werff, and O. pilosa van der Werff from Ecuador; and O. calcicola van der Werff, O. fulgida van der Werff, O. nana van der Werff, and O. tunquiensis van der Werff from Peru. Ocotea cernua (Nees) Mez is synonymized with O. leptobotra (Ruiz & Pav.) Mez and O. longifolia Kunth is synonymized with O. aurantiodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Mez.
 
A key to and descriptions of the seven species of Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae) with bisexual flowers and fistulose twigs occurring in the Andes are presented. Of the seven species, five are newly described: O. beekmanii van der Werff, O. cuatrecasasii van der Werff, both from Colombia, O. fistulosa van der Werff from Ecuador, O. magnifrons van der Werff described from Ecuador and also in Colombia, and O. obovatifolia van der Werff from Ecuador.
 
During her main publication period at the University of Michigan from 1926 to 1937, E. W. Erlanson described 18 new Rosa L. species and varieties (Rosaceae), most from the midwestern United States. The majority were grown and hybridized at the University of Michigan Botanical Garden, where she collected many specimens for the University of Michigan Herbarium (MICH) over a period of years. Some living collections were hers, but most were from others who sent living plants usually without voucher specimens. For this reason and the inability until recently to use sheets as types from living collections under specific circumstances, type selections were at times inappropriate. Nevertheless, seven (almost half) of the cited holotypes here are in MICH, in addition to three lectotypes designated here, as well as isotypes and isolectotypes. A total of 40 taxa with either type data or in synonymy are identified in 10 categories of Rosa species, subspecies, and nothospecies following the Flora of North America treatment. Lectotypes are designated here for the following 19 names: R. acicularioides Schuette, R. acicularis Lindl. var. bourgeauiana Crép., R. arkansana Porter, R. blanda Aiton fo. carpohispida Schuette, R. blanda var. glandulosa Schuette, R. blanda var. hermannii Erlanson, R. blanda var. nuda Schuette, R. blanda var. subgeminata Schuette, R. californica Cham. & Schltdl., R. carolina L. var. aculeata (Schuette) Erlanson, R. carolina var. litoralis Erlanson, R. deamii Erlanson, R. gemella Willd., R. nitida Willd., R. carolina var. inermis Schuette, R. carolina var. sepalorelevata Schuette, R. pensylvanica Michx., R. Xrudiuscula (Greene) Erlanson, and R. suffulta Greene var. valida Erlanson. One neotype is designated, R. palustris. In addition, holotypes of the following taxa are identified for the first time: R. blanda var. setigera Crép., R. blanda var. hispida Farw., and R. blanda fo. alba (Schuette ex Erlanson) Fernald.
 
Photos of Sciodaphyllum zarucchii M. M. Mora, Lowry, Idárraga, Jiménez-Mont. & G. M. Plunkett. -A. Branch with young infructescence. -B. Leaf (note absence of stipular ligule at the base of each of the three petioles, indicated by arrows). -C. Inflorescence branch with flower buds (note yellowing stipular ligule about to abscise from petiole base of the uppermost leaf, indicated by an arrow). -D. Heads with immature fruits. From Jiménez et al. 2295 (HUA). Photographs by J. Jiménez-Montoya.
Holotype of Sciodaphyllum zarucchii M. M. Mora, Lowry, Idárraga, Jiménez-Mont. & G. M. Plunkett (Zarucchi, Brandt & Castaño 5634, MO).
Geographic distribution of Sciodaphyllum zarucchii M. M. Mora, Lowry, Idárraga, Jiménez-Mont. & G. M. Plunkett in northwestern Colombia.
Sciodaphyllum zarucchii M. M. Mora, Lowry, Idárraga, Jiménez-Mont. & G. M. Plunkett (Araliaceae) is described as a new species in honor of James L. Zarucchi (1952–2019). It occurs in humid premontane and montane forests on the western slope of the Cordillera Occidental in the department of Antioquia, Colombia, where it is known from only two localities, one of which is highly threatened by forest clearing. A risk of extinction assessment using the IUCN Red List criteria reveals that S. zarucchii is Endangered.
 
Rediscovery in the late 1990s of the mysterious Moraea ovata Thunberg, described in 1800 and first collected in 1793 in early fruit, shows that the species belongs to the related genus Ferraria. Flowers, only found in June 2001, show that it has parallel anther locules and a spindle-shaped ovary without a sterile beak, features consistent with section Ferraria of the genus. The new combination F. ovata is provided for the species, which we speculate is most closely related to F. densepunctulata, native to the west coast of Western Cape Province, South Africa. The range of F. ovata is restricted to low to middle elevations in central Namaqualand in Northern Cape Province, South Africa.
 
A new species, Leiomitra julacea, is proposed for the New Zealand Trichocolea julacea, which is invalid according to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. The species is described and illustrated.
 
Telaranea consobrina, T. fragilis, and T. palmata, new species from Australasia, are described and illustrated. Telaranea clatritexta (Stephani) Engel & Merrill and T. quadricilia (Stephani) Engel & Merrill of Australasia and T. fernandeziensis (Stephani) Engel & Merrill from Juan Fernández are new combinations. Frullania neocaledonica of New Caledonia is proposed as a new name for Frullania caledonica (Schuster) Schuster, an illegitimate name.
 
Dichapetalum berendinae, D. findouense, D. inaequale, and D. mathisii (Dichapetalaceae) are described as new from Gabon. All four species are illustrated, and their distributions are mapped. The necessary adaptations of the keys, for the Central African species as well as for the Flore du Gabon, are provided. /// Dichapetalum berendinae, D. findouense, D. inaequale et D. mathisii (Dichapetalaceae) du Gabon sont décrits et illustrés. Les cartes de répartition des quatre espèces sont présentées. Les adaptations nécessaires pour la clé des espèces centreafricaines de Dichapetalum ainsi que pour celle de la Flore du Gabon sont ajoutées.
 
New combinations are here proposed for Maracanthus costaricensis (Kuijt) Kuijt [ Oryctina costaricensis Kuijt] and Passovia pedunculata (Jacq.) Kuijt [ Loranthus pedunculatus Jacq.]. Five new species of Loranthaceae from South America are also described and illustrated: Psittacanthus longiflorus Kuijt from Peru, Struthanthus cajamarcanus Kuijt from Peru, S. ophiostylus Kuijt from Peru, S. truncatus Kuijt from Colombia, and Tristerix divaricatus Kuijt from Peru. The name Passovia pedunculata is neotypified.
 
Five new species and two varieties from Qinghai Province, China, are described, discussed, and compared with their closest presumed relatives. Cremanthodium microglossum (Asteraceae), Oxytropis qinghaiensis (Fabaceae), Comastoma jigzhiense (Gentianaceae), Gentiana clarkei var. lutescens (Gentianaceae), Parnassia qinghaiensis (Saxifragaceae), Pedicularis armata var. trimaculata (Scrophulariaceae), and Peristylus humidicolus (Orchidaceae). Two of the species are illustrated.
 
Sciodaphyllum merinoi D. A. Neill, G. M. Plunkett, Lowry & M. M. Mora. -A. Branch with young infructescence. -B. Young leaf. -C. Portion of inflorescence with buds and bracts subtending heads. -D. Heads of young fruits. -E. Portion of infructescence with young fruits. -F. Heads with nearly mature fruits. -G. Detail of leaf base and ligulate stipule. From Neill et al. 18696. Photographs by P. Lowry.
Sciodaphyllum purocafeanum G. M. Plunkett, M. M. Mora, D. A. Neill & Lowry. -A. Branch with young infructescence. -B. Leaf (adaxial surface). -C. Head of young fruits. -D. Portion of infructescence with young fruits. -E. Branch with nearly mature infructescence. -F. Nearly mature infructescence axis. -G. Head of nearly mature fruits. A-D from Neill et al. 18698; E-G from Neill et al. 18695. Photographs by P. Lowry.
Sciodaphyllum zunacense M. M. Mora, Lowry, G. M. Plunkett & D. A. Neill. -A. Branch with inflorescence. -B. Infructescence. -C. Leaf (adaxial surface; note leaflet inserted in center of outer whorl of leaflets). -D. Portion of inflorescence in bud. -E. Portion of inflorescence in flower (female stage). -F. Detail of leaf bases and ligulate stipules. -G. Umbellules with nearly mature fruits. -H. Umbellules with slightly more mature fruits. A-G from Neill et al. 18694. Photographs by P. Lowry.
Following the recent resurrection of Sciodaphyllum P. Browne (Araliaceae) to accommodate the majority of Neotropical species formerly included in Schefflera J. R. Forst. & G. Forst., we have begun to describe the many new members of this genus documented during field and herbarium studies conducted over the past several years. Here we describe and illustrate four new hemi-epiphytic species of Sciodaphyllum from a small area of the eastern Andes in central Ecuador: the western slopes of the Cordillera Abitagua in canton Baños, Tungurahua Province, in the buffer zone of Llanganates National Park. The four new species described, all collected within a few days in an area of less than 10 km² and not known from any other locality, are S. merinoi D. A. Neill, G. M. Plunkett, Lowry & M. M. Mora, S. purocafeanum G. M. Plunkett, M. M. Mora, D. A. Neill & Lowry, S. recaldiorum Lowry, G. M. Plunkett, M. M. Mora & D. A. Neill, and S. zunacense M. M. Mora, Lowry, G. M. Plunkett & D. A. Neill. The conservation status of all four species is assessed as Vulnerable (VU D2) according to the IUCN Red List criteria.
 
A lectotype is indicated for Abrus melanospermus Hasskarl. Two new combinations are provided for widely distributed taxa of Abrus occurring in Central, West, and East Africa, Bolivia, Brazil, Venezuela, and New Caledonia. These nomenclatural clarifications are necessary antecedents for the consideration of this genus for Flora Zambesiaca.
 
A new species of Abronia is described from northwestern New Mexico, U.S.A., as Abronia balackii N. D. Atwood, S. L. Welsh & K. D. Heil. It is compared to A. nana S. Watson based on similarities in stature and anthocarp structure and to A. fragrans Nuttall in the caulescent stems. A key to closely related taxa is included.
 
Lectotypifications are made for three species in Mimosa L. (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae): M. angustisiliqua Lam. [= Desmanthus virgatus (L.) Wild.], M. arabica Lam. [= Vachellia nilotica (L.) P. J. H. Hurter & Mabb.], and M. strombulifera Lam. Prosopis strombulifera (Lam.) Benth.]. Clarification for type material at the Museum national d'Histoire naturelle (P) is included for other plants either native to or adventitive in the New World and originally described as Acacia Mill.
 
Se describe una nueva especie de Acaena, A. patagonica, de la zona patagónica de Chile y Argentina. Se publica además una nueva sección dentro del género la que incluye a esta especie. /// A new species of Acaena, A. patagonica, from Patagonian Chile and Argentina, is described. A new section of the genus is erected to include this species.
 
Two new species of Madagascan Claoxylon A. Juss. are described, and a key to the resulting 12 species now considered to occur on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands is presented. Claoxylon ambrense McPherson is distinguished by its combination of exstipellate, oblanceolate, abruptly acuminate leaves bearing only unpaired hairs, and pistillate flowers with sepals 1–2 mm long and suborbicular disk glands. Claoxylon stylosum McPherson is characterized by its combination of large, ovate, densely pubescent, typically cordate leaves and pistillate flowers with long stylodia (3–3.5 mm), which are fused nearly half their total length. As well, C. medullosum Baill. is relegated to the synonymy of C. monoicum Baill.
 
Justicia arborescens, J. circulibracteata, and J. densibracteata are described and illustrated. Justicia arborescens, of the Monteverde Cloud Forest area, is rare or unique in its arboreal habit. Justicia circulibracteata is recognized by its spikelike inflorescences with spreading, suborbicular bracts 3-4 mm long, each bract bearing a spikelet with 2-5 secund flowers. Justicia densibracteata is recognized by its spicate panicles, inflorescences with nodes with one fertile and one highly reduced sterile bract, and 4-colporate pollen.
 
Current research in the cloud forest of Cerro La Chapa, El Amparo, by Winfried Meier has resulted in the recognition of a new species of Justicia. This new species, Justicia chapana, previously misidentified as J. galapagana Lindau, is described, illustrated, and compared to the latter, its closest relative, from the Galápagos Islands.
 
The recent completion of the Acanthaceae treatment for the Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana has necessitated a new name in the genus Staurogyne, a new combination in Anisacanthus, and the recognition of two undescribed species of Odontonema, based on relatively recent collections.
 
Se describe una especie nueva de Hansteinia (Acanthaceae) solamente conocida del volcán del Tacaná, Chiapas, México, que se diferencia del resto de las especies mexicanas por tener inflorescencias espigadas. Su grano de polen es esferoidal, diporado, y con ornamentación equinada que concuerda con la morfología de los granos de polen del género. /// A new species of Hansteinia (Acanthaceae) is described from the Tacaná volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. It differs from the other Mexican species of the genus by its spicate inflorescences. The pollen grains are spheroidal, diporate, and echinately sculptured, in agreement with the pollen morphology of the genus.
 
Recent expeditions in the Venezuelan Guayana have resulted in additional new taxa in Justicia (Acanthaceae). The following places these novelties and new combinations on record for the convenience of other taxonomists prior to the publication of the Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana. Nine new Venezuelan species of Justicia, J. breteleri, J. delascioi, J. huberi, J. monachinoi, J. nuriana, J. panarensis, J. parimensis, J. paruana, and J. uvida, are described, illustrated, and compared with their closest relatives. In addition, two new combinations, J. paraguazensis and J. moritziana, are also necessary. A key to all of the known species of Justicia from the region (Territorio Federal Delta Amacuro, Estado Bolívar, and Territorio Federal Amazonas) is also provided.
 
Justicia parguazensis Wasshausen is the correct name in Justicia for Chaetochlamys wurdackii Leonard.
 
Three new species (Carlowrightia venturae, Justicia zamudioi, and Tetramerium carranzae) and a new combination (Mirandea hyssopus based on Rhytiglossa hyssopus Nees) are proposed for the acanthaceous flora of the region in central Mexico covered by the Flora del Bajío y de Regiones Adyacentes. Morphological and palynological characters are used to distinguish these taxa from their Mexican congeners. Studies of Acanthaceae in this region reveal the presence of 59 species (5 endemic) in 18 genera there. /// Tres especies nuevas (Carlowrightia venturae, Justicia zamudioi, y Tetramerium carranzae) y una combinación nueva (Mirandea hyssopus basada en Rhytiglossa hyssopus Nees) se proponen para la flora de acantáceas de la región de México central cubierta por la Flora del Bajío y de Regiones Adyacentes. Los caracteres morfológicos y palinológicos se utilizan para distinguir estos taxa de sus congéneres mexicanos. Los estudios de Acanthaceae en ésta región revelan la presencia de 59 especies (5 endémicas) en 18 géneros allí.
 
A new species of Acanthaceae, Staurogyne rubescens, is described and illustrated. It is endemic to the Brazilian moist forests on the eastern range of mountains named "Serra do Mar" and is thus far known only from the states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Staurogyne rubescens can be distinguished by its lax terminal racemes, with bracts and bracteoles that are foliaceous, and the flowers that have a pink calyx and red corolla. Staurogyne itatiaiae (Wawra) Leonard also has red flowers and occurs in the highlands of the Atlantic rain forest. The distinguishing characters for these two species are presented in tabular format.
 
A new species of Justicia with heteromorphic bracts, J. nevlingii, is described from southern Mexico. The species is compared to two other heteromorphically bracted species from Mexico and Central America, J. chol and J. costaricana. It differs from these in several features, including its 4-aperturate pollen.
 
Top-cited authors
Steve O'Kane
  • University of Northern Iowa
Charlotte M. Taylor
  • Missouri Botanical Garden
C. Eugene Jones
  • California State University, Fullerton
David Lorence
  • The National Tropical Botanical Garden
Hugh H. Iltis
  • University of Wisconsin–Madison