Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly

Published by SAGE Publications
Online ISSN: 0899-7640
Publications
Framework for Board Composition and Roles  
Model that Examines Board Independence
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Article
Recently, many empirical studies have shed light on the determinants of boards of directors. Our aim in this paper goes far from the corporate setting. We explain how nonprofits boards are structured. As opposed to corporations’ goals, the objectives of nonprofits are non-lucrative. They can not disburse profits to their contributors, but the role played by their boards of trustees in monitoring and advising managers is analogous to that of boards of directors. Using a sample of Spanish foundations, we show that nonprofit board determinants, such as organizational complexity and financing structure, are mostly similar to those of corporate boards. Nonprofit age, however, illustrates the different nature of these organizations and their voluntary boards.
 
Article
Ce Texte Examine Comment les Benefices et les Couts, Representes Par des Caracteristiques Individuelles Telles la Scolarite, L'age Ou le Statut Marital, Associes Avec le Travail Volontaire Explique Qu'un Individu En Fasse Ou Non. les Previsions Tirees du Cadre Analytique Sont Confrontees et Supportees Par des Resultats Obtenus En Utilisant les Donnees D'une Enquete Fait En 1980 a la Grandeur du Canada. les Resultats Nous Indiquent Que les Individus Dont les Familles Ou les Carrieres Sont Susceptibles de Beneficier du Travail Volontaire En Font Plus Que les Autres.
 
Article
As membership in traditional civic organizations declines in the United States (Putnam, 2000), could volunteering for nonprofit organizations be an alternative source of social capital formation? We use an updated household production framework (Becker, 1996) to theoretically connect volunteering with two forms of social capital: social connections and civic capacity. Using a unique statewide data set from Vermont, we then use the Cragg (1971) model to estimate the determinants of the probability of receiving a social capital benefit, and the level of such a benefit. We first show that the probability of receiving a social connection or a civic capacity benefit from one's most important nonprofit organization is increased: (a) if it is a religious or social service organization; (b) if one increases their volunteering for the organizations; and (c) if one is female, college educated or in a two-parent family. However, the relative magnitude of volunteering is similar, or relatively small, compared to the other significant determinants. We then show that an increase of volunteer hours does increase the levels of social connection and civic capacity, but the magnitude of this effect is also relatively small.
 
Article
This article explores the multijaceted relationship between volunteer fire companies and their communities by examining a broad range of socioeconomic characteristics of volunteer fire fighters and general residents in rural New York State. The two data sets are generated by the author's survey instrument and the U.S. Census of Population and Housing. The personal attributes and their statistical significance are examined empirically, and the implications of this research for particular aspects of the fire fighters' relationship to their fellow citizens arc discussed.
 
Article
The growing relevance of Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) has provoked the development of specialized MFI rating agencies that perform global risk assessments. In this paper we have conjectured different hypotheses pertaining to the relationship between financial indicators and the rating assigned. The hypotheses have been empirically tested, using MFIs accounting information and ratings from a leading agency. As expected, the larger, the more profitable, the more productive, and the less risky, achieved the better rating. This proves the usefulness of MFIs ratings for providers of funds. There is no observed relationship between social performance and rating. Given the social aim of MFIs, it is necessary to encourage rating agencies to engage in the development of social ratings. These social ratings should complement financial ratings, giving information about the accomplishment degree of the MFI social goals.
 
Article
Though deeply rooted in the Middle Ages, as in every European Country, the French nonprofit sector differs in that it was secularized and restricted at the beginning of the 19th century by the centralized state. According to a tradition dating back to the 1789 Revolution, the state had the monopoly of public interest concerns. This tradition gradually lost force in the twentieth century, and nonprofit organizations multiplied during the last three decades in every field of public interest. This trend was encouraged by the central and local governments in a period of decentralization and European integration. Decentralization offers a great opportunity for the French nonprofit sector; conversely, nonprofit organizations provide collective services in an alternative way and can offer an antidote to latent centralization tendencies.
 
Paired Comparisons
Regression Results
Article
In this paper, we report experimental evidence on the effectiveness of several techniques of persuasion commonly utilized in direct-mail solicitation. The study is built on theory-based, descriptive models of fundraising discourse and on comparisons of recommended and actual practices related to three dimensions of persuasion: rhetorical, visual, and linguistic. The specific rhetorical variable included is persuasive appeal (rational, credibility, or affective). The visual variable selected for the study is the presence or absence of bulleted lists, and the linguistic variable included is readability, or the complexity of exposition. Subjects were presented with pairs of fictive direct-mail appeals from imaginary universities that differ in these dimensions and asked to allocate a hypothetical $100 across each pair. Results suggest that letters utilizing credibility appeals and letters written at a high level of readability produce the highest donations.
 
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Carnegie Mellon University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 266-291). Photocopy.
 
Article
This article profiles workplace attitudes, experiences, and job satisfaction of social work administrators employed in nonprofit and public agencies during the dramatic social service changes of the 1980s. Secondary analysis of national, cross-sectional surveys of National Association of Social Work members in 1981 and 1989 reveal changes over time and by nonprofit versus public agency auspices regarding sense of professional competencies, working conditions, job stressors, and sense of professional support. Job satisfaction of managers in both sectors is significantly predicted in a multiple regression by a sense of challenge, promotion opportunities, and lack of value conflict in the work they do. The findings also reveal greater concrete rewards but declining promotion opportunities among the nonprofit administrators and a greater sense of challenge but declining income among public agency administrators. The findings suggest several directions for social work education and management training. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/68874/2/10.1177_0899764096251007.pdf
 
Article
Nonprofit organizations are increasingly using Internet-based technologies to address accountability. This article presents a set of conceptual, theoretical, and empirical innovations to help understand this phenomenon. First, this article presents a conceptual framework that delineates two key dimensions of Web-based accountability practices: disclosure and dialogue. It then posits a four-factor explanatory model of online accountability incorporating organizational strategy, capacity, governance, and environment. Last, it tests the model through a content analysis of 117 U.S. community foundation Web sites combined with survey and financial data. The descriptive statistics show that the Web site has been more effectively used to provide financial and performance disclosures than to provide dialogic mechanisms for stakeholder input and interactive engagement. Our multivariate analyses, in turn, highlight capacity- and governance-related variables, especially asset size and board performance, as the most significant factors associated with the adoption of Web-based accountability practices.
 
Article
NGOs working across borders face increased accountability demands. While many have proposed ways of changing accountability practices, the debate is rarely informed by leaders’ perspectives of how accountability is perceived and practiced across different organizational settings. In interviews with NGO leaders we find aspirations to make accountability more meaningful and integrated, in particular by listening more to stakeholders other than donors. But these aspirations are rarely put in practice and leaders continue to highlight traditional means such as financial accounting. This gap is particularly pronounced for smaller organizations and reflects an increasingly competitive environment shaped by rating agencies and a focus on financial metrics. In order to move from aspirations to practice, NGOs have to be willing to share more meaningful information about their work and outcomes with stakeholders. Practicing transparency that empowers beneficiaries is central to effective organizational learning and balancing demands from different stakeholders.
 
Article
Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/69048/2/10.1177_089976408101000303.pdf
 
Article
Self-regulation is an increasing mandate in American nonprofit life, but the new focus on self-regulation is not limited to the United States. Nonprofit self-regulation is expanding rapidly in Asia as an expression of collective action to defend against encroaching and increasing state pressures; to strengthen the quality of sectoral governance, services, financial management, and fundraising; to improve public, corporate, media, and other perceptions of nonprofits and charities; to organize an unruly sphere and marginalize lower quality actors or other outliers; to access governmental or donor funding; to act as a market mechanism to exclude competitive or unproductive actors for the benefit of remaining players or to marginalize organizations causing reputational damage to the sector; as a learning opportunity for nonprofits and their networks; and as a means to clarify and strengthen shared identity. This article analyzes the rapid development and forms of nonprofit self-regulation in Cambodia, India, Pakistan, and the Philippines and the motivations behind this rapid growth.
 
Article
Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/68929/2/10.1177_089976407800700105.pdf
 
Article
Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/68314/2/10.1177_089976407400300201.pdf
 
Identity Dimensions
Article
This qualitative field study examines how volunteering and managerialism shape the organizational identity of six patient organizations from six different European countries. Volunteers represent a large part of the workforce in most voluntary associations. Even though the phenomenon of volunteering is becoming more and more important for organizations and society alike, so far it has only been studied at the individual level. The authors draw on the theoretical concept of dual organizational identities to describe the two differing collective self-descriptions that were present in the patient organizations. Drawing on 34 narrative interviews and focus groups, the authors document the differing perceptions of volunteers and paid staff about their organization's identity and show how the conflicting dimensions-volunteer identity and managerial identity-result in intraorganizational conflict.
 
Article
Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/68538/2/10.1177_089976407200100403.pdf
 
Article
This first ever functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis of charitable bequest decision-making found increased activation in the precuneus and lingual gyrus of the brain compared to charitable giving and volunteering decisions. Greater lingual gyrus activation was also associated with increased propensity to make a charitable bequest. Previous studies have shown that activation of these brain regions is related to taking an outside perspective of one’s self, recalling the recent death of a loved one, and recalling vivid autobiographical memories across one’s life. We propose that bequest decision-making is analogous to visualizing the final chapter in one’s autobiography and that fundraisers may do well to emphasize donors’ autobiographical connections with the charity. Due to inherent mortality salience, people may resist creating this final chapter, but once engaged may seek to leave an enduring legacy.
 
Mean and Standard Deviation for Independent Variables
Multivariate Logistic Regression of 2005 Volunteering on 1995 Characteristics (Silent Cohort)
Comparison Between Silent and Boomer Cohorts of Logistic Odds Ratios and Statistical Significance of Predictors of Current Volunteering
Article
Data from the 1995 and 2005 waves of the Midlife in the United States panel study were used to compare rates of volunteering among the baby boomers with earlier cohorts and to predict boomers’ future volunteering. When age was kept constant through the use of panel data, the first baby boom cohort (born 1946 to 1955) did more volunteering than did the “silent” cohort (born 1936 to 1945), and the silents volunteered more than did the “long civic” cohort (born 1926 to 1935). The author generated regression equations that used nine 1995 variables to predict 2005 volunteering and used the boomers’ 2005 values on these variables to predict their 2015 volunteering. These equations slightly predict higher volunteering among the boomers in 2015 than the silents did in 2005. This result, combined with the large size of the boomer cohort, indicates that the total number of elderly volunteers will probably increase in the next decade.
 
Article
The use of volunteers in hospitals has been an age-old practice. This nonmarket community involvement is a distinctive aspect of North American life. Hospitals may be attracted to increase the use of volunteers, both to provide increased quality of care and to contain costs. Hospitals rely on the use of professional administrators to use the donated time of volunteers efficiently. This study examines the benefits and costs of volunteer programs and derives an estimate of the net value of volunteer programs that accrue to the hospitals and volunteers. In particular, the costs and benefits to hospitals are detailed. Using 31 hospitals in and around Toronto and surveying hospital volunteer administrators, hospital clinical staff members, and volunteers themselves, a striking pay-off for hospitals was found: an average of $6.84 in value from volunteers for every dollar spent—a return on investment of 684%. Civic and community participation is indeed valuable.
 
Article
This article argues that three broad trends—changes in nonprofit organizations, changes in the ways they are led, and changes in the available technologies of learning—combine to challenge the long-term viability of discrete full-time programs of nonprofit management education. To explore this contention, the authors draw on several sets of evidence. First, they examine literature about these trends. Second, they draw on their research and consultancies in nonprofit management and in large-scale educational strategies. Third, they draw on their experiences of developing and teaching nonprofit management education programs in the United Kingdom. They argue that new problems have overlaid old problems in the nonprofit world. However, these are linked to broader societal trends that reflect new ways of organizing, and this shifts the focus of learning and development. Finally, they review the implications for nonprofit management education and set out some principles to guide new developments in this field.
 
Article
Though a vast amount of empirical work stresses the beneficial effects of social capital, the recent literature has explicitly recognized the importance of distinguishing different types of social capital. Particularly, a distinction has been made between homogeneous (or bonding) and heterogeneous (or bridging) networks under the argument that the latter are more likely to generate positive externalities than the former. The empirical operationalization of this theoretical distinction has thus far, however, remained underdeveloped. The authors take a step to resolve this issue by assessing the diversity of (voluntary) association membership on a number of socioeconomic traits. The proposed methodology is applied to Flemish survey data on voluntary association membership. This analysis indicates that hobby clubs and humanitarian associations such as the Red Cross are among the most bridging associations, whereas women's groups and associations for retired people are among the most bonding groups. © 2007 Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action.
 
Article
Using the case of Movement Brontosaurus, a Czech organization founded in state socialist times, this article investigates how civic associations and nongovernmental organizations seeking to promote alternatives to the status quo respond to institutional pressures in different political and social contexts. The case shows that under state socialism, Brontosaurus appeared to conform to state mandates and societal expectations. However, its formal structure was decoupled from many activities to obscure its oppositional intent.After the transition to democracy, the organization was only able to maintain its place in society after it aligned its structure and practices with each other and openly expressed its alternative agenda. The findings demonstrate how social change and alternative lifestyle organizations vary their responses to institutional pressure in ways that enable them to realize their values and pursue their missions while accounting for the political and social contexts in which they are embedded.
 
Budget Constraint
Article
Although evidence indicates that religious persons are more generous on average than nonreligious persons, little work has been done to determine if this greater generosity is a general pattern or is, rather, specific to church-based institutions. Limited research addresses if, or how, religious and nonreligious givers respond to subsidies. This article uses experimental data to examine differences in the amount and pattern of giving to secularcharities in response to subsidies by self-identified religious and nonreligious participants. The results indicate no significant difference in either the amount or pattern of giving or in the response to subsidies by religious and nonreligious participants; however, giving by religious participants is significantly more responsive to income changes than giving by nonreligious participants.
 
Overview of Mechanisms
Article
The authors present an overview of the academic literature on charitable giving based on a literature review of more than 500 articles. They structure their review around the central question of why people donate money to charitable organizations. They identify eight mechanisms as the most important forces that drive charitable giving: (a) awareness of need; (b) solicitation; (c) costs and benefits; (d) altruism; (e) reputation; (f) psychological benefits; (g) values; (h) efficacy. These mechanisms can provide a basic theoretical framework for future research explaining charitable giving.
 
Article
Confidence in charitable organizations (charitable confidence) would seem to be an important prerequisite for philanthropic behavior. Previous research relying on cross-sectional data has suggested that volunteering promotes charitable confidence and vice versa. This research note, using new longitudinal panel data from the Netherlands, contradicts the suggestion generated by previous research. Volunteers indeed have more charitable confidence, but changes in one are not related to changes in the other. The authors identify generalized social trust and altruistic values as omitted variables that produce the previously observed relationship. The practical implication of this finding is that a decline in charitable confidence is unlikely to reduce volunteering. The theoretical implication is that volunteering is symbolic rather than instrumental.
 
Sex and Gender Differences in Independent and Dependent Variables 
Tobit regression 
Article
Psychological research has found that women score higher on most measures of the traits, motivations, and values that predict helping others, and women are more likely to help family and friends. However, sex differences in the institutional helping behaviors of volunteering and charitable giving are small. This paper seeks to explain this apparent contradiction with the hypotheses that men have more resources and more social capital than women, which compensates for their lower level of motivation. The paper tests these hypotheses using data from the 1995 Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) survey. The data show partial support for these hypotheses, as men score higher on measures of income, education, trust, and secular social networks. However, women have broader social networks through religious participation.
 
Article
Existing research stops short of explaining why nonprofit organizations develop certain forms of collaborations instead of others. In this article, the authors combine resource dependency, institutional, and network theories to examine the factors that influence the likelihood that nonprofit organizations develop formal types of collaborative activities vis-à-vis informal types. Based on the survey data of 95 urban charitable organizations, the study has found that an organization is more likely to increase the degree of formality of its collaborative activities when it is older, has a larger budget size, receives government funding but relies on fewer government funding streams, has more board linkages with other nonprofit organizations, and is not operating in the education and research or social service industry.
 
Article
Why do levels of public trust in NGOs vary across post-communist countries? How does media independence influence these trust levels? The authors begin from the premise that citizens develop trust in NGOs when they believe that NGOs function according to their normative expectations and they receive regular information about NGOs’ activities. Media has a crucial role in both these regards, especially in the context of countries in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, where the NGO sector is in a nascent stage and citizens lack prior experiences with NGOs as activist organizations and providers of public goods and services. First, media can provide information about NGO activities that enables citizens to develop opinions about individual NGOs and NGOs as a category of social actors. Second, media can serve as a vehicle to monitor the activities of NGOs and make them accountable. However, media may have its own biases and provide misleading information about NGOs. Thus the authors expect that media independence is associated with trust in NGOs. They analyze the relationship between NGO trust and media independence using a time-series and cross-section panel of 28 post-communist countries from 1997 to 2006, controlling for a range of domestic and international factors that might influence trust in the NGO sector. Our analysis suggests that independent media is positively associated with trust in NGOs.
 
Article
The interorganizational connections maintained by community development financial institutions (CDFIs) are examined with data obtained from a survey of CDFI executive directors and three case studies. The network actors are observed across three dimensions: collaboration, resource dependence, and information exchange. It is hypothesized that there exists a systematic relationship between the organizations CDFIs interact with and the purposes for which they interact with those organizations. The following analysis illustrates that governance structures within the CDFI industry involve an identifiable cohort of public, nonprofit and private sector actors and these associations facilitate a system of network links across an expansive array of resource needs.
 
Average Solicitation Expenditure Per-Firm in 2000 (dollars) 
Per-Firm Solicitation Expenditure Regression Results Solicit
Article
Fund-raising expenditures represent an important strategic decision for nonprofit managers inthe face of scarce donor resources. Privately, nonprofit managers weigh the trade-off between reaching new donors and increasing the implicit price of output to its constituents. Socially, competition among nonprofit firms for donations may produce an excessive level of fund-raising. This article empirically examines nonprofit fund-raising decisions, privately and socially, under varying market conditions. Analysis of financial data reveals that as markets become more competitive, nonprofits follow their private incentives by reducing their fund-raising expenditures. However, the author finds evidence that, collectively, nonprofits may spend an inefficiently high share of their revenues on fund-raising. As such, the author offers alternatives to the common practice of collective fund-raising through institutions such as the UnitedWay. Implications of the study include increasing price transparency to improve market discipline or raising legal and financial barriers to entry.
 
Article
This paper examines the implementation of the National Health Planning and Resources Development Act (P.L. 93-641) in three San Francisco Bay Area communities during the years 1976-1980. It focuses on a study of the role of consumers in the planning process and the policy and political implications of their participation. The results of the study point to the need to distinguish the effects of citizen participation on program outcomes from the effects on citi zens' own interests in the policy area. This finding has implications for how and under what conditions we may want to encourage opportunities for citizen participation in policy in the future.
 
Article
In research on giving, methodology is destiny. The volume of donations estimated from sample surveys strongly depends on the length of the questionnaire used to measure giving. By comparing two giving surveys from the Netherlands, the authors show that a short questionnaire on giving not only underestimates the volume of giving but also biases the effects of predictors of giving. Specifically, they find that a very short module leads to an underestimation of the effects of predictors of giving on the amount donated but an overestimation of their effects on the probability of charitable giving. Short survey modules may lead researchers to falsely reject or accept hypotheses on determinants of giving due to underreporting of donations.
 
Article
Despite declining conditions in many U.S. urban neighborhoods, some people have organized and planned programs and services at the neigh borhood level. This article reports research designed to assess the scope and quality of participation in neighborhood organizations in Detroit, one of the nation's most seriously distressed cities. The findings suggest that although people participate in organizations with a wide range of activities and accomplishments, their leaders perceive that neighborhood problems are worsening and that neighborhood participation and organizational resources are not necessarily enough to reverse decline.
 
Article
This article examines the relevance of technology, and particularly the Internet, for the improvement of accountability and transparency in nonprofit organizations. The novelty of our work regarding the previous empirical evidence resides in the fact that we have taken into account the means through which these organizations diffuse voluntary information. In this article, we have proposed a model of information disclosure for the Web sites of Spanish nongovernmental organizations for development (NGODs) that can serve as a guide for improving their informative transparency and their accountability. The empirical evidence obtained reveals that Spanish NGOD Web sites are primarily ornamental and that they should evolve toward an environment more informational and relational that allows the stakeholders to access relevant information ranging from the work being done and the use of the dispersed funds to the form in which the organization is governed. Our results have also confirmed that the disclosure levels are related to the amount of future donations received by the organization.
 
Article
This article describes how the largest labor market survey in the United Kingdom has been used to compare employment in the third sector with other sectors. This is based on employees' own internal definition of their employers' sector, an approach that it is argued can usefully supplement the dominant external approach. The dimensions along which the (self-defined) third sector emerges as distinctive include its rather small absolute size, its relatively high concentration of part-time and temporary staff, the greater proportion of its workers who work unpaid overtime, the relatively high proportion of employees who are women, the tendency for its respondents to have high levels of educational qualifications, and its distinctive composition. At least some of these features seem to be shared with the third sector in other developed countries, although it is very difficult to be confident in these comparisons for the reasons discussed in the article.
 
Article
This paper analyzes how social entrepreneurs evaluate social investors. Based on an experiment with 40 social entrepreneurs, we investigate how five attributes contribute to assessing the attractiveness of potential investors. The attributes cover supportive as well as oversight activities of social investors. In addition, we consider reputation of the investor as a potentially relevant factor for evaluating investment offers. We find that social entrepreneurs focus largely on reputation as well as supportive aspects when judging investor attractiveness. By splitting our sample in rather novice and rather experienced entrepreneurs, we show that the rank order of the criteria changes. While experienced entrepreneurs perceive reputation of the investor as most important, novice entrepreneurs rather focus on support offered by the investors.
 
Article
Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/69093/2/10.1177_089976407500400111.pdf
 
Article
Nonprofit organizations offer a wide range of goods and services and seek funding from a variety of revenue sources. Our working theory n this paper is that the sources of funding are related to the services a nonprofit provides - specifically whether services are public, private, or mixed in the nature of their benefits. Using multiple subfields from three major fields in the National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities (NTEE), this study divides nonprofits according to service type, and estimates the impact of service character on particular revenue streams and overall level of revenue diversification. Generally, the proportion of revenues generated by program fees is lowest for the category deemed public, highest for those with mostly private benefits, and midway for "mixed" services which are private in character but entail substantial public benefits. Similarly, the more public a nonprofit's services, the greater the proportion of revenues it generates through donations. However, we also identify some puzzling results that suggest the need for continued investigation of the determinants of the sources and mixes of nonprofit income.
 
Article
This paper identifies certain methodological shortcomings that seem to be inherent in much of the comparative generational research and also presents the results of a generational differences study in which these methodological deficiencies have been minimized. People of different ages who had served as VISTA volunteers were asked the same questions during the same period of time. Relationship between the VISTA experience and select social and political attitudes was determined. Analysis of the data show generally greater disenchantment and alienation of the younger volunteer. More specifically, when a comparison is made between those under and over age 30, issues that revolve around the integrity, morality, intent, and procedures of our government and social institutions point up significant generational differences. These differences are interpreted in several ways: (1) the younger volunteers' pre-disposition toward alienation; (2) the youths' relative lack of experience as individuals working within a bureaucratic system; and (3) the fact that the older volunteers have been integral parts of the very same social institutions which the young attack. (Author/SES)
 
Article
Why do OECD countries vary in their regulatory approach towards non-governmental organizations (NGOs)? This paper introduces an index to assess NGO regulation regarding barriers to entry, NGOs’ political capacity, and economic activity. Our cross-section analysis of 28 OECD countries offers preliminary evidence of systematic differences in NGO regulation between corporatist and pluralist systems. We suggest corporatist systems have more restrictive regulations because NGOs risk upsetting the political order and managed social consensus. In pluralist countries, NGOs face fewer restrictions because governments view them as substitutes for formal communication channels. We present two cases, Japan (corporatist) and the United States (pluralist), to illustrate this argument. In sum, macro-institutional arrangements of political representation have a crucial bearing on national styles of NGO regulation. Future uses of this index include examining the effects of national context on international NGOs, explaining variations in organizational structures and strategies among NGOs, and tracking variations in NGO-state relations over time.
 
Article
Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/68768/2/10.1177_089976407400300305.pdf
 
Article
In this article, we reassess the relation between association membership and individuals’ feelings about immigrants, thereby focusing on possible shifts in this relation in the wake of negative societal shocks (i.e., the 9/11 terrorist attacks). That is, do such events tighten or loosen the connection between association membership and immigrant intolerance? Using repeated survey data from Flanders (Belgium), our results indicate that there is at best a weak overall connection between association membership and immigrant intolerance. The exception lies with members of socially embedded (or “connected”) associations, which tend to be significantly more tolerant toward immigrants. Interestingly, we find no significant change in the relationship between voluntary association membership and immigrant intolerance in the immediate aftermath of 9/11. This suggests that negative societal shocks have little direct impact on the membership-attitudes relation. The analysis contributes to discussions on the potential “bright” and “dark” sides of civic engagement.
 
Article
This article describes a telephone survey (called “America Gives”) that asked 1,304 randomly selected adults about their philanthropic behavior (giving of time and treasure) after the events of September 11, 2001. The questions were part of a larger national study (n = 4,200) on giving and volunteering that was being conducted at the time of the September 11 attacks. This article provides a brief description of that study, the methodological considerations resulting from the immediate philanthropic response to the September 11 events, and steps that were taken to adapt the study to the changing national conditions. Next, the authors provide descriptive results from the survey, along with multivariate analyses of the determinants of giving and volunteering in this unique situation. Finally, the authors provide some caveats for researchers who may want to assess household giving and volunteering, and discuss implications for nonprofit managers and policy makers.
 
Top-cited authors
Chao Guo
  • University of Pennsylvania
James E. Austin
  • Harvard University
Femida Handy
  • University of Pennsylvania
David Horton Smith
  • Boston College, USA
Ram Cnaan
  • University of Pennsylvania