New Zealand Journal of Psychology

Publications
The peripheral and central vestibular systems exhibit an age-related structural deterioration which may be responsible for vestibular reflex deficits and dizziness in the elderly. However, it seems likely that the central nervous system is capable of compensating for a certain degree of decline in function, since not all elderly people are impaired to the extent that the clinical signs of vestibular dysfunction are apparent. Dizziness and other vestibular disorders may develop only when the degree of deterioration of the vestibular system exceeds the ability of the nervous system to compensate. If dizziness does eventuate, it can have profound psychological consequences, particularly in terms of loss of confidence in independent activity, and may lead to the development of anxiety disorders. Vestibular rehabilitation programs may help to minimise the effects of age-related deterioration of the vestibular system and its psychological impact.
 
Reviews research focusing on divergent perspectives in attributions of causality and on the conditions leading to spontaneous attributions and a focus on story-like constructions containing attributions, description, and emotional expression (i.e., accounts). The attribution heritage for account-making research and the several literatures that overlap with work on the social psychology of account making are reviewed. A conception of the value of account making under conditions of severe stress is presented along with relevant data. The role of account making in giving meaning and hope and in stimulating generativity in times of great anguish and psychological suffering is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Surveyed 118 New Zealand adults (mean age 36.8 yrs) in 1980 to collect social indicator data on life satisfactions and global sense of well-being. A comparison of these data with earlier findings in North American surveys shows that New Zealanders have similar distributions of satisfactions and happiness. Results also replicate the low correlations previously found between objective life circumstances and sense of well-being. The environmental model of happiness is further weakened by the observation that the rank order of satisfaction means across 34 life domains is highly consistent between US and New Zealand samples and does not reflect the most obvious differences between the 2 societies. In light of these results, alternative models are suggested to reflect a more psychological analysis of life satisfaction and enjoyment. High satisfaction domains seem to (a) have a more personal locus of control and choice, (b) be more individually tailored rather than uniform, (c) permit a more varied expression of the self, and (d) be more more costly to criticize in terms of others' reactions or own self-concept. (11 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
A scale for measuring attitudes toward and knowledge about nuclear warfare, nuclear power, and food irradiation was administered to 904 16–18 yr olds. Results show that a large proportion of the Ss were worried about the threat of nuclear war. Many expressed opposition to the use of nuclear weapons and believed a nuclear war was likely within 15 yrs. 28% of the Ss felt able to reduce the probability of the occurrence of a nuclear war. Similar opposition was expressed against nuclear power stations and food irradiation measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The study examines work-life balance (WLB) using a sample of 153 employees in a large New Zealand organisation. Analysis of company policies identified sixteen WLB initiatives currently being offered. Employees were surveyed to determine the extent of their awareness and use of currently offered initiatives. Factors influencing WLB initiative use and employee outcomes for initiative use were investigated. Female employees and younger employees used more WLB initiatives while employees reporting higher levels of management support and supervisor support, and perceiving fewer career damage and time demands also used more WLB initiatives. No support was found for the role of coworker support on WLB initiative use. Initiative use was related to reduced work-to-family conflict. Work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, and commitment to the organisation were related to intention to turnover. The results highlight the importance of workplace culture in enabling an environment that is supportive of WLB and consequently use of initiatives that are offered by the organisation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Challenges the common present-day belief that mentally and behaviorally disordered people in the European Middle Ages were usually regarded by their contemporaries as witches, possessed by evil spirits, or both. Examination of medieval and later sources shows only a limited connection between mental disorder and witch hunts, especially in the medieval period. Although demonic possession was diagnosed in the Middle Ages, this diagnosis was probably only applied to a narrow range of disorders. In general, there was widespread belief in physical causes for mental illness accompanied by a tendency to eclectic practice. (33 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Examined the effects of viewing TV aggression on play behavior among 52 8-yr-old Maori and Pakeha children. Ss viewed 2 videotapes of aggressive and nonaggressive play behavior among male children, who were otherwise similar to the Ss in age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES). After viewing, Ss were allowed 10 min free play. During this time, their behavior was videotaped and rated on 15 discrete behaviors. Cluster analyses highlighted 2 major dimensions—physical aggression and activity. Exposure to either of the films increased the activity in play, but only exposure to the aggressive film increased interpersonal aggression. There were no significant differences between Maori and Pakeha children or between boys and girls.
 
Assessed mother–child interactions of 42 competent and 42 aggressive children (aged 33–74 mo) and their mothers during a laboratory task selected to elicit low levels of aggression and high levels of interest and cooperation. Mothers of aggressive Ss were less positive, more aversive, and more commanding than mothers of competent Ss, although Ss in both groups completed the task with the same degree of success and displayed comparable levels of positiveness and aversiveness. While competent dyads maintained a harmonious interaction style and showed a cooperative pattern of reciprocity in their communication, mothers of aggressive Ss displayed a generally noncontingent pattern of communication characterized by reinforcement and punishment of both aversive and compliant child behavior. This indiscriminant responding pattern contrasted with the behavior of the aggressive Ss themselves, who tended to be more contingent than their mothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Discusses situational factors influencing patterns of drinking alcohol in New Zealand and elsewhere, in terms of behavioral theory of choice. This theory emphasizes the importance of environmental factors, rather than cognitive, motivational, or physiological factors, as primary determinants of drinking. It accounts for drinking in terms of the relativity between the consequences of drinking (costs and benefits) and the consequences of alternative activities. The health and social costs of drinking are typically delayed or removed from the context of drinking and thereby exert little influence on drinking. Greater influence is exerted by the range of choices provided by different contexts for drinking and the availability of opportunities to engage in activities other than drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
If a facial expression of emotion is preattentively recognized it should be recognized independently of the direction of attention. In the present experiment an outline face was located on each side of a fixation point. Either both faces were colored gray or 1 was colored gray and 1 blue, and either both had a neutral expression or 1 had a neutral expression and 1 an angry expression. Ss were 24 men and women. RT to the presence of a blue face in a display was slower when the blue face was neutral and the gray face was angry than when both blue and gray faces were neutral. The irrelevant angry expression captured attention, indicating preattentive processing. There were no effects in a condition in which a happy face was substituted for the angry one. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Tested the hypothesis that anxious individuals overestimate the probability and severity of feared (negative) events. Results from 2 studies examining the role of risk and threat perception in anxiety (as measured by the Risk Perception Questionnaire [RPQ]) are presented. In the 1st study, 75 university students and 91 community residents completed the RPQ and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results were consistent with the prediction that anxiety is associated with overestimates of the probability of feared events. In the 2nd study, risk and threat perception scores for 12 Ss with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III-Revised (DSM-III-R) anxiety disorders were compared with those of 10 nonanxious Ss and 28 community Ss. Results suggest that increased risk perception of daily stressors may be unique to patients suffering from anxiety disorders, while increased risk and threat perception may be associated with psychopathology generally. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Reviews and integrates evidence from 3 perspectives on the comparative phenomenology of anxiety and eating disorders in an attempt to determine the nature of the relationship between the two. Parallels in symptomatology such as the similarity between bingeing and purging in bulimia or eating-related rituals in anorexia and compulsive behavior in obsessive compulsive disorder, have suggested a similar underlying psychopathology with symptom expression in different domains. Patterns of comorbidity and family history have suggested elevated rates of anxiety disorders in both eating disordered probands and their family members. Both behavioral and pharmacological treatments known to be effective in the anxiety disorders have been applied successfully to the treatment of eating disorders. These 3 lines of evidence converge to suggest a modest association between eating and anxiety disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Examined gender differences in leadership aspirations (LAs) within the frameworks of instrumentality-valence and self-efficacy models of occupational decision making (ODM). 114 male and 106 female undergraduates completed a questionnaire measuring (1) instrumentality-valence expectancies for 13 leadership position outcomes, (2) self-efficacy perceptions, (3) attributions of leadership performance requirements, and (4) overall LAs. Males had stronger aspirations for being in leadership positions and higher self-efficacy expectancies. Leadership valence scores significantly accounted for the variances in overall LA ratings for males, while both leadership valence and the "ability-match" self-efficacy made a significant contribution to explaining females' LAs. Neither model sufficiently accounted for gender differences in leadership, supporting K. G. Wheeler's (see record 1983-24472-001) claim for using both models in research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Explored the cultural bias of some tests commonly used in neuropsychological assessment of head injury. 24 normal (non-head-injured) Maori men (aged 16–24 yrs) with a socioeconomic profile and age range typical of men who sustain head injuries were assessed. Maori Ss compared well with the average for the standardized population on some tests (Digit Span, Selective Reminding Test, Complex Figure Test recall). Ss scored lower than average on tests that relied on formal education or had a westernized content, such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised (WAIS--R) Vocabulary and the Revised Logical Memory Test (LM). Ss scored above average on the WAIS—R Block Design (BD), a test involving visuospatial abilities (BD). Ss' performance on a Maori version of the LM was better than their performance on the original LM. The scaled score difference between Vocabulary and BD was significant at the 5% level for 67% of the Ss, with Vocabulary score lower than BD score for all Ss. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Examined the relations among 3 attachment styles (Avoidance, Anxious/ambivalence, and Security), relationship satisfaction, and the kind of relationship accounts 51 long-term unmarried heterosexual couples generated. In addition, the relations between the attachment styles and relationship satisfaction were examined across a 4-mo period. The cross-sectional correlations generally supported the validity of the attachment approach (e.g., partners who were less Avoidant, less Anxious/ambivalent, and more Secure reported higher levels of relationship satisfaction and wrote more positive relationship descriptions). However, the longitudinal results suggested that relationship satisfaction tends to influence the attachment styles rather than vice-versa. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Assessed the utility of a modified version of an attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help scale (ATSPPH) developed by E. H. Fischer and J. L. Turner (see record 1970-21088-001) as a research instrument in New Zealand. The relationship between attitude and a series of classificatory variables was also investigated. A cross-section of the community ( n = 411) was obtained that varied across the variables of age, sex, cultural ties, education level, income level, prior contact with professionals, and how much money they would pay for the services. 43 counselors and related professionals served as a reference comparison group. Factor analysis of the modified ATSPPH revealed a factor structure different from previous analyses, although similarities were evident. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) showed that attitude was highly predictable along the classificatory variables of age, sex, education level, prior psychological contact, and how much money people would pay. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Compared the activity of 12 male and 12 female Wistar rats during inescapable shock and on subsequent escape-avoidance learning. Ss were given 60 1-mA inescapable tailshocks. At first, activity during shock was high immediately after shock onset and decreased during the shock. Over trials, this initial burst of activity decreased for both males and females. After 50 shocks, males were essentially inactive during shock. Females were generally more active than males, particularly during the first and last block of trials. Equal numbers of controls remained in their home cages. 24 hrs later, all Ss were trained on an escape-avoidance task with a tone as the warning stimulus and 1-mA scrambled footshock as the aversive stimulus. Inescapably shocked males exhibited learned helplessness in that their escape-avoidance responding (2 crossings of the midline of the shuttlebox per trial) was significantly impaired. Inescapably shocked females were not impaired in their performance. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Discusses the mechanisms involved in the serious psychological sequelae evident in some battered women, and describes individual psychological factors which contribute to decision-making about leaving or remaining with an abusive and dangerous male partner. The authors apply R. F. Baumeister's cognitive deconstruction model (see PA, Vols 77:14898 and 75:19982) to the psychological features of a subset of battered women for whom the experience of being abused by their male partners is discrepant with their expectations about themselves. It is suggested that a cognitive deconstructionist perspective is both theoretically useful and consistent with empirical findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
To link home and school in a partnership for resolving children's behavior problems, a home visitor protocol was designed that incorporated brief behavior therapy strategies and the strengthening of communication between teacher and parent. 39 children made up the experimental group, and 14 children were in the control group. Ss were prekindergartners to 2nd graders. While the referred children showed improvement, there were few variables that revealed significant differences between experimental and control Ss. There was some indication that teachers referred more problematic children to the active treatment group. Future research will explore how the protocol can be strengthened to provide effective mental health services via the natural ecology of the school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Discusses an article by P. A. Silva (see record 1983-27071-001) that recommended caution in the use of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the WISC—R in New Zealand because of problems in using American norms. Further difficulties in interpreting these 2 tests are identified that arise from a lack of reliability and validity data and from problems relating to lack of stability in the trait being measured and evidence for poor prediction of individual achievement. (51 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Used line drawings of 10 famous faces in different levels of caricature to determine whether the type of picture used or the familiarity of the face determined recognizability for 35 Ss. Similar line drawings of 10 birds were used to determine whether differences in recognition of faces and birds would be reflected in best-likeness judgments. The results were compared with a previous study by G. Rhodes et al (see record 1988-06573-001) on the recognizability of caricatures of colleagues' faces. Although Ss indicated that some of the caricatures of famous faces looked as good as undistorted drawings, the mean caricature level was much lower than the mean reported by Rhodes et al. Ss also preferred undistorted drawings of birds. The degree of exaggeration that looks good appears to be determined more by the type of face (known or unknown) than by the type of picture used. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Examined whether cues at the time of recall facilitate young children's recall of a real life event at different delays since the event. 24 children (aged 5 yrs 6 mo–5 yrs 11 mo) participated individually in a contrived interaction with an unfamiliar adult magician and were interviewed about the interaction 10 days later and then again after 10 wks. The amount of information freely recalled decreased significantly between the 10-day and 10-wk delays. However, the introduction of verbal and object cues resulted in a marked increase in the amount of information recalled at the 10-wk delay. Object cues were more effective than verbal cues in facilitating recall. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
20 closed head injured (CHI) Ss and 20 neurologically intact controls were tested on an event sequence learning task designed to assess implicit learning. Despite severe explicit memory and learning deficits as measured by the California Verbal Learning Test, CHI Ss showed intact implicit learning, and this learning was retained over a 20-min delay. Results support the view that implicit memory and learning processes are relatively robust in the presence of severe neurological damage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The distinctiveness hypothesis, which states that unusual aspects of faces are coded in memory, was supported by a previous study in which typicality was varied within faces using a computerized caricature generator (G. Rhodes et al; see record 1988-06573-001). Caricatures of personally known faces were recognized more quickly than corresponding anticaricatures and veridical drawings. In the present study, contrary to the hypothesis, veridical drawings of previously presented faces were recognized more quickly than caricatures or anticaricatures. 40 undergraduates rejected atypical (caricatured) new faces more quickly than typical new faces. Encoding strategies that allowed distinctive aspects to be coded produced the most accurate recognition of test photographs, and distinctive aspects appeared to be coded spontaneously. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Exploration of the work-family interface has resulted in models which focus on conflict between work and family roles rather than work-family and family-work facilitation. The present research was an exploratory study which aimed to examine whether work-family facilitation (WFF), family-work facilitation (FWF), work-family conflict (WFC) and family-work conflict (FWC) were associated with job satisfaction, organisational commitment, organisational citizenship behaviour and intention to leave. A survey was distributed to 75 employees in a New Zealand organisation. Fifty-eight (77%) returned usable data. Levels of work-family and family-work facilitation and conflict were not related to gender, age or number of dependents. With regard to marital status, non-partnered respondents reported higher levels of WFF than partnered respondents. Work-family facilitation and family-work facilitation were significantly related to job satisfaction and affective organisational commitment, and WFF was also related to organisational citizenship behaviour. Both WFF and FWF were negatively related to turnover intention. Descriptive information was collected to identify respondents' experiences of work-family and family-work facilitation. Facilitation between the home and work domains was found with regard to the need to balance time demands, the development of skills in one domain that could be valuable in the other domain, and the availability of work resources such as flexible work practices. The implications for balancing work and family commitments are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
A 60-yr-old female with a meningioma of the right frontal lobe demonstrated only mild clumsiness of the left limbs on admission to hospital. A carotid angiogram performed prior to surgery resulted in a right temporoparietal infarct. When the subsequent hemiparesis resolved, the S demonstrated a profound motor neglect of her left limbs, and left visuospatial neglect. Following the removal of the frontal meningioma, motor neglect resolved immediately and visuospatial neglect resolved slowly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Examined the relationship between loneliness, sex difference, and social network in 72 undergraduates (aged 18–25 yrs). Males evidenced greater loneliness than females. Network size was only significantly smaller for lonely males. Lonely Ss reported higher contact and lower intimacy with family and lower contact and intimacy with close and other friends than did non-lonely Ss. Results are discussed in terms of the development of relationships in New Zealand's young people. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Reviews findings from 12 studies regarding the efficacy of remedial reading procedures developed by T. Glynn et al (1979), called the Mangere Home and School Procedures, for tutoring children with reading difficulties. Studies involved 118 tutors and 98 children (aged 7–12 yrs) using the procedures in a 1-to-1 context. Data regarding application of the procedures, reported reading gains, and tutoring Ss and settings are examined. It is concluded that a wide range of tutors, parents, childcare workers, adolescents, and peers have successfully implemented the procedures, resulting in substantial gains for children with reading difficulties. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
M. C. Corballis (see record 1991-03004-001) refers to an uneasy tension in New Zealand universities between the academic interests of staff and the clinical interests of most students. It is suggested that the growing independence of professional psychology may be part of a natural evolutionary process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Examined sex differences in, and the influence of IQ test experience on, the self and partner estimation of H. Gardner's (1983) 10 multiple intelligences. Over 600 college students (aged 16-38 yrs) from New Zealand completed a brief questionnaire based on those used in previous research. Three of the 10 self-estimates yielded significant sex differences. Males believed they were more intelligent than females on mathematical (logical), spatial and existential intelligence. Those who had previously completed an IQ test gave higher self-estimates on 8 of the 10 estimates. Self-estimates were compared to university samples from America and Britain, and results tended to show New Zealand students gave lower self-estimates particularly on mathematical, body-kinetic, existential, spiritual and naturalistic intelligence. Factor analysis showed the 10 multiple intelligences fell into 3 interpretable factors which were predicted by both gender and test experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
A 40-item questionnaire, which assessed knowledge of Maori language and cultural practices, was constructed and administered to 214 New Zealand school children (aged 11–26 yrs) and 47 university students. The test had satisfactory item-total correlations and internal consistency. It also differentiated among ethnic Maori and ethnic Pakeha with varying degress of exposure to Maori language and culture. Possible uses of the test include investigating the relationship between cultural knowledge and school achievement.
 
Discusses the current debate among professional psychologists over so-called recovered memory related to sexual abuse. The polarization among psychologists is evident in even the term recovered memory; since research shows that memories inaccessible on one occasion may later become retrieved, a more neutral term may be memory retrieval, rather than recovery. The term false memory syndrome is equally insinuating; all episodic memories are constructed of incomplete fragments, and convey the true past with varying degrees of verisimilitude. The debate over recovered memory is the latest manifestation of the growing chasm between professional (i.e., clinical) and scientific psychology. The author warns of the dangers of ignoring scientific knowledge and scientific attitudes in psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The objective of this study was to assess the extent and nature of newspaper coverage of sexual offending in New Zealand in 2003. All news stories relating to sexual offending published in three daily newspapers (The New Zealand Herald, The Press, and The Dominion) were coded on a range of variables including article type, topic and frame of article, any reference to treatment, sources quoted in the report, and the type of offence mentioned. Overall there were 377 articles relating to sexual offending in the three newspapers. Most articles were either descriptions of offences/court reports (31.6%) or were related to specific offences or offenders (35.3%), with few articles focusing on either treatment (3.2%) or education and prevention (2.4%). The most frequent source for the articles were police or legal representatives (N=220) with few articles drawing on the comments and opinions of either mental health specialists (N=56) or academics (N=12). Consistent with prior research on crime reporting, there were a disproportionate number of high profile cases covered in the news, with nine cases capturing 22% of the total news coverage on sex offending in New Zealand in 2003. Some implications of these findings for clinicians and academics are discussed. This article has been published in the journal: New Zealand Journal of Psychology. Used with permission.
 
Adolescent fatherhood is often associated with negative stereotyping and deficiencies in the adolescent's situation or characteristics, which effect his investment in child rearing. Developmentally, adolescence is a time when parenthood is not conventional practice nor a well-accepted norm. Understanding how adolescent fathers make sense of transitioning to parenthood allows us to re-think our public representations of young fatherhood. This article seeks to examine the ways that adolescent fathers reconstruct their identity in the midst of becoming a parent. Social constructionism offers a critical approach to the consideration of this transition process. A discursive analysis, based on interview transcripts, looks at the talk of adolescent fathers, and suggests they have a significant investment in their changing identity. Through their language, they actively engage in a process of change that illustrates management of new responsibilities, which arguably develops an attitude of mastery in their lives, instead of ineffectiveness as suggested by stereotyping. Yes Yes
 
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This paper describes the development and evaluation of the Alcohol and Drug Outcome Measure (ADOM), a brief 18-item, two part, outcome monitoring instrument designed for routine use with clients in the New Zealand Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) treatment sector. The development of the ADOM was informed by an expert panel of AOD clinicians (n = 6), key informant interviews (n = 14) and a pilot with AOD treatment clients and their respective clinicians (n = 25). The psychometric properties of the ADOM were tested with clients (n = 63) across a range of AOD treatment services. Testing involved clinicians administering the ADOM at treatment admission, one-to-seven days post-admission, and four-to-six weeks post-admission. Analyses of the test-retest reliability, concurrent validity and sensitivity to change of Part A of the ADOM, covering type and frequency of substance use, consistently produced excellent results. Comparable results for Part B of the instrument, covering associated psychosocial issues, were generally satisfactory. The ADOM has the potential to be used as a core AOD outcomes monitoring instrument. Yes Yes
 
Reviews selected areas of research as well as recent attempts to consolidate theoretical knowledge about diagnosis and treatment of older adults. Topics were chosen to illustrate areas of new and innovative study (e.g., substance abuse, family therapy), areas in which much has been written but perhaps popular biases remain (e.g., bereavement, caregiving) and areas in which psychologists still have much to contribute (e.g., combined psychological and pharmacological approaches, dementia care). To a certain extent, the psychology of later life continues to be overshadowed by the more established literature on younger adults. Diagnostic categories and treatment approaches which are well-validated for younger populations remain under-researched or even wholly unexamined in older adults. Also, biases and assumptions about older adults can help instill a false sense of security in clinical work with older patients.
 
This study sought to ascertain which, if any, health or demographic factors are associated with differential (higher or lower) levels of satisfaction with pharmacy services among older adults. A mailed questionnaire developed specifically for the present study was utilized for data collection, the Pharmacy Services Satisfaction Questionnaire. Ss were 180 New Zealand residents (mean age 73 yrs) listed as retired in the 1996 electoral roll. Results suggest reliable relationships do exist between patient satisfaction and certain health and demographic factors, as higher overall satisfaction and satisfaction with access to pharmacy services were both found to be associated with a lower number of self-reported health problems. It is suggested that physical access to pharmacy services may be compromised by disabling health problems, particularly among those living alone. Contrary to previous New Zealand research, the current study found no reliable relationship between eligibility for health subsidies and satisfaction with financial aspects of health care.
 
Current research indicates that the way in which an individual appraises a situation may be more important to psychological well-being than the actual presence of stress. Cognitive appraisal is central to the stress and coping processes, for it determines how an event is perceived and therefore operates as an essential mediator between the event and the outcome. The present study examines this relationship within a transactional theory of occupational stress. According to the transactional perspective, the appraisal of an event should be predictive of psychological well-being. However, given the role negative affectivity has been demonstrated to play in the perception of events, researchers have shifted attention to include this variable in examinations of cognitive appraisal. In the current study the relationships between negative affectivity, appraisal and psychological well-being were tested within a mediation framework. It was expected that negative affectivity would have both direct and indirect effects on psychological well-being and the indirect relationship would be mediated by cognitive appraisal. These hypotheses were supported.
 
While empirical research to date has generally supported positive effects of estrogen on verbal memory performance in women, the literature examining specific effects of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) on cognitive functioning in mid-life women is more equivocal. The Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test-Extended Version (RBMT-E), a measure of everyday memory functioning in adults within an average range of cognitive functioning, was administered to a sample of 104 New Zealand women aged 40 to 60 years who had self-selected to either use or not use HRT (53 HRT users and 51 non-users). Self-report. measures of mood, stress, general health and menopausal symptoms were also administered. These variables, along with age and education level, were used in analyses of group differences on the everyday memory measures. Results showed significant differences between the groups for three sub-tests of the RBMT-E:'Story Immediate', 'Story Delayed', and 'Message Delayed'. Women who use HRT scored higher on these subtests than those who do not use HRT. After calculation of a total profile score (adjusting for age and IQ), HRT users score higher than HRT non-users on the RBMT-E overall measure of Everyday Memory. These pilot results suggest that HRT use in this sample-is related to enhanced verbal memory in everyday memory tasks and that the RBMT-E may be a useful tool for further work in this area of research.
 
The recognition that employers are legally and morally responsible for their worker's psychological health has produced legislation and litigation both within New Zealand and overseas. This paper empirically compares the experiences of organisational and operational work hassles, work-family conflict, neuroticism, job satisfaction, and work-related psychological well-being within three emergency services populations. A total of 723 respondents from the New Zealand Police, Fire and Ambulance Services returned completed self-report questionnaires. The police respondents reported more minor work stressors (hassles) and higher levels of work-family conflict and intrinsic job satisfaction. The ambulance service respondents reported significantly higher levels of work-related psychological well-being. Work-family conflict, neuroticism and job satisfaction all significantly predicted work well-being in the hypothesised directions and these associations were similar within all three Services. The implications for the treatment of occupational stress and the considerations for work-family conflict experienced by these emergency service workers are discussed. Yes Yes
 
Within the context of both colonial history and contemporary disputes between colonial and Maori interests, this paper offers a reading of the notion of sovereignty. Data from a focus group yields a construction of sovereignty that is analysed discursively. The analysis highlights the way talk constitutes and positions people and also the way sovereignty itself is constructed. We argue that this work is novel within the social psychology of race relations. While previous work has examined the oppressive functions of 'race talk', this study offers an alternative to the dominant discourses surrounding nationhood. The paper provides insights into a previously unexamined side of the construction of race related issues, and illustrates how oppressive 'race talk' can be challenged. Yes Yes
 
Interaction between need, ethnicity and merit on recommended salary
The current study reports an experiment assessing how Pakeha/European New Zealanders' perceptions of job applicants are shaped by ethnicity, merit and need. A sample of 114 undergraduate students viewed the curricula vitae of both high and low merit New Zealand European/Pakeha and Maori job applicants. Individual versus group need was made salient before participants provided general ratings and recommended salaries for the job applicants. Participants provided more positive assessments of high merit Maori than high merit New Zealand European/Pakeha applicants, but less favourable assessments of low merit Maori in comparison to low merit New Zealand European/Pakeha applicants. This trend was also observed for recommended salaries, but only if individual need was made salient. The implications for employee selection, Affirmative Action policies, and attitudes towards biculturalism in general are discussed.
 
This paper examines the current status, limitations and future directions of behavioural family intervention with children. There is clear evidence that behavioural parent training is an effective treatment approach with a variety of childhood disorders, however some facilities fail to derive much benefit from existing treatment strategies. Recently researchers have examined ways of improving response to treatment of these difficult cases, including focus on the treatment of maternal depression, marital difficulties and the need of single parents and reconstituted families. This paper highlights recent developments involving applications of parent training procedures to new clinical problems and discusses the importance of continuing research with a preventative focus.
 
Presents cases of 2 patients (22-yr-old female and 36-yr-old male) with Capgras Syndrome (CS) arising from differing etiologies and with comorbid depression. The neuropsychological profiles of the 2 Ss are similar and involve deficits in performance on tests associated with both right and left hemisphere dysfunction. The authors propose that for these Ss, deficits in verbal memory are chiefly a reflection of depressed mood, while deficits in visuospatial skills and nonverbal memory are reflective of right hemisphere deficits normally associated with CS.
 
This paper describes the conceptual development and validation of a scale to measure loneliness in the workplace. Despite extensive literature on loneliness and the measurement of the phenomenon, the issue of assessing worker loneliness is not well researched. A 16-item self-report loneliness scale was developed for intended use in the workplace. Two separate studies were conducted to examine the reliability and validity of the scale . For each study participants were recruited by email and completed the scale via a website published on the internet. The first study included 514 employees, while the second study included 363 employees , each representing various occupational groups. Exploratory factor analysis using oblique rotation generated two factors representing emotional deprivation at work and social companionship at work. On a subsequent sample , confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the two-factor structure by demonstrating a significantly better fit than a single-factor structure. The results indicate the scale has good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Preliminary evidence for convergent and discriminant validity is also provided.
 
Gender differences in body perception and satisfaction
Partial Corelations, controlling for BMI, among media consumption, awareness and internalisation of sociocultural ideals (SATAQ) and body perception, for men and women Women Men
This study investigated the relationships among awareness and internalisation of societal ideals, body perception and media consumption for young adult New Zealand men (n=62) and women (n=119) attending the University of Otago. This survey confirms that young New Zealand women, but not men, experience the body image dissatisfaction deemed normative for women living in Westernised cultures. Women, but not men, selected significantly smaller ideal figures than the figures they thought and felt their bodies looked like. Both men and women were equally aware of the importance society places on physical attractiveness and being thin, but women reported significantly greater internalisation of thinness norms. Total media consumption, which did not significantly differ as a function of gender, was correlated with increased awareness and internalisation of thinness ideals for both men and women but only predicted body perceptions in the latter. Overall, these results suggest that New Zealand women, but not men, are unhappy with their bodies and want to be thinner.
 
The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a behavioural screening questionnaire developed specifically for children and adolescents. This paper presents SDQ scores for a sample of 484 New Zealand secondary school students aged 13-17 and examines the relationship between SDQ score, ethnicity, age, gender, and alcohol and cannabis use. We found that only 4% of our sample of secondary school students fell within the 'abnormal' range and that difficulties, as reported via the SDQ, appeared greater amongst younger adolescents (13-15 yrs) and did not vary by ethnicity. Our results support further validation of the SDQ within a random New Zealand community sample and suggest that practitioners should be cautious when interpreting SDQ symptom scores particularly in older adolescents. Yes Yes
 
The retention of operational staff, particularly females, within the police services and other male-dominated occupations, has received some recent attention. The introduction of organisational practices which aim to reduce inter-domain conflict, is a current intervention employed to reduce turnover levels. The importance of adequate supervisor support is one such intervention and has produced considerable recent interest. This paper tests the influence of organisational variables (sexual harassment) and individual variables (perceptions of social support) upon job satisfaction and turnover criterions, using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) analysis. Four hundred male and female New Zealand police officers were invited to participate in a longitudinal research project, involving the completion of two questionnaire surveys. The experiences of harassment and the quantity of leave taken were associated with turnover intentions. Supervisor support was a strong predictor of job satisfaction and also an indirect predictor of turnover intentions. Intrinsic job satisfaction was an especially strong direct predictor of turnover intentions, although only within the cross-sectional analyses. The results also support the distinction between the two types of job satisfaction, intrinsic verses extrinsic, in the context of turnover research. The implications regarding the training of police supervisors in order to improve (female) retention levels, are discussed.
 
(A) Mean Reaction Times (RTs, in Milliseconds) and Error Rates (%E) for the Colour Task and (B) Mean Error Rates for the Memory Task in Experiment 1. Standard Errors are in the Parentheses. I = incongruent; N = neutral.
Although the effect of working memory (WM) load on the degree of distractor processing has been investigated in a number of paradigms, a common feature in prior research is that the target and distractors pertain to different objects. The present experiments examine the effect of WM load on distractor interference when the relevant and irrelevant features belong to the same object. In Experiment 1, participants saw stimulus displays that consisted of a memory set followed by a Stroop stimulus, whose colour and meaning were either unrelated or incongruent. The task was to make a speeded response to the colour of the target while holding either one or six digits in memory. Although a signifi cant Stroop interference effect was found, its magnitude was not infl uenced by WM load. Experiment 2 manipulated the size of attentional focus in addition to WM load and the response congruency between the relevant and irrelevant features of Stroop stimuli. Again, there was a strong Stroop interference effect, but no effect of WM load or attentional focus. These results suggest that the effect of WM load on selective attention may be more complex than was previously conceived. They also emphasize the importance of stimulus structure in understanding the effect of WM load on selective attention.
 
Following a significant earthquake police are a large first responder group involved in victim recovery, civil emergencies and community support. They are also exposed to the everyday work and non-work related disruptions associated with the disaster. Conservation of resources (COR) theory offers a framework for understanding longer-term health outcomes associated with disasters in this group. Using a mixed methods approach we surveyed coping resources and psychological health outcomes in police (sworn and non-sworn) working during the 2010-2011 earthquakes in Christchurch (New Zealand). Free text responses (n = 322) from the quantitative survey were subject to a directed qualitative content analysis. Initial data coding used four categories derived from COR theory then inductively grouped into a typology of losses and gains. Resource losses included on-going issues with insurance providers, damage and threat of loss to home, financial insecurity, and loss of social connectedness, lack of employer recognition and job threat. Resource gains included enhanced self-efficacy, posttraumatic growth and pride in contributing as police during the critical periods. COR theory was conceptually a good fit for the data, and underscored the dominance of disaster-associated day-to-day resource losses. Implications for staff support and wellbeing, and foci of future welfare interventions are considered.
 
Top-cited authors
Chris G. Sibley
  • University of Auckland
Dianne Gardner
  • Massey University
Paula Brough
  • Griffith University
Marc S Wilson
  • Victoria University of Wellington
James H. Liu
  • Massey University