New Media & Society

Published by SAGE Publications
Online ISSN: 1461-4448
Publications
Analyses of Social Media Adoption and Use by NPTimes 100 Nonprofit Organizations 
Article
This study examines what drives organizational adoption and use of social media through a model built around four key factors - strategy, capacity, governance, and environment. Using Twitter, Facebook, and other data on 100 large US nonprofit organizations, the model is employed to examine the determinants of three key facets of social media utilization: 1) adoption, 2) frequency of use, and 3) dialogue. We find that organizational strategies, capacities, governance features, and external pressures all play a part in these social media adoption and utilization outcomes. Through its integrated, multi-disciplinary theoretical perspective, this study thus helps foster understanding of which types of organizations are able and willing to adopt and juggle multiple social media accounts, to use those accounts to communicate more frequently with their external publics, and to build relationships with those publics through the sending of dialogic messages.
 
Article
The global emergence of mobile phone and wireless services has renewed the call for new media researchers to understand better the relationship between information and communication technologies (ICTs) and society. In this journal of New Media & Society, we propose to take on the challenge and explore the opportunities therein by examining the social, cultural and institutional dynamics of wireless ICTs and the formation of multiple modernities in the context of contemporary Asia. The articles in this issue offer a broad scope of analysis, focusing on China, Malaysia and related transnational processes throughout the region as well as globally, in an attempt to reveal a plurality of Asian mobile modernities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Social scientists are increasingly interested in the new organizational forms known as epistemic communities, knowledge networks, or communities of practice, depending on the discipline. These forms are made possible by new communication technologies, but they can be difficult to study qualitatively, often because their human, social, cultural, or symbolic capital is transmitted over significant distances with technologies that do not carry the full range of human expressions that a researcher using participant observation or ethnography hopes to experience. Qualitative methods are desirable for rendering rich data on human interaction but alone are ill equipped for studying community life conducted in diverse formal and informal organizations and over many new media. Social network analysis is desirable for rendering an overarching sketch of social interaction but alone is ill equipped for giving detail on incommensurate yet meaningful relationships. I propose `network ethnography' as a synergistic research design that synthesizes these two methods, using the strengths of each to make up for the weaknesses of the other. Network ethnography uses social network analysis to justify case selection for ethnography, facilitating the qualitative study of the varied organizational forms of knowledge networks.
 
Article
National Public Radio’s Sonic Memorial project leveraged the opportunities of digital multimedia convergence to create a national aural memorial of the September 11 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center. Not only did the ubiquity of digital technology empower listeners to act as producers in submitting texts to the Memorial, but it also allowed the Sonic Memorial to bridge radio and new media environments through the creation of a lasting memorial website at www.sonicmemorial.com. While unique in its focus on participatory vernacular aural remembrance, the Sonic Memorial nevertheless shares many attributes of traditional national memorials in its focus on making sense of national tragedy. Despite its uniqueness, the Sonic Memorial privileges certain stories, leaving others unvoiced in its montage of remembrance.
 
Article
Abstract Based on survey data gathered before and after September 11, 2001 (‘9/11’), this study examines the relationship between ‘internet connectedness’ and communicative actions after September 11 2001. The study found that: (1) people heightened their dependency relations with traditional mass media after September 11, regardless of whether or not they had an internet connection; (2) ‘internet high-connectors’ intensified their internet connections, while ‘internet low-connectors’ decreased the intensity of their internet connections; and (3) internet high-connectors participated in a broader range of civic activities in response to September 11 than did internet low-and non-connectors.
 
Article
Like its analogue counterpart, digital radio is one of the 'older' forms of new media. The technology of digital radio broadcasting has been under active development for at least 25 years and has produced a number of different technical solutions, the longest established of which is Eureka-147 or Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB). This article explores DAB's distinctly European vision for the future of broadcasting. DAB is traced to its origins in 1980s European research and development policy and its affinity with traditions of European public service broadcasting. Ironically, it was DAB's failure to capitalize on its 'Europeanness' that contributed to the fragmentary political support that it later received, compromising its subsequent implementation. From a contemporary perspective DAB's original mission, while visionary, to provide enhanced, interactive information and entertainment services through audio, text and visual content, appears to have misread trends towards convergence and appears out of step with contemporary media consumption patterns.
 
Article
Candidate websites provide politicians with opportunities to present themselves in an individual way. To a greater or lesser extent politicians share personal information in their biographies and provide options to connect with citizens by putting links on their websites to their social networking sites (SNS). In this paper, although acting on different levels, both strategies are indicated as forms of personalization strategies used by politicians in their online communication. This cross-national study explores the use of these strategies on candidate websites in 17 countries during the elections for the European Parliament (EP) in June 2009. This is a comparative study of the personalized and individualized campaigning styles used during elections. Findings show that three general dimensions of personalization can be distinguished; ‘professional’, ‘home and family’ and ‘personal preferences’. While the first two dimensions show a higher level of use among candidates, the third dimension on private information is hardly used. Results show also that countries from Central Europe inform their citizens more about their professional and personal circumstances, and Mediterranean countries use personalization strategies the least. Furthermore, the overall findings show that SNS were not frequently used during the 2009 e-campaigning. West European countries use links to SNS more frequently than countries in other regions. In general these findings suggest cross-cultural differences regarding online personalized political campaigning.
 
Article
Discourse analysis of the technical document series that records the internet design history, the RFCs, shows that those involved during the first decade saw privacy as a multi-dimensional and interactive problem requiring use of a suite of solutions at the network, individual, and data levels that had to take into account the need to balance privacy against experimentation and innovation. Internet designers were sophisticated in their pragmatic thinking about privacy when evaluated vis-a-vis theoretical developments since that time, viewing privacy as a contextual matter involving boundary setting, and using information architecture and metadata as tools for privacy protection. Those in the social science and legal communities think about the privacy effects of communication on humans, while those in the technical design community must focus on privacy as a set of logistical problems. Bringing these diverse communities into a single conversation can considerably enrich and strengthen the work of all.
 
Article
Sharing is the constitutive activity of Web 2.0. But when did ‘sharing’ become the term used to describe the activities that constitute participation in Web 2.0? What does sharing mean in this context? What is its rhetorical force? This paper argues that a new meaning of sharing has emerged in the context of Web 2.0 with three main features: fuzzy objects of sharing; the use of the word ‘share’ with no object at all; and presenting in terms of sharing functions of social network sites that used not to be so described. Following a critique of the use of the notion of sharing by social network sites, the article concludes by suggesting affinities between sharing in Web 2.0 and in other social spheres.
 
Article
This paper explores Web 2.0 as the marker of a discourse about the nature and purpose of the internet in the recent past. It focuses on how Web 2.0 introduced to our thinking about the internet a discourse of versions. Such a discourse enables the telling of a ‘history’ of the internet which involves a complex interweaving of past, present and future, as represented by the additional versions which the introduction of Web 2.0 enabled. The paper concludes that the discourse of versions embodied in Web 2.0 obscures as much as it reveals, and suggests a new project based on investigations of the everyday memories of the internet by which individual users create their own histories of online technology.
 
Article
Current internet research has been influenced by application developers and computer engineers who see the development of the Web as being divided into three different stages: Web 1.0, Web 2.0 and Web 3.0. This article will argue that this understanding – although important when analysing the political economy of the Web – can have serious limitations when applied to everyday contexts and the lived experience of technologies. Drawing from the context of the Italian student movement, we show that the division between Web 1.0, Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 is often deconstructed by activists’ media practices. Therefore, we highlight the importance of developing an approach that – by focusing on practice – draws attention to the interplay between Web platforms rather than their transition. This approach, we believe, is essential to the understanding of the complex relationship between Web developments, human negotiations and everyday social contexts.
 
Article
This paper examines how two contrasting academic publishers are responding to the opportunities and challenges of Web 2.0 to innovate their services. Our findings highlight the need to take seriously the role of publishers in the move towards a vision of more rapid and open scholarly communication and to understand the factors that shape their role as intermediaries in the innovation pathways that may be needed to achieve it.
 
Article
In Web 2.0, there is a social dichotomy at work based upon and reflecting the underlying Von Neumann Architecture of computers. In the hegemonic Web 2.0 business model, users are encouraged to process digital ephemera by sharing content, making connections, ranking cultural artifacts, and producing digital content, a mode of computing I call ‘affective processing.’ The Web 2.0 business model imagines users to be a potential superprocessor. In contrast, the memory possibilities of computers are typically commanded by Web 2.0 site owners. They seek to surveil every user action, store the resulting data, protect that data via intellectual property, and mine it for profit. Users are less likely to wield control over these archives. These archives are comprised of the products of affective processing; they are archives of affect, sites of decontextualized data which can be rearranged by the site owners to construct knowledge about Web 2.0 users.
 
Article
Funding bodies, the economics of publishing, and the affordances of Web 2.0 platforms have spurred learned societies, publishers, and scholars to experiment with new media venues for scholarly communication. Why, then, have we seen few widespread changes in how scholars disseminate research in most disciplines? Drawing on qualitative interview data from the Mellon-funded Future of Scholarly Communication Project (2005–2011), we describe how scholars share their work-in-progress and the disciplinary values driving these practices. We then discuss credit, time, and personality as significant barriers to change across disciplines, and we explore these obstacles through an examination of two new paradigms for sharing: open peer review and data sharing. By situating larger discussions about the future of scholarly communication in the everyday lives of scholars, we argue that integration with disciplinary cultures will be key to the success of new media initiatives.
 
Article
Manovich (2001) describes the changes that result from translating an established cultural product into a new technology as ‘transcoding’. This study investigates the form that the journalism of The New York Times takes when transcoded to the Web by evaluating multimedia news packages published on nytimes.com from 2000–2008. The number and sophistication of the multimedia packages grew over time to include new interfaces that incorporated elements native to digital environments such as hypertextual links, interactivity, elements borrowed from digital games and social media tools. Most packages were produced as sidebars to stories published in the newspaper, suggesting that multimedia was used as an extension of the written word, not as a primary storytelling format.
 
Number of publications in Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI)/Arts & Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI) journals with seven central keywords in respective fields.  
Characteristics of keyword co-occurrence networks of 11 research sub-themes.
Theoretical orientation of Internet studies.
Article
What does ‘Internet studies’ entail as a field of social science research? We aim to answer the question by mapping research themes, theorization, and methodology of Internet studies based on 27,000+ articles published in Social Sciences Citation Index and Arts & Humanities Citation Index journals over the last 10 years. In analyzing the articles, we adopt a ‘bottom-up’ approach – classifying keywords of the Internet studies without any a priori categorization – to identify the boundaries, major divisions, and basic elements of the field talis qualis. The research strategy results in a number of expected, as well as surprising, patterns and trends. Internet studies have evolved into a viable field that has witnessed a booming decade. The field is clustered around four primary research themes: e-Health, e-Business, e-Society, and Human–Technology Interactions. Two or three sub-themes with different research foci and methodologies emerge within each theme. The evolution of popular keywords in each sub-theme further shows that the field has become more concerned with intricate relationships between Internet use and specific behaviors/attitudes/effects; Internet usage patterns have increasingly attracted research attention; and network perspectives and approaches have become popular. Internet studies in the past decade have been modestly theorized. Established research methods (e.g., survey, experiment, and content analysis) still prevail in the Internet studies reviewed.
 
Article
The Indian Ocean tsunami of December 26th, 2004 was one of the greatest natural disasters; it was also the first Internet-mediated natural disaster. Despite the presumed ubiquity and power of advanced technologies including satellites and the Internet, no advance warning was given to the affected coastal populations by their governments or others. This article examines the conditions for the supply of effective early warnings of disasters, drawing from the experience of both the December 26th, 2004 tsunami and the false warnings issued on March 28th, 2005. The potential of information and communication technologies for prompt communication of hazard detection and monitoring information and for effective dissemination of alert and warning messages is examined. The factors contributing to the absence of institutions necessary for the realization of that potential are explored.
 
Article
This paper affords an opportunity to study the early adoption and dissemination of emerging technology tools in campaigns by analyzing which candidates were the most likely to use Facebook in the 2006 and 2008 congressional elections, and how. The research hypotheses draw from the diffusion of innovation literature and the early studies of online campaigns, which these data are found to support. Our analysis of 822 House candidates in 2006 and 816 candidates in 2008 indicate that Facebook adoption diffused rapidly between 2006 and 2008, and at a steeper trajectory than did campaign web site adoption. Four multivariate analyses reveal that the motivators of adoption, party (Democrats), competition and money, are also drivers leading to extensive implementation and usage. College education was the only constituency variable to have a positive and significant effect on both Facebook presence and activity. Higher adoption rates by peers or competitors in the candidate’s own state, and a propensity to adopt other campaign technology innovations are strong positive motivators for early adoption, but irrelevant to extent of usage. Challengers and candidates for open seats were more likely to be early adopters, but incumbents implemented and used Facebook more extensively. These findings suggest that the medium has not changed the underlying campaign dynamic behind which candidates become early adopters and extensive users of new technologies. More consequentially, they show that previous research has overlooked some variables important to the former and also has much to discover about which ones explain the latter. The diffusion of innovation literature suggests some new directions for researchers to pursue on both points.
 
Distributions of elites and nonelites across three filters Note: This figure shows distributions of elite versus nonelite group members among video-featured persons/ sources, video content creators, and video posters in the sample of 113 most viewed political news YouTube videos during the 2008 US presidential election campaign.
Intercoder reliability assessment on the sample 
Reliance on traditional journalists and media content across the videos in the sample Note: This graph shows how much the videos in the sample utilized traditional media content. For example, the figure shows that about 37 percent of videos in the sample contained absolutely no traditional media content, while about 45 percent of videos featured only traditional media content.  
Article
The goals of this study are to explore several claims about the democratizing potential of the internet and to extend gatekeeping theory into user-generated content (UGC) domain. A quantitative content analysis of the most popular YouTube political news videos during the 2008 US presidential election was conducted to investigate the degree to which nonelites were able to partake in mainstream public discourse. We found that elites dominated first and second filters (news sourcing and news production) in the flow of online news, while nonelites dominated the third filter (news distribution). These results suggest that an update to the traditional gatekeeping model is needed to reflect the realities of today’s user-driven communication environment.
 
Article
Recent national, regional, and community-level research has shown that the Internet has the potential to provide a powerful medium for political engagement. Yet, systematic analyses that consider space and place as critical components of this area of research are lacking. This issue is important inasmuch as the extant literature has clearly shown that the diffusion of sophisticated Internet technology to some places has been slow and that the use of high-speed broadband modems has a significant impact on using the technology for social and economic purposes. The data for this study come from the nationally representative Pew Internet and American Life Study conducted in November 2008 directly after the United States presidential election. Although the results are consistent with previous research on both spatial and digital inequality in terms of Internet use, the interactions between race and place suggest that it is not just that the Obama campaign used new media to mobilize constituents, but that these efforts were realized in a particular region of the country and were particularly influential in given segments of the population. Implications for future research and the value of digital capital are discussed.
 
Generic measurements for European Parliament 2009 web campaigning on websites (means).
Dimensional structure of website features in Europe in 2009.
Cross-national variations of four dimensions of website features.
Multilevel analysis of country and individual characteristics on website-feature dimensions.
(Continued)
Article
Political communication has transformed drastically since the Internet made its way into the political arena. Political parties seem unable to do without a website or a social networking profile any longer, particularly in election campaigns. One of the many approaches to studying online political communication is measuring specific website features political parties, politicians and candidates utilize in order to engage visitors in the political process. Even though the analysis of online political communication has evolved over the years, website-feature analysis is still a valid instrument to study political actors. The explanations sought to understand website-feature utilization are found in earlier cross-national comparative studies (technological and human development) as well as new ones (political systems characteristics, ideology, participation and engagement). This study looks back on two prior cross-national comparative research projects and reports on a cross-national comparative analysis of 1026 candidate and party websites from 17 countries participating in the European Parliament (EP) elections of 2009. To analyze these data, some methodological improvements are made compared to earlier studies.
 
Sequential regression analysis predicting election outcomes
Article
Over the past decade Brazil has become well known for its open embrace of new media technologies. In tandem, an increasing number of Brazilian candidates have begun to use web and social media sites as an integral part of their overall campaign efforts. The present study is the first effort at large-scale modeling of these relationships in an emerging Latin American democracy. To explore the relationship between using digital media in a candidate’s political campaign strategy and voter support, I built an original dataset of the 2010 elections for the lower house of the Brazilian Congress. I investigate factors such as a candidate’s use of web and social networking sites in conjunction with other traditional influences such as candidate gender, age, incumbency, party affiliation, coalition membership and campaign spending. I demonstrate that having a robust web presence and using social media, holding other factors constant, can be a significant contribution to the popularity of a candidate on election day in an open-list proportional representation electoral system such as that in Brazil. Additionally, I demonstrate how this digital media campaign tactic might be specifically beneficial to traditionally disadvantaged candidates in bridging the gap of their under-representation in Brazilian politics.
 
Article
Among the many so-called microblogging services that allow their users to describe their current status in short posts, Twitter is probably among the most popular and well known. Since its launch in 2006, Twitter use has evolved and is increasingly used in a variety of contexts. This article utilizes emerging online tools and presents a rationale for data collection and analysis of Twitter users. The suggested approach is exemplified with a case study: Twitter use during the 2010 Swedish election. Although many of the initial hopes for e-democracy appear to have gone largely unfulfilled, the successful employment of the internet during the 2008 US presidential campaign has again raised voices claiming that the internet, and particularly social media applications like Twitter, provides interesting opportunities for online campaigning and deliberation. Besides providing an overarching analysis of how Twitter use was fashioned during the 2010 Swedish election campaign, this study identifies different user types based on how high-end users utilized the Twitter service. By suggesting a novel approach to the study of microblogging and by identifying user types, this study contributes to the burgeoning field of microblog research and gives specific insights into the practice of civic microblogging.
 
Article
Scholars have expressed increasing interest in understanding the conceptual and technological roots of contemporary new media. Yet, to date, accounts of the history of media technologies have ignored the rise, fall, and transformation of one innovation whose applications in the first half of the 20th century parallel recent developments in WiFi internet, mobile telephony, telework, telemedicine, online publishing, and video-on-demand. This article introduces scholars to the history of the fax machine, and suggests how the technology provides an important comparison point for analyzing technological developments, past and present. The conclusion explores how positioning this innovation more prominently within the common disciplinary wisdom about the rise of new media opens a door for scholars to deliberate about the historiographical boundaries of the ‘old media studies’ in the era of new media: what technological systems have received disproportionate attention, and what new histories of old media might be written.
 
EFA results of behavioral beliefs for watching online video advertising.
Correlations, standardized canonical coefficients, canonical correlations, percents of variance explained, and redundancies between motivation and types of website and their corresponding canonical variates.
Correlations, standardized canonical coefficients, canonical correlations, percents of variance explained, and redundancies between motivation and access variables and their corresponding canonical variates.
Article
This study investigates consumers’ motivations for watching online video ads and the relationship between the motivations and access characteristics of viewers. Uses and gratifications and characteristics of consumers’ exposure to online video ads were reviewed for this study. First, findings of exploratory factor analysis revealed five different motivations for viewing online video ads – social interaction, relaxation, information, escapism-pass time, and entertainment. Second, canonical correlation analysis revealed that the desire to fulfill viewing motivations is positively correlated with frequencies to actively access websites and frequencies to visit different types of websites. Implications and future research are discussed.
 
-Portal Service Suppliers
Article
It is often argued that constraints on access to new information and communication environments will disappear as services decline in price and as customers and producers engage in new market relationships. Following this line of argument, the relative scarcity of communication and information access opportunities of the past should be dispelled. The aim of this article is to illustrate the faults in this vision as applied to Internet and new media services development. It is argued that the new electronic environment will not be immune to forces of monopolization nor will it give rise to an era of market competition that fully protects the interests of all consumers and citizens. In fact, empirical evidence suggests that electronic intermediary service providers are populating the new markets and deploying strategies that are no less informed by monopolization strategies than in the past, though they do take different forms. The evidence is consistent with the inescapable dynamics of tension between abundance and scarcity in the market place.
 
Article
The website Creative Commons went online in December 2002 to counter shifts towards an ‘intellectual property’ conception of copyright in American law dominant since the 1970s. This conception equates creative work with property per se, eclipsing the previously dominant American framework of copyright as a monopoly limited in duration. This legal shift in turn ties in with a concentration in the American media and fear among media corporations that the internet will undermine their dominant market position. Yet this very media concentration removes such issues from broadcast debates, a fact that combines with the complex technical nature of Creative Commons’ arguments to undermine public understanding of their position. By presenting a social history of the site and an overview of how it operates, the relation of the site’s work to media concentration and the future of representative democracy is clarified.
 
Article
While studies have addressed the role of the internet in the family, the perspectives of Latino immigrant families are largely missing from the research. This article draws primarily on interview data with first-generation Latino immigrant families living in urban Los Angeles to analyze how parents and their middle school-aged children negotiate access to and use of the internet. Parents in the study were torn between a belief in the educational importance of the internet and a strong sense of anxiety about online risks. Their parenting strategies reflected these anxieties and inadvertently contributed to limiting children’s online opportunities. Outside of school, young people only had periodic access to the internet, which was used primarily for doing homework. While young people also found ways to pursue their own interests and motivations online, they had limited opportunities for more open-ended exploration and self-directed learning.
 
Article
This article analyzes one of China's most prominent working-class ICTs, Little Smart (xiaolingtong ), an inexpensive wireless technology which offers limited mobility service at the price of a landline. The case analysis examines how the technology works and diffuses, why it could emerge so rapidly amid structural transformations of China's telecom reform and the subsequent co-evolution between market dynamics and state policy at the local, national and transnational levels. Drawing from interviews and focus groups, the article discusses usage patterns and the key problems facing Little Smart. Besides the particularities of the case, the emergence of Little Smart has broader implications for understanding the relationship between working-class ICTs and the `information have-nots' in general. It shows that working-class ICTs may materialize through accidental accomplishments with little prior planning by state or corporate players. However, without appropriate policy support, the emergence may not be sustainable in the long run.
 
Analysis of covariance for public affairs news exposure 
The interaction effect between education and presentation mode on public affairs knowledge acquisition  
Article
This experimental study tested the knowledge gap hypothesis at the intersection of audience education levels and news formats (newspaper versus online). The findings reveal a gap in public affairs knowledge acquisition between South Korean citizens (N = 123) from different educational backgrounds. Moreover, the high education group comprehended news with the same level of efficiency across online and newspaper formats while low education participants gained more knowledge from reading a newspaper than using an online news source. Taken together, this study’s findings confirm the knowledge gap hypothesis through experimental research and offer evidence of its potential contribution to the digital divide.
 
Location of interaction and media use
Presence of other people during interaction and media use 
Article
Author final draft doi:10.1177/1461444804041438 Two studies were conducted in this investigation to compare college students’ interpersonal interaction online, face-to-face, and on the telephone. Our first study, a communication diary, assessed the relative amount of social interactions college students conducted via the internet in comparison to face-to-face conversations and telephone calls. Results indicated that the internet was used nearly as often as the telephone, however, face-to-face communication was far more frequent. The second study, a survey, compared participants’ reported use of the internet within their local and long distance social circles to the use of other media within those circles, and examined participants’ most recent significant social interactions conducted online, face-to-face, and on the telephone in terms of purposes, contexts, and quality. Results indicated that online interaction was perceived as high in quality, but slightly lower than telephone calls and face-to-face conversations. In addition, participants’ estimated use of the internet was positively correlated with the use of other modes of interpersonal communication. Together, results showed that the internet was integrated into social life, but face-to-face remained the dominant mode of interpersonal communication.
 
Article
This article deals with ICT policy activism on a national level and studies the case of Germany, where ICT policy activism became known to the public through its protest against the blocking of websites and data retention. Civil society is a political actor here, being invited to policy consultations. Drawing on the governance approach and resource mobilization theory, we interviewed 20 leading ICT policy activists about their values and goals, and forms of organization and political protest. According to their different focuses we distinguished between four types of activism: privacy protection, free access to information, free software and open standards, and equal opportunities for women in ICT policy. These activists are particular in that their political claims focus on the tools they are using for mobilizing and organizing. However, offline forms of protest still play an important role and mass media coverage is still seen as one of the main resources.
 
Article
How does the internet contribute to changes in civic engagement in the USA? To answer this question we must examine the institutional context of US marketizing civil society and the cultures of good citizenship constructed online. Drawing upon the findings from a case study of ONE, a campaign targeting extreme poverty and the spread of AIDS, I demonstrate how the internet may function as a space of new divisions of labor between civil society organizational actors and lay activists. While organizational actors use Web 2.0 to make activism convenient and standardized, the public is asked to participate in what I term ‘visual labor’, creating and representing images of community online that legitimize the organization’s claims. At the same time, volunteer action is understood largely as performative. Ultimately, the article confronts the understanding of the internet as a post-bureaucratic democracy and emphasizes its cultural role in communicative capitalism.
 
Article
While media studies have been locked into a classic producer-text-audience model, most theories of social media suggest some degree of collapse between the producer and audience. In this article, we address social media in terms of processes of value creation. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that social media are either addressed in terms of economic and socio-political value creation, that is, power, exploitation and business revenues, or in terms of value creation as sense-making, that is, creative explorations of the self and management of social relationships in everyday life. These different interests in value creation, we argue, have consequences for the conceptualization of the media user as a participatory agent. With specific focus on the notion of value creation in social media, we uncover implicit conceptions of the social media user guiding industry and user-centric perspectives, respectively. We demonstrate that while studying the same phenomenon, the two perspectives operate with very different conceptions of the producer/user nexus. We then discuss whether the literature is inconsequential in the analytic treatment of its own suggested collapse by questioning if, and if so how, this collapse is in fact taking place. Finally, we offer a mapping of the multifarious actor roles identified in the literature review to nuance the understanding of the producer/user nexus in social media and use it to identify and discuss possible opportunities for collapse and cross-fertilization of user-centric and industry perspectives in future studies of social media.
 
Factor analysis of general problematic internet use.
Article
The purpose of this study is to examine how demographics, addiction symptoms, information literacy, parenting styles and internet activities can predict ‘internet risks’. Data were gathered from a probability sample of 718 adolescents and teenagers, aged 9–19 in Hong Kong, using face-to-face interviews. Results show that adolescents who are often targets of harassment tend to be older boys with a high family income. They are targets probably because they spend a lot of time on social networking sites (SNSs) and prefer the online setting. Adolescents who encounter a lot of unwelcome solicitation of personal or private information online tend to be older girls. In information literacy, they are generally very competent with publishing tools but are not structurally literate, especially in understanding how information is socially situated and produced. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.
 
Structural equation model with standardized coefficients. 
Hierarchical multiple regression analysis for variables predicting international students' online and offline bridging capital.
Hierarchical multiple regression analysis for variables predicting international students' online and offline social capital.
Linear regression analysis for variables predicting international students' social capital.
Article
How do social media facilitate adjustment to changes in social structure and culture? This research examines the impact of online social networking on online and offline social capitals and adjustment of international students in the United States. A survey of 195 international students in a major Midwestern university showed that students’ interactions with Americans and home country friends using Facebook, extroversion, and horizontal collectivism were positively related to international students’ social adjustment and online bridging capital. Facebook usage mediated the relationship between extroversion and online social capital. The implications of social network site use, personality, and cultural difference on social capital and adjustment are discussed.
 
Article
This article examines the influence of the social environment on adolescents’ connectedness to the internet in East Asia, one of the most wired regions in the world. Connectedness is a qualitative conceptualization of an individual’s relationship with the internet, taking into consideration the breadth, depth, and the importance of individuals’ internet experience. This study seeks to situate adolescents’ internet connectedness in three spheres of social environment: (1) the general social support measured by how easy it is to get help when adolescents encounter problems in using the internet; (2) the parents, where we examine parents’ socioeconomic status and their internet use; and (3) the peer group, where we look into the proportion of friends who connect to the internet. The results from a survey of 1303 adolescents in Seoul, Singapore and Taipei support our major hypothesis that among the internet-using adolescents, their internet connectedness patterns differ by the nature of their social environments.
 
Adolescents' internet-based self-presentational strategies
Predictors of motives for internet-based identity experiments
Article
The aim of this article is to investigate how often adolescents engage in internet-based identity experiments, with what motives they engage in such experiments and which self-presentational strategies they use while experimenting with their identity. Six hundred nine to 18-year-olds completed a questionnaire in their classroom. Of the adolescents who used the internet for chat or Instant Messaging, 50 percent indicated that they had engaged in internet-based identity experiments. The most important motive for such experiments was self-exploration (to investigate how others react), followed by social compensation (to overcome shyness) and social facilitation (to facilitate relationship formation). Age, gender and introversion were significant predictors of the frequency with which adolescents engaged in internet-based identity experiments, their motives for such experiments, and their self-presentational strategies.
 
Article
We examined the internet connectedness of adolescents in relation to their use of traditional media, including television, radio and newspapers, as well as their goals when going online. The study was based on a survey of 1874 adolescents in five East Asian cities – Hong Kong, Singapore, Seoul, Taipei and Tokyo. We first identify three types of internet connectedness: communication/entertainment; expression/participation; and information/research. We then examine how each type of internet connectedness relates to adolescents’ use of other media. Finally, we examine how different types of internet connectedness and other media uses are shaped by ‘internet-related goals’. Our research results indicate that the use of the internet together with other media such as television, radio and newspapers differs depending on the type of internet connectedness, and that adolescents use not only the internet but other types of media to fulfill specific internet-related goals.
 
Article
What motivates young adults to start using the popular microblogging site Twitter? Can we identify any systematic patterns of adoption or is use of the service randomly distributed among internet users of this demographic? Drawing on unique longitudinal data surveying 505 diverse young American adults about their internet uses at two points in time (2009, 2010), this article looks at what explains the uptake of Twitter during the year when the site saw considerable increase in use. We find that African Americans are more likely to use the service as are those with higher internet skills. Results also suggest that interest in celebrity and entertainment news is a significant predictor of Twitter use mediating the effect of race among a diverse group of young adults. In contrast, interest in local and national news, international news, and politics shows no relationship to Twitter adoption in this population segment.
 
Article
This exploratory study examines the predictive power of lifestyle orientations, reliance on traditional news media, attributes of online news, traditional mass media use and demographics on online news adoption. Data was gathered from 453 internet users. The study found that experiencers, a lifestyle savouring the new, read more online international/China news. In contrast, survivors, who live narrowly focused lives, seldom do. Although lifestyles were not predictive as to whether internet users would adopt online news, they were the strongest predictors for the enjoyment of interactive capability of online news for adopters. Specifically, interactivity can satisfy the need for seeking fun among strivers, a desire for self-expression among makers and aspiration for new ideas on the part of innovators. Furthermore, as practical people, makers enjoy multimedia features for their functional purpose. In conclusion, some of the implications for news publishers in offering personalized editions of online news are discussed.
 
Multiple regressions predicting adoption intent of DTV sets and converters 
Article
This article investigates the levels of consumer awareness and knowledge of digital television (DTV) in the USA. It also explores the consumer perceptions of DTV characteristics, benefits and importance. Various consumer characteristics and DTV perceptions were examined to assess their influence in the adoption of DTV. It was found that the consumers had many misconceptions of DTV and their DTV knowledge level was most related to personality traits and internet usage or tenure. While the desire for bigger screen size, digital video recorder ownership, income and broadband access were the best predictors of intention to adopt DTV sets, desire for better video quality and knowledge of DTV environment were the best predictors of intention to adopt DTV converters.
 
Article
This study approached online games as an innovation and new medium with both Uses and Gratifications Perspective and Diffusion of Innovation Theory as theoretical frames. Based on a survey sample of Korean college students, this study investigated the differences in game adoption (1) between adopters (including continuers and discontinuers) and nonadopters (including potentials and resistors), (2) between continuers and discontinuers, and (3) between potentials and resistors of online games. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that demographic profiles and innovativeness were strong predictive constructs for predicting online game adoption.
 
Article
This article investigates how differences in social ties lead to differences in the social use of information and communication technology (ICT) and vice versa. The article draws on a qualitative study in the field of disability studies. Through this study of a marginalized subgroup of youth, the article advances insight into the permeability of the real and the virtual and extends the notion of established concepts of social ties and digital differentiation. The youth in the current study are 23 disabled Norwegians aged 15—20 years. The analysis is based on the principles of grounded theory and is characterized by a constant content comparative process. The outcome of this analysis shows how social ties of a marginalized subgroup of young people hold different characteristics than established notions anticipate, how these characteristics are vital in youths' interaction in offline and online life and how this interaction implies a mixed reality.
 
Screen capture of the Barbie.com homepage, game index section, and an individual game page 
Identification of character advertising with labels
Article
This study examines the extent to which character advertising and other host-selling practices prevail on popular children’s websites and assesses whether commercial sites geared toward young users are complying with voluntary guidelines calling for a clear separation between advertising and content. A longitudinal analysis of 101 of the most popular children’s websites over a six-year period (2003, 2006 and 2009) found the integration of content and advertising through the use of spokescharacters, advergaming, and product personalities to be common. A majority of sites employed characters in their online advertising and most did not identify advertising with an explicit label when characters were featured on their homepages. A similar pattern was found for product-based games that featured spokescharacters. Branded sites with a recognizable product were much more likely to employ spokescharacters in product-based games than non-branded sites, and to use popular characters in their advertising. Over time, fewer websites featured product characters on their home pages, while the use of character advertising in product-based games inside websites increased substantially.
 
A brief account of salient legislation and organizations.
Article
This paper assesses implications for the practical and theoretical understanding of consent in light of the coming into force of the European Cookie Directive (2009/136/EC). This Directive shifts behavioral advertising from being an opt-out practice to an opt-in one requiring consent. The aim of this paper is to assess conceptions of consent as detailed by the European Article 29 Data Protection Working Party, the UK government and the behavioral advertising industry. This is achieved through the application of philosophical understandings of consent generated in the first half of the paper that detail the ways in which these have been applied in health, an area that deals extensively with informed consent. The paper concludes by offering recommendations to behavioral advertisers on how best to implement opt-in consent policies so as to progress to ethically sound privacy practices.
 
Construct measurement and scale reliability 
Correlations between variables 
Article
This study attempts to identify the predictors of e-book reader diffusion with regard to consumer awareness, interest, and intention to use. Specifically, it assesses the relative influence of demographics, media usage/ownership, and personal traits/perception variables in the technology-adoption process. A national consumer survey conducted in South Korea, a leading country in the proliferation of e-book use, found that e-book reader awareness, interest, and adoption intention correlated positively with age, education, income, perceived need for print media, digital media ownership, personal innovativeness, and the perceived attributes of e-book readers. Regarding the relative effects of variable blocks, the most influential factors in predicting e-book reader awareness, e-book reader interest, and intention to use were demographics, personal innovativeness, and the perceived attributes of e-book readers, respectively.
 
Article
This article explores how language is used to build community with the microblogging service, Twitter (www.twitter.com). Systemic Functional Linguistic (SFL), a theory of language use in its social context, is employed to analyse the structure and meaning of ‘tweets’ (posts to Twitter) in a corpus of 45,000 tweets collected in the 24 hours after the announcement of Barak Obama’s victory in the 2008 US presidential elections. This analysis examines the evaluative language used to affiliate in tweets. The article shows how a typographic convention, the hashtag, has extended its meaning potential to operate as a linguistic marker referencing the target of evaluation in a tweet (e.g. #Obama). This both renders the language searchable and is used to upscale the call to affiliate with values expressed in the tweet. We are currently witnessing a cultural shift in electronic discourse from online conversation to such ‘searchable talk’.
 
Article
Mobile communication has become an important part of everyday life in Senegal, and text messages have turned out to be highly multilingual. So far Senegalese language policy has supported the use of the official language, French, in education and in writing in general, while the majority language, Wolof, has dominated the oral sphere. As SMS texts tend to include use of Wolof and other African languages as well as French, the question is whether texting will pave the way for African language literacy practices. The aim of this article is to study texting’s potential impact on the status of African languages as written languages through the investigation of SMS messages written and received by fifteen students from Dakar. Ethnographic tools have been used to collect text messages in Wolof, Fulfulde and French, as well as English, Spanish and Arabic, and also data on the context of communication and on the writers’ and receivers’ interpretations of the use of different languages. The analysis shows that African languages are given different roles and values in texting, being used in monolingual messages, in functional codeswitching and in mixed code messages.
 
Article
This article intervenes in video game studies’ recent turn to (and enthusiasm for) player-centered approaches to understanding video games’ social, cultural, political, and economic implications. Such approaches repudiate ostensibly formalist or ‘structural’ game studies and insist that analyses of gaming situations emphasize ways in which gaming subjects’ playful acts of appropriation or subversion allow those subjects to resist complete determination by game-structures and act ultimately as arbiters of a video game’s meaning, utility, or effectivity. The author demonstrates how player-centered discourses in video game studies participate in a rich history of ‘active audience’ research in media and cultural studies. Arguing that research on player practices does not completely escape the forms of reductionism it sets out to avoid, the author offers additional conceptual tools for engaging the complexity of contemporary gaming situations. The article concludes with a discussion of ways in which one such situation − gold farming − might be examined as an assemblage through an approach that responds to this complexity and avoids a particularly constraining model of agency inherent in player-centric game studies.
 
Top-cited authors
Sonia Livingstone
  • The London School of Economics and Political Science
danah boyd
  • Microsoft
Zizi Papacharissi
  • University of Illinois at Chicago
Ellen Johanna Helsper
  • The London School of Economics and Political Science
Jan A.G.M. Van Dijk
  • University of Twente