Behavioral and electrophysiological comparative analyses of the effects of 2-o-chlorobenzoyl-4-chloro-N-methyl-N alpha-glycylglycinanilide hydrate (45-0088-S) and diazepam on the CNS were performed with cats and monkeys. No essential difference between 45-0088-S and diazepam on the effects in the CNS was observed, although the "taming" effect in wild cats and the hypnotic effect in monkeys caused by 45-0088-S were stronger than those of diazepam. The sleep-wakefulness cycles in both cats and monkeys were modified by 45-0088-S. The activity of the reticular formation, hypothalamus and amygdala in cats was inhibited by 45-0088-S and by diazepam.
IK(SO) is a standing-outward potassium current found in cerebellar granule neurons which is inhibited by the activation of muscarinic M(3) receptors. However the pathway between muscarinic receptor activation and current inhibition is unknown. Using two structurally distinct inhibitors of the activation of MEK1 (mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase 1), PD 98059 and U 0126, we have shown that the MAP kinase signalling cascade does not appear to underlie muscarinic inhibition of IK(SO), recorded using whole-cell patch-clamp methods. Nevertheless, both PD 98059 and U 0126 caused an inhibition of IK(SO) when applied acutely with 30 microM of each compound producing around 50% inhibition of the current. In addition, U 0125, which is structurally related to U 0126 but has a much lower potency for inhibiting MEK1 activation, was also able to inhibit IK(SO) to a similar degree. Neither the inhibition by PD 98059 nor that by U 0126 was found to be voltage dependent. This was true whether the IK(SO) current was outward or inward. Block of IK(SO) by these two compounds may compromise interpretation of studies in intact neuronal preparations when they are used as MEK1 inhibitors.
The 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT ((+/-)-8-dihydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin), (0.63 mg/kg, s.c.) elicited spontaneous tail-flicks (STFs) in rats. This response was potentiated by the selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist, RO 60-0175 ((S)-2-(6-chloro-5-fluoroindol-1-yl)-1-methylethylamine) fumarate) (0.16 mg/kg, s.c.), the action of which was abolished by the novel 5-HT2C antagonist, SB 206,553 (5 methyl-1-(3-pyridil-carbamoyl)-1,2,3,5-tetrahydropyrrolo[2,3 -f]indole) (0.16 mg/kg, s.c.). These data show that 5-HT1A receptor-mediated STFs in rats are facilitated by activation of 5-HT2C receptors supporting the existence of functional interactions between these sites.
The reinforcing effects of nicotine are mediated in part by brain dopamine systems. Serotonin, acting via 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors, modulates dopamine function. In these experiments we examined the effects of the 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist Ro60-0175 and the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist (M100907, volinanserin) on nicotine self-administration and reinstatement of nicotine-seeking. Male Long-Evans rats self-administered nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion, IV) on either a FR5 or a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Ro60-0175 reduced responding for nicotine on both schedules. While Ro60-0175 also reduced responding for food reinforcement, response rates under drug treatment were several-fold higher than in animals responding for nicotine. M100907 did not alter responding for nicotine, or food, on either schedule. In tests of reinstatement of nicotine-seeking, rats were first trained to lever press for IV infusions of nicotine; each infusion was also accompanied by a compound cue consisting of a light and tone. This response was then extinguished over multiple sessions. Injecting rats with a nicotine prime (0.15 mg/kg) reinstated responding; reinstatement was also observed when responses were accompanied by the nicotine associated cue. Ro60-0175 attenuated reinstatement of responding induced by nicotine and by the cue. The effects of Ro60-0175 on both forms of reinstatement were blocked by the 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB242084. M100907 also reduced reinstatement induced by either the nicotine prime or by the nicotine associated cue. The results indicate that 5-HT(2C) and 5-HT(2A) receptors may be potential targets for therapies to treat some aspects of nicotine dependence.
Employing a Fixed-Ratio 10, food-reinforced protocol, rats were trained to recognize the discriminative stimulus (DS) properties of the novel, potent, 5-HT2C agonist, Ro 60-0175 (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.). This schedule generated appropriate drug versus vehicle responding after 50 + 5 training sessions and Ro 60-0175 elicited full (100%) drug selection with an effective dose50 (ED50) of 0.6 mg/kg, i.p.. The 5-HT2C receptor agonists, mCPP and MK 212, fully generalized to Ro 60-0175 with ED50s of 0.8 and 0.4 mg/kg, s.c., respectively, whereas the preferential 5-HT2B agonist, BW 723C86 ( > 10.0 mg/kg, s.c.) and the 5-HT2A agonist, DOI ( > 2.5 mg/kg, s.c.), were ineffective. The 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptor antagonist, mianserin, dose-dependently blocked the DS properties of Ro 60-0175 with an ED50 of 0.7 mg/kg, s.c. This action was mimicked by the novel, 5-HT2B/2C antagonist, SB 206,553 (ED50 = 0.3 mg/kg, s.c.), whereas the selective 5-HT2A antagonist, MDL 100,907 ( > 0.63 mg/kg, s.c.), was ineffective. Further, the selective 5-HT2C antagonist, SB 242,084, dose-dependently and fully blocked drug selection (ED50 = 0.2 mg/kg, i.p.), whereas the selective 5-HT2B antagonist, SB 204,741, was not active ( > 0.63 mg/kg, i.p.). In conclusion, these data demonstrate that Ro 60-0175 generates a robust DS and suggest that activation of 5-HT2C receptors is the principal mechanism underlying its DS properties.
Numerous preclinical studies have reported neuroprotective effects of new agents in animal studies. None of these agents has yet translated into a successful clinical trial and therefore to a new therapy. There are many possible reasons for this failure, including poor design of clinical trials, mismatch between preclinical and clinical protocols, and insufficient preclinical data. The enzyme caspase-1 has been implicated in neuronal death. Deletion of the caspase-1 gene, or administration of partially selective inhibitors, reduces neuronal injury induced by cerebral ischemia in rodents. We report here, for the first time, that VRT-018858, the non-peptide, active metabolite of the selective caspase-1 inhibitor pro-drug, pralnacasan, markedly reduced ischemic injury in rats. VRT-018858 was neuroprotective when delivered at 1 and 3h (42% and 58% neuroprotection, respectively) but not 6h after injury, and protection was sustained 7 days after the induction of ischemia (66% neuroprotection). These data confirm caspase-1 as an important target for intervention in acute CNS injury, and propose a new class of caspase-1 inhibitors as highly effective neuroprotective agents.
Recent evidence suggests that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(4) receptor activity enhances cognition and provides neuroprotection. Here we report the effects of VRX-03011, a novel partial 5-HT(4) agonist, that is both potent (K(i) approximately 30 nM) and highly selective (K(i) > 5 microM for all other 5-HT receptors tested). In separate experiments, rats received VRX-03011 (0.1-10 mg/kg i.p.) 30 min prior to spontaneous alternation testing in a no-delay or a 30-s delay condition. VRX-03011 (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg, but not 0.1 mg/kg) significantly enhanced delayed spontaneous alternation performance while none of the doses enhanced performance in the no-delay test. VRX-03011 (1 and 5 mg/kg) concomitantly enhanced hippocampal acetylcholine output and delayed spontaneous alternation scores compared to that of vehicle controls, but had no effect on hippocampal acetylcholine release under a resting condition. Moreover, suboptimal doses of VRX-03011 and the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galanthamine combined to enhance memory. VRX-03011 also regulated amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism by inducing a concentration-dependent increase in the non-amyloidogenic soluble form of APP (sAPPalpha) with an EC(50) approximately 1--10 nM. VRX-03011 had no effect on contractile properties in guinea pig ileum or colon preparations with an EC(50) > 10 microM and did not alter rat intestinal transit at doses up to 10 mg/kg. These findings suggest that VRX-03011 may represent a novel treatment for Alzheimer's disease that reduces cognitive impairments and provides neuroprotection without gastrointestinal side effects.
Dopamine, acting at a D1-like receptor, depresses the release of glutamate in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in brain slices, thereby reducing the amplitude of the excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC). This effect depends upon an inhibitory feedback action of adenosine, liberated following facilitation of postsynaptic NMDA receptors by D1 receptor activation, an action independent of adenylyl cyclase stimulation or cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA; Harvey, J., Lacey, M.G., 1997. J. Neurosci. 17, 5271). Using whole-cell recording from NAcc neurones, the dopamine depression of the EPSC was blocked by pre-treatment of brain slices with the selective protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor Ro 32-0432, but only minimally attenuated by intracellular dialysis of single cells with Ro 32-0432 in the recording pipette. With synaptic transmission blocked by tetrodotoxin, inward currents caused by application of NMDA were enhanced by the D1 receptor agonist SKF 81297A in half the cells tested. In a separate population of cells dialysed intracellularly with Ro 32-0432, SKF 81297A was without effect on NMDA current amplitude. These findings indicate a functional role for phospholipase C-coupled D1-like receptors in both modulating synaptic transmission in NAcc and potentiating NMDA receptors on a subset of NAcc neurones, via PKC activation.
Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 9 (PDE9) has been reported to enhance rodent cognitive function and may represent a potential novel approach to improving cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. PF-04447943, (6-[(3S,4S)-4-methyl-1-(pyrimidin-2-ylmethyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl]-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)-1,5-dihydro-4H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-one), a recently described PDE9 inhibitor, was found to have high affinity (Ki of 2.8, 4.5 and 18 nM) for human, rhesus and rat recombinant PDE9 respectively and high selectivity for PDE9 versus PDEs1-8 and 10-11. PF-04447943 significantly increased neurite outgrowth and synapse formation (as indicated by increased synapsin 1 expression) in cultured hippocampal neurons at low (30-100 nM) but not high (300-1000 nM) concentrations. PF-04447943 significantly facilitated hippocampal slice LTP evoked by a weak tetanic stimulus at a concentration of 100 nM but failed to affect response to the weak tetanus at either 30 or 300 nM, or the LTP produced by a theta burst stimulus. Systemic administration of PF-04447943 (1-30 mg/kg p.o.) dose-dependently increased cGMP in the cerebrospinal fluid 30 min after administration indicating target engagement in the CNS of rats. PF-04447943 (1-3 mg/kg p.o.) significantly improved cognitive performance in three rodent cognition assays (mouse Y maze spatial recognition memory model of natural forgetting, mouse social recognition memory model of natural forgetting and rat novel object recognition with a scopolamine deficit). When administered at a dose of 3 mg/kg p.o., which improved performance in novel object recognition, PF-04447943 significantly increased phosphorylated but not total GluR1 expression in rat hippocampal membranes. Collectively these data indicate that PF-04447943 is a potent, selective brain penetrant PDE9 inhibitor that increased indicators of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and improved cognitive function in a variety of cognition models in both rats and mice. Results with PF-04447943 are consistent with previously published findings using a structurally diverse PDE9 inhibitor, BAY73-6199, and further support the suggestion that PDE9 inhibition may represent a novel approach to the palliative remediation of cognitive dysfunction.
Because free radical mechanisms may contribute to brain injury in hemorrhagic stroke, the effect of the free radical trapping agent disodium 4-[(tert-butylimino)methyl]benzene-1,3-disulfonate N-oxide (NXY-059) was investigated on outcome following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rat. ICH was induced in 20 adult rats by infusion of collagenase into the caudate-putamen. Thirty minutes later rats were treated with NXY-059 (50 mg/kg subcutaneous plus 8.8 mg/kg/h for 3 days subcutaneous delivered via implanted osmotic pumps) or saline (equivalent volumes). Magnetic resonance imaging 24 h after ICH confirmed that the hemorrhage was uniform in the two groups, and subsequent imaging at 7 and 42 days post-ICH showed that the hematoma resolved similarly in the two groups. Behavioral testing on days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 after ICH showed that rats treated with NXY-059 had significantly decreased neurological impairment at all times. Deficits in skilled forelimb use 4-5 weeks post-ICH, and in striatal function 6 weeks post-ICH, were not reduced by treatment with NXY-059. Treatment with NXY-059 significantly reduced the neutrophil infiltrate observed 48 h post-hemorrhage in the vicinity of the hematoma, and the number of TUNEL-positive cells 48 h post-hemorrhage at the hematoma margin. However, by 6 weeks there were no differences in neuronal densities in treated and control rats.
The in vitro and in vivo effects of the novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitors donepezil and NXX-066 have been compared to tacrine. Using purified acetylcholinesterase from electric eel both tacrine and donepezil were shown to be reversible mixed type inhibitors, binding to a similar site on the enzyme. In contrast, NXX-066 was an irreversible non-competitive inhibitor. All three compounds were potent inhibitors of rat brain acetylcholinesterase (IC50 [nM]; tacrine: 125 +/- 23; NXX-066: 148 +/- 15; donepezil: 33 +/- 12). Tacrine was also a potent butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor. Donepezil and tacrine displaced [3H]pirenzepine binding in rat brain homogenates (IC50 values [microM]; tacrine: 0.7; donepezil: 0.5) but NXX-066 was around 80 times less potent at this M1-muscarinic site. Studies of carbachol stimulated increases in [Ca2+]i in neuroblastoma cells demonstrated that both donepezil and tacrine were M1 antagonists. Ligand binding suggested little activity of likely pharmacological significance with any of the drugs at other neurotransmitter sites. Intraperitoneal administration of the compounds to rats produced dose dependent increases in salivation and tremor (ED50 [micromol/kg]; tacrine: 15, NXX-066: 35, donepezil: 6) with NXX-066 having the most sustained effect on tremor. Following oral administration, NXX-066 had the slowest onset but the greatest duration of action. The relative potency also changed, tacrine having low potency (ED50 [micromol/kg]; tacrine: 200, NXX-066: 30, donepezil: 50). Salivation was severe only in tacrine treated animals. Using in vivo microdialysis in cerebral cortex, both NXX-066 and tacrine were found to produce a marked (at least 30-fold) increase in extracellular acetylcholine which remained elevated for more than 2 h after tacrine and 4 h after NXX-066.
The anti-emetic profile of the novel brain penetrant tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist MK-0869 (L-754,030) 2-(R)-(1-(R)-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenylethoxy)-3-(S)-(4-fluor o)phenyl-4-(3-oxo-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)methylmorpholine and its water soluble prodrug, L-758,298, has been examined against emesis induced by cisplatin in ferrets. In a 4 h observation period, MK-0869 and L-758,298 (3 mg/kg i.v. or p.o.) inhibited the emetic response to cisplatin (10 mg/kg i.v.). The anti-emetic protection afforded by MK-0869 (0.1 mg/kg i.v.) was enhanced by combined treatment with either dexamethasone (20 mg/kg i.v.) or the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron (0.1 mg/kg i.v.). In a model of acute and delayed emesis, ferrets were dosed with cisplatin (5 mg/kg i.p.) and the retching and vomiting response recorded for 72 h. Pretreatment with MK-0869 (4-16 mg/kg p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the emetic response to cisplatin. Once daily treatment with MK-0869 (2 and 4 mg/kg p.o.) completely prevented retching and vomiting in all ferrets tested. Further when daily dosing began at 24 h after cisplatin injection, when the acute phase of emesis had already become established, MK-0869 (4 mg/kg p.o. at 24 and 48 h after cisplatin) prevented retching and vomiting in three out of four ferrets. These data show that MK-0869 and its prodrug, L-758,298, have good activity against cisplatin-induced emesis in ferrets and provided a basis for the clinical testing of these agents for the treatment of emesis associated with cancer chemotherapy.
Effects of TA-0910 (1-methyl-(S)-4,5-dihydroorotyl-L-histidyl-L-prolinamide), a new thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) analog, on spinal reflex potentials and flexor reflexes were compared with those of TRH in C1-spinal rats. Intravenously administered TA-0910 and TRH produced dose-dependent increases in the amplitudes of mono- and polysynaptic reflex potentials and withdrawal flexor reflexes. TA-0910 was more potent and more long-lasting than TRH. The stimulating actions of TA-0910 and TRH on the monosynaptic reflex potential were not antagonized by pretreatment with atropine, cyproheptadine, haloperidol or prazosin, suggesting no involvement of the cholinergic, serotonergic, dopaminergic or noradrenergic system. Intraduodenally administered TA-0910 also produced a lasting potentiation of the withdrawal flexor reflex, but intraduodenally administered TRH showed no effect. These results suggest that TA-0910 may be a more useful drug than TRH for spinal functional disorders.
The electrophysiological properties and cataleptogenicity of YM-09151-2 (N-[(2RS, 3RS)-1-benzyl-2-methyl-3-pyrrolidinyl]-5-chloro-2-methoxy-4-methylaminobenzamide) were studied in the cat. This drug inhibited the EEG arousal response to electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic reticular formation with the same potency as that of haloperidol, whereas chlorpromazine revealed a more potent central depressant action. The duration of the afterdischarge induced by electrical stimulation of the amygdaloid nucleus was initially shortened and thereafter prolonged by both YM-09151-2 and haloperidol. However, YM-09151-2 was less effective than haloperidol and chlorpromazine in both augmenting the spindle bursts produced by electrical stimulation of the caudate nucleus and antagonizing the inhibitory effect of L-DOPA on the caudate spindle, indicating a smaller effect of YM-09151-2 on the extrapyramidal dopaminergic system than that of the two neuroleptic drugs. In fact, YM-09151-2 produced no cataleptic behaviour in the cat even at a dose of 5 mg/kg (s.c.), although haloperidol and chlorpromazine caused catalepsy in doses of 0.5 and 5 mg/kg (s.c.), respectively. Sulpiride, chemically related to YM-09151-2, showed much weaker central actions than YM-09151-2. The results indicate that a new benzamide, YM-09151-2, has a potent neuroleptic effect with a slight central depressant activity and that the cataleptogenicity of the compound is weaker than that of haloperidol and of chlorpromazine.
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of neuronal impulse flow on the acetylcholine-dcpleting action of hemicholinium-3 (HC-3). We utilized electrolytic interruption of cholinergic axons and administration of pentobarbital as means to stop or slow impulse flow or release in cholinergic scptal-hippocampal neurones. It has been reported previously that placement of lesions in the septum results in a large rise in acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the hippocampus at short times post-lesion (0.5 3 hr). Administration of pentobarbital has a similar effect. When HC-3 was injected immediately prior to the placement of septal lesion, the post-lesion increase in ACh levels in the hippocampus were blocked. However, if HC-3 was administered 30 min after the placement of lesion, a time at which the post-lesion increases have already occurred, then HC-3 appeared to have no effect. In the striatum, a region which does not receive the cholinergic input from the septum and which should not be effected by placement of septal lesions, there was a depletion of acetylcholine caused by the administration of HC-3.The finding that HC-3 administration blocks the post-lesion rise in ACh levels, suggests that this post-lesion rise requires new synthesis of ACh and hence a supply of extracellular choline which is blocked by HC-3. Our finding that the HC-3 depleting effect was blocked 30 min after lesion, is consistent with the notion that the action of HC-3 is dependent on neuronal impulse flow. However it can be more broadly stated that HC-3 will have a reduced depleting action after any treatment resulting in a depression of acetylcholine synthesis rate.
The present study examined the effects of the novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, N,N'-dodecane-1,12-diyl-bis-3-picolinium dibromide (bPiDDB), after acute and repeated nicotine treatment on extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in rat nucleus accumbens (NAcc), using in vivo microdialysis. Acute nicotine (0.4mg/kg, sc) injection produced an increase (232% of basal) in extracellular DA, which was attenuated by pretreatment with the nAChR antagonist mecamylamine (4mg/kg, sc). Pretreatment with bPiDDB (1 or 3mg/kg, sc) dose-dependently reduced the increase in extracellular DA produced by nicotine (0.4mg/kg, sc), but not by amphetamine (0.5mg/kg, sc). Basal levels of NAcc DA increased in animals that had been pretreated with nicotine (0.4mg/kg, sc) for 5 days compared to saline. In addition, nicotine challenge further increased extracellular DA (237% of basal). The increase in DA in NAcc following repeated nicotine was blocked by pretreatment with mecamylamine (4mg/kg, sc) and bPiDDB (1 or 3mg/kg, sc). These results indicate that bPiDDB likely acts as an antagonist at neuronal nAChRs to inhibit DA release in NAcc after acute or repeated nicotine administration. The ability of bPiDDB to inhibit the effect of nicotine in NAcc, combined with previous studies showing decreased nicotine self-administration in rats provides support for bPiDDB as a potential lead compound for the development of a novel pharmacotherapy for nicotine dependence.
The effect of in vivo administration of the alkylating agent N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) on striatal and extrastriatal D-1 and D-2 dopamine (DA) receptors was investigated in the rat. N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline treatment reduced specific [3H]SCH 23390 (7-chloro-8-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzaze pin e) binding to D-1 DA receptors in the striatum (42-46% of saline-treated controls), entopeduncular nucleus (20%) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (23%). Similarly, specific [3H]spiperone binding to D-2 DA receptors was decreased in the striatum (28-37% of saline-treated controls). However, [3H]spiperone binding in the substantia nigra pars compacta (67%) was much less affected. In vivo pretreatment with the D-1 DA antagonist SCH 23390 selectively and dose dependently protected [3H]SCH 23390 binding against the effects of N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline in the striatal/extrastriatal regions. Pretreatment with the D-2 DA antagonist raclopride or the D-2 DA agonist quinpirole selectively protected [3H]spiperone binding. In contrast, pretreatment with the D-1 DA agonist SKF 38393 (7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine) not only protected [3H]-SCH 23390 binding but at very high doses protected striatal [3H]spiperone binding. The differential alkylating effects of N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline on striatal vs extrastriatal D-1 and D-2 DA receptors may be related to their post- (striatal DA receptors) and pre-synaptic (extrastriatal DA receptors) localizations, respectively. The present results further demonstrate that in vivo, SCH 23390 and raclopride/quinpirole retain their D-1 and D-2 DA receptor selectivity.
The 6-methoxy-2-phenylimidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine-3-carboxylic acid, DM2, exerts anti-absence activity and blocks Cav3.1 channel, a T-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel subtype, in vitro. The current study investigated the effect of intra-ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (VLPAG) administration of DM2 on formalin-induced nocifensive responses in rats. In addition, the effect of intra-VLPAG microinjection of DM2 on the ongoing and tail flick-related activities of rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) cell population was also investigated. Formalin was injected subcutaneously into the dorsal surface of the hind paws of awake rats. We found that DM2 reduced nocifensive responses in the late phase of the formalin test. Moreover, in the RVM, the intra-VLPAG microinjection of DM2 reduced the ongoing and tail flick-related activity of the nociceptive ON cells, whereas it increased the ongoing activity and reduced the tail flick-induced pause of the antinociceptive OFF cells, consistent with antinociception. Behavioural and electrophysiological effects were reproduced by intra-VLPAG microinjection of ethosuximide, a conventional T-type Ca(2+) channel blocker. Finally, DM2 administration did not produce any adverse cardiovascular effects as blood pressure and heart rate remained unchanged. In conclusion, DM2 plays an analgesic role in vivo and changes RVM cell activity, consistent with antinociception. These effects were even more potent than those elicited by ethosuximide treatments.
Intrapritoneal injection of N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) to rats significantly reduced the density of alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors in the cerebral cortex, without affecting beta-adrenoceptors. A single dose of EEDQ markedly accelerated the development of downregulation of beta-adrenoceptors induced by a short series of electroshocks. The accumulation of cAMP, induced by isoproterenol, was unchanged in rats treated with EEDQ, while the effect of noradrenaline was reduced, to the level observed after isoproterenol alone, indicating the attenuation of alpha-adrenoceptor function. The isoproterenol-induced accumulation of cAMP was not changed by EEDQ nor electroshock, not by the combined treatment. The stimulatory action of noradrenaline was reduced after EEDQ alone or in combination with electroshock, but the effect of electroshock alone was insignificant. The results suggest that the acceleration of downregulation of beta-adrenoceptors after combined treatment with an alpha-adrenoceptor blocking agent is related to elimination of the alpha-adrenergic potentiation of accumulation of cAMP mediated by beta-adrenoceptors.
The effects of N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ), an alkylating agent producing irreversible blockade of various membrane bound receptors in brain, were investigated on four different types of serotonin receptors, 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A and 5-HT3, in various brain regions in the rat. In addition, the fate of central benzodiazepine- and "R"-zacopride-specific binding sites was also examined in rats treated with EEDQ. Membrane binding assays and/or quantitative autoradiography with appropriate radioligands indicated that EEDQ inactivated 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT2A sites, but was poorly active on 5-HT3, benzodiazepine and "R" sites. Among the receptors affected by EEDQ, hippocampal 5-HT1A sites were the most sensitive to the alkylating agent (ID50 approximately 1 mg/kg i.p.), followed by the cortical 5-HT2A (ID50 approximately 3 mg/kg i.p.) and the striatal 5-HT1B (ID50 approximately 6 mg/kg i.p.) sites. Pretreatment by selective ligands partially protected hippocampal 5-HT1A sites from irreversible inactivation by EEDQ (10 mg/kg i.p.) with the following order of efficacy: WAY 100635 > spiperone > BMY 7378 > ipsapirone. Similarly, pretreatment by spiperone (5 mg/kg i.p.) also reduced the ability of EEDQ to inactivated cortical 5-HT2A receptors. Analyses of the time-course recovery of respective binding sites after EEDQ administration showed that the turnover rate of 5-HT1A sites did not significantly differ in the dorsal raphe nucleus and in various forebrain areas (hippocampus, septum, cerebral cortex; half-life: approximately 4 days), but was lower than that of cortical 5-HT2A sites (half-life: 2.9 days).
It is presently unclear whether the antiseizure effects exerted by NSAIDs are totally dependent on COX inhibition or not. To clarify this point we investigated whether 7-methyl-2-phenylimidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine-3-carboxylic acid (DM1) and 6-methoxy-2-phenylimidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine-3-carboxylic acid (DM2), two imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazines structurally related to indomethacin (IDM) but ineffective in blocking COXs, retain IDM antiabsence activity. When administered by intraperitoneal injection in WAG/Rij rats, a rat strain which spontaneously develops SWDs, both DM1 and DM2 dose-dependently suppressed the occurrence of these seizures. Importantly, these compounds were both more potent in suppressing SWD occurrence than IDM. As T-type channel blockade is considered a mechanism of action common to many antiabsence drugs we explored by whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology in stably transfected HEK-293 the effect of DM1 and DM2 on Ca(V)3.1 channels, the T-type channel subtype preferentially expressed in ventrobasal thalamic nuclei. Both these compounds dose-dependently suppressed the currents elicited by membrane depolarization in these cells. A similar T-type blocking effect was also observed when the cells were exposed to IDM. In conclusion, DM1 and DM2 whilst inactive on COXs, are potent antiabsence drugs. This suggests that compounds with structural features typical of NSAIDs may exert antiepileptic activity independently from COX inhibition and possibly by a direct interaction with T-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels.
SB-616234-A possesses high affinity for human 5-HT1B receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells (pKi 8.3+/-0.2), and is over 100-fold selective for a range of molecular targets except h5-HT1) receptors (pKi 6.6+/-0.1). Similarly, affinity (pKi) for rat and guinea pig striatal 5-HT1B receptors is 9.2+/-0.1. In [35S]-GTPgammaS binding studies in the human recombinant cell line, SB-616234-A acted as a high affinity antagonist with a pA2 value of 8.6+/-0.2 whilst providing no evidence of agonist activity in this system. In [35S]-GTPgammaS binding studies in rat striatal membranes, SB-616234-A acted as a high affinity antagonist with an apparent pKB of 8.4+/-0.5, again whilst providing no evidence of agonist activity in this system. SB-616234-A (1 microM) potentiated electrically stimulated [3H]-5-HT release from guinea pig and rat cortical slices (S2/S1) ratios of 1.8 and 1.6, respectively). SB-616234-A (0.3-30 mg kg(-1) p.o.) caused a dose-dependent inhibition of ex vivo [3H]-GR125743 binding to rat striatal 5-HT1B receptors with an ED50 of 2.83+/-0.39 mg kg(-1) p.o. Taken together these data suggest that SB-616234-A is a potent and selective 5-HT(1B) autoreceptor antagonist that occupies central 5-HT1B receptors in vivo following oral administration.
1-Methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1-MeTHIQ - an endogenous parkinsonism-preventing substance) administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg considerably elevated the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice from 6.4 to 8.4 mA (P < 0.05). In contrast, the agent administered at 5 and 10 mg/kg had no significant impact on the electroconvulsive threshold in mice. Moreover, 1-MeTHIQ (at a subthreshold dose of 10 mg/kg) potentiated the anticonvulsant action of valproate (VPA) against maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures in mice, reducing its median effective dose (ED50) from 232 to 170 mg/kg (P < 0.001). Similarly, 1-MeTHIQ (at 10 mg/kg) enhanced the antielectroshock activity of carbamazepine (CBZ) in mice, decreasing its ED50 from 10.8 to 7.8 mg/kg (P < 0.05). In contrast, 1-MeTHIQ (at 10 mg/kg) did not affect the anticonvulsant action of phenytoin and phenobarbital against MES-induced seizures in mice. The evaluation of acute neurotoxic effects of the studied antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in combination with 1-MeTHIQ, as regards motor coordination impairment in the chimney test, revealed no significant changes in median toxic doses (TD50) of conventional AEDs after systemic administration of 1-MeTHIQ (up to 10 mg/kg). Pharmacokinetic characterization of interactions between 1-MeTHIQ (10 mg/kg) and VPA (170 mg/kg) or CBZ (7.8 mg/kg) revealed no significant changes in total brain concentrations of CBZ and VPA, indicating that the observed enhancement of antiseizure effects of CBZ and VPA by 1-MeTHIQ was pharmacodynamic in nature. Based on our preclinical study, it may be concluded that 1-MeTHIQ exerts the anticonvulsant effects increasing the threshold for electroconvulsions and potentiating the antiseizure action of CBZ and VPA against maximal electroshock. The antiseizure properties of 1-MeTHIQ (an endogenous parkinsonism-preventing substance) and its exact physiological role in the brain need extensive examination in further neuropharmacological studies.
4-Phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (4-PTIQ) has previously been shown to have antagonistic properties to methamphetamine in the spinal cord. Administration of 4-PTIQ (5 mg/kg, s.c.) reduced the ambulation induced by methamphetamine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) in rats. Methamphetamine (3 micrograms), injected unilaterally into the nucleus accumbens, increased ambulation. Alone, 4-PTIQ (10 micrograms) failed to elicit ambulation; however, it inhibited the methamphetamine-induced increase in ambulation. The alpha 1-antagonist prazosin (0.5 micrograms) or the beta-antagonist propranolol (3 micrograms) showed no effect on ambulation induced by methamphetamine. Haloperidol (5 ng), which possesses strong dopamine-blocking activity, abolished the ambulation induced by methamphetamine. The drug 4-PTIQ had weak affinity for dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. These results support the possibility that the inhibitory effects of 4-PTIQ on the ambulation-stimulating effects of methamphetamine, are due to blocking of the dopamine-releasing effect of methamphetamine but not due to dopamine blocking effects.