We provide here the first assessment of the composition, abundance and distribution of rocky reef fishes of Itaipu Sound, Rio de Janeiro, off the southeastern Brazilian coast. Monthly visual censuses, benthic quadrats and chain link transects were conducted over one year on rocky reefs at three islands (Menina, Mãe and Pai). A total of 2466 individual fish, belonging to 29 families and 42 species were recorded. The most abundant fish species were Parablennius pilicornis, Haemulon steindachneri, Orthopristis ruber and Diplodus argenteus. Sheltered and complex habitats showed the most abundant and diverse fish populations. There was a major significant separation between sampling sites and a secondary seasonal pattern. The three
sites showed similar fish communities with locally structured environmental gradients according to their inherent habitat characteristics.
The aim was to investigate the major C21 steroids produced by spermiating white croaker Micropogonias furnieri (Sciaenidae) in order to establish the potential mediator of gamete maturation in males of this species. The testes steroid production at the spawning season was identified incubating the 3H-17-hydroxy-4-pregnene-3,20-dione precursor through thin layer chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, enzymatic oxydation, acetylation and immunochemistry analyses. 17,20β-Dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20β-P) and 11β,17,21-Trihydroxy-4-pregnene-3,20-dione (cortisol) were the main metabolites produced. Contrary to what we expected, 17,20β,21-Trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one was not detected. Circulating levels of 17,20β-P were undetectable in immature testes and in those at the first spermatogenesis stages, while a clear increase was observed during the whole spermatogenesis and spermiation phases (from undetectable to 1047 pg mL-1). In vitro studies together with plasma detection suggest that 17,20β-P is a good steroid candidate involved in M. furnieri testes maturation. The role of cortisol during late phases of testes development needs further studies.
Oviducal gland present in elasmobranchs is correlated to the organism's reproductive strategy, and its functions are to produce mucus, to form the egg's tertiary envelope and to store sperm. The gland contains four zones: club, papillary, baffle and terminal. The structures of the oviduct, oviducal gland and isthmus of blue shark Prionace glauca were described using macroscopic, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The epithelium of the oviduct and isthmus is folded and is a simple, columnar, ciliated lining epithelium with glandular cells. In the oviducal gland, the lining tissues in the four zones are similar to the oviduct and isthmus lining. The terminal zone shows the presence of sperm in the lumen of the secretory tubules, which remains stored even in the absence of recent copulation. Here, these organs were studied and their connections in an attempt to elucidate the mechanisms of reproduction in the blue shark, showing the three-dimensional aspects, thus adding morphological information important for the understanding of the structure and functioning of these organs of fundamental importance in the life of the majority of elasmobranchs.
B chromosomes are extra chromosomes from the normal chromosomal set, found in different organisms, highlighting their presence on the group of fishes. Callichthys callichthys from the upper Parana River has a diploid number of 56 chromosomes (26 m-sm + 30 st-a) for both sexes, with the presence of a sporadically acrocentric B chromosome. Moreover, one individual presented a diploid number of 57 chromosomes, with the presence of a morphologically ill-defined acrocentric B chromosome in all analyzed cells. The physical mapping of 5S and 18S rDNA shows multiple 5S rDNA sites and only one pair of chromosomes with 18S sites in C. callichthys, except for two individuals. These two individuals presented a third chromosome bearing NORs (Ag-staining and 18S rDNA) where 5S and 18S rDNA genes are syntenic, differing only in position. The dispersion of the 18S rDNA genes from the main st-a chromosome pair 25 to one of the chromosomes from the m-sm pair 4 would have originated two variant individuals, one of which with the ill-defined acrocentric B chromosome. Mechanisms to justify the suggested hypothesis about this B chromosome origin are discussed in the present study.
The bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766), was used as a species-specific model to study morphometric relationships between otolith size and relative growth variables. Length-weight relationships between Otolith (Length-OL, Height-OH, and Weight-OW) and fish measurements (Total Length-TL and Total Weight-TW) were determined for fishes captured monthly during the year 2015 off the southeastern coast of Brazil. The ANCOVA and Kruskal-Wallis analysis did not indicate significant differences in the relative growth constants between sexes and length frequency distributions (p > 0.05). The condition factor also did not present significant differences between sexes, and right and left otolith measurements (p > 0.05). A total of 398 specimens were sampled: TL = 43.6-67.0 cm, TW = 365-2400 g, OL = 9.65-15.25 mm, OH = 3.65 - 5.45 mm and OW = 0.03-0.11 g. The LWR for grouped sexes was TW = 0.050TL2.55 and otoliths OW = 6.17E-05OL2.59. The best adjustments were TL vs OL (r2 = 0.90); OL vs OW (r2 = 0.90); TW vs OW (r2 = 0.81); and TW vs OL (r2 = 0.80). These results showed that such relationships are helpful tools for predicting the fish size and weight from otoliths, which may be used in food habits and paleontology studies, and other fisheries management applications.
Coastal and marine environments are characterized by a lack of evident physical barriers or geographic isolation, and it may be difficult to understand how divergence can arise and be sustained in marine environments. The identification of ‘soft’ barriers is a crucial step towards the understanding of gene flow in marine environments. The marine catfishes of the family Ariidae are a demersal group with restricted migratory behavior, no pelagic larval stages, and mechanisms of larval retention, representing a potentially useful model for the understanding of historical processes of allopatric speciation in the marine environment. In the present study, two lineages of the Coco sea catfish, Bagre bagre, were recognized from
their complete segregation at both mitochondrial and morphological levels. One lineage is distributed between Venezuela and the northern coast of Brazil, including the semiarid northeast coast, while the second lineage is found on the eastern coast of Brazil, including the humid northeast coast. Based on distribution area, habitats preference, and genetic variability,inferences are made in relation to biogeography and demography of lineages in Atlantic coast of South America.
The trahira Hoplias aff. malabaricus is a top predator in pampean shallow lakes and is highly appreciated by recreational anglers and artisanal fishermen. Trahira growth from Yalca shallow lake was determined by lepidological analysis and age validated by marginal increment. When growth was fitted to the von Bertalanffy model, annual classes exhibited a bimodal pattern as a result of the presence of spring and summer annual cohorts associated with a three month spawning season, each period in turn showing different growth patterns. The trahira population-age structure at Yalca shallow lake showed a truncated profile with very low numbers of large adults and few individuals older than three to four years, thus producing an unbalanced length-structure population. Growth parameters and growth performance were similar to the corresponding parameters estimated for other shallow pampean lakes of the region, but strongly diverged from the data for those populations inhabiting subtropical and tropical environments. Such differences could be accounted for by dissimilarity in metabolic rates associated with thermal differences accompanying seasonal variability among latitudes as well as by the development of adaptive physiologic and demographic responses to cope with the high thermal amplitude and hydrologic instability observed in pampean lakes.
The taxon known as Corydoras paleatus carries one of the most complex taxonomic histories among Corydoradinae catfishes. A comprehensive review of specimens attributed to that species from several localities was carried out, allowing the clear recognition of C. paleatus and also of a new species previously misidentified as C. paleatus, described herein. Corydoras paleatus can be distinguished from its congeners by presenting the following unique combination of features: perpendicularly directed serrations along entire posterior margin of the pectoral spine; three large black blotches along midline of flank; hyaline or black pectoral fin; and transversal black bars on caudal-fin lobes. Corydoras paleatus is known from the lower rio Paraná basin, coastal rivers from Southern Brazil and Uruguay and rio Uruguai basin. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by having the following unique combination of features: three large black blotches along midline of flank; three nasal pores; mesethmoid short; infraorbital 2 not in contact with compound pterotic; striated black spots from the snout tip to nuchal plate region; markedly rounded snout; and anterior portion of dorsal fin spotted. The new species is known from the upper rio Uruguai basin, from the rivers Canoas, do Peixe and Pelotas.
We determined the age and growth of the dog snapper (Lutjanus jocu), caught in the region of Abrolhos Bank, Bahia State, by the fishermen from coastal communities of Prado, Alcobaça, Caravelas, and Nova Viçosa. We examined 205 sectioned otoliths of fish caught by harpoon, longline, hand line, and gill nets (14.5 to 79.5 cm fork length). The formation of each ring was considered annual. The sectioned otoliths showed between 0 and 29 rings. Nearly half of the analyzed specimens had between 0 and 7 rings (88 of 205). Fish caught with nets in the estuarine region were the juvenile, while fish caught with lines and harpoons were the oldest. Two von Bertalanffy growth models were fitted to length-at-age data: one assuming constant variance of length-at-age (SVB) and another assuming constant coefficient of variation, i.e. variance increasing as a function of average size (CVVB). The SVB estimates were Loo = 87.82 cm, K = 0.10, and t0 = -1.486 and the CVVB estimates were Loo = 117.60 cm, K = 0.06, and t0= -2.470. The largest Loo values estimated by the CVVB model are supported by reports from the literature of larger animals occurring in the deeper outer shelf of Abrolhos Bank. Growth parameters were also estimated for males and females separately (SVB model) (Loo = 92.80 cm, K = 0.099, and t0 = -1.680 for males, and Loo = 82.10 cm, K = 0.105, and t0 = -1.570 for females).
Pimelodus multicratifer, a new species, is described from the rio Ribeira de Iguape basin. The new species differs from the other Pimelodus species by the following features: 26 to 30 gill rakers on the first branchial arch; a combination of three to six rows of dark spots regularly or irregularly scattered on the flanks and several small dark spots irregularly scattered on the dorsal surface of head, supraoccipital process, and sometimes on the dorsal and caudal fins; striated lips; maxillary barbels reaching between posterior tip of the pelvic-fin rays and posterior tip of the middle caudal-fin rays.
A new species of Corydoras is described from the río Madre de Dios basin, Peru. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by presenting the following features: a longitudinal black stripe along midline of flank; mesethmoid short, with anterior portion poorly developed; serrations on posterior margin of pectoral spine directed towards the tip of the spine; dorsal fin with the region of the first branched ray, including membrane, with concentration of black pigmentation, the remaining areas with irregular black blotches; absence of a vertically elongated black blotch across the eyes; conspicuously rounded moderately-developed black spots on the snout; and ventral expansion of infraorbital 1 moderately developed.
Two new species of Corydoras are described from the rio Madeira basin, Brazil. The intermediate long-snouted new species can be distinguished from its congeners by presenting the following combination of features: posterior margin of dorsal-fin spine with laminar serrations directed towards the origin of the spine; presence of two longitudinal black stripes on flanks; anterior portion of dorsal fin with sparse black chromatophores, not forming any conspicuous pattern; absence of a conspicuous black marbled coloration pattern on head; black spots on caudal fin, some spots arranged, forming transversal bars; and brownish dorsal-fin spine. The short-snouted new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of features: short mesethmoid; posterior laminar expansion of infraorbital 2 very reduced, not in contact with compound pterotic; two or three longitudinal black stripes on flanks; absence of an oblique or vertical black blotch across the eye; anterior portion of dorsal fin with sparse black chromatophores, not forming any conspicuous pattern; and ventral surface of trunk naked or covered by sparse platelets.
A new species of Corydoras is described from the rio Araguaia basin, Goiás, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by presenting the following features: infraorbital 1 with very large ventral laminar expansion; infraorbital 2 contacting compound pterotic; flanks densely covered by irregular black spots; and ventral surface of trunk densely covered by coalescent relatively well-developed platelets. It is also discussed the possibility that C. araguaiaensis comprehends a complex of species.
Hypostomus delimai is described from the rio Tocantins, Tocantins State, and from the rio Araguaia, Pará, and Tocantins States, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from all other Hypostomus species, except from H. carinatus, H. hoplonites, and H. watwata, by the presence of five to eight (mode seven) predorsal plates limiting posterior border of the supraoccipital bone (vs. one to three plates). It can be distinguished from H. carinatus, H. hoplonites, and H. watwata by having pale spots over darker background on body and fins (vs. dark spots over lighter background). The species was only found in the middle stretches of the rio Tocantins-Araguaia basin. The first collection of specimens assigned to the new species was done in the rio Tocantins before the construction of the Tucuruí dam. Recently additional material was collected in the rio Araguaia, in a habitat that soon will be flooded for the construction of the Santa Isabel hydroelectric power station.
A new armored catfish species of the genus Hypostomus is described from the upper rio Xingu basin, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The new species is diagnosed from congeners by having high number of teeth (58 to 101, mean 77 on premaxilla, and 58 to 105, mean 80 on dentary), dark spots over body and fins, and abdomen mostly naked. The new species is known from the rapids of the rio Culuene, where it is sympatric with Hypostomus faveolus.Uma espécie nova de cascudo do gênero Hypostomus é descrita da bacia do alto rio Xingu, estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil. A espécie nova é diagnosticada de suas congêneres por ter um alto número de dentes (58 a 101, média 77 no pré-maxilar e 58 a 105, média 80 no dentário), manchas escuras sobre o corpo e nadadeiras e abdômen em grande parte nu. A espécie nova é conhecida de corredeiras do rio Culuene, onde ocorre simpatricamente a Hypostomus faveolus.
The fish embryonic development comprises the events between the egg fertilization up to larvae hatching, being useful for the identification of viable eggs in productivity and survival studies as well as in raising experiments of several species. The goal of the present study was to characterize the embryonic development of Pimelodus maculatus (Siluriformes; Pimelodidae). The embryogenesis was typical of teleosteans, but with differences in relation to other species such as duration of development, type of blastocoel, moment of somite segmentation among others. Six stages of embryonic development were defined: zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, organogenesis (divided in phases: early segmentation and late segmentation) and hatching with a period of incubation equal to 13 hours at 29 ºC and 17 hours at 25 ºC. The extruded oocytes presented a mean diameter of 812 µm before and 1066 µm after hydration. When fertilized, they presented a yellowish coloration and a gelatinous layer surrounding the chorion. The cleavage pattern is described as: 2; 4; 8 (4x2); 16 (4x4); 32 (4x8) and 64 (2x4x8) blastomeres up to morula phase (+64 cells). It was also possible to observe at this phase, the beginning of the formation of the yolk syncyctial layer (YSL). Afterwards, the blastula and gastrula stages followed. The end of gastrula was characterized by the formation of the yolk plug. Subsequently, the differentiation between cephalic and caudal regions began, along with the embryo elongation, structuring of optic, Kupffer's and otic vesicles besides a previously unidentified structure in the yolk syncyctial layer. The end of this stage is typified by the tail detachment. The late segmentation phase was distinguished by a free tail, presence of more than 30 somites, optic and otic vesicles, development of posterior intestine, pigmentation of cephalic and caudal regions of yolk sac and embryo growth. The recently-hatched larvae presented a primordial digestive tract, quite evident and pigmented eyes, closed mouth, encephalic vesicles and a mean length of 3410 µm.
Cryoprotectant solutions are used to protect the sperm from alterations caused by the low temperature in the cryopreservation process. We evaluated the quality of Colossoma macropomum semen after freezing, using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a cryoprotectant, combined with two extender solutions (T1 - Solution 1: Glucose 90.0 g/L, Sodium Citrate 6.0 g/L, EDTA 1.5 g/L, Sodium Bicarbonate 1.5 g/L, Potassium Chloride 0.8 g/L, Gentamycin Sulphate 0.2 g/L, and T2 - Solution 2: Glucose 90.0 g/L, ACP®-104 10.0 g/L). Motility rate and motility time did not differ between T1 and T2 and were lower than fresh semen. The number of normal sperm was significantly different in treatments T1 (15.1%) and T2 (21.9%), and both showed a reduction in the percentage of normal sperm compared to fresh semen (57.4%). The values found for the rates of fertilization and hatching, mitochondrial functionality and sperm DNA, did not differ between the treatments (T1 and T2). Regarding membrane integrity, there was a higher percentage of spermatozoa with intact membranes in T1 (53.4%) than T2 (43.7%). The extender solutions, combined with 10% DMSO, maintained the sperm DNA intact in almost all the C. macropomum sperm cells, however there was a loss in their functionality.
Introduction of fish species is a globally widespread practice that causes losses of native species and homogenization of diversity within and across continents. Diet assessments are important tools to depict the ecological function of species introduced into novel ecosystem and possible direct and indirect ecological effects. In this study, we compare the diet of Piaractus brachypomus, a mainly frugivorous Neotropical fish, introduced into the Sepik-Ramu River Basin (Papua New Guinea) nearly two decades ago, to that of similar size individuals from Neotropical populations in the Amazon and Orinoco River basins (South America). In contrast to native populations that feed mainly on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, the diet of introduced P. brachypomus is mainly composed of fish remains and aquatic plants, while terrestrial plants are frequently consumed but in relatively smaller amounts. These findings show that P. brachypomus has an inherently plastic diet that can be adjusted when displaced to a novel geographic area. While trophic plasticity increases the likelihood of a species to establish breeding populations after its introduction, it also reduces our ability to predict negative effects on native species.
Farming of native carnivore fish species has drawn attention due to their promising use in aquaculture. Among these species, tucunaré of the genus Cichla stand out, them being of high economical interest for sport fishing and Amazon's industry of ornamental fish. The present study describes the weight-length relationship (WLR), relative condition factor (Kn), red blood cell parameters, thrombocytes and leukocytes count of Cichla temensis Humboldt, 1821, farmed in central Amazon. Fish that underwent food training during fingerling culture received extruded ration containing 45% of crude protein during fattening, and had Kn with values from 0.925-1.199, which indicated good health condition during the culture. The equation obtained from the WLR was W = 0.0073Lt3.1435, indicating an isometric growth, which is the desirable for fish of fish farm. Red blood cell counts, total thrombocyte and leukocyte counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), concentration of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCHC), lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils had intra-specific variation. A significant (p<0.001) positive correlation of the red blood cells number with the hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit was found. These are the first sets of blood parameters for C. temensis and could be used as reference for comparison in further studies to evaluate the health status of this fish in different environments, because assessment of these parameters may be used as quick tool for diagnosing diseases, stress and malnutrition.
Previously recognized color and pattern variants of adult Cichla temensis in Amazon flood pulse river environments reflect the cycling of individuals through seasonal sexual maturity and spawning. Individuals also vary in shape from blocky to fusiform. To determine if shape differences are related to patterns of fat reserve deposition and utilization, and to quantify the relationship of shape with color and pattern variation and life history status, specimens in each of four previously defined grades of color and pattern variation were compared using geometric morphometric techniques. Progressive shape changes occurred between grades independent of sex and correlated to gonosomatic index (GSI). Thin plate spline deformation visualizations indicate that the observed shape differences are related to fat deposition patterns. The seasonal timing of shape change and its link to color pattern variation, sexual maturity and local water level conditions suggests a relationship between the physiological and behavioral characteristics of C. temensis and the cyclical flood pulse pattern of its habitat.
The genetic diversity of the specimens of four natural populations of Arapaima from Araguaia-Tocantins basin was assessed within and among these stocks, using five primers for ISSR. COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) partial sequences confirmed that the specimens belongs to Arapaima gigas. The ISSR provided 168 loci, of which 165 were polymorphic. However, the number of loci for each population and expected heterozygosity values were low. AMOVA showed 52.63% intra-population variation and 47.37% inter-population variation. The FST was high among all populations (FST ≥ 0.25), however, the cluster analysis (PCoA) and Bayesian inference showed three major groups: Araguaiana-MT + São Félix do Araguaia-MT, Novo Santo Antônio-MT and Itupiranga-PA. The genetic distance was not correlated with geographical distance. The ISSR marker revealed that the populations of the Araguaia-Tocantins are structured and have a low genetic diversity. These are the first data from a population analysis using molecular markers for A. gigas of Araguaia-Tocantins basins and may be used to define the best management strategies and conservation projects for this species.
O pirarucu Arapaima gigas é um dos maiores peixes de água doce do mundo. É socialmente monogâmico, forma casais, constrói ninhos e fornece cuidado parental. Com o objetivo de acessar o sistema de acasalamento do pirarucu, analisamos três cenários: em áreas de cativeiro, semi-naturais e naturais, utilizando 10 marcadores microssatélites. Como controle positivo, analisamos três casais e suas ninhadas isolados em açudes individuais (probabilidade a priori muito alta de monogamia). A seguir, analisamos duas amostras de ninhadas de um açude com vários adultos, mas somente um casal reprodutivo (probabilidade a priori alta de monogamia), duas amostras de estação de criação semi-natural com vários adultos mas somente um casal reprodutivo (probabilidade a priori alta de monogamia), e uma amostra de lago natural com vários adultos alguns potencialmente em fase de reprodução (probabilidade a priori média de monogamia). Análises de padrões mendelianos de hereditariedade sugerem contribuição extra-par para todas as ninhadas, exceto as do controle positivo. Similarmente, resultados baseados em análises multilocus realizadas no programa KINALYZER estimaram pelo menos dois grupos-irmãos por ninhada. Nossos resultados rejeitam a monogamia como sistema de acasalamento em Arapaima gigas. Da perspectiva de manejo, esse comportamento pode ser explorado para manter a diversidade genética em cativeiro assim como em populações naturais de Arapaima gigas.
The Atlantic goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara , is a critically endangered species, threatened by illegal fishing and the destruction of its habitats. A number of other closely related grouper species found in the western Atlantic are also fished intensively. While some countries apply rigorous legislation, illegal harvesting followed by the falsification of fish products, which impedes the correct identification of the species, is a common practice, allowing the catch to be marketed as a different grouper species. In this case, molecular techniques represent an important tool for the monitoring and regulation of fishery practices, and are essential for the forensic identification of a number of different species. In the present study, species-specific primers were developed for the Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I gene, which were applied in a multiplex PCR for the simultaneous identification of nine different species of Epinephelidae: Epinephelus itajara , E. quinquefasciatus , E. morio , Hyporthodus flavolimbatus , H. niveatus , Mycteroperca acutirostris , M. bonaci , M. marginata , and M. microlepis . Multiplex PCR is a rapid, reliable and cost-effective procedure for the identification of commercially-valuable endangered fish species, and may represent a valuable tool for the regulation and sustainable management of fishery resources.
Conservation genetics; COI; Endangered species; Fishery management; Forensic genetics