Neotropical Ichthyology

Online ISSN: 1679-6225
We provide here the first assessment of the composition, abundance and distribution of rocky reef fishes of Itaipu Sound, Rio de Janeiro, off the southeastern Brazilian coast. Monthly visual censuses, benthic quadrats and chain link transects were conducted over one year on rocky reefs at three islands (Menina, Mãe and Pai). A total of 2466 individual fish, belonging to 29 families and 42 species were recorded. The most abundant fish species were Parablennius pilicornis, Haemulon steindachneri, Orthopristis ruber and Diplodus argenteus. Sheltered and complex habitats showed the most abundant and diverse fish populations. There was a major significant separation between sampling sites and a secondary seasonal pattern. The three sites showed similar fish communities with locally structured environmental gradients according to their inherent habitat characteristics.
C-banded metaphases of Callichthys callichthys: the arrowhead indicates the third NORs bearing chromosome and the arrow indicates the (a) acrocentric B chromosome and the (b) ill-defined acrocentric B chromosome. The bar represents 5µm. 
Callichthys callichthys metaphases spreads with the third NOR bearing chromosome. The arrowheads indicate the NORs, marked in the interstitial position stained by (a) CMA 3 and confirmed by (b) DAPI; and in terminal position stained by (c) CMA 3 and confirmed by (d) DAPI. The bar represents 5µm. 
Double FISH metaphases spreads of Callichthys callichthys with 5S (red) and 18S (green) rDNA probes. Standard metaphase (a) with 56 chromosomes and only the pair 25 bearing NORs. The arrows indicate the m-sm chromosome 4 with (b) 18S rDNA in interstitial position and terminal 5S rDNA and (c) 18S rDNA in terminal position. The arrowhead shows the ill-defined acrocentric B chromosome. The bar represents 5µm. 
The ill-defined acrocentric B chromosome: (a) Giemsa stained; (b) C-banded; stained by (c) CMA 3 and by (d) DAPI. The bar represents 5µm. 
B chromosomes are extra chromosomes from the normal chromosomal set, found in different organisms, highlighting their presence on the group of fishes. Callichthys callichthys from the upper Parana River has a diploid number of 56 chromosomes (26 m-sm + 30 st-a) for both sexes, with the presence of a sporadically acrocentric B chromosome. Moreover, one individual presented a diploid number of 57 chromosomes, with the presence of a morphologically ill-defined acrocentric B chromosome in all analyzed cells. The physical mapping of 5S and 18S rDNA shows multiple 5S rDNA sites and only one pair of chromosomes with 18S sites in C. callichthys, except for two individuals. These two individuals presented a third chromosome bearing NORs (Ag-staining and 18S rDNA) where 5S and 18S rDNA genes are syntenic, differing only in position. The dispersion of the 18S rDNA genes from the main st-a chromosome pair 25 to one of the chromosomes from the m-sm pair 4 would have originated two variant individuals, one of which with the ill-defined acrocentric B chromosome. Mechanisms to justify the suggested hypothesis about this B chromosome origin are discussed in the present study.
Oviducal gland present in elasmobranchs is correlated to the organism's reproductive strategy, and its functions are to produce mucus, to form the egg's tertiary envelope and to store sperm. The gland contains four zones: club, papillary, baffle and terminal. The structures of the oviduct, oviducal gland and isthmus of blue shark Prionace glauca were described using macroscopic, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The epithelium of the oviduct and isthmus is folded and is a simple, columnar, ciliated lining epithelium with glandular cells. In the oviducal gland, the lining tissues in the four zones are similar to the oviduct and isthmus lining. The terminal zone shows the presence of sperm in the lumen of the secretory tubules, which remains stored even in the absence of recent copulation. Here, these organs were studied and their connections in an attempt to elucidate the mechanisms of reproduction in the blue shark, showing the three-dimensional aspects, thus adding morphological information important for the understanding of the structure and functioning of these organs of fundamental importance in the life of the majority of elasmobranchs.
Map of sampling area, hatched area identifies where catches of Pomatomus saltatrix occurred, off the Brazilian coast in the Southeastern Atlantic Ocean.
Left sagitta otolith of Pomatomus saltatrix, with indicated measurements (TL = 57.9 cm, TW = 1817.0 g).
Absolute and cumulative frequency of individuals by length class (cm) (a) and total weight of individuals by length class and condition factor (k) (b) of Pomatomus saltatrix, obtained from commercial catches off the Brazilian coast in the Southeastern Atlantic Ocean.
Relationship between fish size and otolith size and measures of otoliths of Pomatomus saltatrix captured off the Brazilian coast in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean.
The bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766), was used as a species-specific model to study morphometric relationships between otolith size and relative growth variables. Length-weight relationships between Otolith (Length-OL, Height-OH, and Weight-OW) and fish measurements (Total Length-TL and Total Weight-TW) were determined for fishes captured monthly during the year 2015 off the southeastern coast of Brazil. The ANCOVA and Kruskal-Wallis analysis did not indicate significant differences in the relative growth constants between sexes and length frequency distributions (p > 0.05). The condition factor also did not present significant differences between sexes, and right and left otolith measurements (p > 0.05). A total of 398 specimens were sampled: TL = 43.6-67.0 cm, TW = 365-2400 g, OL = 9.65-15.25 mm, OH = 3.65 - 5.45 mm and OW = 0.03-0.11 g. The LWR for grouped sexes was TW = 0.050TL2.55 and otoliths OW = 6.17E-05OL2.59. The best adjustments were TL vs OL (r2 = 0.90); OL vs OW (r2 = 0.90); TW vs OW (r2 = 0.81); and TW vs OL (r2 = 0.80). These results showed that such relationships are helpful tools for predicting the fish size and weight from otoliths, which may be used in food habits and paleontology studies, and other fisheries management applications.
Geographical location of Yalca Lake and its geographical position in south America. The sampling stations in the lake are indicated.
Average daily water temperatures registered at Yalca Lake during an annual cycle (a), and frequency distribution of the average daily temperatures (b).
Frequency distribution of total lengths of the trahira Hoplias aff. malabaricus captured during the entire sampling period.
Total frequency distribution of the scale radius (Rn) and decomposition of first ring measurements (shaded columns) in order to discriminate between the fish from summer and from spring groups (a). Decomposition of polymodal frequency distribution of ring measures from summer group (b) and spring group (c).
Trahira annual variation of observed individual Gonadosomatic index (GSI) and its respective fitted model, and expanded condition index (Knexp) curve (a). Mean relative marginal-increment scale index (MI%) and its respective standard deviations at each sampling date with the corresponding fitted model. Asterisk in MI (%) curve indicates the mean date of ring formation. Different letters below the MI% mean values indicate significant differences (p<0.05) (b).
The trahira Hoplias aff. malabaricus is a top predator in pampean shallow lakes and is highly appreciated by recreational anglers and artisanal fishermen. Trahira growth from Yalca shallow lake was determined by lepidological analysis and age validated by marginal increment. When growth was fitted to the von Bertalanffy model, annual classes exhibited a bimodal pattern as a result of the presence of spring and summer annual cohorts associated with a three month spawning season, each period in turn showing different growth patterns. The trahira population-age structure at Yalca shallow lake showed a truncated profile with very low numbers of large adults and few individuals older than three to four years, thus producing an unbalanced length-structure population. Growth parameters and growth performance were similar to the corresponding parameters estimated for other shallow pampean lakes of the region, but strongly diverged from the data for those populations inhabiting subtropical and tropical environments. Such differences could be accounted for by dissimilarity in metabolic rates associated with thermal differences accompanying seasonal variability among latitudes as well as by the development of adaptive physiologic and demographic responses to cope with the high thermal amplitude and hydrologic instability observed in pampean lakes.
The taxon known as Corydoras paleatus carries one of the most complex taxonomic histories among Corydoradinae catfishes. A comprehensive review of specimens attributed to that species from several localities was carried out, allowing the clear recognition of C. paleatus and also of a new species previously misidentified as C. paleatus, described herein. Corydoras paleatus can be distinguished from its congeners by presenting the following unique combination of features: perpendicularly directed serrations along entire posterior margin of the pectoral spine; three large black blotches along midline of flank; hyaline or black pectoral fin; and transversal black bars on caudal-fin lobes. Corydoras paleatus is known from the lower rio Paraná basin, coastal rivers from Southern Brazil and Uruguay and rio Uruguai basin. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by having the following unique combination of features: three large black blotches along midline of flank; three nasal pores; mesethmoid short; infraorbital 2 not in contact with compound pterotic; striated black spots from the snout tip to nuchal plate region; markedly rounded snout; and anterior portion of dorsal fin spotted. The new species is known from the upper rio Uruguai basin, from the rivers Canoas, do Peixe and Pelotas.
We determined the age and growth of the dog snapper (Lutjanus jocu), caught in the region of Abrolhos Bank, Bahia State, by the fishermen from coastal communities of Prado, Alcobaça, Caravelas, and Nova Viçosa. We examined 205 sectioned otoliths of fish caught by harpoon, longline, hand line, and gill nets (14.5 to 79.5 cm fork length). The formation of each ring was considered annual. The sectioned otoliths showed between 0 and 29 rings. Nearly half of the analyzed specimens had between 0 and 7 rings (88 of 205). Fish caught with nets in the estuarine region were the juvenile, while fish caught with lines and harpoons were the oldest. Two von Bertalanffy growth models were fitted to length-at-age data: one assuming constant variance of length-at-age (SVB) and another assuming constant coefficient of variation, i.e. variance increasing as a function of average size (CVVB). The SVB estimates were Loo = 87.82 cm, K = 0.10, and t0 = -1.486 and the CVVB estimates were Loo = 117.60 cm, K = 0.06, and t0= -2.470. The largest Loo values estimated by the CVVB model are supported by reports from the literature of larger animals occurring in the deeper outer shelf of Abrolhos Bank. Growth parameters were also estimated for males and females separately (SVB model) (Loo = 92.80 cm, K = 0.099, and t0 = -1.680 for males, and Loo = 82.10 cm, K = 0.105, and t0 = -1.570 for females).
A new species of Corydoras is described from the río Madre de Dios basin, Peru. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by presenting the following features: a longitudinal black stripe along midline of flank; mesethmoid short, with anterior portion poorly developed; serrations on posterior margin of pectoral spine directed towards the tip of the spine; dorsal fin with the region of the first branched ray, including membrane, with concentration of black pigmentation, the remaining areas with irregular black blotches; absence of a vertically elongated black blotch across the eyes; conspicuously rounded moderately-developed black spots on the snout; and ventral expansion of infraorbital 1 moderately developed.
Pimelodus multicratifer , holotype, MZUSP 91287, 198.0 mm SL, Brazil, São Paulo State, Pariquera-Açú, confluence of rios Pariquera and Pariquera-Mirim, near mouth of the rio Ribeira de Iguape, in lateral ( a ), dorsal ( b ), and ventral ( c ) views. 
Pimelodus multicratifer , paratype, MZUSP 45465, 118.6 mm SL, rio Pilões, rio Ribeira de Iguape basin, lateral view. 
Drainage map of the rio Ribeira de Iguape basin, showing geographic distribution of Pimelodus multicratifer . Type locality represented by square. Some symbols represent more than one lot of specimens. 
Pimelodus multicratifer, a new species, is described from the rio Ribeira de Iguape basin. The new species differs from the other Pimelodus species by the following features: 26 to 30 gill rakers on the first branchial arch; a combination of three to six rows of dark spots regularly or irregularly scattered on the flanks and several small dark spots irregularly scattered on the dorsal surface of head, supraoccipital process, and sometimes on the dorsal and caudal fins; striated lips; maxillary barbels reaching between posterior tip of the pelvic-fin rays and posterior tip of the middle caudal-fin rays.
Two new species of Corydoras are described from the rio Madeira basin, Brazil. The intermediate long-snouted new species can be distinguished from its congeners by presenting the following combination of features: posterior margin of dorsal-fin spine with laminar serrations directed towards the origin of the spine; presence of two longitudinal black stripes on flanks; anterior portion of dorsal fin with sparse black chromatophores, not forming any conspicuous pattern; absence of a conspicuous black marbled coloration pattern on head; black spots on caudal fin, some spots arranged, forming transversal bars; and brownish dorsal-fin spine. The short-snouted new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of features: short mesethmoid; posterior laminar expansion of infraorbital 2 very reduced, not in contact with compound pterotic; two or three longitudinal black stripes on flanks; absence of an oblique or vertical black blotch across the eye; anterior portion of dorsal fin with sparse black chromatophores, not forming any conspicuous pattern; and ventral surface of trunk naked or covered by sparse platelets.
A new species of Corydoras is described from the rio Araguaia basin, Goiás, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by presenting the following features: infraorbital 1 with very large ventral laminar expansion; infraorbital 2 contacting compound pterotic; flanks densely covered by irregular black spots; and ventral surface of trunk densely covered by coalescent relatively well-developed platelets. It is also discussed the possibility that C. araguaiaensis comprehends a complex of species.
Hypostomus delimai new species, INPA 6191, holotype, 235.2 mm SL, in lateral, dorsal, and ventral views, Pará, Itupiranga, rio Tocantins, Tocantins State, Brazil.
Lateral view of preserved specimens of Hypostomus delimai NUP 11016, paratype, 176.7 mm SL (top); and H. hoplonites INPA 31849, 225.0 mm SL (bottom).
Hypostomus delimai is described from the rio Tocantins, Tocantins State, and from the rio Araguaia, Pará, and Tocantins States, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from all other Hypostomus species, except from H. carinatus, H. hoplonites, and H. watwata, by the presence of five to eight (mode seven) predorsal plates limiting posterior border of the supraoccipital bone (vs. one to three plates). It can be distinguished from H. carinatus, H. hoplonites, and H. watwata by having pale spots over darker background on body and fins (vs. dark spots over lighter background). The species was only found in the middle stretches of the rio Tocantins-Araguaia basin. The first collection of specimens assigned to the new species was done in the rio Tocantins before the construction of the Tucuruí dam. Recently additional material was collected in the rio Araguaia, in a habitat that soon will be flooded for the construction of the Santa Isabel hydroelectric power station.
A new armored catfish species of the genus Hypostomus is described from the upper rio Xingu basin, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The new species is diagnosed from congeners by having high number of teeth (58 to 101, mean 77 on premaxilla, and 58 to 105, mean 80 on dentary), dark spots over body and fins, and abdomen mostly naked. The new species is known from the rapids of the rio Culuene, where it is sympatric with Hypostomus faveolus.Uma espécie nova de cascudo do gênero Hypostomus é descrita da bacia do alto rio Xingu, estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil. A espécie nova é diagnosticada de suas congêneres por ter um alto número de dentes (58 a 101, média 77 no pré-maxilar e 58 a 105, média 80 no dentário), manchas escuras sobre o corpo e nadadeiras e abdômen em grande parte nu. A espécie nova é conhecida de corredeiras do rio Culuene, onde ocorre simpatricamente a Hypostomus faveolus.
The fish embryonic development comprises the events between the egg fertilization up to larvae hatching, being useful for the identification of viable eggs in productivity and survival studies as well as in raising experiments of several species. The goal of the present study was to characterize the embryonic development of Pimelodus maculatus (Siluriformes; Pimelodidae). The embryogenesis was typical of teleosteans, but with differences in relation to other species such as duration of development, type of blastocoel, moment of somite segmentation among others. Six stages of embryonic development were defined: zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, organogenesis (divided in phases: early segmentation and late segmentation) and hatching with a period of incubation equal to 13 hours at 29 ºC and 17 hours at 25 ºC. The extruded oocytes presented a mean diameter of 812 µm before and 1066 µm after hydration. When fertilized, they presented a yellowish coloration and a gelatinous layer surrounding the chorion. The cleavage pattern is described as: 2; 4; 8 (4x2); 16 (4x4); 32 (4x8) and 64 (2x4x8) blastomeres up to morula phase (+64 cells). It was also possible to observe at this phase, the beginning of the formation of the yolk syncyctial layer (YSL). Afterwards, the blastula and gastrula stages followed. The end of gastrula was characterized by the formation of the yolk plug. Subsequently, the differentiation between cephalic and caudal regions began, along with the embryo elongation, structuring of optic, Kupffer's and otic vesicles besides a previously unidentified structure in the yolk syncyctial layer. The end of this stage is typified by the tail detachment. The late segmentation phase was distinguished by a free tail, presence of more than 30 somites, optic and otic vesicles, development of posterior intestine, pigmentation of cephalic and caudal regions of yolk sac and embryo growth. The recently-hatched larvae presented a primordial digestive tract, quite evident and pigmented eyes, closed mouth, encephalic vesicles and a mean length of 3410 µm.
(a) Mean and standard deviation of Progressive Motility (Mot) and Normal Sperm (N Sperm) and (b) Motility Time (TMot) of Colossoma macropomum , fresh and frozen, with two extenders (T1 - Solution 1 and T2 - Solution 2). Evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test. 
List of sperm damage evaluated in Colossoma macropomun. *Adapted from Miliorini et al. (2011).
Mean and standard deviation of the Fertilization Rate (Fert) and Hatching Rate (Hat) of Colossoma macropomum semen frozen with two extenders (T1 - Solution 1 and T2 - Solution 2). Evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis non- parametric test. 
The average percentage of damage found in frozen semen of Colossoma macropomum in different treatments. (a) Primary damage: Macrocephaly (Macro); Microcephaly (Micro); Head Degeneration (HD); Degenerated Midpiece (DMP); Curly Tail (CT); Broken Tail (BT); Folded Tail (FT). (b) Secondary damage: Degenerated Tail (DeT); Free Normal Head (FNH); Distal Droplet (DD); Proximal Droplet (PD). 
Mean and standard deviation of percentage of Membrane Integrity (Memb Int), Mitochondria Functionality (Mit Fun) and DNA Integrity (DNA Int) observed in Colossoma macropomum sperm after cryopreservation. Evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test.
Cryoprotectant solutions are used to protect the sperm from alterations caused by the low temperature in the cryopreservation process. We evaluated the quality of Colossoma macropomum semen after freezing, using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a cryoprotectant, combined with two extender solutions (T1 - Solution 1: Glucose 90.0 g/L, Sodium Citrate 6.0 g/L, EDTA 1.5 g/L, Sodium Bicarbonate 1.5 g/L, Potassium Chloride 0.8 g/L, Gentamycin Sulphate 0.2 g/L, and T2 - Solution 2: Glucose 90.0 g/L, ACP®-104 10.0 g/L). Motility rate and motility time did not differ between T1 and T2 and were lower than fresh semen. The number of normal sperm was significantly different in treatments T1 (15.1%) and T2 (21.9%), and both showed a reduction in the percentage of normal sperm compared to fresh semen (57.4%). The values found for the rates of fertilization and hatching, mitochondrial functionality and sperm DNA, did not differ between the treatments (T1 and T2). Regarding membrane integrity, there was a higher percentage of spermatozoa with intact membranes in T1 (53.4%) than T2 (43.7%). The extender solutions, combined with 10% DMSO, maintained the sperm DNA intact in almost all the C. macropomum sperm cells, however there was a loss in their functionality.
Map of sampling site and locations of comparative studies. Circles represent sites in the Amazon Basin (Colombia: Tarapoto Lake and Caquetá River; Brazil: Tocantins River). The triangle represents a site in the Orinoco Basin (Venezuela: Caura River). The star represents the sampling site at the lower Sepik River, Papua New Guinea (PNG). 
Percentage frequency of occurrence (%FO) and volume (%Vol) contributed by 11 food categories to the diet of Pacu (Piaractus brachypomus) in the lower Sepik River, PNG.
Introduction of fish species is a globally widespread practice that causes losses of native species and homogenization of diversity within and across continents. Diet assessments are important tools to depict the ecological function of species introduced into novel ecosystem and possible direct and indirect ecological effects. In this study, we compare the diet of Piaractus brachypomus, a mainly frugivorous Neotropical fish, introduced into the Sepik-Ramu River Basin (Papua New Guinea) nearly two decades ago, to that of similar size individuals from Neotropical populations in the Amazon and Orinoco River basins (South America). In contrast to native populations that feed mainly on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, the diet of introduced P. brachypomus is mainly composed of fish remains and aquatic plants, while terrestrial plants are frequently consumed but in relatively smaller amounts. These findings show that P. brachypomus has an inherently plastic diet that can be adjusted when displaced to a novel geographic area. While trophic plasticity increases the likelihood of a species to establish breeding populations after its introduction, it also reduces our ability to predict negative effects on native species.
Previously recognized color and pattern variants of adult Cichla temensis in Amazon flood pulse river environments reflect the cycling of individuals through seasonal sexual maturity and spawning. Individuals also vary in shape from blocky to fusiform. To determine if shape differences are related to patterns of fat reserve deposition and utilization, and to quantify the relationship of shape with color and pattern variation and life history status, specimens in each of four previously defined grades of color and pattern variation were compared using geometric morphometric techniques. Progressive shape changes occurred between grades independent of sex and correlated to gonosomatic index (GSI). Thin plate spline deformation visualizations indicate that the observed shape differences are related to fat deposition patterns. The seasonal timing of shape change and its link to color pattern variation, sexual maturity and local water level conditions suggests a relationship between the physiological and behavioral characteristics of C. temensis and the cyclical flood pulse pattern of its habitat.
Weight-length relationship in Cichla temensis (n = 40) farmed in central Amazon. Data values as plotted: a. Values of the determination coefficient/R2; b. Linear regression.
Relationship between red blood cells (r = 0.938; p<0.001) and hemoglobin concentration in C. temensis (n = 40) farmed in central Amazon.
Relationship between hematocrit and red blood cells (r = 0.950; p<0.001) in C. temensis (n = 40) farmed in central Amazon.
Relationship between hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.860; p<0.001) in C. temensis (n = 40) farmed in central Amazon.
Blood cells in tucunaré C . temensis stained by MGGW. A - Erythrocytes, B - Polychromatic erythroblasts, C - Neutrophil, D - Monocyte, E - Lymphocyte, and F - Thrombocytes. Scale bars = 5 μ m. 
Farming of native carnivore fish species has drawn attention due to their promising use in aquaculture. Among these species, tucunaré of the genus Cichla stand out, them being of high economical interest for sport fishing and Amazon's industry of ornamental fish. The present study describes the weight-length relationship (WLR), relative condition factor (Kn), red blood cell parameters, thrombocytes and leukocytes count of Cichla temensis Humboldt, 1821, farmed in central Amazon. Fish that underwent food training during fingerling culture received extruded ration containing 45% of crude protein during fattening, and had Kn with values from 0.925-1.199, which indicated good health condition during the culture. The equation obtained from the WLR was W = 0.0073Lt3.1435, indicating an isometric growth, which is the desirable for fish of fish farm. Red blood cell counts, total thrombocyte and leukocyte counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), concentration of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCHC), lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils had intra-specific variation. A significant (p<0.001) positive correlation of the red blood cells number with the hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit was found. These are the first sets of blood parameters for C. temensis and could be used as reference for comparison in further studies to evaluate the health status of this fish in different environments, because assessment of these parameters may be used as quick tool for diagnosing diseases, stress and malnutrition.
Main genetic pattern for each brood analysed in Arapaima gigas. Note: H O = observed heterozygosity, H E = expected heterozygosity, F IS = fixation index. 
Alleles frequencies (allele size/frequency) and number of homozygotes (allele size/number of homozygote individuals) observed in each brood of Arapaima gigas. The number of sib-groups inferred in Kinalyzer is also listed for each brood. N = number of offspring. NHm = number of homozygote individuals. 
O pirarucu Arapaima gigas é um dos maiores peixes de água doce do mundo. É socialmente monogâmico, forma casais, constrói ninhos e fornece cuidado parental. Com o objetivo de acessar o sistema de acasalamento do pirarucu, analisamos três cenários: em áreas de cativeiro, semi-naturais e naturais, utilizando 10 marcadores microssatélites. Como controle positivo, analisamos três casais e suas ninhadas isolados em açudes individuais (probabilidade a priori muito alta de monogamia). A seguir, analisamos duas amostras de ninhadas de um açude com vários adultos, mas somente um casal reprodutivo (probabilidade a priori alta de monogamia), duas amostras de estação de criação semi-natural com vários adultos mas somente um casal reprodutivo (probabilidade a priori alta de monogamia), e uma amostra de lago natural com vários adultos alguns potencialmente em fase de reprodução (probabilidade a priori média de monogamia). Análises de padrões mendelianos de hereditariedade sugerem contribuição extra-par para todas as ninhadas, exceto as do controle positivo. Similarmente, resultados baseados em análises multilocus realizadas no programa KINALYZER estimaram pelo menos dois grupos-irmãos por ninhada. Nossos resultados rejeitam a monogamia como sistema de acasalamento em Arapaima gigas. Da perspectiva de manejo, esse comportamento pode ser explorado para manter a diversidade genética em cativeiro assim como em populações naturais de Arapaima gigas.
En este trabajo se ha descrito la estructura de las túnicas ovulares del escalar o pez ángel (Pterophyllum scalare), las modificaciones morfo-fisiológicas que transcurren durante la embriogénesis del escalar desde el momento de activización para el desove en condiciones ambientales óptimas (28ºC y pH 6,8) y, se han caracterizado las larvas y los alevines desarrollándose. Adicionalmente, se ha estudiado el efecto del pH básico del agua sobre los primeros estadios de desarrollo y la dependencia entre la cantidad de alimento y la supervivencia de los alevines. Las túnicas ovulares del escalar son finas (1,67-2,18 mm), transparentes, cubiertas de una sustancia viscosa. Los huevos de color ámbar tienen forma ovalada de diámetros medios 1,436 y 1,171 mm y de un volumen medio de 1,033 ± 0,095 mm 3. El porcentaje de supervivencia de embriones y de larvas en agua con pH aumentado, ligeramente básico, fue muy bajo, ya que sólo el 2% de los embriones sobrevivió, mientras que en agua de parámetros óptimos sólo algunos huevos palidecieron. Las larvas recién salidas del huevo medían 2,60 ± 0,093 mm por término medio y poseían grandes (0,64 ± 0,077 mm 3) sacos vitelinos. Se han adherido al substrato mediante una secreción en forma de filamentos finos y viscosos. Esta secreción se ha desprendido de las glándulas ubicadas en la cumbre de la cabeza. Las glándulas desaparecieron al 5º día de vida de las larvas. Las larvas de un día poseían ya las primeras células pigmentarias en el cuerpo, los ojos de las larvas de dos días estaban pigmentadas plenamente. Entre el 4º y 5º día de vida las larvas empezaron a tomar alimento. Las larvas de 23 días se parecían a una versión miniaturizada de los adultos. La mortalidad de las larvas del escalar alimentadas durante los primeros días a partir del desove con larvas de artemia salina (Artemia salina) fue mayor que la de las alimentadas con protozoarios y rotíferos.
Effects of the essential oil of Ocimum americanum (LEO) on cortisol (A), glucose (B) and Na + (C) levels of R. quelen after handling. Data are presented as the mean ± SEM. Lowercase letters indicate significant differences between times after handling within same experimental group, # represents statistical differences in comparison to water control at the same time after handling, and * corresponds to differences in relation to basal level. Scheirer-Ray-Hare extension of the Kruskal–Wallis test followed by the Dunn test or two-way ANOVA and Tukey test were used (P < 0.05).  
The aim of this study was to evaluate the anesthetic activity of the essential oil (EO) of Ocimum americanum L. in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). In the first experiment, the depressor effects and chemical composition of the leaf EO (LEO) and inflorescence EO (IEO) were compared. Juveniles (n = 10) were placed in aquaria containing different concentrations of EO (25 - 500 mg L-1) to determine the point at which anesthesia was induced and the length of the recovery period. In the following experiment, the effects of 300 and 500 mg L-1 LEO exposure on stress parameters (plasma cortisol, glucose and sodium levels) after air exposure for 1 min were assayed. Fish (n = 10 per sampling time) were sampled immediately or transferred to anesthetic-free aquaria until sampling (15, 30, 60 or 240 min). LEO was composed mainly of beta-linalool and 1,8-cineole in similar proportions, whereas IEO showed beta-linalool as major compound. Anesthesia was obtained in silver catfish with 200-500 mg L-1 between 4-8 min for LEO and 6-16 min for IEO. Lower EO concentrations did not reach anesthetic stage up to 30 min. LEO used as anesthetic prevented the cortisol increase and sodium loss induced by aerial exposure. Glucose levels were raised in catfish exposed to LEO compared to basal group (not air exposed) in almost all observation times. EO of O. americanum obtained from leaves was considered suitable to anesthetic procedures due to its fast induction and handling-induced stress prevention.
Location of sampling stations (black dots). (1: Bandeirantes right channel; 2: Amambaí; 3: Triângulo; 4: Porto Santo Antônio; 5: Peruzzi; 6: Paraná/Iguatemi; 7: Iguatemi; 8: Paraná/Saraiva; 9: Saraiva middle; 10: Saraiva channel; 11: Ilha Grande right channel; 12: Bandeirantes left channel; 13: Ilha Grande Pontal; 14: Alvarenga; 15: Esmeralda; 16: Três Coqueiros; 17: São João; 18: Porto Luiz; 19 Porto Cerâmica; 20: Piquiri; 21: Porto Terra Roxa; 22: Ilha Grande left channel). 
Average abundance of R. quelen larvae by spawning period (a), month (b), and sampling station (c). 
Monthly density and per sampling stations of the larval development stages of Rhamdia quelen in Ilha Grande National Park. 
Monthly average values of environmental variables in different spawning periods in Ilha Grande National Park. 
Rhamdia quelen (Jundiá) is a catfish species of great interest to fish producers and researchers due to several favorable characteristics for inclusion in the Brazilian list of commercially raised fish. It has a wide geographical distribution, with occurrences reported from Central Argentina to South Mexico. Studies on the biological aspects of this species have been limited to captive adult fishes that were researched for farming purposes. Research related to ichthyoplankton has provided valuable information on spawning periods and sites and other aspects of breeding for numerous species of fish. This information is crucial for implementing management and protection strategies for these species. The studied floodplain is located in a lotic remnant between the Reservoirs of Itaipu and Engenheiro Sérgio Motta. This area is located inside a protected area (Ilha Grande National Park) in the last portion of dam-free land along the Paraná River in the Brazilian territory; however, it is still threatened by the negative effects of the dams. We conducted monthly nocturnal collections during four periods from October to March, 2003 to 2007, in 22 locations along the main channel, secondary lakes and main tributaries of the Paraná River. After collection, the individuals were classified according to the degree of development and the notochord flexion and caudal fin support elements. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), ANOVA and Pearson correlation to relate abiotic and larval density data. The increase of capture abundances in the four studied stages suggests that R. quelen is finding conditions that are favorable to its reproduction. The increase in captures can generate questions regarding R. quelen reproductive activity, for instance, whether the species is adapting or is influenced by environmental changes created by the Paraná River dams.
NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase activities in the brain of Rhamdia quelen (A) and Leporinus obtusidens (B) that were exposed to glyphosate for 96 h. Data represent the mean ± SD (n = 6, in duplicate). * Indicates difference significant compared to the control group (P≤ 0.05).  
Protein carbonyl levels in the liver of Rhamdia quelen and Leporinus obtusidens that were exposed to glyphosate for 96 h. Data represent the mean ± SD (n = 6, in duplicate). * Indicates difference significant compared to control group (P≤ 0.05).  
Rhamdia quelen (jundiá) e Leporinus obtusidens (piava) foram expostos a formulação comercial Roundup(r), um herbicida a base de glifosato nas concentrações de 0,2 e 0,4 mg/L por 96h. Os efeitos do herbicida foram analisados na atividade da alanina aminotransferase (ALT), aspartato aminotransferase (AST) e glicose no plasma, glicose e proteína na camada de muco, hidrólise de nucleotídeos no cérebro e a proteína carbonil no fígado. Os parâmetros foram escolhidos devido à falta de informação com relação a análises integradas, considerando parâmetros oxidativo, danos no fígado, efeitos na composição da camada do muco e atividade da trifosfato difosfoidrolase (NTPDase). Níveis de glicose plasmática foram reduzidos em ambas às espécies, enquanto a atividade das transaminases (ALT e AST) aumentou após exposição ao herbicida. A exposição ao herbicida aumentou a proteína e níveis de glicose na camada de muco em ambas as espécies. Houve uma redução em ambas atividades de NTPDase e ecto-5'-nucleotidase no cérebro de piava, e um aumentou a atividade destas enzimas em jundiás em ambas as concentrações testadas. As espécies mostraram um aumento na proteína carbonil no fígado após exposição a ambas as concentrações de glifosato. Nossos resultados demonstraram que a exposição ao Roundup(r) causou danos no fígado, como evidenciado pelo aumento das transaminases plasmáticas e proteína carbonil no fígado em ambas as espécies de peixes estudadas. A composição do muco alterou e uma hipoglicemia foi detectada após a exposição ao Roundup(r) em ambas espécies. A hidrólise de nucleotídeos em cérebro mostrou diferente resposta para cada espécie estudada. Esses parâmetros indicam alguns importantes e indicadores potenciais da contaminação do glifosato no ecossistema aquático.
A new species of Leporinus is described based on specimens from the lower rio Tocantins, Pará State, Brazil. The new species is diagnosed by having conspicuous dark spots on center of scales on anterolateral portion of body, 33 or 34 scales in lateral line, 16 scales rows around caudal peduncle, four scale rows between dorsal-fin origin and lateral line and four between lateral line and pelvic-fin origin, and four teeth on premaxilla and four on dentary. The new species is similar to Leporinus gomesi, L. granti, and L. nijsseni for having three prominent dark midlateral blotches, smaller blotches formed by dermal pigment, five of which form an interrupted "X" between head and first midlateral blotch, small dark spots formed by epidermal pigment, terminal mouth with four teeth on premaxilla and four on dentary, and relatively few scales on lateral line (less than 36). In addition, new data is provided for the type specimens of Leporinus granti and L. megalepis (=Hypomasticus megalepis),, and L. badueli is confirmed as a junior synonym of L. granti.
Names and abbreviations for the tested bile acids. 
Electrolfactogram responses of pintado Pseudoplatystoma corruscans to five representative bile acids. Response magnitudes are normalized as percentages of response to 10 -5 M L-serine (mean ± SEM). CA = Cholic acid, TCA = taurocholic acid, TCD = taurochenodeoxicholic acid, CD = chenodeoxycholic acid, DC = deoxycholic acid.  
Remained response magnitudes at 10-7 M during adaptation to 10-7 M taurocholic acid (TCA) and 10-7 M taurochenodeoxycholic (TCD). Responses are expressed as percentages of the response to the standard 10-5 M Arginine (L-ARG). CA = Cholic acid, TCA = taurocholic acid, TCD = taurochenodeoxicholic acid, CD = chenodeoxycholic acid, DC = deoxycholic acid.  
Time spent in each compartment when Pseudoplatystoma corruscans were stimulated by taurocholic acid (TCA) and controls. TCA response was significantly different from distilled water (paired t test: 3.94, P = 0.0005) as indicated by an asterisk.  
Number of movements of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans stimulated by taurocholic acid (TCA) and controls. Response to TCA was significantly higher than distilled water comparison for each behavior. Dunn's multiple comparisons test, P<0.05, as indicated by an asterisk. Top over the bars: type of movements in each stimuli.  
Os ácidos biliares são potentes estimulantes olfatórios e gustatórios em peixes. Registros em eletro-olfactograma foram usados para testar se o epitélio olfatório de Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, pintado, é sensível aos ácidos biliares, alguns dos quais têm sido propostos como feromônios. Foram selecionados cinco de uma lista de trinta ácidos biliares previamente testados em atividade olfatória em peixes. Testes de adaptação cruzada demonstraram que a sensibilidade aos ácidos biliares se dá por 3 classes independentes de sites de receptores olfatórios. O ácido taurocólico (TCA) e o ácido tauroquenodesoxicólico (TCD) foram os compostos mais potentes. Em testes de evasão/preferência, P. corruscans prefere água contendo o ácido TCA. Os ácidos biliares são discriminadas por epitélio olfatório de pintado, evidenciando que estes compostos podem funcionar como feromônios.
Sampling localities in the Amazon and Orinoco basins of O. bicirrhossum and O. ferreirai. Base map was obtained from Online Map Creation (Geomar) currently available as Planiglobe (
Maximum likelihood phylogenetic hypothesis of relationships of Osteoglossum individuals representing the species O. bicirrhossum and O. ferreirai . 
The arowanas, fishes of Gondwanan origin, are represented in South America by the genus Osteoglossum. All species were initially reported as being exclusive to the Amazon region, with O. ferreirai restricted to the Negro River basin and O. bicirrhosum to the Amazon and Essequibo Rivers basin. Starting in the mid 1970's it was reported that O. ferreirai also occurs in the Orinoco River basin. In all regions the arowanas assumed significant socio-economic importance due to their popularity in the international ornamental fish trade, leading to over-exploitation of both species in some areas. The Orinoco populations are particularly heavily exploited, and thus conservation and management measures are needed. Both depend on the clarification of taxonomic status, and phylogenetic distinctness of the Orinoco populations. With the goal of molecularly characterizing the two species of Osteoglossum, and comparing populations of Osteoglossum from the Orinoco and Amazon basins, we characterized individuals sampled from eight localities, one in the Orinoco River basin and seven in the Amazon River basin. We sampled 39 individuals, obtaining 1004 base pairs, of which 79 were synapomorphies. Genetic distance between the two species calculated using the HKY + G model of molecular evolution was 8.94%. Intraspecific distances ranged from 0.42% in O. bicirrhosum to 0.10% in O. ferreirai. The genetic characterization confirmed the taxonomic status of O. ferreirai in the Orinoco basin, and suggested that its distribution in the Orinoco basin is unlikely to be the result of vicariance or natural dispersal, but rather an anthropic introduction.
Plasma osmolality in juveniles of the Lebranche mullet Mugil liza as a function of ambient water osmolality. Values are expressed as mean ± standard error (n = 6). Data were fitted using a linear regression analysis (y = a + bx). The straight line corresponds to the isosmotic line while the arrow indicates the isosmotic point. 
Gill Na + ,K + -ATPase activity in juveniles of the Lebranche mullet Mugil liza maintained at different salinities for 15 days. Values are expressed as mean ± standard error (n = 6). Data were fitted using a non-linear regression analysis (polynomial; quadratic). 
Survival and physiological parameters associated with metabolism and osmoregulation were evaluated in juveniles of the Lebranche mullet Mugil liza acclimated to different water salinities (5, 10, 20, 30, and 40‰) for 15 days. Room temperature (25°C) and photoperiod (12L:12D) were fixed. Fish were fed twice-a-day with commercial diet (28% crude protein) until satiation. After acclimation, whole body oxygen consumption was measured and fish were euthanized and sampled for blood, gills, and liver. Whole body oxygen consumption and plasma osmolality did not change in the range of salinities tested. The isosmotic point was estimated as 412.7 mOsmol kg-1 (13.5‰). Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity tended to be lower at 20 and 30‰, while liver glycogen content was significantly higher at 20‰ than at 5 and 40‰. These results indicate that juvenile M. liza is able to acclimate for a short-period of time (15 days) to a wide range of salinities (5-40‰). This condition is achieved through adjustments in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and carbohydrate metabolism to regulate plasma osmolality and aerobic/energy metabolism. Therefore, our findings support the idea of catching juveniles M. liza in sea water and rear them in estuarine and marine waters.
Study area. The red circles indicate the streaked prochilod (Prochilodus lineatus) collection sites.
Lapilli otolith of a streaked prochilod (Prochilodus lineatus). a) Right otolith of one of the sampled individuals, internal view (age 0+); b) right otolith section through the core (age 0+); c) example view of growth rings in an adult fish (age 8+). Abbreviations: A, anterior; D, dorsal; P, posterior; V, ventral; Ext, exterior; Int, interior.
Mean ± standard deviation and range (minimum-maximum) of the otolith morphometric indices of juvenile Prochilodus lineatus. OL, otolith length; OW, otolith width.
Landmark definitions used in the fish scales. Abbreviations: A, anterior; D, dorsal; P, posterior; V, ventral.  
The streaked prochilod Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes) is a commercially freshwater species from South America, distributed in the Plata basin. In the present work the morphometry (circularity, rectangularity, form factor, OL/OW and ellipticity indices) and chemistry (Sr:Ca, Ba:Ca, Zn:Ca) of lapilli otolith, and geometric morphometry of scales of streaked prochilod juveniles, in two sites in the Plata basin (Uruguay River and Estrella Wetland), were compared to determine if they are area-specific and to identify possible breeding areas. Otolith Ba:Ca ratios was 0.017±0.003 mmol/mol for Uruguay River while for Estrella Wetland individuals was bellow the detection limits. Zn:Ca ratios tended to be higher for the latter (0.03±0.002 mmol/mol). Significantly high circularity and low rectangularity values were obtained for Estrella Wetland otoliths (p < 0.05), while no significant differences for form factor, OL/OW and ellipticity were observed between sampling sites. Considering all scale geometric morphometry variables, discriminant analysis showed a good percentage of classification of individuals (90.5% for Estrella Wetland and 85.7 % for Uruguay River). These results indicate that the otolith microchemisty and morphometry (circularity and rectangularity indices) and scale morphometry are good markers of habitat and represent a potential tool for identification of streaked prochilod nursery areas.
Experimental design elaborated for the incubation and larviculture stages of Prochilodus lineatus. 1 In the treatments tested in the larviculture, the first number represents the incubation pH history and the second the pH in which the larviculture took place. The larviculture treatments will be described in this fashion throughout the text. * Treatment not accomplished due to an almost total mortality in the incubation stage.  
Growth curves in total length of the Prochilodus lineatus larvae after 16 days of larviculture. The results are grouped in the different pH values used in the incubation.  
Average values ± standard deviation of water pH, weight, length, biomass, and survival at the end of 16 days of larviculture for Prochilodus lineatus in the different treatments. 1 Different letters in the same column indicate statistical differences in the averages for the Tukey test (P < 0.05). 
Average values ± standard deviation of the Diameter of the egg, Perivitelline Space (P.S), Length of the larvae (initial and final), Volume of the Yolk Sac (initial and final) during the incubation of Prochilodus lineatus at the different pH values tested. 1 Different letters in the same column indicate statistical differences in the averages by the Tukey test (P < 0.05).
Diferentes níveis de pH da água foram testados na incubação e na larvicultura do curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus) para avaliar seu efeito na sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de ovos e larvas. Durante a incubação, pH de 5,0; 6,0; 7,0; 8,0 e 8,5 foram testados. Para observar o efeito do pH nas larvas com diferentes históricos de incubação, foi utilizado o seguinte desenho experimental (pH incubação - pH larvicultura): L 6-6; L 6-7; L 7-6; L 7-7; L 7-8; L 8-7; L 8-8; L 8,5-7 e L 8,5-8,5. Quatro horas depois de iniciada a incubação, foi observada a mortalidade de todos os ovos incubados em pH 5,0. Ovos incubados em pH 6,0 a 8,5 tiveram taxas de fertilização e eclosão semelhantes, embora, ovos e larvas incubados em pH 6,0 apresentaram diâmetro e comprimento total inferiores às larvas incubadas em pH's neutro e alcalinos. Durante a larvicultura foi observada uma maior taxa de sobrevivência das pós-larvas que tinham sido incubadas em pH 7,0 (93 ± 7%) e pós-larvas com maior comprimento no tratamento L 8,5-7 (9,29 ± 0,8 mm). Conclui-se que o pH da incubação e da larvicultura afeta diretamente a sobrevivência e o crescimento dos estágios iniciais de P. lineatus.
Representative image of the experimental incubators. 
Este trabalho avaliou o efeito de substâncias crioprotetoras sobre embriões de Prochilodus lineatus em uma incubadora experimental. O estudo aplicou combinações de álcool polivinílico, hidroxietilcelulose, gelatina e soro fetal bovino com dimetilosulfóxido e etilenoglicol em uma nova incubadora experimental. Foram avaliadas a morfologia dos embriões, a viabilidade larval e a eficiência das incubadoras experimentais na manutenção da qualidade dos embriões. Este estudo demonstra a associação eficiente entre hidroxietilcelulose e dimetilsulfóxido pela maior viabilidade (p<0,05) encontrada para os embriões (72,9 ± 23,9%). Deve-se notar também a permeação dos crioprotetores nos embriões através das alterações encontradas no diâmetro córion, diâmetro do embrião e no volume do embrião comparando os tratamentos ao grupo controle (água) (p<0,05), estes resultados podem ajudar em futuros protocolos de criopreservação. Embora a temperatura e a oxigenação diferiram entre as incubadoras comuns e as experimentais (p<0,05), os resultados mostraram elevada taxa de fertilização (79,6 ± 13,2%) para incubadoras experimentais (p<0,05), o que é suficiente para a manutenção de embriões em ambiente crioprotetor e permite efetivamente a experimentação por longos períodos com substâncias crioprotetoras. A criopreservação de embriões de peixes ainda não foi realizada e novas abordagens são necessárias para a compreensão da permeabilidade dos embriões de teleósteos, especialmente em espécies nativas brasileiras.
Effect of incision size (cm) and duration of surgery (s) on wound area (cm 2 ) one week after surgical implantation of telemetry transmitters in Prochilodus lineatus.  
Surgical/postsurgical ranking of Prochilodus lineatus over four weeks. Black: poor; gray: average; and light gray: good.  
Postsurgical complications of Prochilodus lineatus. Eug: eugenol; Elec: electroanesthesia; Small: small tag; Lar: large tag; Exp: expert surgeon; and Nov: novice surgeon.
Implantation of telemetry transmitters in fish can be affected by different parameters. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of type of anesthetic, tag size, and surgeon experience on surgical and postsurgical wound healing in the neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus. In total, eighty fish were surgically implanted with telemetry transmitters and forty fish were kept as controls. Forty fish were implanted with a small tag and other forty were implanted with a large tag. Similarly, forty fish were anesthetized with eugenol and forty fish were anesthetized by electroanesthesia, and forty surgeries were performed by an expert surgeon and forty surgeries were performed by novice surgeons. At the end of the experimental period seventeen (21.3%) tagged fish had postsurgical complications, including death (1.3%), tag expulsion (2.5%), antenna migration (2.5%), and infection (15%). Tag size was the key determinant for postsurgical complications. Surgical details and postsurgical wound healing were not affected by type of anesthetic. Incision size, duration of surgery, and wound area were significantly affected by tag size and surgeon experience, and the number of sutures was significantly affected by tag size only. The results indicate that successful implantation of telemetry transmitters is dependent upon surgeon experience and tag size. © 2016, Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia. All rights reserved.
Motility rate of fresh, equilibrated and post-thaw sperm of Brycon orbignyanus (A; n = 18 males) and Prochilodus lineatus (B; n = 21 males). Motility rate was evaluated after 0, 20, 40 and 60s (fresh and equilibrated sperm) or after 10, 30, 50 and 70s of activation (post-thaw sperm). * Motility evaluated at 60s was lower than that at 0s post-activation (Scott-Knott, P < 0.05). § Motility evaluated at 10s post-activation was the highest (Scott-Knott, P < 0.05). 
Male body weight and fresh sperm quality (mean ± SD) of Brycon orbignyanus and Prochilodus lineatus males after treatment with a single dose of carp pituitary extract (cPE) or Ovaprim ™ .
Post-thaw sperm velocities (curvilinear = VCL; straight-line = VSL; average path = VAP) of Brycon orbignyanus (A; n = 18 males) and Prochilodus lineatus (B; n = 21 males) evaluated after 10, 30, 50 and 70s after activation. * Mean at 10s was the highest (Scott-Knott, P < 0.05). 
O efeito de doses reduzidas de Ovaprim® (GnRHa + domperidona) na liberação do sêmen de Brycon orbignyanus e Prochilodus lineatus foi avaliado. Além disso, a qualidade do sêmen foi comparada entre as amostras frescas, equilibradas e descongeladas. Os machos receberam dose única e reduzida de Ovaprim® (0,125 ou 0,25 ml/kg); os machos-controle receberam extrato de hipófise (cPE; 3 mg/kg). O sêmen fresco foi avaliado quanto ao volume, concentração, e osmolalidade e pH do plasma seminal. Em seguida, o sêmen foi diluído num meio de congelamento, equilibrado por 15-20 min e congelado em botijão de vapor de nitrogênio (dry-shipper). A motilidade espermática foi analisada durante 60 s pós-ativação no sêmen fresco, equilibrado e descongelado. A qualidade do sêmen não diferiu entre os machos tratados com Ovaprim® (ambas as doses) ou cPE, assim foi feito um pool desses dados. Em B. orbignyanus, a motilidade foi maior no sêmen fresco (99%) do que no equilibrado (81%); a motilidade do sêmen descongelado caiu para 42%. Em P. lineatus, a motilidade foi semelhante entre o sêmen fresco (99%) e equilibrado (92%); a motilidade do sêmen descongelado foi 73%. A motilidade caiu em função do tempo pós-ativação, e essa queda foi significante após 60 s no sêmen fresco e equilibrado, e tão precoce quanto 30 s no sêmen descongelado, em ambas as espécies. Ovaprim® a 1/4 da dose recomendada pode substituir o cPE com sucesso.
(TBARS), (GST) and (CAT) activity in the liver of Paralichthys orbignyanus juveniles exposed to different temperatures (17.1, 23.0 and 28.8ºC) as a function of time exposition (72 h). Values are expressed as means ± SEM, N=5. a Lower case letters indicate significantly different at the different temperatures and same time (P < 0.05), determined by two-way ANOVA and by Dunnet test. A Capital letters indicate significantly different at the same temperatures and different times (P < 0.05), determined by two-way ANOVA and by Dunnet test.  
(TBARS), (GST) and (CAT) activity in the gills of Paralichthys orbignyanus juveniles exposed to different temperatures (17.1, 23.0 and 28.8ºC) as a function of time exposition (72 h). Values are expressed as means ± SEM, N=5. a Lower case letters indicate significantly different at the different temperatures and same time (P < 0.05), determined by two-way ANOVA and by Dunnet test. A Capital letters indicate significantly different at the same temperatures and different times (P < 0.05), determined by two-way ANOVA and by Dunnet test.  
The aim of this study was to determine oxidative stress parameters in the liver and gill of Brazilian flounder juveniles (307.0 ± 16.0 g and 30.0 ± 4.0 cm) submitted to different water temperature (17.1, 23.0 and 28.8ºC) for 72 h and maintained at salinity 25‰. After the acclimation of 7 days, in 23ºC, fish were transferred to 200 L tanks containing seawater (salinity 25‰) at 28.8°C (heat shock), 17.1°C (cold shock) or 23.0°C (control), five replicates (five fish tank-1). The sampled collection occurred in 0 (pre-challenge), 3, 24, 48 and 72 h after temperature shock. Flounder exposed to 17.1ºC and 28.8ºC showed significantly higher TBARS levels and GST activity in the liver post-exposition (PE) in relation to the control (23ºC). CAT activity in liver present a significantly increase at 17.1ºC, in first 48 h, and subsequently decrease in 72 h PE in relation to 28.8ºC. The gills of flounder showed significantly higher TBARS levels, GST and CAT activity when submitted at 17.1 and 28.8ºC in relation to 23.0ºC. There were observed changes in lipid peroxidation levels (LPO), CAT and GST activities in the liver and gill of Brazilian flounder in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by thermal shocks.
Microphotograph of a mature ovary of silky shark. A - mature oocyte (yolk-rich) Staining: HE. B - epithelium (ep) and vitelline membrane (vm) Staining: HE. C - connective fibers (fc), Staining: Trichrome Gomori, D - epithelium (ep) and vitelline membrane (vm) and basal membrane (bm) Colour: HE Increase Gomori trichrome staining. E - vitelline membrane (vm), fat cells (cf), follicular cells (fc) and yolk (yk) Staining: Gomori Trichrome. F -simple epithelium (se) with cuboidal cells, albuginea composed of dense connective tissue (al) and muscle fibers regions (mf) Staining: Gomori Trichrome. 
This work aims to study the female reproductive tract of silky sharks, Carcharhinus falciformis, captured in the South and Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Samples were collected between January 2008 and March 2010 through oceanic commercial vessels that targeted tuna and swordfish, with a total of 17 females collected. The methodologies followed for analyzing the ovaries of those females included both macroscopic and histological analysis. Macroscopically, it was possible to determine that the ovaries on these sharks is suspended by mesenteries in the anterior section of the body cavity, heavily irrigated by blood vessels, and contains a wide range of oocytes. Ovaries were found in three distinct maturational stages: Stage I (Immature), Stage II (Maturing) and Stage III (Mature). Immature ovaries were small, with widths ranging from 1.0 to 3.1 cm, and had a gelatinous or granulose internal structure; maturing ovaries were slightly larger, ranging in width between 5.2 and 6.0 cm; mature ovaries ranged in width between 6.5 and 7.8 cm, and had a more rounded shape and the presence of large and well developed oocytes. Under microscopic examination, it was observed that the ovaries were covered with simple epithelial tissue during the early development stages and a simple cubic epithelium in the final stages of maturation. During the initial maturation stages the epigonal organ was not differentiated from the ovary. In mature specimens, the ovary showed a simple cubic epithelium and just below this epithelium there was a layer of dense connective tissue and muscle with the presence of vitellogenic oocytes and fat cells. A thin yolk membrane enclosing the oocytes was also evident. Finally, it was possible to distinguish a zona pellucida, separating the oocytes from the follicle wall and a basal lamina between the granular layers and the teak layer.
Sympterygia bonapartii (circles) with relationship between total length (cm) and (a) disc width (cm), (b) total weight (g) and (c) eviscerated weight (g) (by sex). Sympterygia acuta (triangles) with relationship between total length (cm) and (d) disc width (cm), (e) total weight (g) and (f) eviscerated weight (g).
Sympterygia bonapartii. Relationship between total length (cm) and (a) clasper length (cm), (b) clasper gland length (cm), (c) diameter of the testicular lobule (cm), (d) testicles weight (g) and (e) total number of alar thorns (left Y axis) and total number of rows of alar thorns (right Y axis).
Sympterygia acuta. Relationship between total length (cm) and (a) clasper length (cm), (b) clasper gland length (cm), (c) testicles weight (g) and (d) total number of alar thorns (left Y axis) and total number of rows of alar thorns (right Y axis).
Sexual development for females of Sympterygia bonapartii. Relationship between total length (cm) and (a) ovaries weight (g), (b) diameter of the largest follicle (cm), (c) uteri width (cm), (d) oviducal gland height (cm) and (e) number of follicles.
Sexual development for females of Sympterygia acuta. Relationship between total length (cm) and (a) ovaries weight, (b) uteri width (cm), (c) diameter of the largest follicle (cm) and (d) oviducal gland height (cm).
O presente estudo analisou o desenvolvimento sexual, os tamanhos de maturidade e as relações morfométricas para ambos os sexos das espécies Sympterygia acuta e S. bonapartii endêmica do sudoeste do Oceano Atlântico. Os indivíduos foram coletados em cruzeiros de investigação e viagens de pesca comercial durante 2011 e 2012 ao longo da costa do Sul do Brasil em latitudes que variam de 34°28'S a 31° 29'S, e em profundidades entre 15 e 142 m. Houve diferenças significativas entre sexos para S. bonapartii (p <0,05) e S acuta nas relações comprimento total (cm) - largura do disco (cm) e comprimento - peso total e comprimento total - peso eviscerado (g), demonstrando dimorfismo sexual durante o desenvolvimento em ambas as espécies.Os tamanhos estimados de maturação para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente, foram iguais a 46,1 e 44,7 cm para S. acuta; e 58,4 e 59,9 cm para S. bonapartii. Uma diminuição nos tamanhos de maturidade para ambos os sexos foi observada em S. acuta e fêmeas de S. bonapartii da costa Sul do Brasil, com relação a estudos realizados há 30 anos.
A systematic revision of the Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle, 1841) species complex in the Paraná-Paraguay basin based on morphological characters was undertaken. Morphological systems analyzed include external morphology, coloration, dermal denticles, and spines, canals of the ventral lateral-line system, and skeletal components. Potamotrygon motoro is widely distributed in the Paraná-Paraguay basin and some of its diagnostic characters are: ocelli present on dorsal disc tricolored, well-defined and evenly distributed, with diameter similar or greater than eye-length; ventral coloration with relatively large whitish central region, with gray or brown area predominant on outer ventral disc margins; dermal denticles well-developed and star-shaped over central disc; labial grooves absent; monognathic heterodonty present in upper and lower jaws of adults. Potamotrygon pauckei Castex, 1963 and Potamotrygon labradori Castex, Maciel & Achenbach, 1963, are synonymized with P. motoro; Potamotrygon alba Castex, 1963, is a nomen dubium in accordance with previous authors. Additionally, two new ocellated species of Potamotrygon from the Paraná-Paraguay basin are described: Potamotrygon pantanensis, sp. nov. and Potamotrygon amandae, sp. nov. These are described and compared with P. motoro and other congeners. Potamotrygon pantanensis, sp. nov. is described from the northern Pantanal region; Potamotrygon amandae, sp. nov. is widespread in the Paraná-Paraguay basin.
The Electric ray Discopyge tschudii is distributed in the Southwest Atlantic from southern Brazil to southern Argentina and in the Southeast Pacific from Peru to southern Chile. The main threat to this species is fishing. Discopyge tschudii is noncommercial and individuals caught are discarded on board. The present study analyzes the distribution and the morphological and reproductive characteristics of this ray in San Matías Gulf (SMG), Argentina. A total of 1087 individuals were analyzed. The species presented an aggregate distribution, with the main concentrations in the northern and eastern areas of SMG, at depths below 100 m. Males ranged from 9 to 43 cm and females from 11 to 38 cm. The species presented sexual dimorphism. Males were larger and heavier than females and also matured at larger sizes. Size at 50% of maturity was estimated at 30 cm for males and 21 cm for females. A total of 199 embryos were sampled and the proportion of sexes showed no significant differences from the expected 1:1. The number of embryos per female varied from 1 to 12. The most frequent values were 2 and 5. Length at birth was estimated at 82.17 ± 3.87 mm. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that the electric ray D. tschudii completes its reproductive cycle in SMG.
Microscopic aspect of the ovaries and macroscopic aspect of Salminus hilarii larvae: a. micrograph of a mature ovary, showing the vitellogenic oocytes; b. micrograph of the ovary showing an atretic oocyte. Scale bars: ( a ) 300  m and ( b ) 100  m; c. cannibalism among S . hilarii larvae; d. details of the larva head at the cannibalism moment (Scale bars = 1 cm). 
Major events during the ontogeny of Salminus hilarii larvae. 
Artificial reproduction and gamete fertilization were evaluated in Salminus hilarii wild and domesticated broodstocks. Wild and domesticated broodstocks were artificially induced to reproduction using a carp pituitary treatment. Four groups were considered: Group 1 (G1), fish caught in the wild maintained for three years in the same conditions as the domesticated broodstocks and spawned naturally; Group 2 (G2), broodstock born and raised in captivity and spawned naturally; Group 3 (G3), wild broodstocks, which were manually stripped for gamete collection and dry fertilization; and Group 4 (G4), domesticated males and females, also manually stripped. Oocytes, eggs, and larvae were sampled at different time intervals throughout embryonic development. Yolk sac absorption occurred approximately 24-29 h after hatching. Twenty-six h after hatching, the larvae mouths opened. Cannibalism was identified just 28-30 h after hatching. There was no morphological difference in embryonic development among all groups. The number of released eggs per gram of female was: G1: 83.3 ± 24.5 and G2: 103.8 ± 37.4; however, the fertilization success was lower in G2 (42.0 ± 6.37 %) compared with G1 (54.7 ± 3.02%) (P = 0.011). Hand-stripping of oocytes was not successful and the fertilization rate was zero. The reproduction of this species in captivity is viable, but it is necessary to improve broodstock management to enhance fertilization rates and obtain better fingerling production for restocking programs.
Ancistrus miracollis, INPA 57624, holotype, 66.7 mm SL, male; Brazil, Apuí, rio Sucunduri drainage, lower rio Madeira basin.
Color pattern variation in Ancistrus miracollis. Standard length from top to bottom, left to right: 27.7 mm SL, 30.3 mm SL, 35.5 mm SL, 41.2 mm SL, 48.4 mm SL, 51.6 mm SL, 58.4 mm SL (all from INPA 26433), 60.1 mm SL (INPA 24144).
Partial map of the Brazilian Amazon, showing the distribution of Ancistrus miracollis. Red star indicates type locality.
During the Mosaico do Apuí expedition in 2006, a new species of Ancistrus was found in the rio Sucunduri, a large tributary of the rio Madeira basin in south Amazonas State. The new species has a unique color pattern for the genus and is distinguished by the presence of alternate light and dark vertical bars on the trunk. Other Ancistrini genera have species with a similar color pattern, but the new species is clearly distinguished by a lack of plates on the snout and presence of fleshy tentacles on the snout as in all Ancistrus representatives. We also provide comments on the taxonomic status of the A. bolivianus, A. heterorhynchus and A. marcapatae.
| General area and coastal basins where the new specimens of Diplomystes were recorded. Coastal basin names are shown with a smaller font size in the map on the right. The Carampangue and Laraquete basins, from where the samples were collected, are indicated with their names in bold.
| Individuals of Diplomystes nahuelbutaensis recorded in this study and their habitat. A. individual collected in Laraquete (Lar01); B. individual collected and released in Carampangue. C. individual collected in Laraquete (Lar02) and released; D. Habitat of D. nahuelbutaensis in the Cabrera River, Carampangue Basin.
| Phylogenetic position of the Coastal populations of Diplomystes recorded in this study in relation to the diversity of the family presented in Muñoz-Ramírez et al. (2014 ), inferred from the analyzes of two mitochondrial DNA regions (Cytochrome b and Control Region). A. Unrooted Bayesian phylogenetic tree. B. Haplotype network for Diplomystes including samples from the Biobío Basin (from Muñoz-Ramírez et al., 2014 ) and the individuals sampled in this study. The size of the haplotype represents its
| Null distribution of Fst values assuming a panmictic model versus the observed Fst value (vertical line) between Coastal and Biobío samples of Diplomystes nahuelbutaensis.
Sampling details for the specimens of Diplomystes recorded in this study.
The ancient catfish family Diplomystidae, with seven species endemic to rivers of southern South America, represents one of the oldest branches of the diverse order Siluriformes. With most species endangered, new reports of these species become extremely valuable for conservation. Currently, it is assumed that Diplomystes species inhabit only Andean (large) basins, and that they are extinct from coastal (small) basins from which their presence have not been recorded since 1919. Here, we document new records of the family Diplomystidae in the Laraquete and Carampangue basins, two coastal basins from the Nahuelbuta Coast Range, Chile, with no previous reports. This finding represents the rediscovery of the genus in coastal basins in more than a Century. Based on analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences, the collected specimens were found to be closely related to Diplomystes nahuelbutaensis from the Andean Biobío Basin, but sufficiently differentiated to suggest that coastal basin populations are a different management unit. These populations are important because, contrary to previous thoughts, they prove these catfish can survive in small river networks, providing unique opportunities for research and conservation. The conservation category of Critically Endangered (CE) is recommended for the populations from the Laraquete and Carampangue basins.
Eugerres castroaguirrei, new species is described from the río Grijalva-Usumacinta basin of southeastern Mexico and northern Guatemala. Eugerres castroaguirrei and E. mexicanus are distinguishable from their marine estuarine congeners by the dorsal-fin origin posterior to the insertion of the pectoral and pelvic fins, a shorter and broad based supraoccipital crest, and a distinct geographic distribution restricted to freshwater habitats. Eugerres castroaguirrei differs from E. mexicanus by diagnostic characters of the body skeleton: anterior process of supraoccipital convex, infraorbital 1 with foramen, premaxillary ascending process developed with margins curved, pharyngeal plate granular and not serially arranged, and dorsal and anal fin-rays reduced. Likewise, E. castroaguirrei is characterized by an oblong and laterally thicker body (37.6-58.5% HL); greater body depth (33.8-42.1% SL), and eye diameter (23.3-31.6% HL); in addition to 16 significant morphometric characters: length of the second dorsal-fin spine 23.2-34.2% SL; depressed second dorsal-fin spine (extending to base of third to fourth dorsal-fin rays); length of second anal-fin spine 11.1-20.6% SL, depressed second anal-fin spine extending to the base of third to fourth anal-fin rays not reaching the distal point of last anal-fin ray; pelvic-fin spine length 49.7-65.0% in the first pelvic-fin ray length
Karyotypes of Hypostomus cf. wuchereri . ( a ) population from Mutum River, ( b ) population from Una River. In detail, the NOR-bearing pair after silver nitrate (Ag-NOR) and C-banding (CB). 
Chromosomal pairs of Hypostomus cf. wuchereri from Mutum River showing the C-bands and the digestion profiles using Alu I, Hae III, Dde I, and Bam HI.
Chromosomal pairs of Hypostomus cf. wuchereri from Una River showing the C-bands and the digestion profiles using Alu I, Hae III, Dde I, and Bam HI.
DAPI and CMA stained chromosomal pairs from Mutum ( a ) and Una ( b ) Rivers, showing AT and GC-rich sites, 3 respectively. The NOR-bearing pair is highlighted. 
Representative ideogram of chromosomal pairs in Hypostomus cf. wuchereri showing the banding pattern after digestion using Alu I, Bam HI, Hae III, and Dde I. (a) population from Una River, (b) population from Mutum River.
Few chromosomal reports are available for the endemic fish fauna from coastal basins in northeastern Brazil, and regional biodiversity remains partially or completely unknown. This is particularly true for Loricariidae, the most diverse family of armored catfishes. In the present work, allopatric populations of Hypostomus cf. wuchereri (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from two basins in Bahia (northeastern Brazil) were cytogenetically analyzed. Both populations shared 2n = 76 chromosomes, a karyotype formula of 10m+18sm+48st/a (FN = 104) and single terminal GC-rich NORs on the second metacentric pair. Nevertheless, microstructural differences were detected by C-banding, fluorochrome staining and chromosomal digestion with restriction enzymes (Alu I, Bam HI, Hae III, and Dde I). The population from Una River (Reconcavo Sul basin) showed conspicuous heterochromatin blocks and a remarkable heterogeneity of base composition (presence of interspersed AT/GC-rich and exclusively AT-or GC-rich sites), while the population from Mutum river (Contas River basin) presented interstitial AT-rich C-bands and terminal GC/AT-rich heterochromatin. Each enzyme yielded a specific band profile per population which allowed us characterizing up to five heterochromatin families in each population. Based on the present data, we infer that these populations have been evolving independently, as favored by their geographic isolation, probably representing cryptic species.
CA ordination of 155 individuals of Roeboides affinis of two groups formed by five size classes (Group1, n = 33, and Group 2, n = 22) according to the consumption of food items (volumetric proportions) in the upper Tocantins River in two environment types (Lotic, n = 61, vs . Lentic, n = 94) related to its impoundment by the Serra da Mesa Hydroelectric Dam, from 1995 to 2000. 
Medians of percentage volume of scales consumed by Roeboides affinis in the upper Tocantins river, from 1995 to 2000, in: ( a ) different environmental types (Lotic, n = 38, vs . Lentic, n = 52); ( b ) seasons (Dry, n = 25, vs . Wet, n = 68); ( c ) size classes 1 (n = 12), 2 (n = 38), 3 (n = 26), 4 (n = 9) and 5 (n = 5) and ( d ) different post-impoundment phases (Filling, n = 9, vs . Operation, n = 2) in lentic sites. 
We report the consumption of scales and other food resources by the facultative lepidophage Roeboides affinis in the upper Tocantins River where it was impounded by the Serra da Mesa Hydroelectric Dam. We compared the diet among size classes, between dry and wet seasons, and between sites with distinct water flow characteristics (lotic vs. lentic) related to the distance from the dam and phase of reservoir development. As transparency and fish abundance increased after impoundment, we expected a higher consumption of scales in lentic sites. Likewise, habitat contraction, higher transparency and decrease in terrestrial resources availability, would promote a higher consumption of scales. Scales were consumed by 92% of individuals and represented 26% of the total volume of resources ingested by R. affinis. Diet composition varied significantly among size classes, with larger individuals consuming more scales and larger items, especially odonatans and ephemeropterans. Scale consumption was not significantly different between dry and wet seasons. Roeboides affinis incorporated some food items into the diet as a response to the impoundment, like other species. Scale consumption was higher in lotic sites, refuting our initial hypothesis, what suggests that the lepidophagous habit is related the rheophilic nature of R. affinis.
Astyanax obscurus and A. laticeps are redescribed. Both species were originally described from the laguna dos Patos system, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The deepest and most robust body area close to the middle of the pectoral fins length, robust head, snout short and abrupt, body depth smaller than 41% of SL, reduced number of branched anal-fin rays, presence of one or two humeral spots, and a dark midlateral body stripe extending to the tip of the middle caudal-fin rays include both in the A. scabripinnis species complex. The presence of two humeral spots (vs. one), external row of the premaxillary with pentacuspid teeth (vs. tricuspid), and absence of bony hooks in all fins in males (vs. presence in anal and ventral fins) distinguish A. obscurus from A. laticeps. These species distinguish from species of this complex by meristic and morphometric characters and color pattern. An identification key for the species of genus occurring in the laguna dos Patos system is presented.
The anostomid genus Laemolyta Cope, 1872, is redefined.Various morphological, especially osteological characters in addition to the commonly utilized features of dentition proved useful for its characterization. A taxonomic revision of all species was made using meristics, morphometrics and color pattern. Five species are recognized: Laemolyta fernandezi Myers, 1950, from the río Orinoco (Venezuela) and the sub-basins Tocantins/Araguaia and Xingu, L. orinocensis (Steindachner, 1879), restricted to the río Orinoco, L. garmani (Borodin, 1931) and L. proxima (Garman, 1890), from the Amazon basin with the latter also occurring in the Essequibo River (Guiana), and L. taeniata (Kner, 1859), from the Amazon and Orinoco basins. Laemolyta garmani macra is considered a synonym of L. garmani, L. petiti a synonym of L. fernandezi, and L. nitens and L. varia synonyms of L. proxima. Lectotypes are designated herein for L. orinocencis and L. taeniata.
Map of the study area. Samples sites are located on the Uruguay River: LC: Las Cañas, NB: Nuevo Berlín and Y: Yaguareté.
Amundsen diagrams for individuals of the size class 1(a-c) and 2 (b-d). Superior diagrams correspond to individual obtained in May and inferior to individual obtained in November. COP: Copepoda, TRIC: Trichoptera, OTH: others, HYD: Hydracharina, CLAD: Cladocera, GAS: Gastropoda, NEM: Nematoda, OST: Ostracoda, BIV: Bivalvia, DIP: Diptera, EPH: Ephemeroptera, IMM. BIV: immature bivalvia, ODO: Odonata, COL: Coleoptera, COLL: Collembola. 
Body size and diet of organisms are fundamental attributes which determine their ecology and natural history. Iheringichthys labrosus is one of the most common fish species of the Uruguay River. However, its natural history is poorly known and there is little information about its diet and interactions with other species. This paper describes the feeding habits of this species, relating feeding patterns to the size classes and morphometry of individuals and to the temporal variations. Fishes were captured in May and November of 2006 in three zones of the lower Uruguay River. A total of 101 stomach contents was analyzed (standard length: 60-224 mm). The species exhibited a broad feeding spectrum with most items belonging to the benthic community. We found significant diet differences between size classes and studied months. However, we have not found a close relationship between changes in morphometric variables and diet shifts between size classes.
Drawing of Lophiosilurus alexandri larvae (circa 13 mm TL, 8 DAH): total length (TL), head length (HL), head height (HH), head width (HW), mouth length (ML), eye diameter (ED), maxillary barbel length (MB), trunk length (TRL), trunk height (TH), trunk width (TW), yolk sac length (YSL), yolk sac height (YSH), and postanal length (PAL).
Mean ± standard deviation of total length of Lophiosilurus alexandri larvae in relation to age.
Allometric growth of measurements on the head of Lophiosilurus alexandri during early development (0-29 days after hatching). The dotted line on total length represents the inflexion point of growth, b = allometric growth coefficient, r2 = coefficient of determination, and n= number of individuals. (a) head length, (b) head height, (c) head width, (d) mouth length, (e) eye diameter, (f) maxillary barbel length. 
Allometric growth of measurements on the trunk of Lophiosilurus alexandri during early development (0-29 days after hatching). The dotted line on total length represents the inflexion point of growth, b = allometric growth coefficient, r2 = coefficient of determination, and n= number of individuals. (a) trunk length, (b) trunk height, (c) trunk width, (d) postanal length, (e) yolk sac volume. 
We investigated the early life growth pattern of pacamã, Lophiosilurus alexandri, a catfish endemic to the rio São Francisco basin, Brazil. Pacamã larvae were kept in a galvanized trough for 29 days after hatching. We collected approximately 10 larvae daily (total number = 285). We obtained from each specimen the total length (independent variable) and 11 other body measurements (dependent variables). We performed linear regressions on the log-transformed data to determine the growth pattern of the body measurements and the respective inflexion point on the growth curves. Except for trunk length, trunk width and yolk sac volume, the remaining body measurements showed a positive allometric growth coefficient up to the respective IP followed by a decrease in the rate of relative growth afterwards. Although trunk width presented a positive allometric growth, no significant inflexion point was detected. The dorsal-ventral head flattening seen in the adult pacamã was quickly expressed in the larvae as indicated by the large allometric growth of head width. Maxillary barbels showed the highest growth rate. The exceptionally high growth rates of eyes and maxillary barbels and the acquired ability to capture prey (as suggested by mouth length growth) strengthened the hypothesis of growth priorities in which the most essential organs develop first.
Total length of Lophiosilurus alexandri after 15 days of exogenous feeding. The graph “A” and “B” showed the best temperature for the prey concentration P 700 and P 1,300 , respectively. 
Mean body weight of Lophiosilurus alexandri after 15 days of exogenous feeding. Different letters represent significant differences ( P <0.05) among temperatures (a, b, c and d) and prey concentrations (x and y). 
O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos da temperatura da água e concentrações de presas (náuplios de Artemia) no desenvolvimento inicial de larvas de Lophiosilurus alexandri. O experimento foi conduzido em esquema fatorial 4 x 2, com quatro temperaturas da água (23, 26, 29 and 32 °C), duas concentrações de presas (P700 e P1.300) e três réplicas. A quantidade de alimento ofertado aumentou durante os 15 dias de experimento. Ao final do experimento a sobrevivência e o fator de condição foram afetados apenas pela concentração de presas, sendo que a maior concentração proporcionou médias superiores para as variáveis mencionadas. O comprimento total (CT) e a taxa de crescimento específico foram influenciados separadamente pelos fatores temperatura e concentração de presa, sem interação entre os fatores, e o peso individual das larvas apresentou interação entre os fatores estudados. Em geral, o aumento da temperatura (de 23 para 32 °C) promoveu o crescimento e o ganho em nitrogênio nas larvas de L alexandri. Para o CT, a temperatura ótima ficou em 31,4 e 31,0 °C para P700 e P1.300, respectivamente. Médias semelhantes do peso individual e ganho em nitrogênio foram observadas nos animais cultivados a 23 °C em ambos os níveis de concentração de presas. Nas demais temperaturas, o nível de P1.300 levou a um maior ganho em peso para as larvas de L. alexandri. Desta forma, conclui-se que o desenvolvimento inicial das larvas de L. alexandri é afetado por ambos os fatores estudados, e temperaturas entre 29-32 °C combinados ao maior nível de concentração de presas são as melhores opções para maximizar o desenvolvimento das larvas e o ganho em nitrogênio. Em adição, esse é o primeiro resultado sobre a incorporação de nitrogênio em larvas de peixes neotropicais.
Linear relationships of total fecundity (TF), initial fertility (IF) and final fertility (FF) to variations in body weight (BW) ( a ) and total length (TL) ( b ), obtained simultaneously from nine Lophiosilurus alexandri females submitted to hypophysation at Três Marias Hydrobiology and Hatchery Station in January 1997. 
Macro and microscopic morphology of the ovaries ( a-b ) and testis ( c-d ) mature of the Lophiosilurus alexandri . ( a ) The mature ovaries were bulky, highly vascularized, yellowish and presenting large vitellogenic oocytes. ( b ) Histological section of the vitellogenic oocyte characterized by the presence of acidophilic yolk globules (Y) throughout the ooplasm and nucleus (N) migrating toward the animal pole. ( c ) Mature testis (arrow) are whitish, turgids, vascularized and with well developed fringes (Insert showing fringes). ( d ) Mature testis showing seminiferous tubules (ST) filled by spermatozoa (SPZ). (a, c and insert) bars 1cm; (b and d) stained with hemotoxylin-eosin and bars 100 μ m. 
Lophiosilurus alexandri is an endemic fish from the São Francisco River basin, Brazil. The aim of this study was to induce L. alexandri to spawn and to obtain data on several reproductive variables for this species. For induced spawning, adults were submitted to Cyprinus carpio pituitary homogenate (CPH). Nine of the 12 females (75%) responded positively to the treatment. The stripping of oocytes was performed 8.4 h after the second dose of CPH with the water temperature maintained at 26ºC. The number of stripped oocytes per gram of ova was 74 ± 5 oocytes g-1, and the mean oocyte diameter was 3.1 ± 0.2 and 3.6 ± 0.2 mm, before and after hydration, respectively. The oocytes were opaque, yellowish, demersal, highly adhesive, and covered by a gelatinous coat. The total fecundity was 4,534 ± 671 oocytes, and the fertilization rate was 59%. The initial and final fertilities were 2,631 ± 740 and 1,542 ± 416 embryos, respectively. Larval hatching occurred up to 56 h after fertilization, and the larvae had a total length of 8.4 ± 0.1 mm. This work provides important biological information for L. alexandri that can be used for management and conservation of this species.
Top-cited authors
Angelo A Agostinho
  • Universidade Estadual de Maringá
C. S. Pavanelli
  • Universidade Estadual de Maringá
Luiz R Malabarba
  • Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Claudio Oliveira
  • São Paulo State University
Jansen Alfredo Sampaio Zuanon
  • Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia