NUKHBATUL ULUM Jurnal Bidang Kajian Islam

Published by Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Islam dan Bahasa Arab (STIBA) Makassar
Online ISSN: 2338-5251
Publications
Article
This study describes some false perceptions of polygamy based on the Qur'an Chapter An-Nisā ' verse no. 3 and 129. The method used in this study is library research. Various sources were collected to obtain data and facts. These data were collected sorted and selected and then analyzed to answer the first two main subjects: understanding and history of polygamy, second: correcting some of the wrong perceptions about polygamy. The results of this study indicate that polygamy is the marriage of a man with more than one woman, which has been widely known and practiced by the Muslim in various parts of the world. As for the false perception, the false perceptions are caused by lack of proper understanding about pure religious teachings according to the Qur'an, the Sunnah of the Prophet and the understanding of zealous and pious Islamic scholars. Another cause is due to the a priori behavior and lust. Moreover, the Muslim haters take advantage over te issue of polygamy to insult Islam with various heinous accusations where these insults coming from hate speech and dishonesty in judging this issue.
 
Article
This research aimed to analyze the relevance of dismissal of friday prayers in circular letter of south sulawesi governor number: 451.11 / 2057/2020 during covid-19 pandemic from the perspective of maqāṣid al-syarī’ah. This research is library research using a qualitative approach and content analysis techniques. The results of the research conclude that the substance of the circular letter is relevant to the principle of maqāṣid al-syarī’ah which is the core philosophy of the formation of Islamic law in presenting the benefit of mankind in the world and the hereafter, both from the aspect of maqāṣid al-kulliyyah (universal) and maqāṣid al-juz'iyyah (partial) especially maqāṣid in obeying a leader. Therefore, the emergence of the phenomenon of counter attitudes from some people and even preachers towards the policy should not occur.
 
Article
This study explains the matter of “The Ruling and Acting on Weak Hadits of Fadhail al A’mal”. Hadits is undeniable to be one source of the Islamic Syari’ah law and legality, but not all is attributed as the sayingss of the Prophet Mohamed (PBUH). The scholars of Hadits had agreed on the acceptance of the sound (Sahih) Hadits and good (Hasan) Hadits as the guidance in rulings and law determination. However, there are differences among them in terms of weak (Da’if) hadits, primarily that concerns with Fadhail A’maal. The scholars have 3 different perspectives on it; some scholars prohibit, some permit and the rests of them permit it with certain strict conditions. The first argument is adopted by most of the scholars of Hadits and it appears as the strongest arguments with regard to its accuracy so as to prevent ones from falsehood in the name of The Prophet Mohamed (PBUH). Moreover, the conditions of its permission referred by a group of scholars seems difficult to implement. The existence of Sound (Sahih) Hadits and Hasan (Good) Hadits also suffices the Moslem needs as guidance in their various life aspects.
 
Article
The history of Islam inscribed on the archipelago is actually inseparable from the development of Islamic education in Indonesia. To be precise, the development of Islamic education has an age that is almost the same as the history of Islamic travel in Indonesia. The history of Islamic education is as old as the entry of Islam into Indonesia. This is because the followers of Islam who were still relatively new at that time, will certainly learn and understand about the teachings of Islam. Even though in a simple sense, the learning process that time had happened. From here, Islamic education began to emerge. Where at frst they studied in homes, langgar/surau, mosques and later developed into boarding schools. The development of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula in the 7th century has implications for the spread of Islam to various parts of the world with several channels of the Islamization process in Indonesia, namely, trade, marriage, art, and education.
 
Article
The crisis of moral education is one of the causes of the decline of today's people. A solution is needed in the form of the implementation of the moral education methods in the Islamic schools in developing civilization and restoring the glory of the people. This study aims to determine the moral education methods in the Islamic schools and its relevance based on the perspective of Ibnu Abi al-Dunya in the book of Makārimul Akhlāq. The study used a qualitative research method with library research approach. Data analysis techniques used content analysis, descriptive, and inductive. The results showed that the methods of moral education from the perspective of Ibnu Abi al-Dunya included: qudwah, targīb and tasywīq methods, tarhīb, at-ta'awwud, naṣīḥah, and ḥiwār. The findings should be a concern for the educational process in the Islamic schools so that it can be implemented optimally and contribute in presenting reference materials to moral education methods that may be used in the Islamic schools.
 
Article
Analysis of work contracts on the welfare of crew in fishermen sector from the Perspective of Islamic business ethics in Sarangmeduro Village is a study that aimed to answer questions about how the fishermen sector work contracts are implemented and how the welfare of the crew members is applied in Sarangmeduro Village. The methodology used was descriptive qualitative method with the type of case study research on the object. The result of this research is that the work contract conducted by fishermen in Sarangmeduro Village is a work contract system that has been implemented from generation to generation and is more likely to approach the muzaroah contract in profit sharing of maro or paroan. Based on the field of employment, the fishermen in Sarangmeduro Village live in prosperity. By the opening jobs provided by ship employers, they are facilitated in finding work. The residence that is inhabited every year has changed, which was originally made of woven bamboo, now most of them are built of bricks. The existence of a work contract implemented by fishermen can help to boost the economic condition of the fishermen in Sarangmeduro Village, which is always developing. The researcher recommend that fishermen make work inovation.
 
Article
This study aimed to know: (1) the form of the tradition of Mappalili in Balla Lompoa, Baju Bodoa, Maros Baru District, Maros Regency; (2) community’s response to the tradition of Mappalili in Balla Lompoa, Baju Bodoa, Maros Baru District, Maros Regency; and (3) viewpoint of Islamic faith on the tradition of Mappalili in Balla Lompoa, Baju Bodoa, Maros Baru District, Maros Regency. The type of research was descriptive-qualitative, that was to understand the phenomena or occurrences regarding the tradition performed by research subjects that resulted descriptive data in the form of oral information from some people who were considered to know better, and behaviors and observed objects. The result of the study shows that: (1) the tradition of Mappalili is a series of unique traditional ceremonies of Karaeng Marusu which essentially implies the make-use of royal tools in the royal rice field which was named Turannu to plow the rice field area using the relic of Pajekkona Karaenga ri Marusu which is conducted traditionally; (2) good responses of community to the traditional ritual of Mappalili is excessive, they still orient themselves, and the people who work on the rice fields and farmer groups make agreement with the rice field owners on that they are not to start the activities of working on their fields before the traditional ritual of Mappalili is held; (3) Traditional ritual of Mappalili and all of its series of events, including pa'jeko, beating drums with its accompaniment, prayers, and wishes of this party are against the monotheism in terms of Rububiyah and Uluhiyah.
 
Article
Every human activity has its own role and importance. In this case, a priority scale is required for each activity to be organized on a regular basis. Islam with all forms of teaching provides solutions to every problem of life without exception, as well as in terms of priorities. This research aims to explain the procedures for regulating the scale of priorities in human life according to the foundation of Islamic teachings. To arrive at that goal, the study used a dexatriptive-qualitative method with literature study techniques. In addition, the study also used a thematic approach by collecting Qur'anic verses that addressed a particular topic and ordered it wherever possible. The results of this study show that setting priorities begins with careful planning, solid organizing, proper implementation, and monitoring for control. All these stages are then integrated with the principle of priority jurispruding, namely the measure of truth highlighted in the Qur'an, the main priority over branch priorities, and the priority of people's rights to this right individually.
 
Article
As the divine revelation, al-Qur’ān is not a tught product and Mohammad’s creation. So that, those who say that al-Qur’ān is a thought product and Mohammad’s creation, are not right and irresponsibility. If we look at historically and the revelation process of al-Qur’ān, it was not revealed by accident, but it was revealed periodically, little by litte and verse by verse. The use of its revealation depends on the place and social matters. From this aspect, some of the Qur’anic verses are the answers for the social matters occures among the human beings. The knowledge of al-Qur’ān includes the meaning, characteristic, names, descent time of al-Qur’ān, Makkiyyah and Madaniyyah verses, Asbāb al-Nuzūl, and so on.
 
Article
Refusing to perform prayer for the dead who supported blasphemy and voted for an infidel to be a ruler for a Muslim society implies the accusation of someone to be an unbeliever.Labelling a Muslim to be an unbeliever is equal to accusing him to commit apostasy, which subsequently means that it is permissable either to take his life or to shed his blood, even to divorce him from his wife. When he dies, his body will not be: performed for ablution, wrapped by shroud, held for prayer, burried in Muslim burial area, and his wealth is not allowed to be inherited by any of his inheritees. Moreover, he is to fall into the Hellfire eternally for dying upon infidel state. This paper was going to scrutinize the issue of "Is it permissable to perform prayer for the dead who supported blasphemy and voted for a non-Muslim to be a ruler for a Muslim society?" Prior to further elaboration, this paper was going to pinpoint 3 significant items: are those who say something and commit an action of an infidel; worship another God beside Allah; or practice deviant creed automatically labelled to be an infidel? What are the conditions of someone to be included or not as an infidel? And is it permissable to vote for a non-Muslim ruler e.g, governor for a Muslim society? This paper employed literature study.
 
Article
This study aimed to examine the various interpretations of al-Mutakallimun on the attributes of Allah from the point of view of Salafiyah Theology, then the reasons behind the occurence of these interpretations as well as the Salafiyah Theological criticism against that understanding. The method used in this study was library research referring to classical and modern literature. The research conducted in this study shows that there are several Salafiyah Theological criticisms against these various interpretations of al-Mutakallimun on the attributes of Allah. Among other things, there is a fallacious perception that if one were to define the attributes of Allah in accordance with their meanings, one would fall on tasybih on those attibutes or on the consequences of those attribute. Therefore, some al-Mutakallimun find solutions in Tafwidh and Ta’wil, and claim that the two are the way to purify and glorify Allah. Besides, there is a mistake in understanding Arabic expressions according to the context.
 
Article
Water is a primary necessity for the process of life on earth, so there is no life if there is no water in the earth as Allah says "And out of the water we made all things alive". It is estimated that around 321 million Indonesians will experience water scarcity by 2025. Population growth is not proportional to water availability, industrial growth, and wasteful public behavior is the main cause. Pondok pesantren which has about 3,759,198 santri throughout Indonesia will be able to feel the impact if the pattern of water use is not in use sparingly. The application of the Sunnah of the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wasallam and applied technology is very effective in saving water. The number of students as much as that by using the wudu 1 mud 'can save 8,693,145 liters and if in rupiah it is as much as Rp. 45.239.129.
 
Article
Water as the artery of human life does not only fulfill the basic physical needs, but also to fulfill the primary needs of the moslem in terms of worship. Islam manages the manner of water use which is the part of the noble syari’ah. The fiqh of water has been studied by the svholars in detail, but as the time goes by and as the needs of water growing, there have been many innovation and discovery to address increasing massive needs of water. The comparison of classical study in a modern method becomes an essential thing in determining the law. The result of this discussion will be able to provide solution for water use in the modern era.
 
Article
The emergence of diverse schools in Islam began with the assassination of Uṡman bin Affan. These groups were basically one of the decline causes in the Moslem, and the frst emerging group among all other groups was Khawarij, a group with Takfr ideology that is to accuse great sinner of apostasy. This ideology is indeed an extreme one. However, another contradicted extreme group appeared that is known as Murji’ah with its doctrine believing that the sins will not give any influence towards the faith of a Moslem. Therefore, this study will illustrate the origins and the doctrines of both extreme groups, and among the results, it can be inferred that these groups continuously experienced internal conflicts since their early emergence during the reign of caliph Uṡman bin Affan until the formation of varioussects of each groups.
 
Article
The aims of this study are to identify the guardian's motivation in representing the trusteeship to other parties, to identify the practice of wakalah of guardian (wali) in the marriage contract in Bone Regency and to identify the views of community leaders about wakalah of guardian in the marriage contract. The results of the study showed that the community understanding in Bone District In conducting wakalah of guardian on marriage contract is that the community are positive and proud if their sons/ daughters get married under the guidance of religious scholar or teacher. It has become a common tradition among the Bone people to grant the right of guardian in marriage, although the family is possible to do it. Many people think that they are unable to take their children into marriage so they grant their rights as guardian in marriage to local religious leaders or leaders.
 
Article
The advanced transformation of the era and technology gives influence to human personality today. Specifically to the students which are still in the process ofpersonality development. By the advanced transformation, the competitive environment causes confusion and future disorientation to the students with theirsurroundings. Any behavior is influenced by the self-concept. The self concept is formed through the environment either it is the family, friends, books, or other things seen and listened. The objective of the study is to explain the improvement of the students’ self-concept through the interpersonal effective communicative approach via the supervisors.
 
Article
This study aimed to determine the business management system implemented by the Rumah Jahit Akhwat (RJA) including the implementation and role of accountability based on Sharia Enterprise Theory (SET). This study used a qualitative method with a phenomenological approach. The subjects of this research are the owner, employees, and customers of RJA through direct observations, interviews, and documentation. The results of this study indicate that RJA manages its business based on Islamic values such as the application of employee SOPs which are full of Islamic values, contracts in muamalah, and ethics in doing business. SET-based accountability can also be seen in the RJA business such as giving donations to dakwah institutions, conducting social assistance for the poor, and gifts to orphans. This research was conducted at RJA Antang in May 2020.
 
Article
The phenomenon of divorce in early marriage often occurs in the Manado Religious Court, where there are 5 cases of divorce lawsuits at an early age. This study aims to show the factors that cause divorce in early marriage in the eyes of the judges of the Manado Religious Court. This research method is qualitative which focuses on field research. Data obtained at the Manado Religious Court in the form of reasons for divorce due to early marriage, both from the results of the decision and interviews with the judges of the Manado Religious Court. The results found are that divorce in early marriage at the Manado Religious Court is caused by several factors, namely bickering, irresponsibility, bad habits and a third person. Through the judge's consideration, that of all the factors that emerged led to quarrels, continuous quarrels and ended in divorce. So the judge judged that if you were to marry, it would be better to mature yourself as well as possible so that when problems occur in the household, they can be resolved properly without taking the divorce route.
 
Article
The aim of the study is to identify whether early marriage contributes to delaying childbirth and to identify Islamic perspective in relation delaying childbirth. As for the advantages of the research, theoretically, the results of this study are expected to contribute positively to all components of the student, so the idea of delaying childbirth due to early marriage is able to be understood. Practically, this research will be one of the reference materials for further study in wider scope. The results of the study indicated that some people perform delaying childbirth due to early marriage through their participation in Family Planning Program (KB) by injections. The incentivizing factors of their participation within the program are age and educational factor, in which the Islamic law consider this permissible only if there is an agreement between both husband and wife, it is temporary, not harmful and beneficial.
 
Article
This study explains that Paradigms are a concept of thought that is acquired in certain problems or cases so that the delivery can be understood and understood, the problem being examined is the main factor of divorce what happened to the community, not through the judiciary and the role of Islamic religious instructors in responding to the new marriage process in the community of the Buku Raya village in the Belang District that did not have proof of divorce. The researcher approached qualitative research (case study) in order to obtain data in the field validly and aimed to describe and analyze critically what happened in the field so as to produce data that the role of Islamic religious instructors in providing understanding to society must be truly understood by the community itself so that they are not easy to make decisions, and religious educators are also present from people who have good religious understanding. This research is expected to be able to provide advice and thoughts to the Community and the Government specifically the Ministry of Religion in selecting and sorting extension workers in the religious affairs office.
 
Article
This paper was to identify the truth and position of waqf that occurred in Bongkudai Village, East Bolaang Mongondow District, Indonesia and to determine ways to resolve the problems that happened in the village. There are problems regarding waqf land which is used for personal interests and the issue of land payment receipts intended for waqf makes the writer have the intention to prepare this study. The method used by the author in the completion of this study was a qualitative method whose approach is a descriptive approach, by prioritizing interviews and field facts as the main source, for data collection conducted by the author was observation, interviews, and documentation to get concrete data and facts that occur in the field. The results obtained are that land which is known as waqf land has been partly used for personal use. Besides, there is a problem with the receipt in question. The land that is known as waqf land should never be used for individual interests. A receipt is actually not an urgent matter in a problem, as long as the disputing party has no evidence to oppose it. Therefore it must be a land payment receipt intended for waqf to directly record the endowment so that problems do not occur in the future.
 
Article
The study aimed at 1) determining the meaning of naql and takhrij in madzhab syafi'i through the example case of naql and takhrij regarding land transaction on which are trees and buildings, if the trees and buildings are not excluded in the contract, are they automatically sold with the land with the problem of land used as collateral for debt, if on the land are trees and buildings, do they automatically become parts of the collateral, 2) explaining each of the problems and khilaf of syafi'i scholars in it as well as the opinions of other Islamic scholars of different mazhab fiqh, 3) explaining the naql and takhrij method in both of these problems and explaining their strong and weak sides. This research employed deductive-inductive method. The result shows that 1) Naql and takhrij are analogizing the two problems mentioned by the imam mazhab with different laws, then they who make takhrij see that the two problems have no significant difference so that they analogize their laws with each other, then the result is that each problem has two laws: the law mentioned by the imam mazhab and the law resulting from the takhrij method, 2) equalizing the problem of land transaction on which are trees and buildings, if the trees and buildings are not excluded in the contract with the problem of land used as collateral for debt if on the land are trees and buildings are they automatically included in the contract is a weak analogy because there is a significant difference between the two that causes the law of the both unable to be equated in in this matter.
 
Article
This research aimed to reveal gold whose function as a commodity has fallen out of the category aṣnaf al-riba or not. This research was prepared using the normative method or reference study by examining classical Ulama books. The results of this study concluded that gold which functions as a commodity is not excluded from the aṣnāf al-riba category so that the transaction must pay attention to the rules of usury, including that it cannot be bought and sold without cash.
 
Article
The relevance of the principles of fiqh in interpreting the law of a number of cases in the world of modern medicine has long been applied globally by classical and contemporary fiqh scholars. Advances in technology in the field of medicine have given rise to a number of controversial medical treatments and measures. For this reason, this study was carried out to describe the concept of fiqh la> d}arar wa la> d}ira>r in formulating shari'a law in medical disciplines and the correlation between the two, then implementing it based on the case examples described. This study uses qualitative analytic research with a phenomenological approach. The results of the study concluded that medical treatment that violates the shari'ah code of ethics and poses a danger and damage to the patient concerned can be included in the la> d}arar wa la> d}ira>r rules. Examples of cases such as hysterectomy carried out due to medical and emergency interests, are permitted as the application of the rules of al-d}arar yudfa’ bi qadr al-imka>n. Then medical treatment is not carried out for reasons of treatment and emergency needs, such as changing parts of the body for beauty and trends, or taking actions that according to the medical there are dangers and negative effects that are greater than the benefits, then it can be included in the rules of ' dar’u al-mafāsid muqaddam ‘ala> jalbi al-mas}a>lih}. In the case of autopsy and eugenic abortion are included in the rule of the law iz{a> ta’a>rad{a mafsadata>n ru>’iya a’zamuhuma dararan bi irtika>bi akhaffihima>, for taking less harm should be done to avoid greater harm, and this is the most appropriate opinion on this issue.
 
Article
This paper aimed to analyze the application of qiyas method in the prohibition of tawarruq transactions through qiyas tawarruq with bai' al-‘înah. This paper was qualitative research with a type of normative law research using conceptual approach. The results of paper showed that the application of the pillars of qiyas in qiyas tawarruq with bai' al-‘înah namely: bai' al-‘înah as ashl, tawarruq as far', the prohibition of bai' al-‘înah practice as hukm al-ashl and the main motive of the transaction in the form of obtaining cash (liquidity) instead of owning goods (commodities) with the mechanism of buying and selling and debt that represents hilah ribawiyah is as 'illat. Therefore, as is the prohibition against bai' al-‘înah, as it also applies to tawarruq. However, there is also a difference between bai' al-‘înah and tawarruq on the grounds of differences between the parties who make the second purchase, and some allow tawarruq on the condition that there is an urgent need or no agreement with a third party. Thus, it is very important in positioning ushul fiqh relevant to contemporary economy and finance, because the muamalah in Islam has flexibility, elasticity and openness to the development of the times.
 
Article
This study aimed to study and analyze. the effect of e-banking on the service and convenience of Islamic banking in the transaction for the people of Medan City. The method used in this research was a quantitative approach using data in the form of numbers, using multiple linear regression analysis and Islamic values in using e-banking services and ease of transactions, supported by statistical tests, using the version-20-SPSS program. The research conducted simultaneously shows that this research has an F-count greater than the F-table or 33.791 > 2.47. Partially testing the e-banking coefficient, there is an effect of making transactions of 2.405. There is an effect of service coefficient in making transactions of 3,352. The coefficient of convenience has an effect in making transactions of 2,610. Therefore simultaneously and partially there is an effect of e-banking on services and convenience of transacting for the people of Medan City.
 
Article
The assembling of learning method will not work effectively andefciently as a companion media in learning without a sufcientmethod knowledge. A method of traditional Arabic Learning isan arabic learning method that focused on “language as thescientifc tradition” so that learning an arabic means learning anarabic in details, either grammatically/sintactically (Qawā’id alNaḥwu), morpheme/accidence (Qaw ḥ ā’id al-Ṣarf) or literature ḥ(ādāb). The main aspects in learning arabic are : listening,speaking, reading and writing. The four aspects are mutualrelated, for example, a listening skill contributes to adevelopment of speaking skill, both skills are strengthened byreading skill, while writing skill contributes to a reading skill inthe text or document form. Keyword : Metode, Bahasa Arab.
 
Article
This study describes the influence of Islam and Arabic on the Makassarese language. The method used in this study is library research. Various literatures were collected to obtain data and facts. These data are collected, sorted and selected and then analyzed to answer two primary issues, namely the influence of Islam and the influence of Arabic on the Makassarese language. The results of the study showed that the Islamic religion influenced the contents of poetry and song in the Makassarese language. The vocabulary from Arabic absorbed into the Makassar language experiences several typologies, including vocabulary absorption and vocabulary enrichment in the Makassarese language. This word absorption from Arabic also includes sound adjustments in Makassarese language. In addition to that, there are words found in Arabic words whose meaning absorbed in Makassarese language not in terms of morpholigical absorption but semantical absorption.
 
Article
This research aims to find out the extent of the influence of understanding Arabic on istinbāṭ law of jurispruding. This research is qualitative descriptive research focused on the study of manuscripts and texts with a philosophical approach. The results showed that: first, Arabic has a massive urgency to the sciences of Sharia; Second, arabic has a significant impression of the determination of jurisprudence which is indicated by the disagreements that occur among fuqahā' in many problems of Islamic jurisprudence due to differences in viewpoints in understanding propositions based on dilālah al-alfaż.
 
Article
This study explains the historical aspects of the spread of Islamic Jurisprudence in South East Asia which cannot be separated from the history of the spread ofIslam itself in Southeast Asia. It also describes the existence of Islamic jurisprudence as indicated by the intellectual works of Southeast Asian Islamic Jurisprudence scholars, especially in the Shafi'i School. The existence of Islamic jurisprudence was then developed in the form of influences that influence the National Constitution in South East Asia, especially in Indonesia, in the form of Compilation of Islamic Law.
 
Article
This study aims to comprehensively describe the general overview of al-ḍarūrah and the AstraZeneca vaccine, examine the analysis of fiqh principles regarding al-ḍarūrah in the use of the AstraZeneca vaccine by the MUI, and analyze the MUI fatwa Number 14 of 2021 concerning the Law on the Use of the Covid-19 Vaccine Product. AstraZeneca. This study uses a qualitative-descriptive research method with library research techniques. The results showed that al-ḍarūrah is a condition that threatens human life or part of its body. Al-ḍarūrah referred to in the use of the AstraZeneca vaccine is that there is an urgent need condition (al-ḥājah al-syar'iyyah) that occupies the condition of al-ḍarūrah. This is in line with the fiqh rule "al-ḥājah al-'āmmah wa al-khāssah tanzīlu manzilah al-ḍarūrah" namely general and special needs occupy the position of al-ḍarūrah. The MUI fatwa regarding the use of AstraZeneca's Covid-19 vaccine on the grounds of urgent need that occupies the position of al-ḍarūrah, can be categorized as al-ḍarūrah for treatment, where the Covid-19 vaccine of AstraZeneca product is in accordance with awābiṭ al-ḍarūrah, namely: first, al-arrah arūrah really happens instantly, not waiting for a deliberate al-ḍarūrah; second, there is no other solution except to violate the prohibition; and third, based on reliable expert testimony that there are no drugs other than those that are forbidden.
 
Article
This paper presents an argument that the negative feminine and masculine characters possessed by every human being harm social aspects. This argument was obtained because there was a paradigm shift from a traditionalist view to a new concept that was born in the 1970s. The traditionalist paradigm explicates that masculine and feminine characters are seen as contradicting the dimensions of the character's personality, attractiveness, and roles that differentiate men and women. On the other hand, a concept that was born starting in the 1970s emphasized the opposite. For instance, Alfred B. Heilburn categorized masculine and feminine characters as having positive and negative sides. It was also upheld by Sachiko Murata who exposed that both masculine and feminine characters exist in every human being and both have good and bad characters that are not limited to men and women. Uniquely, masculine and feminine concepts, as well as positive and negative characters, are also contained in the Qur’an. Therefore, the Qur’an frees humans to choose masculine or feminine characters as well as positive or negative characters to represent their personality. After tracing verses in the Qur’an about masculine and feminine, both positive and negative, the researcher found that masculine and feminine characters that were considered negative have detrimental implications for personal and social life. Based on this description, the paper tries to examine and explore these social impacts by using the thematic method of the Qur’an and analyzed by the theory proposed by Sachiko Murata.
 
Article
This study aims to uncover the controversy of 'aul in the concept of Islamic inheritance' and the method of the majority of scholars in tarjīh this problem and how it is practiced in Indonesia. This research is a qualitativeresearch with a normative juridical approach that focuses on literature review and comparative analysis. The results of the study found that 'Umar bin al-Khaṭṭāb viewed that the concept of 'aul was a solution to the problem of inheritance which experienced an increase or excess in the origin of the problem which was not sufficiently divided among all heirs. As for 'Abdullah bin 'Abbās mentioned that if the inheritance is not enough to be distributed to all the heirs, then the one who has the strongest position among the heirs will take precedence over the inheritance rights. The majority of scholars then determined the solution to the inheritance problem that experienced 'aul by interpreting the words of 'Umar bin al-Khaṭṭāb, namely using the concept of 'aul. Then it was found that the application of the problem of 'aul in inheritance in Indonesia is considered still not optimal and even barely implemented. This is triggered by several factors including not too interested in the community and not yet aware of the importance of applying sharia law in inheritance issues. This research is expected to contribute thinking and education as a complement and valuable solution for inheritance problems in the Muslim community.
 
Article
The secular education system is an education system that separates explicitly between religion and science. Indigenous Indonesians began to recognize the secular education system from the Netherlands at the beginning of the 20th century. Through critical historical methods found: 1) The teachings of jihad in Islam played an important role in encouraging natives to fight in the Netherlands. 2) The teachings of jihad in Islam have made the Netherlands traumatized by indigenous resistance. While the Dutch themselves still want to continue to colonize the natives. 3) How to distance the teachings of Islamic Jihad from the natives is the great homework of Dutch so that the Dutch can still colonize Indonesia? 4) Snouck Hurgronje is a Leiden scientist who managed to provide solutions to the Netherlands. 5) Implementing a secular education system is the solution given by Snouck to the Netherlands. 6) Through the secular education system, the Dutch did succeed in ali.enating the minds of the natives from Islam. 7) The secular education system succeeded in building new beliefs for indigenous children. Their new belief is that the presence of Islam in Indonesia has made Indonesia suffer a setback. 8) They provide a solution, that if the Indonesian people want to achieve progress, then the Indonesian people must ignore religion and focus on developing secular science as the main means of advancing Indonesia in the future.
 
Article
Pengukuran kinerja sangat penting bagi organisasi kemasyarakatan (ormas) untuk mengetahui efektifitas sistem yang berjalan dalam organisasi tersebut sertauntuk mengatur pola kerja bagi pengurus dan karyawannya. Banyak metode yang dapat dipergunakan untuk mengukur kinerja organisasi, diantaranya Balanced Scorecard dan cara tradisional. Dalam tulisan ini yang dibahas adalah metode Balanced Scorecard untuk mengukur kinerja organisasi pada empat perspektif yaitu perspektif obyek dakwah, perspektif keuangan, perspektif proses internal dan perspektif karyawan dan kapasitas organisasi. Balanced Scorecard juga digunakan untuk menggambarkant kurva kinerja organisasi dengan melakukan skoring terlebih dahulu.
 
Article
This study aimed to discuss the legal review relating to the place to perform Id prayer, those are: (1) the place to perform Idprayer; and (2) performing Id prayer at more than one places in one area or district, then it would be connected with the intent and purpose of the unity of the people. This research employed a qualitative-descriptive approach with library research methods. The result shows that: (1) Id prayer is one form of jama'iyyah worship whose purpose is same as the other jama'iyyah worship which is to train the Muslims to unite especially when there is a justified difference in order to maintain the ukhuwah and unity of the people; (2) The phenomenon of praying Id in many places that are close together is something that must be addressed properly, spesifically by the scholars and parties who have authority in regulating this matter. Most scholars view that the the preferred one is in mushalla (field/open place) that can accommodate many people in that area and Id prayer is performed at only one place, unless there is necessity that Id prayer be performed in different places in one area/district. This confirms that the unity of the people is very important and becomes the main goal in the performance of Id prayer.
 
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This study aims to describe the use of zoom learning media, learning motivation, and fiqh learning outcomes, as well as to analyze the effect of using zoom learning media and learning motivation on fiqh learning outcomes for students majoring in sharia in the fifth semester of comparative study program of the Makassar STIBA school, either partially or simultaneously. The type of research in this research is ex post facto that analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of study showed that: 1) The use of zoom learning media is in the good enough category. 2) Learning motivation is in the good enough category. 3) Jurisprudence learning outcomes are in the high category. 4) There is an effect of using zoom learning media on fiqh learning outcomes, the effect is 28.4%. This means that in this study 28.4% of the variables of fiqh learning outcomes were influenced by the variable of using zoom learning media and included in the weak but definite category. 5) There is an influence of learning motivation on fiqh learning outcomes, the effect is 17.6%. This means that in this study 17.6% of the fiqh learning outcomes variables were influenced by learning motivation variables and included in the very weak category. 6) There is an effect of using zoom learning media and learning motivation on fiqh learning outcomes for students majoring in sharia in the fifth semester of the Makassar STIBA school of comparison study program, the effect is 8.8%. This means that in this study 8.8% of the variables of fiqh learning outcomes were influenced by the variable use of zoom learning media and learning motivation variables together and included in the very weak category, the rest was influenced by other factors not examined in this study.
 
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The title of this research is “Mahārat al-Kalām learning method in improving beginner student speaking proficiency”. This journal concludes two problem statements, namely 1) What is the importance of Mahārat al-Kalām Learning? 2) How is the process of Mahārat al-Kalām at the beginner level? The study of al Kalām has been very critical at the present day since Arabic Language taught in many schools and universities, but most of the students are unable to speak properly. Therefore, it is necessary for the teacher or lecturer to concern with the accurate method and technique within the learning process. Method applied in this research is descriptive analysis by literature review on the books of prominent scholars in Arabic Language. This research is expected to provide new insight for the teachers and the lecturers in the learning process of al-Kalām specifically for the beginners.
 
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Cultural identity of women with veil in the concept of the development of relationship with social ernironment perpetually becomes pros-and-cons phenomenon due to its accordance with the comprehension of religious symbols that is the wering of veil. The objectives were to recognize and describe the empirical reality of habluminannas concept that is the process of social interaction of women with veil. To comprehensively and deeply achieve these objectives, the methodology employed was descriptive qualitative research with in-depth interviews and observations (field research) as data collection techniques. The results show that the concept of habluminannas, that is social interaction of women with veil, is based on the essence of each need in daily social life. The process of interacting with other individuals both within the family and people in general depends on the interests and needs of each. Social interaction within the family is divided into two those are interaction that shows flexibility in communication and behavior patterns, and interaction that is closed and bounded. In the community, the process of social interaction that is associative process shows the flexibility of women with veil in the patterns of cooperation among citizens and relatives, mutual respect, and respect for the values of decency and politeness. On the other hand, the attitude of acceptance by community in general towards women wearing veil is still not prevalent due to the negative stigma against the use of veils.
 
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This study aims to describe the implementation of techniques or steps in learning Arabic rules (Nahwu science) based on Integration theory (Unity theory), namely that learning Arabic rules is presented in full by teaching four Arabic language skills and three language elements. The purpose of this study is also to offer solutions in the learning of integral and holistic Nahwu science.The research method is a library method with descriptive qualitative research type. The results of this study indicate that there are six steps (techniques) of teaching Arabic rules (Nahwu science) on Integration theory (Unity theory) that combines learning Arabic rules, Arabic language skills, and elements language elements in one integrated discussion material.
 
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Preference in solution construction of non-performing financing based on Islamic business ethics was born from the accumulation of fiqh of muamalah conceptions. This study aimed to describe the PPR mechanism according to sharia standards and to identify the relevance of sharia PPR practices in producing non-performing financing with Islamic humanist values based on fiqh of muamalah. This is qualitative research with a phenomenological approach to the Sharia Property Developer PT. Wahana Persada Indonesia. Data collection was conducted through observation and interviews with the president director, accounts receivable staff, marketing staff, and several users. This research describes the flow of financing that occurs in the field, starting from the location survey to the implementation of the Sale and Purchase Agreement and the handover of homeownership certificates. Besides, this study also finds three types of handling of problematic financing qualifications applied by developers in each cluster, starting from soft connections, restructuring, and finding a replacement for users. This is then made relevant to the values of Islamic business ethics to create an Islamic humanist financing atmosphere.
 
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One of the subjects in the study of Nahwu Knowledge is al-Mubtada. AlMubtada is one of the important elements in a sentence. One cause of imperfect sentence is due to unfamiliarity with al-Mubtada’ and the absence of al-Mubtada’. Beginner students in studying Nahwu only understand that al-Mubtada has to be in a form of Ism Ma’rifah and not in a form of Ism Nakirah. However, if it is further analyzed, al-Mubtada in a form of Ism Nakirah can be found. Therefore, the author of this paper attempted to explain about “Conditions on al-Mubtada in a form of Ism Nakirah in the study of Nahwu knowledge”. Before explaining further on this subject, the author previously mentioned definitions of al-Mubtada, kinds of al-Mubtada, and the grammar of al-Mubtada. Therefore, the readers may achieve comprehensive understanding of al-Mubtada in the study of Nahwu Knowledge. This paper is analyzed by applying literature method.
 
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The adaptation of syari’ah law into the Indonesian national legal system has been one solution offered to accomodate the tendency of moslem society in adopting the syari’ah law as a controlling system in various aspects of life specifcally the private. This effort is applied by adopting syari’ah law and transforms it into national legal system through the constitution and regulation in many aspects. Within the process, the adopted syari’ah law in the national law affects on many aspects signifcantly and is releavant with the plural society model. It shows that syari’ah law has the chance to be adopted within the national law aspects.
 
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The aim of this research was to determine and understand the royalty fees for retail store franchise business in the perspective of Islamic economic law in the city of Makassar. This research was a type of qualitative descriptive research (non-statistical) using normative, phenomenological, and sociological approaches. Findings of this research revealed that: First, the franchise of company X with its franchisee was in accordance with the Islamic law, there was no element of fraud in terms of contracts and agreements which was implemented in transparency. While, the franchise of company Y and its franchisee, there were different perceptions of policies related to the contract and franchise agreement, namely the absence of a written signing so that it was not in accordance with sharia, but both parties agreed on considerations and amendment policies that made specifically by the franchisee. Second, the implementation of royalty fees between the two companies had been carried out in transparency. The difference of both companies and their franchisees was from the policy of late payment of royalty fees. Company X and its franchisee used a maximum three-month deadline with an interest system, this was not adjusted to Islamic law because interest includes usury. Then, company Y and its franchisee would absolutely not use the delay system policy, because the royalty fee would automatically be deducted from the franchisee's cashback by purchasing products at Company Y.
 
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The major objective of this research was to investigate and understand the ‘Implementation of the Islamic law of al-Ḍarūrāt Tubīḥu al-Maḥzūrāt in a Caesarean delivery’. The methodological approach taken in this study was a qualitative method by using a grounded research. In terms of the research approach, normative (Fiqh) approach was employed by the researcher. The results of this research indicated that based on medical and Islamic perspective, the practice of caesarean section on a delivery could be done only in an emergnecy situation. In this case, the medical staff should understand the condition of their patients whether or not they could be treated with a caesarean section. Similarly, in terms of the Islamic perspective, the level of an emergeny condition has to be decided by doctors or the medical staff. The caesarean section could only be taken if the surgery is necessary for delivery patients.
 
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The aim of this research is to identify the communicational pattern applied by Muslimah of Wahdah Islamiyah in the effort of religious coaching. This research applies qualitative and descriptive method. Method of collecting respondents are purposive sampling where the samples are 10 female preachers of Islamic study groups. The data are acquired from interview, observation and documentation. The result shows that religious coaching conducted by the female preachers of Wahdah Islamiyah is in the context of small group communication with informative and persuasive technique. Communicational pattern used is the wheel pattern and star pattern.
 
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This study aimed to describe the background of letter’s used as a medium for da'wah by the Prophet Muhammad and the form of the Prophet Muhammad’s letters for da'wah conveyed to some rulers. To achieve this, the method employed was historical research. This type of research was qualitative using historical approach while the research specification was descriptive. The result shows that there were several reasons behind the sending of letters as a medium for da’wah by Prophet Muhammad to the rulers. First, sociologically it was due to the treaty of Hudaibiyah, then the successfulness of Prophet Muhammad in establishing people power in Medina, and the conflict between Emperor Heraclius and Khosrow Abrawiz, two rulers of two empires (those were Eastern Rome and Persian) which were the most powerful kingdoms in the earth. Second, politically, the letter of Prophet Muhammad had political nuance, that was to declare himself being the ruler of Medina. Third, theologically, it was the universality of Muhammad’s prophetic mission as the leader of the mankind, and the crisis of faith experienced by Negus (Ruler of Abyssinia) and Muqawqis (Ruler of Egypt). To sum up, the form of Prophet’ letters sent to the rulers were awesome, it is proven that the letters of the Prophet which were written by his secretary Zaid son of Thabit were always preceded with Basmalah, while the letters were addressed to disbelieving people. This study has implication on research or study on the importance of letter as a medium for da’wah of the Prophet which can possibly be a method of initiating and or developing da’wah in the present time.
 
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The purpose of this study is to find out Muhammad Quthb's thoughts on da'wah education. This research uses the Library Research method, the source of the data is taken from Muhammad Qutb's books relating to education and da'wah. After the data is collected, it is carried out by critical and systematical analysis in the investigated problem. This research uses a descriptive analysis method, which describes or explain all of datas, then analyze them systematically. This research concludes that preaching education according to Muhammad Quthb is completed human education, it is not separated by other aspect of human nature.
 
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This research aims to find out the methods of da'wah and communication of the Prophet (peace be upon him) in the book of Ṣaḥiḥ Muslim. The research method used is a qualitative library study with historical, normative and sociological approaches. The results of this study show that the methods of da'wah communication used by the Prophet include: methods of correspondence, patience, tenderness, methods of denial of imperisibility, priority scale, ease, bringing good news, methods of clarification, and praying. The methods of da'wah used by the Prophet are quite diverse so that these methods can be used in accordance with the conditions of mad'u faced by the dais. All elements of communication are carried out by the Prophet very precisely. The quality of the communicator can be seen in his integrity which has a nature of patience and a soft heart.
 
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The Method of Islamic Studies in addressing the contradictions in the Hadith (Mukhtalaf Al-Hadīṡ). This article is aimed to explain The Method of Islamic Studies in addressing the contradictions in the Hadith (Mukhtalaf Al-Hadīṡ) by citing an example of a Hadith is considered contradictory, and the role of the ulama in explaining the Mukhtalaf Al-Hadīṡ.
 
Top-cited authors
Azwar Iskandar
  • Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Islam dan Bahasar Arab (STIBA) Makassar
Khaerul Aqbar
  • Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Islam dan Bahasa Arab (STIBA) Makassar
Ani Fatmawati
  • UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya
Ana Toni Roby Candra Yudha
  • UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya
Bayu Taufiq Possumah
  • Universiti Malaysia Terengganu