Mycotaxon -Ithaca Ny-

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The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was agreed at an international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the current system of naming pleomorphic fungi should be maintained or changed now that molecular data are routinely available. The issue is urgent as mycologists currently follow different practices, and no consensus was achieved by a Special Committee appointed in 2005 by the International Botanical Congress to advise on the problem. The Declaration recognizes the need for an orderly transitition to a single-name nomenclatural system for all fungi, and to provide mechanisms to protect names that otherwise then become endangered. That is, meaning that priority should be given to the first described name, except where that is a younger name in general use when the first author to select a name of a pleomorphic monophyletic genus is to be followed, and suggests controversial cases are referred to a body, such as the ICTF, which will report to the Committee for Fungi. If appropriate, the ICTF could be mandated to promote the implementation of the Declaration. In addition, but not forming part of the Declaration, are reports of discussions held during the symposium on the governance of the nomenclature of fungi, and the naming of fungi known only from an environmental nucleic acid sequence in particular. Possible amendments to the Draft BioCode (2011) to allow for the needs of mycologists are suggested for further consideration, and a possible example of how a fungus only known from the environment might be described is presented.
 
New species described: Antherospora eucomis, Entyloma eryngii-alpini, Farysia globispora, F. longispora, F. microspora, Macalpinomyces loudetiopsidis, Moreaua capillaceae, Mo. eximiae, Mo. peckii, Mo. tothii, Sporisorium schizachyrii-sanguinei, Urocystis pulsatillae-albae, Ur. vulpiae, Ustilago piptatheri. New name: Sporisorium sydowiorum. New combinations: Heterodoassansia downingiae, Microbotryum moelleri, Tolyposporium solidum. Excluded from the smut fungi are: Entyloma cyperi and Ustilago dactylicola. Keys are given to the species of Antherospora, Entyloma on Eryngium, Moreaua on Schoenus and Tetraria, Sporisorium on Setaria and Schizachyrium sanguineum, Urocystis on Ranunculus and Pulsatilla, and to smut fungi of Loudetia, Loudetiopsis, Trichopteryx, Tristachya, and Zonotriche.
 
Marasmius castaneophilus (from holotype; photo by H.Allı) 
Marasmius castaneophilus, a new agaric (Marasmiaceae, Agaricales, Basidiomycota) growing on sweet chestnut husks in Turkey, is described and illustrated. Its taxonomic position within the genus is discussed.
 
Antrodia serialiformis (JV0809/47, holotype). Basidiospores. 
A new and common polypore Antrodia serialiformis from eastern USA is described. The species is similar enough to A. serialis that previously both species were probably confused, but A. serialiformis seems exclusively confined to oaks. We present evidence that the new species differs from A. serialis based on much smaller basidiospores, mating incompatibility, rDNA sequence differences, and ecology.
 
Acanthothecis species. 1: A. kalbii (holotype, UPCB); 2: A. pruinocarpa (holotype, UPCB); bars = 1mm.
Acanthothecis kalbii and Acanthothecis pruinocarpa are described as new species.
 
Lichenostigma anatolicum (holotype). A. Infected thallus of Acarospora sp., B. Section of an ascomata, note the immersed brown vegetative hyphae arising from the lower part (arrow). Scales: A = 3 mm, B = 20 μm. 
Comparison of Lichenostigma species growing on Acarospora spp.
Lichenostigma anatolicum (holotype). Ascus and ascospore outlines. 
Lichenostigma anatolicum is described as new from the squamules of a brown, pruinose Acarospora sp. on gypsaceous rocks in central Turkey. It is compared here with three other species of Lichenostigma also known to occur on Acarospora spp. and L. radicans described on vagrant Aspicilia species.
 
A neotype is designated for Acarospora interjecta. Acarospora pyrenopsoides is not recognized as occurring in Canada. Sarcogyne crustacea is a new name for Biatorella terrena, a rare terricolous species from southern California, which is revised.
 
A new species of Sarcogyne in the calcareous nivea group is described from the uplands of central Anatolia, Turkey. It is distinguished from other species in the group by its larger ascospores.
 
Phaeocandelabrum anam. gen. nov. is established to accommodate Sopagraha elegans, Ph. callisporum sp. nov. found on dead leaves of Cupania paniculata (Sapindaceae) and on the decaying leaf of an unidentified dicotyledonous plant in Brazil, and Ph. joseiturriagae found on decaying leaves of unidentified dicotyledonous plants in Brazil and Venezuela. Phaeocandelabrum callisporum is distinguished by complex, brown conidia composed of 2 globose, brown to dark central cells; 7–10 secondary hemispherical cells and, on each secondary cell, 3–4 hemispherical satellite cells, each with 5 simple, incurved branches. Phaeocandelabrum joseiturriagae is characterized by more less broadly Y-shaped to irregular brown conidia, each with a basal cell and two branches composed of 5–7 subglobose to globose cells, with 8–14 secondary cells each subtending 3–5 dichotomous or trichotomous minute tubercles. All three species are described and illustrated.
 
Passalora acericola . A, B. Leaf spots on Acer pseudoplatanus . C, Conidiophore. D. Conidium. 
Passalora acericola on Acer pseudoplatanus. A. Leaf spots. B. Conidia. C, D. Conidiophores. Scale bar = 20 μm. U. Świderska-Burek del. 
The rare cercosporoid hyphomycete Passalora acericola has been found for the first time in Poland, on Acer pseudoplatanus. Previously, this rare species has been found in only three other localities. It is described illustrated and discussed, based on the Polish material.
 
Volvariella acystidiata, an African species belonging to the V. gloiocephala-complex, is firstly reported from Europe on the basis of a collection made in northern Sardinia. This species is easily recognized by its medium size, white overall colour, large, ellipsoid to ovoid basidiospores and the lack of cystidia of any kind. The study includes a description, a photograph of fresh basidiomes and line drawings of relevant microanatomic traits.
 
Kalamarospora multiflagellata , from holotype (BPI 879811A). A. Conidia. B. Conidiophores, conidiogenous cells and conidia. The younger conidia show internal structure. Scale bar: 30 μm. 
Kalamarospora multiflagellata anam. gen. et sp. nov. is described and illustrated from rachides of dead leaves of Sabal palmetto collected in southwestern Florida, USA. The genus is characterized by having obclavate to ellipsoidal conidia internally filled with a mass of subhyaline, septate, 2-3 μm wide filaments growing upward from suprabasal cells at the bottom of the conidia and protruding apically or subapically as long, filiform, subhyaline or hyaline, sometimes 1-2 times dichotomously branched appendages. Conidia are borne on monoblastic, transversely striate, percurrently proliferating conidiogenous cells disposed on macronematous, cylindrical, solitary, unbranched, dark brown to blackish brown conidiophores. The conidial secession is rhexolytic, leaving a distinct, usually truncate frill up to 7 μm long, which remains attached to the basal cell of the conidia. Kalamarospora is compared with anamorphic genera and species having a similar internal conidial organization or morphologically close taxa with appendiculate conidia. Ellisembia britannica, Polytretophora calcarata, Pseudoacrodictys corniculata, Sporidesmiella sinensis, and Triposporium verruculosum are newly recorded from USA.
 
Map of the study area, Cozia Mount and surrounding villages, showing site numbers in Table 1. 
A list of 115 lichen taxa from Cozia National Park includes 8 new records for the mycota of Romania and 77 taxa new for Cozia. Distribution and substrata are summarized, and the complete annotated species list is posted at http://www.mycotaxon.com/resources/weblists.html
 
A total of 299 lichen taxa are presented from 52 sampling stations in the Turkish province of Giresun. Of these 5 species are new to Turkey, viz. Biatora cuprea, Collema dichotomum, Gyalecta foveolaris, Umbilicaria virginis and Verrucaria fusconigrescens, and 110 species are new to Giresun. The complete checklist is available on http://www.mycotaxon.com/resources/weblists.html.
 
Puccinia khanspurica is described as a new species, with P. crandallii and P. virgata as new records for Pakistan.
 
Number of fungi per ecological categories. S = saprobes, M = mycorrhizal, P = parasites.  
Number of fungi per type of substrate. T = terricolous, L = lignicolous, D = fungi on debris, M = fungi on mosses.  
The ecological and distributive data on 165 sabulicolous taxa (29 Ascomycetes and 136 Basidiomycetes representing 89 genera and 48 families) collected from Sicily in southern Italy are reported. New additions are cited, and data reported in literature for the Sicilian territory is critically reviewed. The full checklist is available on http://www.mycotaxon.com/resources/weblists.html
 
In this study 23 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are recorded as new to Iran, of which 12 were collected from the province of Ilam and 11 from six other provinces. The full checklist is available on http://www.mycotaxon.com/resources/weblists.html.
 
Lepraria caesioalba (chemotype III), L. rigidula, and Ochrolechia turneri are reported as new to Iran. The record of O. turneri is the first for Asia and the genus Ochrolechia is reported from Iran for the first time. All taxa are characterized, and notes on the distribution, ecology, and differentiation from similar species are provided. Further records of the under-collected species L. vouauxii are also presented.
 
Puccinia silenigena on Silene sp. is described as a new rust fungus from Fairy Meadows in the Pakistan Northern areas while Leucotelium pruni-persicae is a new record for Pakistan.
 
The list of aphyllophoroid fungi of the Atlantic Rain Forest in the state of São Paulo is updated. Specimens were collected in four different areas of the Atlantic Rain Forest from 1988 to 2007. Exsiccates deposited in the Herbarium SP were also studied. A list of 85 species of Basidiomycota distributed into 11 families and four orders (Agaricales, Hymenochaetales, Polyporales, Russulales) is presented. All species are mentioned for the first time for the collection sites. Two species are reported for the first time for Brazil and 17 species are recorded for the first time for São Paulo State. The complete list of specimens is available at http://www.mycotaxon.com/resources/weblists.html.
 
This study was carried out on macrofungal specimens collected from Adıyaman province of Turkey during 2001-2009; a total of 189 taxa were identified. Including 33 taxa previously reported, a list of 222 taxa belonging to 98 genera of 42 families has been compiled. Three taxa, Conocybe pilosella, Coprinopsis gonophylla, and Stropharia melanosperma are new records for the macromycota of Turkey. The complete list is available on: http://www.mycotaxon.com/resources/weblists.html.
 
Information on the Spiroplana centripeta isolates cultured and sequenced.
SEM of conidia of Spiroplana centripeta (KUS-F25295). Arrows denote conidiophores. a, b. Detached young conidia and surface mycelium. c–d. Immature conidia. e–i. Mature conidia. Note the spiral conidial filaments branching inwards in one plane and the striate-verrucose surface ornamentation of the conidial filament. Scale bars: 10 μm. 
Spiroplana centripeta is described as a new genus and species from Korea. Its spirally coiled conidia closely resemble those of the aeroaquatic genus Spirosphaera but its ecology differs totally, as it is parasitic to living Philadelphus and Deutzia leaves causing symptoms superficially similar to powdery mildew disease. No sexual state has been found, but molecular phylogenies inferred from ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA and partial nuLSU sequences support it within the Pleosporales (Dothideomycetes) and thus phylogenetically distinct from the generic type, Spirosphaera floriformis in the Leotiomycetes. Molecular phylogenies further show that Spirosphaera is polyphyletic and that generic diagnostic characters have evolved multiple times as an adaptation to conidium dispersal in the aeroaquatic niche. Morphologically, Spiroplana centripeta differs from Spirosphaera in its branching pattern, characterised by a main coil of cells in the conidial filament that give rise to 1-2 daughter filaments only on the inner side of the main coil. The daughter filaments then grow, coiling inwards with occasional additional branching to produce a tightly interwoven propagule enclosing air in a manner similar to aeroaquatic fungi. As primary branching takes place in one plane, the conidia are laterally flattened. In light of these molecular, morphological and ecological differences, a new genus is described. We believe the astounding similarity of the Spiroplana and Spirosphaera conidia is related to dispersal on the surface of a water film.
 
Guignardia leaf blotch. (A) a blotch with numerous pycnidia on naturally infected leaf of Aesculus hippocastanum ; (B) pycnidia of the Phyllosticta anamorph in the necrotic tissue as viewed with a hand lens. Scale bar = 200 μm. 
Guignardia aesculi . (A) pseudothecium with asci; (B) wall of pseudothecium of textura angularis with thick-walled cells of outer layers; (C) a cluster of mature asci; (D–F) bitunicate asci and ascospores; (G–I) ascospores. Scale bars = 40 μm (A), 20 μm (B), 30 μm (C), 10 μm (D–I). 
The anamorphs of Guignardia aesculi . (A–F) Phyllosticta anamorph: (A) pycnidium; (B, E, F) conidia with a granular content and (C, D) conidia with guttulae and apical appendages. (G, H) Leptodothiorella synanamorph: (G) spermatia; (H) hyphae of anamorphic state in culture. Scale bars = 30 μm (A), 10 μm (B–G), 20 μm (H). 
Cultures of Phyllosticta anamorph of Guignardia aesculi , 14-d old, inoculated from leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum . (A) on malt extract agar, (B) on rice agar. 
New localities of Guignardia aesculi on leaves of seven Aesculus species(×carnea, flava, hippocastanum, ×neglecta, parviflora, pavia, turbinata) were recorded in Europe. The teleomorph was found on overwintered leaves of A. hippocastanum in Slovakia. The occurrence of the Guignardia leaf blotch on A. hippocastanum and A. turbinata was also confirmed for the first time in South Korea. The causal fungus Guignardia aesculi and its conidial anamorph Phyllosticta sphaeropsoidea and spermatial synanamorph Leptodothiorella aesculicola are described in detail and illustrated. Pathogenicity of the fungus was confirmed by inoculating horse chestnut leaves with conidia.
 
Hirsutella liboensis was isolated from the larva of Cossidae (Lepidoptera) in Libo Natural Reserves, Guizhou Province. The fungus produces fasciculate synnemata and mono- and polyphialidic conidiogenous cells with necks twisted in two or three helical turns. Conidia are one-celled or (rarely) one-septate, fusiform or like orange segments that are enveloped in a mucous sheath. Morphological characters and phylogenetic analyses of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences support this fungus as a new species.
 
One of 52 equally most parsimonious trees of length 386 based on nuclear ribosomal ITS sequence data. Bootstrap support values greater than 60 appear above branches. Branches with Bayesian posterior probability values greater than 95% indicated as thickened branches. Island is indicated for seventeen R. laulaha collections (H=Big Island; M=Maui, K=Kauai). 
Single most parsimonious tree of length 71 based on nuclear ribosomal LSU sequence data. Bootstrap support values greater than 60 appear above branches. Branches with Bayesian posterior probability values greater than 95% indicated as thickened branches. Island is indicated for six R. laulaha collections (H=Big Island; M=Maui, K=Kauai). 
The Hawaiian mushroom Rhodocollybia laulaha was selected as a model to investigate patterns of gene flow between geographically isolated fungal populations from ecologically and bioclimatically varied sites. Its morphology (distinctive when compared to other members of the genus) and affinity for endemic Hawaiian forest suggested that it was endemic to Hawaii. However, speculation as to its closest non-Hawaiian relative and its overall placement within the genus was based on mostly anecdotal evidence. The present morphological and genetic research identifies a well-supported clade comprising R. laulaha individuals from across the Hawaiian Islands, reveals R. lignitilis (described in 2004 from the Neotropics) to be conspecific with R. laulaha, and identifies R. unakensis from Texas as a putative sister taxon. Different possible historical scenarios are discussed regarding the migration and establishment of R laulaha ancestors between the Americas and Hawaii. Rhodocollybia lignitilis is synonymized with R. laulaha, and Marasmius clavipes is transferred to Rhodocollybia.
 
Proposals for establishing a new International Code of Mycological Nomenclature are deemed unwise and unrealistic.
 
Agarose gel analysis of PCR products from genomic DNA of fungal cultures. Lane M, DNA molecular size marker (Lambda/HindIII); Lanes 1–7, 9–24, 26–28, 30, 32–35, 37–41, 43–57, A. flavus ; Lanes 8; 25; 31; 36; 42, A. parasiticus ; Lane 29, A. tamarii . 
Agarose gel analysis of PCR amplification products from strains using ITS1-ITS4 primers. Lane M, PhiX174 DNA/BsuRI HAEIII marker; Lanes 1–7, 9–24, 26–28, 30, 32–35, 37–41, 43–57, A. flavus ; Lanes 8, 25, 31, 36, 42, A. parasiticus ; Lane 29, A. tamarii . 
Molecular identification of Aspergillus sect. Flavi isolates
Aspergillus sect. Flavi isolates from Turkish dried figs have been determined using PCR amplification of the ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA regions. Species were identified by comparing partial 18S rDNA sequences from 57 different fungal isolates comprising 5 A. parasiticus strains, 1 A. tamarii strain, and 51 A. flavus strains with known ribosomal sequences using BLAST search. Sequence comparisons between the isolates and reference cultures showed a 95-99% similarity; morphological and phenotypical character comparisons of the same strains produced equally close similarities. The sole exception was an aflatoxin B1 and B2 producing strain that cannot produce cyclopiazonic acid; this strain, originally identified as A. flavus, was instead found to represent A. parasiticus.
 
List of Argentine fungal strains employed in this survey, their geographical location and BAFC number.
The objective of this study was to ascertain the usefulness of the AFLP technique in assessing genetic diversity among 47 strains belonging to three Ascomycota genera and as a tool for solving taxonomic problems in related morphological species. Four MseI +1 primers were assayed in combination with two EcoRI +2 and four EcoRI +3 primers. In the present study both +2 and +3 EcoRI primers were informative, but EcoRI +2 produced profiles with high complexity. The addition of the extra selective nucleotide reduced the complexity of the banding patterns generating easily readable patterns to evaluate genetic diversity within and among species. Of the three ascomycetous genera assessed in this study, Colletotrichum (Glomerellaceae) presented the highest proportion of polymorphic AFLP loci, followed in order by Iodophanus (Pezizaceae) and Saccobolus (Ascobolaceae).
 
Galerella nigeriensis. 3. Spores. 4. Basidium (phase contrast). 5. Cheilocystidia (phase contrast). 6. Hymenophysalides and basidia (phase contrast). 7. Pileipellis near margin of the pileus (phase contrast). 8. Pileipellis near center of the pileus (phase contrast). 9. Pileocystidium. 10. Caulocystidia. Bars: 3, 6–8 = 10 µm; 4 = 5 µm; 5, 9, 10 = 20 µm.  
Basidiomata of Galerella nigeriensis in situ. Bars = 5 mm.
A new species, Galerella nigeriensis, from southwestern Nigeria is described. It is characterized by a strongly plicate, dry, yellowish to orange brown pileus, whitish veil on pileus and stipe base, white and pubescent stipe, thick-walled, mostly flattened spores, tibiiform to lageniform cheilocystidia, and presence of hymenophysalides (recorded for the first time in the genus Galerella). Black and white photographs of basidiomata and microscopic elements accompany the description. G. nigeriensis is compared to related species and a worldwide diagnostic key to the genus Galerella is provided.
 
Termitomyces striatus f. pileatus (K(M) 144 301, holotype). (A) habit; (B) longitudinal section of (A); (C) basidiospores; (D) basidia; (E) cheilocystidia; (F) pleurocystidia; (G) pileipellis; (H) longitudinal section of the perforatorium. 
Termitomyces striatus f. brunneus (K(M) 144 300, holotype). (A) habit; (B) longitudinal section of (A); (C) basidiospores; (D) basidia; (E) cheilocystidia; (F) pleurocystidia; (G) pileipellis; (H) longitudinal section of the perforatorium. 
Two new forms of Termitomyces striatus are described from Cameroon and a preliminary key to the central African taxa is provided for the first time. T.striatus f. pileatus is characterized by an often subinfundibuliform pileus that is usually squamulose greyish orange when young and cocoa brown or leather brown in age. This new form is additionally characterized by an obtuse to obtusely conical perforatorium, more or less conspicuously radially striate mature pileus, inconspicuous annulus present only on young basidiomes, a long filiform pseudorhiza, and polymorphic pleuro- and cheilocystidia. T. striatus f. brunneus is distinguished by a plicate- to sulcate- striate unchanging chocolate brown to dark brown pileus with a conspicuous mammiform perforatorium made of erect subcylindrical and inflated chains of cells; this form is further distinguished by polymorphic cystidia that differ from those found in T. striatus f. pileatus.
 
Numbers of genera and species found in all countries in Africa (A) and in the five regions: N = Northern Africa, E = Eastern Africa, S = Southern Africa, C = Central Africa, and W = Western Africa. 
A comprehensive checklist of the species of myxomycetes known from Africa does not exist, and the reported records are found in various sources scattered throughout the literature. In the study described herein, an effort was made to compile all known records of African myxomycetes from published articles, reports and databases. Our initial findings indicate that there are 294 species representing 49 genera reported from or known to occur in Africa. Of the 58 countries and territories on the entire continent, no records of myxomycetes apparently exist for 27 countries. A complete annotated species list is provided at http://www.mycotaxon.com/africamyxomycetes2.
 
Two new bolete species, Pulveroboletus bembae and P. luteocarneus, are described from the rain forest of Gabon. Both are characterized by basidiospores with a similar rough structure.
 
Sequences used in the phylogenetic analysis
Strelitziana africana GX01. A. Signs on Dioscorea cirrhosa . B. Colony on oatmeal agar after 30 days. C–D. Conidia, conidiogenous cells and hyphae. E. Conidiogenous cell giving rise to conidia, and microcyclic conidia. F. Conidia. Bars (C–F) =10 μm. 
We document the first report of Strelitziana africana from China. This fungus was isolated from stems of Dioscorea cirrhosa and Sabia parviflora collected from Nanning, Guangxi Province. Strelitziana africana can produce flyspeck signs on inoculated apple fruit and is distinguished from the other known species in the genus by morphological characters and phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequences.
 
Volvariella cubensis. 1. Habit. 2. Basidiospores. 3. Pleurocystidia. 4. Cheilocystidia. 5. Covering of volva. Scale bar is 10 mm for basidiome and 10 µm for microstructures. Habitat: Solitary on rotten wood in degraded part of fallen log [Clitoria sp. (Papilionaceaea)] in urban area.  
Volvariella cubensis (Pluteaceae), a relatively rare species, is reported from South America for the first time. A discussion of the occurrence of acrophysalides in Agaricales and their phylogenetic implications is also provided.
 
The type collection of Leucoagaricus lilaceus was studied. This poorly known Neotropical member of Agaricaceae is fully described and illustrated for the first time. This species is known only from Brazil and Argentina.
 
Ten Pouzarella species are described from New South Wales and northern Queensland, Australia, of which eight (P. albostrigosa, P. farinosa, P. fusca, P. lageniformis, P. pamiae , P. parvula , P. pilocystidiata and P. setiformis) are new to science and two (P. debilis and P. lasia) are reported for the first time for Australia. Phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial small subunit rRNA (mtSSU), two variable domains (D1, D2) of the 25-28S large subunit rDNA (LSU), and a portion of the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase (RPB2) gene support separation of these species into three clades. Morphological characters common to these clades are described, and a key to species based on the characters that are distinct between clades is included.
 
Volvariella nivea (GDGM25489). 1-2. Basidioma; 3-4. Basidiospores. Bars: 1 = 20 mm; 2 = 20 mm; 3 = 5 µm; 4 = 10 µm
A new white agaric, Volvariella nivea, discovered in Guangzhou of China is formally introduced. Similar species are compared, and morphological characters and the rDNA ITS sequence of the new species differ from all other taxa placed in Volvariella The holotype is deposited in the Herbarium of Microbiology Institute of Guangdong (GDGM).
 
Gerhardtia piperata. 6. Lamellar edge. 7. Cheilocystidium (phase contrast). 8. Pileipellis -cutis (phase contrast). 9. Pileipellis -trichoderm (phase contrast). 10. Stipitipellis -cutis. 11. Stipitipellis -cutis with erect hyphae. Bars = 10 µm.  
Gerhardtia piperata. 1. Basidiomata in situ. 2-3. Spores (phase contrast). 4. Basidium (phase contrast). 5. Young basidia with siderophilous granulation. Bars: 1 = 20 mm, 2-5 = 5 µm.
Gerhardtia piperata is recorded as new to Croatian mycobiota. Black and white photographs of fresh basidiomata and microscopic characters accompany a complete description. The genus Gerhardtia is reported from Croatia for the first time.
 
Entoloma mathinnae . Habit, spores and pileipellis. Bar = 10 μ m (spores); 20 μ m (pileipellis); and 3 cm (habit). 
Entoloma mathinnae. Habit, spores and pileipellis. Bar = 10 μm (spores); 20 μm (pileipellis); and 3 cm (habit). 
A description is given of a new Entoloma species from Eucalyptus forest with Leptospermum understorey in Tasmania, Australia, with striking yellow lamellae. Notes are given on similar species on a worldwide basis.
 
Claudopus rupestris, C. viscosus, and C. minutoincanus are described as new to science. All three species produce abundant, white basidiomata on the underside of granitic rocks and have a pileus that is sticky to the touch. Claudopus rupestris has unusual basidiospores, some of which are 4-angled. Claudopus viscosus and C. minutoincanus possess subcapitulate to capitulate pileocystidia and are morphologically similar to Entoloma jahnii of Europe.
 
Two new species of Entoloma are described. E. subaltissimum is characterized by its blue pileus, distant to subdistant lamellae, quadrate basidiospores and broadly clavate cheilocystidia; and E. dinghuense by the blue pileus, 5-6-angled basidiospores and subvesicular or subclavate pleurocystidia.
 
Conocybe caeruleobasis. 3. Spores. 4. Pileipellis. 5, 6. Basidia. 7. Caulocystidia. 8, 9. Cheilocystidia. Bars = 10 µm.  
Pholiotina mairei var. stercorea. 10, 11. Spores. 12. Basidia. 13–15. Cheilocystidia. 16. Caulocystidia. 17. Pileipellis. 18. Pileocystidium. Bars: 10–12 = 5 µm, 13–18 = 10 µm.  
A new species Conocybe caeruleobasis and a new variety Pholiotina mairei var. stercorea are described from Croatia. The descriptions are accompanied by black and white photographs of fresh basidiocarps and microscopic elements. The new taxa are compared with closely related taxa.
 
A new species, Pluteus nevadensis from subtropical and pine forests in Mexico, is described and compared with similar taxa. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS rDNA sequence data support the classification of this new taxon in Pluteus section Celluloderma.
 
Two Clathrus specimens were collected in Northeastern Brazil during the rainy season in 2008. One specimen was identified as C. chrysomycelinus and the other is described as a new species, C. cristatus, which is distinguished by its pale red to pink receptacle and crests along the edge. Full descriptions with illustrations of the collected specimens and a key to species of Clathrus from Brazil are provided.
 
In order to increase the knowledge of puffballs in Brazil, specimens were collected in the State of Pernambuco, an understudied area in the Northeast Region, between June 2008 and April 2009. Arachnion album, Bovista dominicensis, and Morganella fuliginea are recorded for the first time from this region. Bovista grandipora, collected on soil among grass, is described as a new species in the Bovista delicata-complex. This species is characterized by a thin whitish exoperidium, an olive-brown endoperidium, punctate to verruculose, apedicellate basidiospores (4-5.5 μm diam.), and capillitium of the Lycoperdon-type with large pits in the hyphal units. Descriptions and illustrations, including SEM micrographs of basidiospores, are presented for each of the identified species, and keys to the recorded species of Arachnion, Bovista, and Morganella from Brazil are also provided.
 
A new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Cetraspora helvetica, was found in three Swiss agricultural soils: a no-till crop production system and two temporary grasslands. It forms white spores, 210-270 μm diam, on dark yellow sporogenous cells. The spores have three walls: a triple-layered outer, a bi-layered middle and a triplelayered inner wall. The spore surface is crowded with convex warts, 5-12 μm diam at the base and 1.5-5.0 μm high. The germination shield is hyaline with multiple (6-10) lobes. Glomerospores of two other Gigasporineae spp. have also three walls, multiple-lobed hyaline germination shields, and projections on the outer spore surface: C. spinosissima and C. striata. However, spores of these fungi are substantially pigmented (ochraceous yellow to rust) and crowded with short, thin spines or fingerprint-like processes, respectively. Partial sequences of the 28S ribosomal gene place the new species adjacent to C. spinosissima, C. pellucida, and C. gilmorei. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate the monophyly of the two genera Racocetra and Cetraspora within the Racocetraceae.
 
The nomenclature of Physcia aipolioides is discussed and a lectotype is designated. Taxonomical notes on this species and similar taxa are appended.
 
Fomitiporella melleopora: 1. Basidiospores. 2. Cystidioles. 3. Hyphae of hymenophoral trama. 4. Resupinate basidiome. Figs. 5–12. Fuscoporia rhabarbarina: 5. Basidiospores. 6. Basidioles. 7. Hymenial setae. 8. Generative hyphae with incrusted crystals. 9. Hyphae of hymenophoral trama. 10. Hymenophore. 11. Pileate basidiome. 12. Resupinate basidiome.  
Fomitiporella melleopora, Fuscoporia rhabarbarina, Hymenochaete americana, Inonotus patouillardii, and Inonotus tropicalis are described and illustrated as new records from México. The specimens were collected in tropical deciduous forest in the Sierra de Álamos-Río Cuchujaqui Biosphere Reserve, Sonora, México.
 
Collections used to generate DNA sequences for Fig. 2 in addition to those from Wang et al. (2006b), with Genbank accession numbers.
Surveys of fungi associated with stained vascular tissue in kiwifruit vines in New Zealand have consistently revealed Phialophora-like fungi. Phylogenetic analyses based on DNA sequences have shown most of these to be Leotiomycetes. The teleomorph of the most common species isolated from stained kiwifruit wood has been found on fallen wood in native forests, and it is described here as Neobulgaria alba sp. nov. Other species isolated from kiwifruit wood matched Cadophora and Mollisia spp. reported from similar symptoms from kiwifruit and other hosts in other countries.
 
Phylogramme de strict consensus des séquences ribosomales ITS1, 5.8S et ITS2 calculé par le programme MrBayes (Huelsenbeck & Ronquist 2001; 1 000 000 générations). A: Albatrellopsis; B: Neoalbatrellus; C: Albatrellus; D: Polyporoletus sylvestris E: Xeroceps; F: Scutiger; G: Polyporoletus bulbosus; H: Jahnoporus; I: Xanthoporus; hors groupe: Diplomitoporus crustulinus. Le clade C correspondant au genre Albatrellus est très bien soutenu (100%) avec l' espèce-type A. ovinus (figure 2). Avec l'analyse des séquences ITS (fig. 1), le genre Albatrellus apparaît le plus riche en espèces, avec A. subrubescens, A. ovinus, A. citrinus et A. citrinus s. lat. et peut-être A. tianschanicus. Pour ce dernier, l'analyse moléculaire ne fournit pas de réponse significative. Le clade Scutiger s. str. (A. pes-caprae et A. ellisii) est assez peu soutenu sur la fig. 1, mais le rapprochement est quand même fortement suggéré. Ces deux espèces sont regroupées dans un même clade par l'analyse des séquences LSU (Zheng 2006). Albatrellus caeruleoporus et A. yasudae (fig. 1) sont regroupées sur un clade monophylétique bien soutenu avec l'ITS. Les séquences LSU n' ont pas été
Phylogramme de strict consensus de la séquence ribosomale 28S (LSU) calculé par le programme MrBayes (Huelsenbeck & Ronquist 2001; 1 000 000 générations). A: Polyporoletus; B: Albatrellopsis; C: Albatrellus; D: Scutiger; E: Laeticutis; F: Polypus; G. Xeroceps; H: Jahnoporus; I: Xanthoporus; hors groupe: Abortiporus biennis.
Spore de Polyporoletus sublividus. Figure 4. Spore de Polyporopsis mexicanus. Figure 5. Hyphes hyménophorales de Polyporoletus sublividus. Figure 6. Hyphes hyméno-phorales de Polyporopsis mexicanus.
Scutiger s. lat. is found to include at least ten distinct genera: four previously named (Albatrellopsis; Albatrellus; Polyporoletus; Scutiger, amended) and six introduced here as new (Laeticutis, Neoalbatrellus, Polyporopsis, Polypus, Xanthoporus, Xeroceps). Keys to the ten segregate genera and to the species reported from North America and Europe are provided. The systematic position of these genera based on molecular analysis and the trophic strategies of the analyzed species are also discussed. Differing taxonomic points are examined, and the synonymy between Polyporopsis (Albatrellus) mexicanus and Polyporoletus sublividus is rejected. One new species, Polyporoletus bulbosus, and eleven new combinations are proposed. French Le genre Scutiger au sens traditionnel renferme au moins dix genres distincts: Albatrellopsis, Albatrellus, Polyporoletus et Scutiger, ici amendés, et six introduits comme nouveaux: Laeticutis, Neoalbatrellus, Polyporopsis, Polypus, Xanthoporus, Xeroceps. Une clé des genres issus du démantèlement du genre Scutiger s. lat. est proposée, ainsi qu'une clé des espèces signalées en Amérique du Nord et en Europe. La position systématique de ces genres est discutée d'après les résultats d'analyses moléculaires, ainsi que les caractéristiques trophiques des espèces étudiées. Divers points de taxinomie sont étudiés; en particulier la synonymie entre Polyporopsis (Albatrellus) mexicanus et Polyporoletus sublividus est rejetée. Une nouvelle espèce, Polyporoletus bulbosus, et onze combinaisons nouvelles sont proposées.
 
Top-cited authors
Rafael. F. Castañeda-Ruiz
  • Instituto de Investigaciones Fundamentales en Agricultura Tropical
Fritz Oehl
  • Agroscope
Kevin David Hyde
  • Mae Fah Luang University
John Elix
  • Australian National University
Jeremy D Rogers
  • University of Wisconsin–Madison