Mycological Progress

Published by Springer Verlag
Online ISSN: 1861-8952
Print ISSN: 1617-416X
Publications
In liquid culture on a defined growth medium, Penicillium sp. AK96151 efficiently degraded the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX, hexogen), causing > 80 % disappearance after 10 d. RDX degradation was reduced to a basal level (< 15 % degraded after 10 d) by the presence of > 150 μM ammonium ions or when the molybdenum component of the medium was replaced by sodium tungstate. An equivalent effect of ammonium, molybdenum and tungsten was observed in protoplasts of this fungus assayed for nitrate reductase activity. This enzyme was not inhibited by RDX itself. The involvement of a nitrate reductase in RDX degradation by Penicillium has practical implications for bioremediation strategies which are discussed.
 
Soil microfungi belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Coniothyrium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium and Trichoderma, as well as wood-and litter-decomposing basidiomycetes, were able to degrade the explosive RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) co-metabolically, but were unable to utilize it as a sole carbon or nitrogen source. The most efficient RDX-degrading microfungi were characterized morphologically and by analysis of the ITS region of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster as Penicillium janczewskii and an unidentifiable Penicillium sp. with uniseriate phialides. Both species catalysed 80–100 % disappearance of RDX in a liquid defined medium. RDX degradation was inhibited by the presence of 30 mM NH4 + but not by 40 mM NO3 −. In basidiomycetes but not Penicillium spp., RDX degradation was greatly reduced when biomass pregrown at 23 °C was incubated with RDX at 15 °C. Because of their production of copious conidial inoculum, simple growth requirements and ability to degrade RDX at reduced temperature, Penicillium spp. show promise for the bioremediation of RDX-contaminated groundwater.
 
The neglected false truffle species Hydnotrya bailii Soehner (Ascomycetes, Discinaceae) is re-described and separated from its sister taxon Hydnotrya tulasnei by morphological and phylogenetic analyses based on internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequences. The most distinct morphological and ecological characters are small globose, rather than kidney-like, ascomata as known from the sister taxon H. tulasnei, strictly monoseriate ascospores and montane habitats. Phylogenetic analyses resulted in two clearly separated clusters that revealed the ectomycorrhizal specificity of H. bailii to Picea abies and that H. tulasnei is preferably associated to Fagus sylvatica. We also show that H. bailii was already present in mycorrhizal samples but until now could not be correctly assigned. Our analyses also indicate cryptic diversity within H. cerebriformis and other, morphologically not yet characterized, Hydnotrya groups. An emended determination key for all Hydnotrya species known from Central Europe is provided. KeywordsCryptic species-Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis-Soil ecology-False truffles-Taxonomy
 
Maximum parsimonious tree based on the 18S rDNA sequences of the ascomycetous species. Tree length = 3500, consistency index = 0.373, retention index = 0.699, rescaled consistency index=0.261, homoplasy index = 0.627. E. vaccinii, G. cylindrica and M. frigida are the outgroup species. The sequences determined in the present work are indicated in bold. Bootstrap values < 50 % are not indicated.
Small subunit rRNA gene sequences (18S rDNA), cell wall carbohydrate composition and ubiquinone components were analysed within a larger number of ascomycetous yeasts and dimorphic fungi to validate their congruence in predicting phylogenetic relationships. The glucose-mannose pattern distinguishes the Hemiascomycetes from the Euascomycetes and the Protomycetes which are characterised with the glucose-mannose-galactose-rhamnose-(fucose) profile. The glucose-mannose-galactose pattern was found in the cell walls of all the three classes. Different coenzyme Q component (CoQ5 to CoQ10) were found within the representatives of the Hemiascomycetes. Whereas CoQ9, CoQ10 and CoQ10H2 predominate within the Euascomycetes, CoQ9 and CoQ10 characterise the Protomycetes. Chemotaxonomic studies coupled with additional molecular and co-evolution studies support the idea that the Hemiascomycetes occupy a basal position in the phylogeny of Ascomycota. These results are not in line with the phylogenetic studies based on the sequences of 18S rRNA encoding gene. The maximum parsimony analysis indicated that Hemiascomycetes and Protomycetes might represent sister groups, opposing to the earlier reported results, where the Archiascomycetes (Protomycetes) or the Hemiascomycetes had been considered to be the most primitive ascomycetous fungi. Instead of the class Archiascomycetes, the term Protomycetes was introduced reflecting much better the properties of the whole class.
 
In addition to newly generated and continuously growing datasets in mycological research, existing compilations are of high value to assess the fungi of a whole region. In the present study, a private database with ca. 65,000 entries of macromycetous fruit body observations in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany, was analysed. Observed species richness of tree-associated mycorrhizal and saprobic fungi exceeded 3,000 taxa. The total fungal species richness could not be determined with confidence but will possibly exceed 4,000. Distinct species turnover with respect to host trees was observed. However, the rate of community overlap clearly differed between mycorrhizal and saprobic fungi and deciduous and coniferous trees. By separating the data into abundant core species and rare satellite taxa potential indicator species are presented, whose preservation will be beneficial to many other fungi and the entire ecosystems they live in. KeywordsBiodiversity survey–Volunteers–Indicator species–Community ecology–Species richness estimation
 
Kojic acid identified by GC-MS as its trimethylsilylated derivative (M +. 286)
Aspergillus oryzae growing out of a surface sterilized cacao leaf segment plated on potato dextrose agar ( right ) and control leaf ( left ) 
Aspergillus oryzae NRRL 35191 was isolated as an endophyte from coffee leaves and found to produce kojic acid (KA) in culture. When inoculated into cacao seedlings (Theobroma cacao), A. oryzae grew endophytically and synthesized KA in planta. Cacao seedlings inoculated with A. oryzae produced higher levels of caffeine than non-inoculated ones. Aspergillus oryzae may be a useful endophyte to introduce to cacao since it grows non-pathogenically and induces the caffeine defense response that may make the plant more tolerant to insects and pathogens. Keywords Aspergillus oryzae –Cacao–Coffee–Endophyte–Kojic acid
 
Glomeromycotan spores from the Lower Devonian Rhynie chert provide the first evidence for germination shields in fossil fungi and demonstrate that this complex mode of germination was in place in some fungi at least 400 millionyears ago. Moreover, they represent the first direct marker relative to the precise systematic position of an Early Devonian endomycorrhizal fungus. In extant fungi, germination shields occur exclusively in the genus Scutellospora (Glomeromycota: Diversisporales, Gigasporaceae). These structures are regarded as a derived feature within the phylum Glomeromycota, and hence their presence in the Rhynie chert suggests that major diversification within this group of fungi occurred before the Early Devonian.
 
Scutellosporites devonicus from the Early Devonian Rhynie chert is the only fossil glomeromycotan spore taxon known to produce a germination shield. This paper describes a second type of glomeromycotan spore with a germination shield from the Rhynie chert. In contrast to S. devonicus, however, these spores are acaulosporoid and develop laterally in the neck of the sporiferous saccule. Germination shield morphology varies, from plate-like with single or double lobes to tongue-shaped structures usually with infolded margins that are distally fringed or palmate. Spore walls are complex and appear to be constructed of at least three wall groups, the outermost of which includes the remains of the saccule. The complement of features displayed by the fossils suggests a relationship with the extant genera Ambispora, Otospora, Acaulospora or Archaeospora, but which of these is the closest extant relative cannot be determined. The acaulosporoid spores from the Rhynie chert document that this spore type was in existence already ∼400mya, and thus contribute to a more complete understanding of the evolutionary history of the Glomeromycota. This discovery pushes back the evolutionary origin of all main glomeromycotan groups, revealing that they had evolved before rooted land plants had emerged.
 
Phylogenetic placement of clonal sequences from five specimens of Tulasnella sp. obtained directly from the basidiomata DC5, DC24, DC34, DC42, and DC54. C01 to C10 correspond to clone numbers. Tree inferred from ITS1-5.8SITS2 region using a maximum likelihood analysis implemented in RAxML with the GTRMIX algorithm. Numbers on branches designate ML and Bayesian MCMC estimates of posterior probabilities and BIONJ values (only values exceeding 50% are shown). The tree was midpoint rooted. The clonal sequences from this study are cited in bold. Sequences from mycobionts of the epiphytic orchids Stelis hallii, Stelis superbiens, Stelis concinna and Pleurothallis lilijae sampled in the same study site (Suárez et al. 2006) appear as the most closely related but not identical with the basidiomata sequences. The tree shows two clades with Tulasnella calospora sequences of isolates from Australian orchids. The clade includes T. calospora MAFF P305802 DQ388042, (isolate from Diuris sp., JH Warcup, 0388, 1967), T. calospora MAFF P305805 DQ388045 (isolate, JH Warcup, 0689), T. calospora CBS 573 83 EU218888 2 (isolate from Caladenia reticulata JH Warcup, 062, 1966) and T. calospora DQ388041 (isolate from Acianthus exsertus Warcup, O7, 1966, Warcup and Talbot 1967, Warcup 1973), the latter two are considered T. deliquescens by Roberts (1999)
Illustrations of different specimens of Tulasnella sp. from tropical mountain forest in the northern Andes of southern Ecuador. a DC5. b DC24. c DC34. d DC42. e DC54. Variability regarding  
The genus Tulasnella comprises important orchid mycobionts. Molecular phylogenetic studies on nrITS-5.8S sequences of Tulasnella species previously isolated from mycorrhizas of epiphytic orchids from a tropical Andean forest showed genomic variability among clones which was difficult to interpret as intra- or interspecific variations or to correlate with described Tulasnella species. To improve this situation, we collected basidiomata of Tulasnella in an Andean forest, studied part of the sequences of fungal ribosomal genes and correlated molecular data with the morphology of the specimens. Within five basidiomata displaying slight morphological variability, we found inter-specimen nrITS1-5.8S-ITS2 variability corresponding to proportional differences of less than 1% except for one clone with 5.1% divergence. Results indicate that the slightly variable basidiomata should be considered as one species, which is morphologically tentatively assigned to the Tulasnella pruinosa complex. However, comparison of nrITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences, including sequences of T. pruinosa from other origins, indicate that Tulasnella sp. is only distantly related to the T. pruinosa specimens included in the analyses. Sequences of all morphologically similar and taxonomically well-identified species are required to decide whether the basidiomata analyzed in the present study represent a new species. The new sequences are rather similar to sequences obtained previously from mycorrhizae of epiphytic orchids of the same area indicating mycorrhizal potential of this fungus. Keywords Tulasnella –Morphological characterization–Orchid mycorrhiza–Molecular phylogeny–Intragenomic polymorphism–Tropical mountain rain forest–Southern Ecuador
 
A devastating disease of Abies procera grown as Christmas trees in a forest situation in Northern Germany is reported. Disease symptoms began as a root rot with disintegration of the cortex of lateral and main roots, followed by rapid chlorosis and necrosis of the foliage which had a striking copper colour on dead and dying trees. All disease symptoms were reproducible in pathogenicity tests with potted A. procera and Pseudotsuga menziesii plants infected with the isolated pathogen. The symptoms were indistinguishable from those reported for Phytophthora spp., but the pathogen was identified by microscopy and ITS sequence analysis as Pythium undulatum, which has not previously been described as a cause of root rot of coniferous trees in outdoor situations. This fungus was isolated also from roots of A. amabilis, A. grandis and P. menziesii showing similar below-and above-ground symptoms. Trees of varying ages (6–22 years) were affected. Abies nordmanniana appeared not to be susceptible to P. undulatum even when in direct root contact with diseased A. procera or A. amabilis. The establishment and spread of the disease between 1999 and 2002 appeared to be correlated with poor soil drainage following a series of unusually wet summers.
 
We studied the capacity of selected Basidiomycetes (72 species; 109 strains) to defibrillate Picea abies wood blocks, and determined the remaining cellular cohesion and the lignin content in the wood after treatment. Forty strains were sufficiently aggressive to invade non-sterile wood blocks in laboratory conditions; but only seven of them — Gloeophyllum trabeum, Gloeoporus taxicola, two strains of Phanerochaete velutina, Polyporus badius, Resinicium bicolor and Trametes versicolor produced an significant biodefibrillation. A combination of Gloeophyllum trabeum and Gloeoporus taxicola or Gloeophyllum trabeum and Resinicium bicolor created a synergetic effect and a nearly 70 % loss of the cellular cohesion. The use of selected rot fungi as pre-treatment to save wood pulping energy in several manufacturing processes is discussed.
 
The genus Endohyalina is characterized by crustose, autonomous, or obligately lichenicolous thalli, lecideine apothecia with a hymenium often more or less inspersed with oil droplets and a brown hypothecium, Bacidia-type asci, small Dirinaria-type ascospores developing with type B ontogeny, bacilliform conidia and containing diploicin as the major secondary metabolite. The genus is based on four species previously included in Rinodina-R. ericina s. lat., R. insularis, R. interjecta and R. kalbii-and on two lichenicolous species from the Canary Islands described here as new, Endohyalina brandii and E. diederichii. The generic type, Endohyalina rappii, is reduced to synonymy with E. ericina whereas E. circumpallida is excluded from the genus and returned to Buellia s. lat. Except for the thalline growth form and the common lichenicolous habit, the diagnostic characters of Endohyalina are akin to those of Diploicia. New chemical data on Endohyalina insularis and E. kalbii are reported, and a simple method for determining the secondary chemistry of lichenicolous fungi is provided.
 
Endophytic fungal flora of the symptomless lamina and petiole of Acer saccharum have been compared to detect inter-sites and tissue-specific differences in the communities from two native and one urban stands. Twenty seven different fungal taxa were isolated, but only 19 endophytes were present in frequencies of colonization higher than 1 %. Although the species composition overlaps within sites, all of these species were found in an old-growth forest (300 years old), but only 18 (67 %) in a regenerated (managed) forest (80 year old) and 8 (30 %) in an urban plantation. Both, the numbers of species and fungal isolation frequency, were significantly higher for leaves than for petioles, showing an organ and segment-specific distribution. The gradually increasing of the presence of dark mycelia from native forests to urban plantation was discussed on the basis of the presumably impacts of the temperature and light following the 1998 ice-storm in Quebec, Canada.
 
During 2003–2005, the diversity of culturable filamentous soil microfungi in saline and acidic soils of the Soos National Natural Reserve (Czech Republic) was studied. Altogether, 28 soil samples were collected from four sampling sites and were processed by various approaches. In total, 92 fungal taxa were identified using classical and molecular markers. Several detected species were known from similar substrata worldwide; however, the overall fungal spectrum was distinct, as shown by comparison to similar studies. All methodological approaches increased the observed fungal diversity. The different fungal communities observed on the four sampling sites were influenced by the complex effects of environmental factors. The growth response of selected strains to different salinities and pH values was determined. The results of the growth tests showed high adaptability of all tested species to the extreme conditions of the studied substrate. Two acidophilic species (Acidomyces acidophilus, Sporothrix sp.) were isolated. KeywordsMicroscopic fungi- Penicillium - Acidomyces -Molecular identification-Acidotolerance-Halotolerance
 
Symptoms of systemic downy mildew infection on H. × laetiflorus : a. Chlorosis on leaves spreading along midrib, b. sporulation on the abaxial leaf surface 
Sporangiophores and sporangia of the H. × laetiflorus isolate of Pl. halstedii : a. Sporangiophores with adhering sporangia of variable size and with papilla, b. young sporangium of nearly round shape adhering at the narrowed tip of sporagiophore 
Neighbor-joining analysis of an alignment of nuclear DNA coding for the 5’ terminal domain of the 28S ribosomal large subunit. Genetic distances were computed according to the model of H ASEGAWA , K ISHINO & Y ANO (1985), additionally 
A collection of Plasmopara halstedii s. l. from Helianthus × laetiflorus is recorded, described and characterised by laboratory cross infection studies, light microscopical studies, fatty acid pattern and LSU rDNA data. Its ability to infect Helianthus annuus was demonstrated in laboratory cross infection studies, however, it could not be unequivocally ascribed to a known pathotype. Microscopically, it shows no differences from isolates originating from Helianthus annuus, its fatty acid pattern is indistinguishable, and also its LSU rDNA sequence is identical. Due to this identity in a broad range of characters, the investigated downy mildew isolates from H. × laetiflorus and from H. annuus are regarded as conspecific.
 
Synopsis of Acrodictys and related genera from China
Acrodictys irregularis. a,b Colonies from natural substrate; c–f conidiophores, conidiogenous cells and conidia. Bars10 μm  
Rhexoacrodictys fuliginosa. a-e Conidiophores, conidiogenous cells and conidia. Bars10 μm
Taxonomic studies on Acrodictys and related genera in China has yielded 13 taxa including a new species, Acrodictys porosiseptata sp. nov., characterized by indeterminate conidiophores with successive lageniform proliferations and muriform conidia usually with 4–5 parallel transverse septa, several longitudinal or oblique septa, and the presence of conspicuous septal pores. Acrodictys atroapicula, A. irregularis, A. micheliae, Pseudoacrodictys deightonii, and Rhexoacrodictys fuliginosa are newly recorded for China. Descriptions and illustrations of all taxa are provided, and similarities or differences with morphologically close taxa are discussed. KeywordsAnamorphic ascomycota–Dictyosporous fungi–Taxonomy
 
Growth of the A. muscaria mycelium (ectomycorrhizal fungus) as influenced by 15 bacterial strains. Control: growth under axenic conditions. Streptomycetes are marked with s. (+/-SD; n = 4-8). Statistically significant growth effects are marked as ++ (P < 0.01) or +++ (P < 0.001).
Comparison of growth-effects on complex ISP 2 (filled columns) and synthetic MMN (blank columns) medium. 
Effect of the bacterial strain AcH 505 on the mycelial-growth of two plant pathogens. 
Phylogenetic tree constructed from the 120-bp a region aligned by CLUSTALX, version 1.83. Alignment was extended by additional, published, streptomycete sequences (underlined). Outgroup: Escherichia coli . 
The rhizosphere, the narrow zone of soil around living roots, is characterized by root exudates which attract soil microorganisms. Most importantly, certain soil fungi establish symbiotic interactions with fine roots which enhance nutrient availability for the plant partner (mycorrhiza). The establishment of such a symbiosis can be affected by soil bacteria. In this study we isolated Gram-positive soil bacteria from the rhizosphere of a spruce stand rich with fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) fruiting bodies. Using a coculture technique in Petri dishes, bacterial isolates were characterized by their effect on the growth of fungal hyphae. A group of bacterial strains were identified which significantly promoted growth of fly agaric hyphae. One of these strains was shown to additionally inhibit growth of pathogenic fungi such as Armillaria obscura (wide host range) and Heterobasidion annosum (causes wood decay in conifers). Taxonomic characterization of the effective bacterial isolates by their morphological appearance, by the analysis of diaminopimelic acid, cell wall sugars, and DNA sequencing (16S rDNA) identified them as actinomycetes, some of which are not yet contained in data banks.
 
Concentrations of the DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin were determined in different tissues of Camptotheca acuminata (Nyssaceae). The data were dependent on tissue type and developmental stage. Despite the presence of the toxic compound camptothecin, nine endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy C. acuminata plants and were tested for their camptothecin sensitivity. Two isolates showed almost no inhibition at a camptothecin concentration of 10 μg/ml. Even at a concentration of 100 μg/ml the inhibition was moderate.
 
Sphaerophragmium pulchrum is proposed as a new microcyclic rust species on Albizia adinocephala from Panama. Telia and spermogonia are described, illustrated, and compared to those of known species of Sphaerophragmium. Spermogonia are described for the first time for a species of Sphaerophragmium. This is the first record of this genus for the southern part of the Central American isthmus.
 
Aspicilia tibetica (holotype). a Slightly aggregated, ± immersed apothecia. b Detached, marginate apothecia. c Thallus with abundant apothecia 
Aspicilia tibetica ( a – c , i – k isotype; d – h , l,m Obermayer 3567, GZU). a Section of areole with apothecium. b Cortex and medulla of thalline margin of apothecium. c Hymenium with paraphyses. d 
data on morphology, ecology, distribution and secondary chemistry for non-vagrant terricolous Aspicilia and allied species. Some of the species listed are facultative saxicolous
A new species, Aspicilia tibetica Sohrabi & Owe-Larss., is described from Tibet, where it grows on soil and plant debris at altitudes between 4,600 and 5,400m, and where it seems to be rather commonly distributed. It is characterized by a crustose, white thallus, 8-spored asci with small, globose to ellipsoid ascospores, a brown epihymenium, and non-moniliform to submoniliform paraphyses. It lacks secondary substances. The new species is compared with other terricolous Aspicilia species. Morphological, chemical, and phytogeographical differences between the non-vagrant terricolous species are summarized. KeywordsAsia-Lichenized fungi-Megasporaceae-Taxonomy-Tibet
 
Species names, culture collection and GenBank accession numbers of fungal strains used in this study. The GenBank accession number is for the concatenated 18S nrDNA, ITS1, 5.8S nrDNA, ITS2 and partial 28S nrDNA sequence. Mycosphaerella podagrariae is indicated in bold
Cryofixed samples of A. podagraria leaves infected with M. podagrariae. 5 A killed host cell which had been attacked by several hyphae as shown by interaction sites. Bar 1 μm. 6 Early stage of interaction. Organelles such as chloroplasts and endoplasmic reticulum are well preserved. The material applied onto the plant cell wall during the interaction appears free of the electron dense substance . Bar 0.5 μm. 7 Later stage of interaction. Applied material includes large vacuoles and some electron dense substance which is also present to a lesser degree in the opposite cell wall area of the pathogen. Bar 0.5 μm. 8, 9 Most (8), finally all (9) of the cell wall appositional material in the plant cell is now filled with the electron dense substance. Bars 8 0.5 μm, 9 1 μm. Chl Chloroplast, ER endoplasmic reticulum, F fungus , GA Golgi apparatus, Mi mitochondrion, Nu nucleus, Pl plant, WB Woronin body; large arrows point at material appositioned onto the plant cell wall, small arrows at electron dense substance within the latter, and arrowheads at fungal cell wall thickenings  
We present a new kind of cellular interaction found between Mycosphaerella podagrariae and Aegopodium podagraria, which is remarkably different to the interaction type of the obligate biotrophic fungus Cymadothea trifolii, another member of the Mycosphaerellaceae (Capnodiales, Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) which we have described earlier. Observations are based on both conventional and cryofixed material and show that some features of this particular interaction are better discernable after chemical fixation. We were also able to generate sequences for nuclear ribosomal DNA (complete SSU, 5.8S and flanking ITS-regions, D1–D3 region of the LSU) confirming the position of M. podagrariae within Mycosphaerellaceae. KeywordsDothideomycetes-ITS-LSU-Molecular phylogeny-SSU
 
Tree hosts of dry thorn forest and dry deciduous forest of Mudumalai Wildlife sanctuary screened for their leaf endophytes 
Colonization frequency (CF%) of endophytes from 15 different hosts of dry thorn forest
Colonization frequency (CF%) of endophytes from 15 different hosts of dry deciduous forest 
Fifteen tree species from a tropical dry thorn forest and fifteen tree species from a tropical dry deciduous forest in the Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, southern India, were surveyed for their foliar endophyte communities during the dry and wet seasons. Surface sterilized leaf segments of uniform dimension were plated on nutrient agar and culturable endophytes growing from the segments were identified. Endophyte diversity was greater in the dry thorn forest than in the dry deciduous forest in the dry season. Although the isolation frequency of culturable endophytes increased for both forests during the wet season, the assemblages were represented not by any unique fungal species but by the commonly occurring ones. Furthermore, although individual leaves were densely colonized by endophytes, only a few species of endophytes colonized the whole leaves; and, only a few fungal species dominated the foliar endophytic communities and were common for both forests during both dry and wet seasons. Thus, even under wet conditions that favour dispersal and infection by fungi, the endophyte diversity increased only marginally, an indication that certain tropical forests are not hyperdiverse with reference to fungal endophytes. This should be considered when using culturable endophyte diversity as a surrogate for estimating global fungal diversity.
 
Grouping of Ascochyta rabiei isolates based on genotyping data generated by nine AFLP primer pairs
Grouping of Ascochyta rabiei isolates based on combined SSR and AFLP marker dataset
SSR diversity in pathogen isolates
Ancestries of 64 isolates estimated from 317 AFLP loci and 20 SSR loci using STRUCTURE (Pritchard et al. 2000). Four different shades of black and white colors represent four subpopulations (or groups) in Aschochyta rabiei isolates 
Ascochyta blight (AB), caused by Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Labr. (anamorph), is the most damaging disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and is a serious biotic stress constraint for chickpea production. To understand the molecular diversity in A. rabiei populations of India, a total of 64 isolates collected from AB-infected chickpea plants from different agroclimatic regions in the North Western Plain Zone (NWPZ) of India were analyzed with 11 AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) and 20 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers. A total of 9 polymorphic AFLP primer pairs provided a total of 317 fragments, of which 130 were polymorphic and showed an average PIC value 0.28. Of the SSR markers, 12 showed polymorphism and provided a total of 29 alleles with an average PIC value 0.35. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on a comparison of AFLP and SSR diversity estimates in A. rabiei populations. The dendrogram developed based on AFLP and SSR data separately, as well as on the combined marker dataset, grouped the majority of AB isolates as per geographic regions. Model based population structure analysis revealed four distinct populations with varying levels of ancestral admixtures among 64 isolates studied. Interestingly, several AFLP primer combinations and SSR markers showed the locus/allele specific to AB isolates of certain regions, e.g., Hisar, Sriganganagar, Gurdaspur, and Sundarnagar. Genetic variability present in AB isolates of the NWPZ of India suggests the continuous monitoring of changes in A. rabiei population to anticipate the breakdown of AB resistance in chickpea cultivars grown in India.
 
Five new rust species are described and hitherto unknown spore states for the following seven species are reported: Puccinia desertorum on Evolvulus alsinoides, Uromyces comptus on Merremia bipinnatipartita, Puccinia halsei on Acacia hereroensis, Ravenelia transvaalensis on Acacia mellifera, Puccinia abutili on Abutilon angulatum, on Abutilon cf. austroafricanum, and on Abutilon cf. rehmannii, Puccinia lycii on Lycium sp. and Puccinia turgida on Lycium europaeum and on Lycium cf. oxycarpum. We also examined Uredo combreticola on Combretum cf. engleri, on Combretum hereroense, and on Combretum zeyheri, Puccinia afra on Lycium sp., and Uredopeltis cf. chevalieri on Grewia flavescens. All mentioned rust fungi are described in detail and are shown by line drawings. Selected species are illustrated with SEM-photographs.
 
Morphological characters of Ruwenzoria pseudoannulata , from holotype specimen MUCL 51394. a Stromatal surface. b Asci. c Stromatal interior. d Perithecia. e , f Ostioles, opening at the centre of an elevated discoid tubercle. g Ascospores in water. Scales indicated by bars 
Cultures and anamorph of R. pseudoannulata , ex type strain MUCL 51394, on Difco Oatmeal agar after 6 days. a Culture on agar plate (9 cm diam). b Conidiogenous cells, one with conidium attached ( arrow ). c Conidia. Scales indicated by bars 
Morphological characteristics of the Daldinia stroma repre- senting an undescribed taxon, mixed with R. pseudoannulata in specimen BR – Myc 103067,62. a Stromatal habit. b Stromatal interior. c Ostioles. d Perithecia. e Ascospores in water. f Ascospore in 10% 
During a foray to the mountain rainforests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, a peculiar species of Xylariaceae was found, which could not be accommodated in any of the existing genera. It is recognised as representative of a new genus, named Ruwenzoria, owing to the presence of a new combination of teleomorphic and anamorphic characters that are regarded as significant for generic segregation within the Xylariaceae. Studies on its secondary metabolites in stromata and cultures by high performance liquid chromatography, coupled with diode array and mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-DAD/MS), and on its phylogenetic affinities based on 5.8S/ITS rDNA sequence data, respectively, revealed a close relationship of the new taxon to the genera Daldinia and Entonaema, from which it differs by having neither a hollow, gelatinous nor a conspicuously zonate stromatal interior, and an anamorph featuring enteroblastic rather than holoblastic conidiogenesis. A specimen from the same geographic region, previously identified as Daldinia bakeri by R.W.G. Dennis was found to constitute a mixture of stromata of Ruwenzoria and an additional, undescribed Daldinia species. The latter fungus is not formally described due to the scantiness of the material, but its morphological characteristics are illustrated. KeywordsAscomycota-Chemosystematics-Extrolites-Taxonomy-Xylariales
 
The rust fungi (Uredinales, basidiomycota) occuring on ferns (Pteridophyta) in South Africa are described, illustrated and keyed out. All species belong to the pucciniastraceous genera Milesina (M. blechni), Uredinopsis (U. pteridis) or to the related uredinial anamorph genus Milesia (M. nervisequa, M. cf. magellanica, M. silvae-knysnae). Milesia silvae-knysnae on Polystichum pungens is new to science; it probably belongs to the teleomorph genus Milesina. Milesina blechni is reported from South Africa for the first time on the new hosts Blechnum punctulatum and Rumohra adiantoides; it has hitherto been known only from the Northern Hemisphere on Blechnum spicant. Rust specimens collected on Asplenium aethiopicum and A. rutifolium were tentatively assigned to Milesia magellanica which has been known so far only from southern Chile. Hyalopsora neocheilanthis, Milesina neoexigua and M. neovogesiaca are proposed as new names for Hyalopsora cheilanthis, Milesia exigua and M. vogesiaca. It is discussed that the pucciniastraceous fern rusts could have reached South Africa either by migration (M. blechni) or by long-distance air dispersal. In the absence of their gametophyte hosts, species of Abies (Pinaceae), the rusts have to propagate in South Africa by urediniospores infecting fern to fern.
 
Recent phylogenetic evidence strongly supports a monophyletic group of Afro-Australian mushroom species with phenotypic affinities to the genus Inocybe (Agaricales, Basidiomycota). In this study, this clade is proposed as the new genus Auritella. Seven species are fully documented with taxonomic descriptions and illustrations, four of which are described as new, including one sequestrate or truffle-like species. A key to genera and major clades of the Inocybaceae and a key to species of Auritella are provided. A maximum likelihood tree using rpb2 and nLSU-rDNA nucleotide sequences depicts the phylogenetic relationships of five of the seven species of the genus, of which the Australian taxa form a monophyletic group. An ancient split between Australian and African lineages is hypothesized using a molecular clock that dates back at least to the late Cretaceous (about 86Ma). Taxonomic novelties: Auritella Matheny and Bougher; Auritella arenacolens (Cleland) Matheny and Bougher; Auritella aureoplumosa (Watling) Matheny; Auritella chamaecephala Matheny, O. K. Miller and Bougher; Auritella dolichocystis Matheny, Trappe and Bougher; Auritella erythroxa (De Seynes) Matheny; Auritella geoaustralis Matheny and Bougher; Auritella serpentinocystis Matheny, Trappe and Bougher.
 
We amplified and sequenced partial 18S rDNA of fungi in the roots of 11 African myco-heterotrophic plants out of four angiosperm families (Burmanniaceae, Thismiaceae, Triuridaceae, and Gentianaceae). The sequences were cladistically analyzed with published sequences of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. We show that all investigated African myco-heterotrophic plants are associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within a clade of Glomus (Glomus-group A). We reveal a fine-level mycorrhizal specificity for a particular set of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within Glomus-group A by Afrothismia hydra (Thismiaceae). Furthermore, we show that the roots of two myco-heterotrophic plant individuals, besides being colonized by representatives of Glomus-group A, also contain DNA of Acaulospora sp. Consequently, Acaulospora is interpreted as a facultative mycorrhizal associate.
 
One of the most parsimonious trees showing the placement of Tomentella furcata within Tomentella and Thelephora species. Bootstrap values are shown above branches. The Genbank (NCBI or UNITE) codes as well as the origin of the vouchers are indicated after species names  
Tomentella furcata. a Section through the basidiocarp; b basidiospores in frontal view; c basidiospores in lateral view. Scale bar=10 μm  
Detailed anatomical comparison between Tomentella furcata, Tomentella bryophila and Pseudotomentella armata 
Tomentella furcata. Optical section of basidia showing intra-basidial hyphae. Scale bar=10 μm  
In this study, a new tropical African resupinate thelephoroid species, namely Tomentella furcata, is described. Microscopically, it is characterised by mostly simple septate and thick-walled (1–2μm) subicular and subhymenial hyphae, suburniform basidia with transverse septa and/or infrequently with an internal hypha, large sterigmata of 2–4μm at base, and distinctly yellow, subglobose to globose basidiospores (both in frontal and lateral view) with long (1–2μm) and dense, simple or forked spines. Phylogenetically, T. furcata falls within terminal clades of investigated Tomentella species. We discuss ornamentation types of basidiospores for discrimination of resupinate thelepohoroid genera and confirm the limitation of ornament bifurcation as a diagnostic feature of Pseudotomentella. Anatomical dissimilarities between T. furcata and close species are given.
 
Species in the Botryosphaeriaceae represent some of the most important fungal pathogens of woody plants. Although these fungi have been relatively well studied on economically important crops, hardly anything is known regarding their taxonomy or ecology on native or non-commercial tree species. The aim of this study was to compare the diversity and distribution of the Botryosphaeriaceae on Terminalia catappa, a tropical tree of Asian origin planted as an ornamental in Cameroon, Madagascar and South Africa. A total of 83 trees were sampled, yielding 79 Botryosphaeriaceae isolates. Isolates were initially grouped based on morphology of cultures and conidia. Representatives of the different morphological groups were then further characterised using sequence data for the ITS, tef 1-alpha, rpb2, BOTF15 and beta-tub gene regions. Five species of the Botryosphaeriaceae were identified, including Neofusicoccum parvum, N. batangarum sp. nov., Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, L. theobromae and L. mahajangana sp. nov. Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae and L. theobromae, were the most commonly isolated species (62%), and were found at all the sites. Neofusicoccum parvum and N. batangarum were found in South Africa and Cameroon, respectively, whereas L. mahajangana was found only in Madagascar. Greenhouse inoculation trials performed on young T. catappa trees showed variation among isolates tested, with L. pseudotheobromae being the most pathogenic. The Botryosphaeriaceae infecting T. catappa appear to be dominated by generalist species that also occur on various other hosts in tropical and sub-tropical climates. Keywords Lasiodiplodia - Neofusicoccum -Pathogens- Terminalia catappa
 
Tomentella afrostuposa . Optical section of young basidia (from SYN 2292). Bar 10 μ m 
Tomentella afrostuposa . a Section through the basidiocarp. b Basidiospores in frontal view. c Basidiospores in lateral view (from SYN 2292). Bar 10 μ m 
Tomentella guineensis . a Section through the basidiocarp. b Basidiospores in frontal view. c Basidiospores in lateral view (from SYN 2331). Bar 10 μ m 
Tomentella guinkoi. Optical section through subhymenial hyphae (from SYN 2235). Bar 10 μm
We used a combination of molecular-phylogenetic inference of 82 ITS rDNA sequences and anatomical approach to describe three new west African thelephoroid species, namely Tomentella afrostuposa, T. guineensis and T. guinkoi. Anatomically, T. afrostuposa is reminiscent of T. stuposa with globose to broadly ellipsoid large basidiospores of 8–14μm, long aculei of up to 3μm and prominent apiculi of 2μm width. Molecular-phylogenetically, it falls within the T. stuposa complex. However, T. afrostuposa deviates by at least 7.80–10.74% from T. stuposa in regard with the ITS rDNA sequences. Tomentella guineensis is characterised by long (up to 85μm) utriform basidia, the presence of reniform basidiospores in lateral view (up to 9μm) with aculei not exceeding 1μm and a strong cyanescent reaction of the subhymenial hyphae and basidia in 2.5% KOH. It forms a sister species of the newly described species Tomentella maroana; however, deviating from the last species by at least 9.75–10.04%. The very short, inflated (up to 14μm) and thick-walled septate (septa up to 1.5μm) subhymenial hyphae combined with ellipsoid basidiospores (up to 8μm) and short aculei not exceeding 0.5μm characterise Tomentella guinkoi. Anatomically, T. guinkoi recalls T. ellisii. Genetic distance between both species ranges from 12.67 to 13.73% according to ITS rDNA sequences analyses. Tomentella guinkoi forms a sister species of the group composed of T. ellisii, T. hjortstamiana and T. pisoniae. Detailed anatomical comparisons between the newly described species and their close relatives are given. KeywordsAnatomy–Sequences analyses–Molecular-phylogeny–SEM micrographs–Species concept– Tomentella
 
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and their mycorrhizae were studied in winter rainfall areas of western South Africa. The species composition, spore numbers, and mycorrhization were attempted to correlate with various abiotic factors. Mycorrhization of grasses was significantly correlated with pH and spore numbers and negatively correlated with electric conductivity, total N-content, and total P-content of the soils. Spore numbers were negatively correlated with electric conductivity and total N-content. These relationships observed for the winter rainfall area were compared to data available for summer rainfall areas in Namibia, where the same amount of rain falls. Factors influencing species distribution were geographic distance and to a lesser extent rainfall. Rainfall was a stronger determinant of species composition in the summer rainfall area than in the winter rainfall area. These findings show that abiotic factors alone are not sufficient in explaining species distribution, and that other factors (e.g. the availability of suitable host plants) have to be taken into account when comparing different study sites.
 
This paper presents Tomentella capitata and Tomentella brunneocystidia as new species based on molecular data and anatomical features. Both T. capitata and T. brunneocystidia form sister species with Tomentella pilosa. All three taxa are well supported by bootstrap values. Anatomically, T. capitata and T. brunneocystidia are very close and are similar in shape, size, ornamentation of basidiospores, and size and colour of subicular hyphae. Monomitic rhizomorphs sometimes covered by irregularly shaped thin hyphae are present in both species. Shape and pigmentation of the cystidia are the most discriminating features between T. capitata and T. brunneocystidia. The cystidia of T. capitata are maximum 35μm long, show a distinctive globose apex and are sometimes covered with dark brown pigmentation and/or encrustation, whereas cystidia of T. brunneocystidia are bigger, up to 55μm long, with a sub-capitate shape and dark blue to dark green contents all over their length. The differences to species, already described as having capitate and clavate cystidia, are discussed. A key for the identification of cystidioid Tomentella species is given.
 
Four new species and a new variety of rust fungi (Uredinales) are described from South Africa: Puccinia montis-venenosi on Galium spurium ssp. africanum and G. tomentosum, P. naufraga on Helichrysum sp., Uredo fynbosense on Phylica oleifolia and Ph. buxifolia, Uromyces eclipsis on Zygophyllum morgsana, and Puccinia lycii var. bizonata on Lycium sp. Puccinia austro-africana is proposed as a new combination for P. tetragoniae var. austro-africana on Tetragonia. New observations are presented about already known species: The uredinial stage of Uromyces pentaschistidis is described; Uredo monechmatis is newly reported for South Africa on new hosts and its uredinial morphology is described; a detailed description is provided for the poorly known P. anthospermi; the identity of Uredo zygophylli, U. zygophyllina and Uromyces dinteri is discussed; a key is presented for the known Puccinia species on Helichrysum in South Africa.
 
Transverse sections of Uredo corbiculoides uredinia on Grewia bicolor (a) and G. occidentalis (b, c). All at same scale, scale bar = 40 μm
The holdings of rust fungi on Grewia species (Tiliaceae) housed in the South African National Collection of Fungi (PREM) were examined. They belong to three morphologically similar, but clearly separable, species of Uredopeltis, and a species of Uredo. Each rust species has a distinct and restricted host range. Ravenelia atrides is a species of Uredopeltis and is transferred accordingly. Several specimens previously accessioned under R. atrides however belong to U. chevalieri. The specimens previously accessioned under Uredo grewiae belong to U. flava, and not U. chevalieri. Three specimens are best placed in Uredo corbiculoides.
 
Puccinia knersvlaktensis on Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum . Peridium cells, aecio-and teliospores. RSA 176 Holotype . Scale bar = 10 µm.  
Puccinia otzeniani on Lampranthus otzenianus. Peridium cells, aecio-and teliospores. RSA 164 Holotype. Scale bar = 10 µm.  
Rust fungi on Aizoaceae in southern Africa have been examined and reported based on 27 specimens collected during a biodiversity study and previously collected herbarium specimens. Eight species including five new species have been recognized, and they are described in detail and illustrated. Together with two additional species in literature, ten species of rust fungi are now recognized on Aizoaceae in southern Africa.
 
Seven truffle species are reported from the Australian Outback—six Ascomycota (Elderia arenivaga, Mattirolomyces mulpu sp. nov., Mycoclelandia arenacea, M. bulundari, Reddelomyces westraliensis, Ulurua nonparaphysata gen. & sp. nov.) and one Basidiomycota (Horakiella watarrkana sp. nov.) Three Ascomycota species are redescribed from the African Kalahari (Eremiomyces echinulatus, Kalaharituber pfeilii and Mattirolomyces austroafricanus comb. nov.). The phylogenetic analyses of nrDNA of the Australian Ascomycota provided strong support for placement of all but one in the Pezizaceae (Reddellomyces belongs in the Tuberaceae), as is true of most, if not all, other ascomycetous desert truffles. These genetic results also highlight that the genus Mattirolomyces is more taxonomically, ecologically, and geographically diverse than previously realized. KeywordsAscomycota-Basidiomycota-Pezizaceae-Sclerodermataceae-Tuberaceae
 
Tomentella amyloapiculata and T. agbassaensis are described as new species within the genus Tomentella based on materials we collected in the West African, northern Guinean seasonal forests. We used a combination of anatomical characters, sequence analyses and phylogenetic inference of 71 ITS rDNA sequences to characterise the two new species. Anatomically, T. amyloapiculata is characterised by simple septate brown to dark brown, thick-walled subicular and subhymenial hyphae and triangular to slightly lobed brown basidiospores (in frontal view), with isolate aculei of 1–2μm. Phylogenetically, T. amyloapiculata forms a sister species of T. fuscocinerea with a moderate bootstrap support of 70%. T. amyloapiculata deviates from T. fuscocinerea by 10.07–11.73% in their sequence similarities. As far as T. agbassaensis is concerned, it clusters phylogenetically together with T. bryophila with a strong bootstrap support of 99%. The species is characterised by slightly differentiated rhizomorphs with yellowish hyphae, clamped, thick-walled and yellow to dark yellow subicular hyphae and pale yellow, small basidiospores of 6–8(8.5) μm with aculei of up to 0.5μm. Both new species deviated from each other by 11.0–11.60% with regard to the ITS rDNA nucleotides. KeywordsGenetic distance–Morphology–SEM micrographs– Tomentella, Thelephorales–Benin
 
This work presents research on the diversity of the southern African rust mycobiota (Uredinales). It describes new species, lists new reports and adds new information on several rust fungi. Puccinia cornurediata, Puccinia dioscoreae-mundtii, Puccinia horti-kirstenboschi, Puccinia othonnoides, Puccinia rapipes, Puccinia subindumentana, Uredo otholobii and Uromyces lotononidicola are described as new; Puccinia verwoerdiana is assigned to Puccinia lycii as a synonym, and Uredo lotononi to U. lotononidicola. Comprehensive accounts and keys are presented for Puccinia species on Lycium (Solanaceae), Helichrysum and Othonna (Asteraceae). Puccinia butleri and Uromyces bidenticola are new reports for South Africa, and Puccinia spinulosa is new for Namibia. So far, the latter species has only been known from Madagascar, and P. butleri from the Indian subcontinent. Taxonomical novelties are P. cornurediata R. Berndt; P. dioscoreae-mundtii R. Berndt, A.R. Wood & E. Uhlmann; P. horti-kirstenboschi R. Berndt & E. Uhlmann; P. othonnoides R. Berndt, A.R. Wood & E. Uhlmann; P. rapipes R. Berndt & E. Uhlmann; P. subindumentana R. Berndt; U. otholobii R. Berndt, A.R. Wood & E. Uhlmann and U. lotononidicola R. Berndt
 
The diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and their broad or narrow association with distinct plant species in natural environments are crucial information in the understanding of the ecological role of AM fungi on plant co-existence. This knowledge is also needed for appropriate mycorrhization of nursery-grown seedlings for forestation efforts. Here, we report results from comparative studies on three co-occurring indigenous tree species of the dry Afromontane forests of Ethiopia and their seedlings grown under controlled conditions in soil collected from the sites. AM fungal SSU rDNA fragment was amplified and sequenced from mycorrhizas of adult plants and seedlings of Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata and Prunus africana, and from Podocarpus falcatus seedlings. AM fungal identity, diversity and community structure were analyzed based on sequence types defined by the NS31-AM1 SSU rDNA fragment similarity in order to compare with data from other habitats. A total of 409 sequences, grouped in 32 sequence types, belonging to Glomeraceae, Diversisporaceae and Gigasporaceae were found. Some sequence types are close to the widespread Glomus intraradices, G. hoi, G. etunicatum, G. cf. etunicatum and Gigaspora margarita. However, the majority (59%) of sequence types are so far specific for the sites including 11 new types when compared with previous data from the same area. The AM fungal community associated with adult plants, including data previously obtained from adult Podocarpus falcatus seedlings, and seedlings of a host species differed significantly, where seedlings trapping a surprising large number of native fungi. AM fungal community structure also differed significantly between host species and sites, respectively. The results confirm previous results from the same area indicating distinct fungal communities associated with the diverse tree species and suggests the potential of these indigenous tree seedlings to trap a wide range of AM fungi appropriate for successful afforestation.
 
Development and morphology of mycelial chlamydospores and thromboplerous hyphae of the agaricoid Hymenomycete Lepista flaccida are described from laboratory cultures. The chlamydospore mother cell wall produces finger-like projections that become empty, stellate appendices of the mature spore. The fully developed wall is multi-layered. The cytoplasm contains two nuclei and one or two big oil drops. In thromboplerous hyphae, initial grains of the deuteroplasm condense into a solid, homogeneous mass.
 
Based on two Swiss collections, the structure of mature pseudosclerotia of Stropharia luteonitens (Basidiomycota, Hymenomycetes) is described for the first time. The difference between sclerotia and pseudosclerotia is discussed, and the uncertainty about the presence of such organs in Stropharia luteonitens is resolved.
 
One of 448 most parsimonious trees, based on all 314 parsimony informative characters of the ITS data set. Three morphological characters are indicated for each species; sp sh indicates the spore shape, and p cov stands for pileus covering. L = 2768, CI = 0.2337, RC = 0.1174 
Strict consensus tree, based on 448 most parsimonious trees, yielded from the ITS data set. Bootstrap values > 70 % are indicated below the branches. 
One of seven most parsimonious trees, with best –lnL, based on ITS and LSU data together. Bootstrap values ≥ 50 % are indicated below the branches. 414 Characters are parsimony informative. L = 1987, CI = 0.3531, RC = 0.1698 
One of 290 most parsimonious trees, based on the LSU data set. Bootstrap values > 60 % are indicated below the branches. 154 Characters are parsimony informative. L = 490, CI = 0.4429, RC = 0.2410 
The phylogeny of Lepiota, Cystolepiota, Melanophyllum, Coprinus comatus, and Chamaemyces fracidus was examined with molecular techniques, and the consequences for morphological classification were considered. This group (excluding Chamaemyces fracidus and Coprinus comatus and allies) can be split up into several clades, which do not correspond to currently recognized genera, subgenera and sections. Structure of the pileus covering appears to be a key morphological character; colour and shape of the spores do not reflect the new phylogeny. Lepiota sect. Ovisporae is not monophyletic, and a separate genus for Cystolepiota, Lepiota sect. Echinatae, Melanophyllum and Pulverolepiota combined seems warranted. More research, especially on developmental morphology and on more tropical taxa, will be necessary to solidly erect a new classification.
 
Xeromphalina setulipes holotype AH 36274. Basidiomes. Scale bar 10 mm  
Xeromphalina setulipes holotype AH 36274. a Detail of the stipe apex, pileus margin and lamellae insertion. b Floccosevelutinous stipe due to the presence of setuloid caulocystidia. c Mycelial tomentum at the stipe base. d Pileipellis constituted by cylindrical incrusted hyphae with yellowish-brown pigment observed  
ITS Neighbor-joining consensus tree showing the relationships between Xeromphalina setulipes and its closest relatives. Bootstrap proportions from neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony, and posterior probabilities from bayesian maximum likelihood, and RAxML likelihood analyses are shown in this order next to nodes. Supporting values lower than 70% are not shown. Nodes supported by none or just a single inference method have no annotation  
nLSU Neighbor-joining consensus tree showing the relationships between Xeromphalina setulipes and its closest relatives. Bootstrap proportions from neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony , and posterior probabilities from bayesian maximum  
A new Xeromphalina species from Mediterranean evergreen forests of the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula is described. It is characterized by its habitat on soil, arcuate-decurrent lamellae, trama hyphae which turn distinctly orange-brown to red-brown in KOH solution, thick-walled caulocystidia with an attenuate apex reminding setulae, and versiform to irregularly cylindrical cheilocystidia, which are conspicuously branched forming coralloid excrescences. LM microphotographs illustrate its diagnostic features. Additionally, two nuclear ribosomal DNA regions from this new taxon were sequenced and compared with homologue sequences from existing species in the genus Xeromphalina, supporting its recognition as a new species. Keywords Basidiomycetes - Tricholomatales -Mediterranean mycobiota-Taxonomy-New species
 
The new species Gymnopilus maritimus is described from coastal plant communities of Juncus maritimus, growing on sandy soil or on decaying plants, from northwestern Sardinia (Italy). The distinguishing features of G. maritimus are: (1) an unusual habitat, (2) robust basidiomata, (3) mild taste, and (4) big and strongly warted spores. The new species is compared with the micromorphologically similar species G. fulgens sensu auct. Brit. p.p. and the biogeographically and ecologically similar species G. arenophilus, as well as with other European species. A photograph of fresh material, drawings of the main micromorphological features, and FESEM and optical microscope microphotographs of basidiospores are added. Furthermore, some notes on micromorphological characters of G. arenophilus are presented and its distribution area enlarged with a record from France. A key for the European species of Gymnopilus morphologically, ecologically, and/or biogeographically related to G. maritimus is presented. The phylogeny inferred from ITS rDNA sequences revealed that G. maritimus represents an independent species and that it is not related to G. arenophilus or G. fulgens. It is the sister group of the clade containing G. imperialis and G. spectabilis, but with a bootstrap support below 50%. The characters shared by the species in this clade are: (1) robust basidiomata, (2) pileus fibrillose or scaly-fibrillose, and (3) spores longer than 8µm, dextrinoid and strongly warted. Gymnopilus imperialis and G. spectabilis differ by the basidiomata with membranous ring in the stem, living on conifers or decaying wood, and having narrower or wider spores, respectively.
 
Tricholomopsis flammula, typical appearance. Austria, Rote Au (WU 25091). Photo A. Hausknecht
T. flammula, small and pale basidiocarp. Czech Republic, Boubínský prales (PRM 899108). Photo J. Holec
T. flammula , robust basidiocarp with adpressed scales. Czech Republic, Č er ň ava (JH 227/2008 in PRM). Photo J. Holec 
Tricholomopsis flammula, recently validated, was studied by molecular methods to clarify its taxonomic position. Sequences of T. flammulla form a distinct clade sister to a well-supported clade of T. rutilans sequences, whereas T. decora forms a cluster standing apart from them. T. flammula really is a good species separate from T. rutilans and T. decora, well distinguishable both phenotypically and molecularly. The infraspecific variability revealed by molecular methods is expressed in slight differences among some of the collections studied. The brief characteristics, selected descriptions and illustrations, key diagnostic characters and data on habitats and substrates of T. flammula are given. A discussion on variability of its basidiocarps is added. Keywords Tricholomopsis –Europe–Nuclear rDNA–Sequencing–Description–Habitats
 
The phylogeny of several species-complexes of the genera Pluteus and Volvopluteus (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) was investigated using molecular data (ITS) and the consequences for taxonomy, nomenclature and morphological species recognition in these groups were evaluated. Conflicts between morphological and molecular delimitation were detected in sect. Pluteus, especially for taxa in the cervinus-petasatus clade with clamp-connections or white basidiocarps. Some species of sect. Celluloderma are apparently widely distributed in Europe, North America and Asia, either with (P. aurantiorugosus, P. chrysophlebius, P. fenzlii, P. phlebophorus) or without (P. romellii) molecular differentiation in collections from different continents. A lectotype and a supporting epitype are designated for Pluteus cervinus, the type species of the genus. The name Pluteus chrysophlebius is accepted as the correct name for the species in sect. Celluloderma, also known under the names P. admirabilis and P. chrysophaeus. A lectotype is designated for the latter. Pluteus saupei and Pluteus heteromarginatus, from the USA, P. castri, from Russia and Japan, and Volvopluteus asiaticus, from Japan, are described as new. A complete description and a new name, Pluteus losulus, are given for the African P. cervinus var. ealaensis. The American Volvopluteus michiganensis is described in detail. Taxonomic comments and a morphology-based key to all known species of Volvopluteus are provided. KeywordsBiodiversity–ITS–Phylogeny– Pluteus –Species delimitation– Volvopluteus
 
Specimens sequenced in this study (GenBank numbers marked in boldface), and sequences of the studied species in the public databases 
Distribution of Cortinarius brunneifolius in northern Europe according to the material examined  
Distribution of Cortinarius leiocastaneus in northern Europe according to the material examined  
Two new Cortinarius species, C. brunneifolius and C. leiocastaneus, are described based on molecular and morphological data. Cortinarius brunneifolius looks like a trivial brown Telamonia. It is characterised by the fairly dark brown cap and gills contrasting with the white stem. The major distinctive features are the refracting, colourless granules in the epicutis hyphae, broadly ellipsoid, equally verrucose spores, and fruitbody without bluish tints. Cortinarius leiocastaneus can be fairly easily recognised by the appearance of miniature brown Telamonia species, narrowly amygdaloid spores, and a habitat with Betula. Detailed descriptions of the species are provided as well as comparisons with macro- and microscopically similar existing telamonioid taxa. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus were studied by use of ITS rDNA sequence data. Ten new ITS sequences are published. Cortinarius brunneifolius and C. leiocastaneus are fairly closely related and belong to the subgenus Telamonia sensu stricto. The infrasubgeneric relationships were not well resolved, but the new species seem to be unrelated to the macroscopically similar species and do not clearly belong to any of the existing sections.
 
The Bayesian 50% majority-rule consensus tree inferred from ITS regions. PP >50 are indicated above branches and JK supports are marked below the branches. Bold name indicates the new species and
Cortinarius badiolaevis , Sweden, Upland. Närke commune, Ekebergsbrottet, 2004 Kytövuori, Liimatainen & Niskanen F04-960 (H, holotype). Photo K. Liimatainen 
Spores of Cortinarius badiolaevis (Kytövuori, Liimatainen & Niskanen F04-960, H, holotype). Drawing T. Niskanen
A new species, Cortinarius badiolaevis Niskanen, Liimat., Mahiques, Ballarà, Kytöv. in subgenus Telamonia, is described based on morphological and molecular data. Typical for the species is a dark brown cap, pale flesh, indistinct universal veil, small amygdaloid to ellipsoid spores [7.0–8.5 × 4.5–5.0(−5.5) µm], and dark exsiccata. It occurs in mesic to dryish coniferous forests, and grows in calcareous soil presumably with Pinus and Picea. So far, it is only known from Spain and Sweden, and considered rare. Based on the phylogenetic analyses of the ITS regions, it does not belong to any of the known sections, nor does it have any very closely related sister species. KeywordsTaxonomy–ITS–DNA
 
Simocybe montana, sp. nov. 1-7 (holotype, E. Horak 1334, ZT): 1 Basidiomes (nat. size, bar=20 mm). 2 Basidiospores (×2000, bar=10 μm). 3 Basidia (4-spored and 2-spored, ×1000, bar=20 μm). 4 Cheilocystidia (×1000, bar=20 μm). 5 Caulocystidia (×500, bar=40 μm). 6 Pileipellis (×500, bar=40 μm). 7 Basidiomes (E. Horak 2280, ZT, nat. size, bar=20 mm)
This paper describes the newly discovered species Simocybe montana, which grows in the alpine belt of the European mountains. The species is characterized by a central stipe, large (especially broad), broadly ellipsoid to amygdaliform spores, and occurrence on calcareous soils in the alpine belt. Full description and illustrations of macro- and micromorphological features of the new taxon are provided. KeywordsBasidiomycota–Alps–Carpathians–Taxonomy
 
Top-cited authors
Marc Stadler
  • Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research
Michael Weiss
  • Steinbeis Innovation Center
Franz Oberwinkler
  • University of Tuebingen
Kevin David Hyde
  • Mae Fah Luang University
Benjarong Karbowy-Thongbai
  • Julius Kühn-Institut