Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis

Published by Elsevier
Online ISSN: 0027-5107
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Article
Whole-blood cultures of human lymphocytes were exposed in the G2-phase (3.5 h before harvesting) to various doses of X-rays and post-treated for 3 h with inhibitors of DNA synthesis. The inhibitors used were 2'-deoxyadenosine (dAdo), hydroxyurea (HU) and 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C). To prevent deamination of dAdo by adenosine deaminase (ADA), the dAdo treatments were carried out in the presence of the ADA inhibitor coformycin. HU and Ara-C were used either alone or in combination. After the 3-h inhibitor treatments, the cultures were harvested and slides prepared and analyzed for chromatid aberrations in metaphase. When the inhibitors were used at concentrations high enough to cause marked chromosome damage by themselves, very low doses of X-rays (0.025-0.2 Gy) were sufficient to produce a dramatic increase in the frequency of chromatid aberrations. High frequencies of chromatid aberrations were also obtained when cultures that had received moderate doses of X-rays (0.4-0.8 Gy) were post-treated with low inhibitor concentrations that produce no or only a few aberrations by themselves.
 
Article
The initial yields of DNA-to-protein crosslinks (dpc) caused by ionizing and nonionizing radiations were compared, with emphasis upon values within the biological dose ranges (D0). Induction of dpc in cold (0-0.5 degrees C) human P3 teratocarcinoma cells was measured by using alkaline elution techniques after exposure to monochromatic UVC (254 nm), UVB (313 nm), UVA (365 and 405 nm), and blue light (434 nm). UVC and UVB light induced detectable numbers (about 100 dpc per cell per D0). Monochromatic UVA radiations produced yields about 8 times higher than UVC or UVB (for 365 nm, about 1500 dpc per cell per D0) Similar results at low doses were obtained for measurements of single-strand breaks induced by the different radiations. The action spectra for dpc were closely similar. The biological significance of these relatively high numbers of DNA lesions caused by environmental nonionizing radiation that readily penetrates into human skin is not understood.
 
Article
The study of DNA damage at the chromosome level is an essential part of genetic toxicology because chromosomal mutation is an important event in carcinogenesis. The micronucleus assays have emerged as one of the preferred methods for assessing chromosome damage because they enable both chromosome loss and chromosome breakage to be measured reliably. Because micronuclei can only be expressed in cells that complete nuclear division a special method was developed that identifies such cells by their binucleate appearance when blocked from performing cytokinesis by cytochalasin-B (Cyt-B), a microfilament-assembly inhibitor. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay allows better precision because the data obtained are not confounded by altered cell division kinetics caused by cytotoxicity of agents tested or sub-optimal cell culture conditions. The method is now applied to various cell types for population monitoring of genetic damage, screening of chemicals for genotoxic potential and for specific purposes such as the prediction of the radiosensitivity of tumours and the inter-individual variation in radiosensitivity. In its current basic form the CBMN assay can provide, using simple morphological criteria, the following measures of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity: chromosome breakage, chromosome loss, chromosome rearrangement (nucleoplasmic bridges), cell division inhibition, necrosis and apoptosis. The cytosine-arabinoside modification of the CBMN assay allows for measurement of excision repairable lesions. The use of molecular probes enables chromosome loss to be distinguished from chromosome breakage and importantly non-disjunction in non-micronucleated binucleated cells can be efficiently measured. The in vitro CBMN technique, therefore, provides multiple and complementary measures of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity which can be achieved with relative ease within one system. The basic principles and methods (including detailed scoring criteria for all the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity end-points) of the CBMN assay are described and areas for future development identified.
 
Article
Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is a common disease in the south part of China, and its incidence is increasing in the southwest of China in recent years. Radiation therapy is the main therapeutic method for NPC in China. In this study, genetic changes were assessed in randomly selected nine NPC patients receiving radiation therapy by different genotoxical screening methods, the cytokinesis-block micronucleus test (CB-MNT), the buccal mucosa cell micronucleus test (BMC-MNT), the undivided lymphocyte micronucleus test (UL-MNT), chromosomal aberration (CA) test, the comet assay and the hprt gene mutation test (HPRT). Patients were used as self-control before receiving radiation therapy. Apart from the UL-MNT, all the methods detected genetic damages in NPC patients, though with different sensitivities. CB-MNT is the best biological indicator for evaluating genetic damage induced by radiation therapy in NPC patients; followed by CA and HPRT, while the BMC-MNT is simplest method as a potential biological indicator.
 
Article
Currently, the cosmetics industry relies on the results of in vitro genotoxicity tests to assess the safety of chemicals. Although the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) test for the detection of cells that have divided once is routinely used and currently accepted by regulatory agencies, it has some limitations. Reconstituted human epidermis (RHE) is widely used in safety assessments because its physiological properties resemble those of the skin, and because it allows testing of substances such as hydrophobic compounds. Thus, the micronucleus test is being adapted for application in RHE-reconstructed tissues. Here we investigated whether two different reconstructed epidermis models (EPI/001 from Straticell, and RHE/S/17 from Skinethic) are suitable for application of the micronucleus test. We found that acetone does not modify micronucleus frequency, cell viability, and model structure, compared with non-treated RHE. Treatment of the EPI/001 model with mitomycin C and vinblastine resulted in a dose-dependent increase of micronucleus frequency as well as a decrease of tissue viability and of binucleated cell rate, while no changes of the epidermal structure were observed. The number of binucleated cells obtained with the RHE/S/17 model was too small to permit micronucleus testing. These results indicate that the proliferative rate of the tissue used is a critical parameter in performing the micronucleus test on a 3D model.
 
Article
This report describes a model for producing quantitative genetic risk assessments for human populations. The model is patterned after current methods used in cancer risk analysis. The risk to humans is expressed as the number of additional dominant genetic diseases added to the existing genetic burden, in the offspring of the exposed individuals.
 
Article
Cell fractions including heat-treated cells, crude cell walls, intracellular extracts and exopolysaccharides (EPSs) obtained from Lactobacillus casei 01 were first studied for their effects on the proliferation of human intestinal epithelial cells, intestine 407 and the human colon cancer cell, HT-29. Their effects on the cytotoxicity of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) against intestine 407 were further investigated. The results revealed that EPS exhibited the highest antiproliferation activity on HT-29 cells while the viability of intestine 407 cells was not affected by EPS at a concentration of 5-50μg/mL. It was also noted that all the cell fractions and EPS from L. casei 01 reduced the cytotoxicity of 4-NQO against intestine 407 with EPS showing the highest anticytotoxic activity. Additionally, it was found that EPS might exert blocking and bioanticytotoxic effects by both adjusting the function of intestine 407 and repairing the 4-NQO-damaged cells, thus reducing cytotoxicity of 4-NQO.
 
Article
In this study, we expanded the use of the genus Tradescantia to investigate the plant activation of promutagens and further refine the methodology of the plant cell/microbe coincubation assay. Liquid suspension cell cultures of Tradescantia clone 03 and Tradescantia clone 4430 were used to activate the promutagen m-phenylenediamine into a mutagenic compound which was detected by Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 in the plant cell/microbe coincubation assay. Optimum treatment parameters were established for both plant cell lines. Optimum was defined as the lowest concentration or shortest time period that provided consistently positive results and high rates of revertants. Preliminary experiments with both cell lines defined 2.5 mumoles m-phenylenediamine per plate as the optimum concentration to be used in the determination of the optimal coincubation period and the optimal concentration of plant cells. These experiments also determined the optimal physiological stage at which both clones should be used in the coincubation assay. Differences were found in the optimal of coincubation (1h for clone 03, 2 h for clone 4430) and growth stage (mid-log for clone 03, mid- to late-log for clone 4430). Similar activation responses were seen for both clones when the concentration of plant cells (mg/ml) was varied. Under optimized conditions, clone 03 cells demonstrated an approximately 10% higher activation response than clone 4430.
 
Article
The modes of genotoxicity of a novel macromolecular antitumor antibiotic (SN-07) were examined using both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells in vitro. The antibiotic induced a frameshift-type reverse mutation in Ames Salmonella typhimurium TA98 at 1.6-400 ng/plate with and without S9 mix. SN-07 also induced chromosomal aberrations and a forward mutation (6-TGr) in Chinese hamster V79 cells after 1 h treatment at 12.5-100 ng/ml without metabolic activation. The alkaline elution technique revealed that SN-07 induced interstrand DNA cross-linking dose-dependently after treatment with 2.5-10 micrograms/ml for 1 h followed by elution at pH 12.1, but it did not induce the dose-dependent cross-linking after the same treatment followed by elution at pH 12.6. It was also found that SN-07 induced single-strand DNA breaks (pH 12.1) and alkali-labile (pH 12.6) sites after treatment with 0.1-10 micrograms/ml for 1 h followed by 24-h post-incubation.
 
Article
The reproduction of phage T7 in the presence of hydroxylamine (HA) (mutagenesis in vivo) results in the phenotypic suppression of some amber mutants. The presence of O-methylhydroxylamine (OMHA) results in a similar effect, indicating a similar mechanism for the action of the two compounds. Since the rate of reaction of mutagen with nucleoside residues under these conditions in negligibly low, one of the most plausible explanations of this effect is the enzymic formation of modified precursors and their incorporation into bacterial tRNAs or phage-induced RNA.
 
Article
1,1-Dichloropropene (1,1-DCP) is a contaminant present in both ground and surface waters used as sources for drinking water. Structural similarity to several compounds with known mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, and recent demonstration of mutagenicity in vitro, suggest this compound may be similarly mutagenic in vivo. A transgenic fish model, the lamda transgenic medaka, was used to evaluate the potential mutagenicity of this contaminant in vivo following sub-chronic exposure for 6 weeks. Mutant frequencies of the cII target gene (MF) increased six-fold in the livers of fish exposed to the lowest 1,1-DCP exposure concentration (0.44 mg/L, MF = 18.4 x 10(-5), and increased with each treatment, culminating in a 32-fold induction in fish from the highest 1,1-DCP treatment (16.60 mg/L, MF = 96.3 x 10(-5). Mutations recovered from treated fish showed a distinctive mutational spectrum comprised predominantly of +1 frameshift mutations, induced 166-fold above that of untreated animals. The majority of frameshifts were +1 insertions at thiamine and adenine. These results represent the first evidence of mutagenicity of 1,1-DCP in vivo, and of the highly characteristic spectrum of induced mutations dominated by +1 frameshift mutations. Based upon results from previous in vitro studies, the similar role of glutathione S-transferase (GSTT1-1) in the activation of 1,1-DCP to a mutagen in vivo is also suggested. This study further illustrates the utility of the lamda transgenic medaka as a model for identifying and characterizing potential genetic health risks associated with chemical exposures in the environment.
 
Article
Chromosomal aberration and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) tests in vitro on 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), its two isomers, cis- and trans-1,2-DCE, and two possible metabolites of 1,1-DCE, chloroacetyl chloride and chloroacetic acid, were carried out using a Chinese hamster cell line, CHL. 1,1-DCE induced chromosomal aberrations in the presence of S9 mix prepared from the rat liver, but not in the absence of S9 mix. SCEs were also slightly induced by 1,1-DCE only in the presence of S9 mix. On the other hand, two isomers and two metabolites of 1,1-DCE induced neither chromosomal aberrations nor SCEs with and without S9 mix. 1,1-DCE, however, was negative even at a sublethal dose in the micronucleus test using mouse bone marrow, fetal liver and blood.
 
Article
Seven different recombinant bioluminescent strains of Escherichia coli containing, respectively, the promoters katG and soxS (responsive to oxidative damage), recA (DNA damage), fabA (membrane damage), grpE, and rpoE (protein damage) and lac (constitutive expression) fused to the bacterial operon from Photorhabdus luminescens, were used to describe the mechanism of toxicity of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (1,1-DMH) on bacteria, as well as to determine whether bacteria can sensitively detect the presence of this compound. A clear response to 1,1-DMH was observed only in E. coli carrying the katG'::lux, soxS'::lux, and recA'::lux-containing constructs. Preliminary treatment with catalase of the medium containing 1,1-DMH completely diminished the stress-response of the P(katG), P(recA), and P(soxS) promoters. In the strain E. coli (pXen7), which contains a constitutive promoter, the level of cellular toxicity caused by the addition of 1,1-DMH was dramatically reduced in the presence of catalase. It is suggested that the action of 1,1-DMH on bacterial cells is determined by hydrogen peroxide, which is formed in response to reduction of the air oxygen level.
 
Article
The mutagenic effect of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) was studied in the liver perfusion/cell culture system. Male Wistar rats, fed a selenium-deficient diet with or without selenium supplementation in the drinking water, were used as liver donors. UDMH caused an increased mutation frequency in Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed in the perfusate. The effect was statistically significant with both selenium-deficient and selenium-supplemented livers. With selenium-deficient livers, a significant mutagenic effect was also obtained when V79 cells were treated with bile collected after the administration of UDMH. Bile flow and bile acid excretion were not affected by UDMH treatment of selenium-deficient or selenium-supplemented livers. There was a tendency towards reduced C-oxygenation of N,N-dimethylaniline in microsomes from selenium-deficient livers perfused with UDMH. The lactate/pyruvate ratio in the perfusate was increased by UDMH, the effect being more pronounced with selenium-deficient than selenium-supplemented livers.
 
Article
1,1-Dichloropropene (1,1-DCPe) is a contaminant of some source waters used to make drinking water. Because of this and the fact that no toxicological data were available for this compound, which is structurally similar to the rodent carcinogen 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-DCPe), 1,1-DCPe was placed on the Contaminant Candidate List of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Consequently, we have performed a hazard characterization of 1,1-DCPe by evaluating its mutagenicity in the Salmonella assay and its DNA damaging (comet assay) and apoptotic (caspase assay) activities in human lymphoblastoid cells. In Salmonella, 1,1-DCPe was not mutagenic in strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, or TA104 +/-S9 mix. However, it was clearly mutagenic in strain RSJ100, which expresses the rat GSTT1-1 gene. 1,1-DCPe did not induce DNA damage in GSTT1-1-deficient human lymphoblastoid cells, and it induced apoptosis in these cells only at 5 mM. Consistent with its mutagenesis in RSJ100, 1,1-DCPe reacted with glutathione (GSH) in vitro, suggesting an addition-elimination mechanism to account for the detected GSH conjugate. 1,1-DCPe was approximately 5000 times more mutagenic than its ethene congener 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE or vinylidene chloride). Neither 1,1-DCE nor 1,3-DCPe showed enhanced mutagenicity in strain RSJ100, indicating a lack of activation of these congeners by GSTT1-1. Thus, 1,1-DCPe is a base-substitution mutagen requiring activation by GSTT1-1, possibly involving the production of a reactive episulfonium ion. This bioactivation mechanism of 1,1-DCPe is different from that of its congeners 1,1-DCE and 1,3-DCPe. The presence of 1,1-DCPe in source waters could pose an ecological or human health risk. Occurrence data for 1,1-DCPe in finished drinking water are needed to estimate human exposure to, and possible health risks from, this mutagenic compound.
 
Article
The epoxide hydrase inhibitor 1,1,1-trichloroprophane-2,3-oxide (TCPO) was genetically active to cells of S. cerevisiae and conidia of N. crassa. This genetic activity could be eliminated or reduced to near spontaneous levels in the presence of the S-9 fraction of hamster liver homogenate. The addition of TCPO to an in vitro activation system containing aflatoxin B1 resulted in an increase in the genetic activity of aflatoxin B1, and this increase was dependent on the dose of TCPO. These results are discussed in relation to the possible metabolism of the promutagen aflatoxin B1.
 
Article
1,1,1- and 1,1,3-trichloroacetones (TCA) result from the disinfection of municipal water supplies with chlorine, and are direct-acting mutagens in the Ames/Salmonella assay. The objective of this study was to further investigate the genotoxicity of these compounds in mammalian cells using an in vitro chromosomal aberration assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and the micronucleus and spermhead abnormality assays in mice. Both compounds induced significant increases in structural chromosomal aberrations in CHO cells in the presence and in the absence of rat S9 metabolic activation (MA). 1,1,3-TCA was more cytotoxic to CHO cells but 1,1,1-TCA resulted in a higher proportion of cells with aberrations. The clastogenic activities of both compounds were reduced in assays conducted with MA. Neither compound resulted in the induction of a significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes from bone marrow of Swiss-Webster mice when administered by oral gavage; nor were effects seen on the incidence of sperm with head-shape abnormalities, testis weight, or epididymal sperm concentration in B6C3F1 mice 21 or 35 days after treatment. These data indicate that the drinking water contaminants 1,1,1- and 1,1,3-TCA are clastogenic in vitro, but are not clastogenic to bone marrow cells in vivo, and do not adversely affect several indicators of testicular function in mice.
 
Article
1,1,2-Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely used halogenated solvent, produced in hundreds of millions of kg each year for industrial purposes. Occupational and environmental exposure of human populations to TCE has been reported in industrialized areas. Long-term carcinogenicity studies in rodents demonstrate that exposure to high doses of TCE results in the induction of liver and lung tumors in the mouse, and tumors of the kidney and the testis in the rat. An indirect mechanism, based on the stimulation of liver peroxisome proliferation by TCE metabolites, was proposed to explain species differences in TCE hepatocarcinogenicity. Mutagenicity studies indicate that TCE is weakly active both in vitro, where liver microsomes produce electrophilic TCE metabolites, and also in vivo in mouse bone marrow, where high rates of micronuclei, but no structural chromosome aberrations, are found. Among TCE metabolites, trichloroacetic acid was reported to be carcinogenic to mouse liver. Furthermore, both trichloroacetic acid and chloral hydrate were found to be genotoxic in vivo, inducing structural and numerical chromosome abnormalities, respectively.
 
Article
The nephrotoxic and nephrocarcinogenic potential of the haloalkenes is associated with the conjugation of the chemicals to L-glutathione. Subsequent processing of the haloalkene glutathione S-conjugates via the cysteine conjugate beta-lyase pathway in the mammalian kidney yields nephrotoxic and mutagenic species. To investigate whether S-conjugates of the model chlorofluoroalkenes 1,1,2-trichloro-3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propene (CAS # 431-52-7) and trichlorofluoroethene (CAS # 359-29-5) show comparable effects, we have synthesised the respective cysteine and glutathione S-conjugates and subjected them to the Ames test. The cysteine and glutathione S-conjugates of tetrachloroethene (CAS # 127-18-4), S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (TCVC) and S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl)glutathione (TCVG) were used as positive controls and reference substances. S-(1,2-dichloro-3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propenyl)-L-cysteine (DCTFPC) and S-(2,2-dichloro-1-fluorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCFVC) showed clear dose-dependent mutagenic effects with the Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA100 and TA98. Using TCVC as a reference substance the following ranking in mutagenic response was established: TCVC>DCTFPC>DCFVC. S-(1,2-dichloro-3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propenyl)glutathione (DCTFPG) and S-(2,2-dichloro-1-fluorovinyl)glutathione (DCFVG) showed potent dose-dependent mutagenic effects with the S. typhimurium tester strain TA100 in the presence of a rat kidney S9-protein fraction; tests carried out in the absence of the bioactivation system resulted only in background rates of revertants. Using TCVG as a reference substance the following ranking in mutagenic response was established: TCVG=DCTFPG>DCFVG. The data obtained provide a basis for further studies on the mutagenic and presumable carcinogenic potential of the substances.
 
Article
The main objective of this study was to compare the cytotoxic genotoxic and mutagenic activity of a number of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, which are widely used as chemical intermediates, solvents, degreasing agents etc. in industry, and to establish the structure-toxicity relationship of the chemicals by using the most adequate determinants in estimating their toxicity. The mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of some of the candidate chemicals, namely 1,2-dichloroethylene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,3-dichloropropane, 1,2,3-trichloropropane and 1,1,3-trichloropropene were evaluated in an in vitro micronucleus assay. The cytokinesis-block methodology was applied on human lymphocytes in the presence or absence of an external metabolic activation system (S9-mix). In the micronucleus assay, all test substances, except 1,2,3-trichloropropane with and without S9-mix and 1,1,2-trichloroethane without S9-mix in the repeated experiment, exhibited a low but statistically significant mutagenic activity, compared to the concurrent control. However, none of the five chemicals was able to induce a clear and reproducible linear dose-dependent increase in micronucleus frequencies in this assay. Generally, mutagenic activity of the chemicals was found in the absence of severe cytotoxicity and/or cell cycle delay. The DNA breakage capacity and the cytotoxicity of these chemicals were also assessed in the alkaline single cell gel (SCG) electrophoresis test (comet assay) with and without S9-mix in isolated human lymphocytes. All chemical compounds induced DNA breakage, in the presence or absence of the metabolic activation system, at the doses tested. The data showed that the DNA reactivity of the chemicals increased with increasing degree of halogenation. The results of the present work suggested that the comet assay might be a more suitable and sensitive screening method than the micronucleus test for this particular class of compound. However, both assays do detect different endpoints.
 
Article
In the presence of S9 mix all allylic chloropropenes tested exert considerable indirect mutagenic activity which is most pronounced for 1,2,3-trichloropropene. Lower as well as higher chlorinated derivatives are clearly less mutagenic. Longer than standard incubation time (120 min instead of 20 min) at 37 degrees C always leads to an increase in mutagenic activity. An increase in concentration of rat-liver homogenate fraction (S9) in the metabolising system (S9 mix) enhances mutagenicity only for 1,3-dichloropropene, 2,3-dichloro-1-propene and for the cis isomer of 1,1,2,3-tetrachloro-2-propene. According to the effects of the enzyme inhibitors SKF525 1,1,1-trichloropropene-2,3-oxide and cyanamide the allylic chloropropenes fall into 3 groups distinguished by their mode of metabolic activation by S9 mix: (a) allyl chloride and 1,3-dichloropropene are hydrolysed to the corresponding allylic alcohols which can be oxidised to the respective acroleins (hydrolytic-oxidative pathway); (b) 2,3-dichloro-1-propene, 1,1,2,3-tetrachloro-2-propene and hexachloropropene are epoxidised in the C=C double bond, giving rise to reactive epoxides (epoxidative pathway); (c) only 1,2,3-trichloropropene is obviously activated by both these alternative metabolic pathways. Structural parameters like chloro-substitution of the central C atom of the C=C-C sequence and substituent-induced polarisation of the C=C double bond as well as cis/trans isomerism might be responsible for different substrate properties for the enzymes involved in allylic chloropropene metabolism, thus determining different degrees of activation by either one or both pathways.
 
Article
6-Acetyl-1,1,2,4,4,7-hexamethyltetraline (AHTN) and 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-gamma-2-ben zopyran (HHCB), synthetic fragrance ingredients, were evaluated for potential genotoxicity in a battery of short-term tests. Salmonella typhimurium/Escherichia coli plate incorporation and liquid preincubation assays were conducted on AHTN using tester strains TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102, TA1535, TA1537 and WP2 uvrA +/- S9 activation at doses from 8 to 5000 micrograms/plate. The plate incorporation mutagenicity assay was conducted on HHCB using tester strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, TA1538 and WP2 uvrA +/- S9 activation at doses from 10 to 5000 micrograms/plate. An in vitro cytogenetics assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was conducted with AHTN and HHCB at three concentrations each with +/- S9 activation. In the non-activated study, the exposure/harvest periods were 4/20-, 20/20- and 44/44-h. In the S9 activated study, the exposure/harvest periods were 4/20- and 4/44-h. In vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assays were conducted in primary rat hepatocytes at concentrations between 0.15 and 50 micrograms/ml for AHTN and HHCB. In vivo mouse micronucleus assays were conducted with high doses of 1600 mg AHTN/kg and of 1500 mg HHCB/kg in corn oil. No positive responses were observed in any of the tests with HHCB. With AHTN, no positive responses were observed except for cells with structural aberrations in the in vitro cytogenetics assay in CHO cells with S9 activation at the treatment/harvest time of 4/20 h. In initial studies with AHTN, the high dose of 7.8 micrograms/ml showed 0.5% aberrant cells, with the mitotic index at 41% relative to vehicle control and cell growth inhibition in the range of 25-50%. Thus the genotoxicity findings with AHTN were limited to this one positive response; all other genotoxicity tests with AHTN were considered as negative. In particular, the negative finding in the in vivo assay supports AHTN as not likely to be mutagenic in mammalian systems. These considerations, along with other negative published data, lead to the conclusion that both AHTN and HHCB do not have significant potential to act as genotoxic carcinogens.
 
Article
Despite 2,9-dimethyl 1,10-phenanthroline (NC) has been extensively used as a potential inhibitor of damage due to oxidative stress in biological systems, the incubation of E. coli cultures with the copper ion chelator NC prior to the challenge with hydrogen peroxide caused a lethal synergistic effect. The SOS response seems to be involved in the repair of the synergistic lesions through the recombination pathway. Furthermore, there is evidence for the UvrABC excinuclease participation in the repair of the synergistic lesions, and the base excision repair may also be required for bacterial survival to the synergistic effect mainly at high concentrations of H2O2, being the action of Fpg protein an important event. Incubation of lexA (Ind-) cultures with iron (II) ion chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl simultaneously with NC prevented the lethal synergistic effect. This result suggests an important role of the Fenton reaction on the phenomenon. NC treatment was able to increase the number of DNA strand breaks (DNAsb) induced by 10 mM of H2O2 in lexA (Ind-) strain and the simultaneous treatment with 2,2'-dipyridyl was able to block this effect.
 
Article
It has been observed that when Escherichia coli cells are treated simultaneously with phenanthroline and H2O2, there is a lethal interaction. In order to analyze the mechanism of this lethal interaction, wild-type and xthA mutant cells of E. coli were treated with 2.5 mM H2O2 and 1 mM phenanthroline. This treatment was preceded by treatments with different metal chelators (dipyridyl for Fe2+, desferal for Fe3+ and neocuproine for Cu2+) or conducted simultaneously to other treatments with chelators and radical scavengers (thiourea, ethanol and sodium benzoate). The lethal interaction was observed in both the E. coli wild-type strain and xthA mutant strain, which is deficient in the exonuclease III repair enzyme. Nevertheless, the mutant strain was much more sensitive than the wild-type one. Dipyridyl pretreatment protected the cells against the lethal interaction, while desferal pretreament was unable to do so. This suggests that the lethal interaction requires Fe2+ and not Fe3+ ions. Ethanol and sodium benzoate were incapable of protecting bacterial cells against the lethal interaction. Even a 20-min pretreatment with benzoate did not confer protection. On the other hand, thiourea protected the cells completely. Based on our results, we propose that the lethal interaction may be caused not only by the reaction kinetics of phenanthroline and Fe, but also by the ability of phenanthroline to intercalate in DNA. After forming the mono and bis complexes, phenanthroline would serve as a shuttle and take the Fe2+ ions to the DNA. So, the Fenton reaction would take its course with the consequent generation of OH. radicals near DNA. This proximity to the DNA would protect the OH. radicals against the scavengers' action, thus optimizing the Fenton reaction.
 
Article
The effect of the metal chelating agent 1,10-Phenanthroline (PNT) on the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and mosquito (Aedes albopictus) cells was investigated. Treatment of CHO and mosquito cells with STZ produced a significant and dose-response increase in the yield of CAs as well as SCEs (p<0.05). The addition of PNT prevented the induction of CAs by STZ in both types of cells, causing a significant decrease in the frequency of STZ-induced CAs (46.5-72.5%) (p<0.05). This fact indicates that intracellular transition metals are implicated in STZ-induced CAs and that the Fenton reaction (Fe(2+)+H(2)O(2)-->OH degrees +OH(-)+ Fe(3+)) is partly responsible for the production of CAs by this compound. On the other hand, the addition of PNT to CHO and mosquito cell cultures did not prevent the induction of SCEs by STZ. Therefore, it is valid to assume that the induction of CAs and SCEs by STZ occurs by different mechanisms.
 
Article
Detecting genotoxicity in the liver is considered an effective approach for predicting hepatocarcinogenicity, as many genotoxic chemicals in vivo may act as hepatocarcinogens in rodents. Here, a genotoxic rodent hepatocarcinogen, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (1,2-DMH), and a genotoxic (Ames positive) noncarcinogen, 2,6-diaminotolunene (2,6-DAT), were administered orally to rats for up to 28 days, and liver samples were then examined in a repeated-dose liver micronucleus (MN) assay, and additionally tested in the bone marrow (BM) MN assay concurrently. We recently established a simple method to isolate hepatocytes without in situ liver perfusion procedures, and applied this method in the liver MN assay. As a result, 1,2-DMH increased the proportion of micronucleated hepatocytes in both a dose- and duration-dependent manner at relatively low-dose levels that are routinely used in repeated-dose toxicity studies. In contrast to 1,2-DMH, 2,6-DAT did not have a detectable effect. In addition to these two chemicals, two genotoxic rodent hepatocarcinogens, diethylnitrosamine and 2,4-diaminotoluene, which gave positive responses in the liver MN assay in our previous investigation [Narumi et al., Mutat. Res., 747, (2012) 234-239], were subjected to the BM MN assay and histopathological evaluation. All four test chemicals gave negative responses in the BM MN assay. Furthermore, the three hepatocarcinogens displayed hepatotoxicity, including hepatocellular hypertrophy and anisokaryiosis, but no abnormal findings were observed in the liver of rats treated with 2,6-DAT. Taken together, the present results indicate that the liver MN assay is effective for predicting hepatocarcinogenicity and may be integrated into repeated-dose toxicity studies without disturbing routine examinations, such as histopathology. Furthermore, with repeat-dose treatment protocols, our findings indicate that the liver MN assay is superior to the BM MN assay for detecting genotoxic or carcinogenic chemicals in rats.
 
Article
2-Amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1) is a mutagen and carcinogen isolated from a glutamic acid pyrolysate. When this 14C-labeled compound was administered to male F344 rats at a dose of 0.3 mCi (20.8 mg)/kg b.w., 70% of the radioactivity was excreted into the bile in 24 h. On HPLC analysis of this bile, several metabolites of Glu-P-1 were found with unmetabolized Glu-P-1. One of the mutagenic metabolites was identified as N-acetyl-Glu-P-1. This metabolite had a specific mutagenic activity of about one quarter of that of Glu-P-1 and its amount in the bile corresponded to a few percent of the dose of Glu-P-1 administered.
 
Article
A series of mutation experiments was carried out with Drosophila melanogaster using inhalation exposure. 1,2-Dichloroethane (DCE) and 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE) were active in the sex-linked recessive lethal assay (SLRLT), whereas dichloromethane, dibromomethane, 1,2-dichloropropane and 1,3-dichloropropane were not. Compared to DBE, DCE is a less potent mutagen in the SLRL system. For both compounds, there is no evidence of a clear-cut dose-rate effect. DCE and dichloromethane were also investigated in the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART), with results similar to those from the SLRLT. For DCE the genetic activity profile was further analyzed by carrying out a sex-chromosome loss assay and a complementation analysis of a series of induced recessive lethal mutations. A review of the use of inhalation in mutagenicity assays with Drosophila shows that this route of exposure is an effective one. Especially with chronic exposure times, rather low exposure concentrations can be detected. With compounds of intermediate volatility inhalation is not superior to other modes of administration; nor is it likely to be sensitive enough for in situ monitoring.
 
Article
The mutagenic effect of 2-amino-dipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-2) was compared with that of the 3-amino, 3-nitro, or 3-N-hydroxylated derivatives of the same base ring with methyl groups at positions 4 and 6 of the molecule. The compounds were tested in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 without metabolic activation and in the presence of different concentrations of subcellular fractions from livers or small intestines of rats pretreated with different P448/P450 inducers. The 4,6-dimethyl compounds are always more mutagenic than Glu-P-2. Pretreatment with Aroclor 1254 (ARO) is the most effective inducer in the activation of the 2- and 3-amino compounds by liver S9, whereas the same fraction decreases the mutagenicity of the 3-nitro derivative. S9 from small intestine increased the mutagenic effect of the 3-nitro and 3-N-hydroxylated compounds, but it was unable to activate the amino compounds.
 
Article
Our continued interest in naturally occurring mutagens has led us to examine the mutagenic activity of a series of 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds in the Salmonella/microsome assay. Several compounds in this class are of particular toxicological interest because they occur in various foods. Maltol, a product of carbohydrate dehydration, is found in coffee, chicory, soybeans, baked cereals, bread crusts and other products [4,5]. This compound and ethyl maltol, a synthetic homolog of maltol, are also used extensively as flavor-enhancing agents, particularly in carbohydrate-rich foods [10]. Kojic acid was originally isolated from mold-fermented rice. It is a metabolite of many microorganisms including several fungi used in food production [10]. Diacetyl is an aroma component of butter, beer, coffee and other foods [3,12,16,18]. In addition, glyoxal and some related 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds exhibit antiviral and carcinostatic properties [2,19]. We wish to report on the mutagenic activities of these and several other related compounds.
 
Article
Experiments were conducted to define the spectra of mutations occurring in Hprt exon 3 of T-cells isolated from spleens of female B6C3F1 mice and F344 rats exposed by inhalation to 1,3-butadiene (BD) or its reactive metabolite, (+/-)-diepoxybutane (DEB). Hprt mutant frequencies (Mfs) in BD-exposed (1250 ppm for 2 weeks or 625 ppm for 4 weeks; 6 h/day, 5 days/week) and DEB-exposed (2 or 4 ppm for 4 weeks or 5 ppm for 6 weeks; 6 h/day, 5 days/week) mice and rats were significantly increased over concurrent control values. Mutant T-cell colonies from control and treated animals were screened for mutations in Hprt exon 3 using PCR amplification of genomic DNA and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, followed by sequence analysis. Exon 3 mutations were found at the following frequencies: 20/394 (5%) in control mice, 56/712 (8%) in BD-exposed mice, 59/1178 (5%) in BD-exposed rats, 66/642 (10%) in DEB-exposed mice, and 51/732 (7%) in DEB-exposed rats. Mutations in exposed animals included base substitutions, small deletions (1 to 74 bp), and small insertions (1 to 8 bp), with base substitutions predominating. Among the types of base substitutions observed in mice, the proportions of G.C-->A.T transitions (p=0.035, Fisher's Exact Test) and G.C-->C.G transversions (p=0.05) were significantly different in control vs. BD-exposed animals. Given the small number of exon 3 mutants analyzed, there was a high degree of overlap in the mutational spectra between BD-exposed mice and rats, between BD- and DEB-exposed mice, and between BD- and DEB-exposed rats in terms of the sites with base substitutions, the mutations found at those mutated sites, the relative occurrence of the most frequently observed base substitutions, and the occurrence of a consistent strand bias for the most frequently observed base substitutions. The spectra data suggest that adduction of both G.C and A.T bps is important in the induction of in vivo mutations by BD metabolites in exposed mice and rats.
 
Article
Micronucleus induction in peripheral blood was examined during carcinogenicity assays of the genotoxic carcinogens 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), benzene, diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) in lymphoma prone E mu-PIM-1 transgenic mice. In both sexes, micronuclei were increased in polychromatic (PCE) and normochromatic (NCE) erythrocytes after 14 weeks of oral treatment with 75 mg/kg 2-AAF or 50 and 100 mg/kg benzene. The micronucleus frequencies induced by benzene were higher in males than in females. There was no apparent treatment related suppression of erythropoiesis by 2-AAF or by benzene. Blood micronucleus frequencies induced by benzene were similar in transgenic mice and their non-transgenic litter mates. There was no micronucleus induction or PCE suppression detected in the blood of either sex after treatment with 1 and 3 mg/kg DEN or 100 to 300 mg/kg 1,2-DCE. At 40 weeks bone marrow was sampled from mice given 100 mg/kg benzene, and it was confirmed that micronucleated PCE frequencies in blood were an accurate reflection of those induced in bone marrow. However, the spontaneous and induced frequencies of micronucleated cells in blood were slightly higher in PCE than in NCE suggesting that a small degree of selective removal of micronucleated cells occurs in this mouse strain. Control micronucleus frequencies in E mu-PIM-1 mice appeared comparable to those in other, non-transgenic mouse strains. Thus micronuclei are readily detectable in blood during chronic exposure to the bone-marrow clastogens 2-AAF and benzene, but not to DEN and 1,2-DCE, probably because active species do not reach the bone marrow in sufficient concentrations to induce increases in micronuclei.
 
Article
Mutagenic 1,2-dicarbonyls have been reported to occur in coffee and other beverages and in various foods. We have measured the induction of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and endoreduplicated cells (ERCs) to determine the genotoxicity of various 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) AUXB1 cells and human peripheral lymphocytes. The 1,2-dicarbonyls glyoxal, methylglyoxal and kethoxal each induced highly significant increases in both SCEs and ERCs in AUXB1 cells. Glyoxal and kethoxal induced SCEs but not ERCs in human peripheral lymphocytes. In addition, hydrogen peroxide induced highly significant levels of SCEs and ERCs in AUXB1 cells. Bisulfite, which reacts with carbonyl groups to form addition products, significantly reduced the frequency of SCEs and the proportion of ERCs when glyoxal, methylglyoxal, kethoxal and diacetyl were administered to AUXB1 cells. In addition, bisulfite blocked the formation of ERCs, but not SCEs, induced by hydrogen peroxide. These in vitro results suggest that 1,2-dicarbonyls may play an important role in the genotoxicity of some foods and beverages.
 
Article
Cytogenetic tests - chromosome aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and micronuclei (MN) - are most often applied in biomonitoring of the genotoxicity of potentially carcinogenic chemicals in human cells. One of the extensively studied genotoxins is diepoxybutane (DEB) - reactive biometabolite of butadiene (BD). Several studies showed a high SCE induction in human lymphocytes exposed in vitro to various concentrations of DEB. DEB also proved to be a potent inducer of chromosome aberrations and micronuclei. A bimodal distribution of SCE frequency after in vitro DEB treatment was observed. The aim of the present study was to examine the ability of DEB to induce different individual cytogenetic response measured by SCE and CA frequency. The possible influence of genetic polymorphism has also been taken into account, by including donors representing positive or null GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes. Our study supported the earlier results showing that DEB is an effective inducer of SCEs and CAs, causing also the decrease in replication index (RI). DEB bioactivity measured by SCE induction - but not by CA test - was significantly higher in GSTT1 negative than in GSTT1 positive donors. GSTM1 polymorphism had no influence on these endpoints. The donors GSTT1-/GSTM1+ were shown to be slightly more sensitive to DEB than GSTT1-/GSTM1- individuals. There was also observed a unimodal distribution of DEB-induced SCEs and CAs in the group, despite the fact that the experiment was performed on the lymphocytes obtained from both GSTT1 positive and negative donors.
 
Article
When ethylene dibromide (EtBr2) was assayed with the Chinese hamster ovary/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) system coupled with a rat liver metabolic activation system (S9), which contains Ca2+ (Ca, Mg-S9), the cytotoxicity of EtBr2 was greatly increased over that obtained when NADP was omitted from the Ca, Mg-S9 or when EtBr2 was assayed as a direct-acting agent. However, on a molar basis, the mutagenicity of EtBr2 remained unaffected. The omission of Ca2+ from the Ca, Mg-S9 metabolic activation system (Mg-S9), with either the addition or omission of NADP, caused approximately a 2-fold decrease in the mutagenicity of EtBr2 when compared to the results obtained by using the Ca, Mg-S9 system. The cytotoxicity of EtBr2 was further increased when a purified microsomal fraction, prepared from the S9 fraction, was used in the presence of Ca2+. In the absence of this calcium ion, this metabolic activation system was extremely cytotoxic to Chinese hamster ovary cells even without the presence of a mutagen or promutagen. The cytotoxicity of EtBr2 in the following assay systems decreased in this order: Ca, Mg-microsomes greater than Ca, Mg-S9 greater than S9 greater than direct-acting agent greater than or equal to Ca, Mg-S9 without NADP greater than or equal to Mg-S9 without NADP. Cytotoxicity appears to be NADP-dependent on the presence of NADP in the S9 system, the mutant yield (number of mutants that could be induced) was higher in its absence. Addition of reduced glutathione to Mg-S9 without NADP increased the mutagenicity of EtBr2 to values that did not exceed those obtained when EtBr2 was tested as a direct-acting agent. On a molar basis, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) is less cytotoxic but equally as mutagenic as EtBr2. However the mutant yield of EMS was higher than that of EtBr. Inclusion of Ca, Mg-S9 in the assay system had no effect on the biological activities of EMS.
 
Article
The expression of the DNA repair protein human O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) in Escherichia coli strains GWR109 or TRG8 that lack endogenous AGT greatly increased the toxicity and mutagenicity of 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE). Pretreatment of strain TRG8 expressing human AGT, which is permeable to exogenous drugs, with the AGT inhibitor O(6)-benzylguanine (BG) abolished the lethal and mutagenic effects of DBE, indicating that an active AGT is required for promoting DBE genotoxicity. This was confirmed by the observation that E. coli expressing either the C145A AGT mutant, which is inactive due to loss of the alkyl acceptor site, or mutants Y114E and R128A, which are inactive due to alteration of the DNA binding domain, did not enhance the action of DBE. However, the AGT mutant protein P138M/V139L/P140K, which is active in repairing methylated DNA but is totally resistant to inactivation by BG due to alterations in the active site pocket, was unable to enhance the genotoxicity of DBE. Similarly, other mutants, G156P, Y158H and K165R that are strongly resistant to BG, were much less effective than wild type AGT in mediating the genotoxicity of DBE. Mutant P140A, which is moderately resistant to BG, did increase mutations in response to DBE but was less active than wild type. These results suggest that human AGT is able to interact with a DNA lesion produced by DBE but, instead of repairing it, converts it to a more genotoxic adduct. This interaction is prevented by mutations that modify the active site of AGT to exclude BG.
 
Article
Bixin is a carotenoid found in the seeds of Bixa orellana L., a plant native to tropical America that is used in the food industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bixin on DNA damage and pre-neoplastic lesions induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in the liver and colon of Wistar rats. The animals received bixin at daily doses of 0.1, 1.0 and 10mg/kg body weight (bw) by gavage. For the assessment of DNA damage in hepatocytes and colon cells with the comet assay, the administration of bixin was for 7 days. The animals received a single subcutaneous injection of 25mg/kg bw of DMH, and were euthanized 4h later. For the evaluation of the frequency of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), the animals were treated with the different doses of bixin for 4 weeks. Four doses of 40mg/kg bw DMH, two doses in the first week and two doses in the second week, were administered and euthanasia occurred at 4 weeks after the beginning of treatment. Bixin reduced the frequency of DNA damage in hepatocytes at the highest two doses tested (1.0 and 10mg/kg bw). On the other hand, no differences in the frequency of DNA damage in colon cells were observed between animals treated with bixin plus DMH and those treated with DMH alone. In addition, the frequency of ACF did not differ significantly between the group treated with bixin plus DMH and the DMH group. The results suggest that bixin does not suppress the formation of ACF, indicating the absence of a protective effect against colon carcinogenesis.
 
Article
The spot test with 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) was carried out using male PW and female C57BL/6 mice. DBCP induced recessive colour spots in offspring with a significantly high frequency of 2.9%, showing that this chemical is mutagenic for somatic cells of mice in vivo.
 
Article
The methylating carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) CAS 540.73.8 is highly organ-specific and, under certain experimental conditions, produces a high incidence of adenocarcinoma in the colon of rodents. We have tried to assess the possibility that part of the organ-specifity in the carcinogenic effect of DMH could be attributed to its metabolism by specific microsomal enzymes. In particular, we compared the in vitro effects of DMH in the presence of either colon or liver microsomes from animals that had been treated with microsomal enzyme inducers. V79 Chinese hamster cells were used as the target to evaluate the damage to the genetic material, as judged by (1) formation of adducts of DNA bases and (2) amino acid modifications in nuclear proteins using [Me-14C]DMH and appropriate analytical detection systems. Our results tend to support the above postulated hypothesis.
 
Article
The effect of liver enzymes (S9) on the mutagenic response of nitroimidazoles and nitrofurans in the Ames test was evaluated with strain TA100. A diminished response was observed with a 5-nitroimidazole and 5-nitrofurans when the S9 preparation was incorporated in the agar layer. Preincubation with S9 under anaerobic conditions prior to adding the bacteria resulted in a greater and sometimes complete loss of the mutagenic effect. The loss of mutagenic potency was dependent on both incubation time and quantity of the S9 preparation. These results suggest that metabolites formed after reductive metabolism are neither mutagenic (presumably due to the loss of the nitro group) nor capable of activation to mutagenic metabolites. One 5-nitroimidazole, 3a,4,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-3-(1-methyl-5-nitro -1H-imidazol-2-yl)-1,2-benzisoxazole (MK-0436), gave an increased response in the presence of S9 in both the plate test and when preincubated under aerobic conditions. 7 metabolites were produced by the incubation. 4 monooxygenated metabolites were isolated and found to possess significant mutagenic activity. 2 synthetic dihydroxy analogs were more mutagenic than MK-0436. Similar results were obtained with S9 preparations from human liver and the livers of control, phenobarbital and Aroclor-1254 pretreated rats.
 
Article
In the present study the ability of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) to induce micronuclei in mouse bone marrow erythrocytes was investigated using 2 different dosing regimens. DMH caused an increase in micronuclei in both male and female mice following single administration and sampling after 24 h. The effect was more pronounced in female than in male animals. Triple administration of DMH at concentrations corresponding to 80, 40 and 20% of the median lethal dose (MLD) did not increase the incidence of micronuclei in either sex. Small increases in micronucleus incidence were observed after triple dosing at 100% of the MLD value. These results suggest that a future micronucleus protocol should include animals of both sexes and single and repeated administration of the test substance.
 
Article
3-Azido-1,2-propanediol (azidoglycerol, AG) showed a high mutagenicity in strain D7 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. At 5 mM it increased the spontaneous frequency of isoleucine revertants 3500 times and the frequency of gene convertants 3000 times during 24 h of growth, reducing the growth rate to 30%. In non-growth conditions, treatment with 150 mM of AG for 3 h reduced cell survival to 60% and enhanced the frequency of isoleucine revertants 490 times and tryptophan-independent convertants 50 times. At equal survival levels, AG was found to be 3000-fold more mutagenic and 200-fold more convertogenic than sodium azide.
 
Article
1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) is a potent colon carcinogen that is commonly used as an initiator in studies of the effects of diet on colon cancer. Previous studies have shown that although this compound produces multiple tumors in the colons in most individuals of every species tested, it is, at best, marginally mutagenic in the bone marrow (micronuclei) and small intestine (Dlb-1 mutations). Here we report its mutagenicity in the primary target tissue, the colonic epithelium, by means of the Mutatrade markMouse cII assay, an assay for intragenic mutations in a lambda shuttle vector that is integrated into the genome of these mice. Animals were treated with 0, 10, 20, or 30 mg/ml of DMH, either as a single injection or as multiple weekly injections, and mutations were measured in both the small intestine and colon. In the small intestine, there was an increase in mutant frequency following a single injection of DMH, but this was significant only at 30 mg/kg [induced mutant frequency (MF) = 18 x 10(-5) mutants/plaque]. In the colon, following a single treatment of DMH, there was a significant increase in mutant frequency at doses of 20 and 30 mg/kg (induced MF = 17 x 10(-5) and 23 x 10(-5) mutants/plaque, respectively). Following ten injections of 20 mg/kg of DMH, there was a greater than ten-fold increase in mutations in the colon (MF = 275 x 10(-5) mutants/plaque) than the small intestine (MF = 25 x 10(-5) mutants/plaque). These results show that DMH, under the conditions typically used for dietary studies, induces large numbers of mutations in the tissue in which it induces most cancers.
 
Article
Resistance to cisplatin in several murine leukemia L1210 cell lines is due to enhanced DNA repair. Other platinum complexes, particularly those containing 1,2-diaminocyclohexane (DACH) are of interest as they effectively kill both sensitive (L1210/0) and cisplatin-resistant (L1210/DDP) cell lines. An L1210/DACH cell line has been developed that is preferentially resistant to DACH-Pt complexes. In the current experiments, we investigated the role that DNA repair has in resistance to DACH-Pt compounds. The DACH ligand exists in 3 isomeric forms which exhibit markedly different activities in the various resistant cell lines. Generally, R,R-DACH-Pt was the most effective isomer. DNA repair was assayed by host-cell reactivation of platinated pRSVcat. DNA damage induced by all the isomeric DACH-Pt-SO4 complexes markedly reduced CAT expression in sensitive L1210/0 cells. One adduct per transcribed strand of the cat gene inhibited CAT expression demonstrating that the sensitive cells exhibited no detectable DNA repair. All the resistant cell lines reactivated the plasmid DNA whether damaged with cisplatin or any of the 3 DACH-Pt isomers. Therefore, resistance to both cisplatin and DACH-Pt appears to be mediated by enhanced DNA repair, but the level of reactivation of the transfected plasmid did not correlate with the toxicity of each analogue. These results suggest that some additional event(s) is responsible for the substrate specificity of repair of genomic DNA. These resistant cell lines also exhibited resistance to UV irradiation but this was much less than, and did not correlate with the degree of resistance to either cisplatin or DACH-Pt. However, there was a good correlation between resistance to UV irradiation and reactivation of UV-damaged plasmid DNA. This enhanced reactivation suggests that enhanced repair may be the sole reason for the resistance to UV irradiation.
 
Article
Induction of hprt mutations by 1,3-butadiene (BD) and its metabolites 1,2-epoxybutene (EB) and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB) was studied in lymphocytes from spleens of 6- to 14-week-old mice and 10- to 11-week-old rats. For unknown reasons, results from experiments with mice that received inhalation exposure to BD were quite variable. In the first experiment, mice were exposed for 5 days to 200, 500 or 1300 ppm and this resulted in a statistically significant, dose-dependent, induction of mutations. When the experiment was repeated and an extra expression time for mutations was included, it was not possible to detect induction of mutations. In a third experiment, a 6-day exposure to 500 ppm was mutagenic when mice with zero mutants were not excluded from the statistical analysis of the data. The monofunctional metabolite EB appeared to be mutagenic in mice (3 x 33 and 3 x 100 mg/kg), but not in rats (3 x 33 and 100 mg/kg or 30 days drinking water with 0.1, 0.3, or 1.0 mM EB). Contrary to expectations, there was no induction of mutations in mice and rats exposed to the bifunctional metabolite DEB (mice, 3 x 7, 21, 3 x 14, or 42 mg/kg; rats, 20 or 40 mg/kg or 30 days drinking water with 0.3 or 1 mM DEB), although in our earlier studies with mice and rats, DEB treatment significantly enhanced frequencies of micronuclei in splenocytes and in early spermatids of mice and rats. Some of these results differ from findings reported by other investigators. It is now becoming evident that these differences are, to a large extent, due to differences in age of the animals at the time of treatment. For example, the mutagenic potency of BD, EB and DEB was stronger in preweanling mice or 4-week-old mice than in 8- to 12-week-old adult mice.
 
Top-cited authors
Bruce Ames
  • University of California, Berkeley
Michael Fenech
  • Genome Health Foundation
Adayapalam T Natarajan
  • Tuscia University
Makoto Hayashi
  • makoto international consulting
Lynnette Robin Ferguson
  • University of Auckland