Movement Disorders

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Online ISSN: 1531-8257
Print ISSN: 0885-3185
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To study the efficacy of 0.2-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on Parkinson's disease (PD), 85 patients with PD were enrolled into three groups: 1). motor cortical, 2). occipital, and 3). sham stimulation. A round coil was centered over the vertex in motor cortical stimulation, and over the inion in occipital stimulation. In one session, 100 stimuli of 0.2-Hz rTMS at an intensity of 1.1 times active motor threshold (AMT) were given. In sham stimulation, electric currents were given with electrodes fixed on the head to mimic the sensation in real stimulation. Each session was carried out once a week for the first 8 weeks. The Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and subjective score (visual analogue scale) were assessed. There were no significant differences in clinical features among the three groups. Total and motor score of UPDRS were improved to the same extent by rTMS over Cz, inion, and sham stimulation. HRSD was improved by rTMS over Cz and sham stimulation in the same manner. Subjective score was not significantly improved by any methods of stimulation. 0.2-Hz rTMS at an intensity of 1.1 x AMT has only a placebo effect on PD. Our realistic sham stimulation maneuver must produce powerful placebo effects as a real stimulation.
 
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), localized to the lentiform nucleus, was carried out in 12 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), seven patients with multiple-system atrophy (MSA), seven patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and 10 healthy age-matched controls. The study assessed the level of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine-phosphocreatine (Cr), and choline (Cho) in the putamen and globus pallidus of these patients. NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr ratios were significantly reduced in MSA and PSP patients. No significant difference was found between IPD patients and controls. These results suggest an NAA deficit, due to neuronal loss, in the lentiform nucleus of MSA and PSP patients. 1H-MRS is a noninvasive technique that can provide useful information regarding striatal neuronal loss in basal ganglia of patients with atypical parkinsonian disorders and represents a potential tool for diagnosing these disorders.
 
We compared the efficacy and safety of ropinirole with that of bromocriptine after 6 months of treatment in a planned interim analysis of a 3-year, double-blind, randomized, multicenter study of 335 patients with early Parkinson's disease requiring dopaminergic therapy. Patients, treated with or without selegiline, received either ropinirole or bromocriptine. The mean Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) total motor examination scores (Part III) at baseline were similar in the four strata. Overall, and in the non-selegiline subgroup, the percentage improvement in the UPDRS total motor examination score was significantly higher for ropinirole than for bromocriptine, as was the proportion of "responders." In the selegiline subgroup, however, there was no significant difference between treatments. Similarly, in the non-selegiline subgroup, there was a significantly higher proportion of "improvers" on the Clinical Global Impression scale with ropinirole than with bromocriptine, whereas in the selegiline subgroup, there was no significant difference. Emergent adverse events occurred in 80% of patients in both treatment groups, the principal symptom in each group being nausea. The incidence of serious adverse events was low (3% for ropinirole, 6.6% for bromocriptine). The data indicate that (a) in the absence of selegiline, ropinirole is effective and superior to bromocriptine; and (b) selegiline does not affect the response in patients treated with ropinirole, but enhances the effects of bromocriptine.
 
The efficacies of ropinirole and levodopa were compared after 6 months of treatment in a planned interim analysis of a 5-year, double-blind, randomized, multicenter study of patients with early Parkinson's disease requiring dopaminergic therapy. The percentage of improvement in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale total motor examination score was significantly higher for levodopa (44%) than for ropinirole (32%). The proportion of "responders" (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale improvement of at least 30%) did not differ between groups (levodopa, 58%; ropinirole, 48%). There was no difference between the groups for improvement on the Clinical Global Impression scale in patients with Hoehn and Yahr stages I, I.5, or II, but a significantly higher proportion of patients with Hoehn and Yahr stages II.5 or III showed Clinical Global Impression score improvement with levodopa. Emergent adverse events occurred in 84% of patients in both treatment groups, the principal symptom in each group being nausea. The incidence of serious adverse events was low (8% for ropinirole, 9% for levodopa). The results suggest that ropinirole and levodopa are equally effective in less severe Parkinson's disease; in more advanced Parkinson's disease, levodopa is superior.
 
Levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) are a serious complication of levodopa therapy for Parkinson's disease for which there is little treatment. Accumulating evidence shows that nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) drugs decrease LIDs in parkinsonian animals. Here, we examined the effect of two β2 nAChR agonists, ABT-089 and ABT-894, that previously were approved for phase 2 clinical trials for other indications. Two sets of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned monkeys were administered levodopa/carbidopa (10 mg/kg and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively) twice daily 5 days a week until they were stably dyskinetic. Each set had a vehicle-treated group, an nAChR agonist-treated group, and a nicotine-treated group as a positive control. Set A monkeys had previously received other nAChR drugs (nAChR drug-primed), whereas Set B monkeys were initially nAChR drug-naive. Both sets were administered the partial agonist ABT-089 (range, 0.01-1.0 mg/kg) orally 5 days a week twice daily 30 minutes before levodopa with each dose given for 1 to 5 weeks. ABT-089 decreased LIDs by 30% to 50% compared with vehicle-treated monkeys. Nicotine reduced LIDs by 70% in a parallel group. After 4 weeks of washout, the effect of the full agonist ABT-894 (range, 0.0001-0.10 mg/kg) was assessed on LIDs in Set A and Set B. ABT-894 reduced LIDs by 70%, similar to nicotine. Both drugs acted equally well at α4β2* and α6β2* nAChRs; however, ABT-089 was 30 to 60 times less potent than ABT-894. Tolerance did not develop for the time periods tested (range, 3-4 months). The nAChR drugs did not worsen parkinsonism or cognitive ability. Emesis, a common problem with nAChR drugs, was not observed. ABT-894 and ABT-089 appear to be good candidate nAChR drugs for the management of LIDs in Parkinson's disease. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
 
N-0923, a novel aminotetralin dopamine D2 agonist, was shown to effectively reverse parkinsonian symptoms in nine dopa/agonist-responsive Parkinson's disease patients. The drug was given up to 4.5 hours by continuous intravenous (i.v.) infusion using an i.v. pump. The onset of anti-parkinsonian effect was seen within minutes of the initiation of the infusion and was absent within 90 minutes of cessation of the infusion. The short elimination half-life of N-0923 (90 min) would allow for the rapid initiation of drug effect when necessary and at the same time permit the effect to be terminated quickly if necessary. The drug would be useful in situations where oral medication is not feasible or is associated with erratic absorption. The patients tolerated the drug well. Dose escalation load was limited by nausea and vomiting. It should be noted that the doses were increased until these symptoms occurred, but therapeutic effects were noted well before the side effects occurred. Using a modified Columbia scale, maximum improvement consisted of a 27-95% drop in score. Maximum response was obtained at infusion rates varying from 2-16 microg/kg per hour and at blood levels of 0.11-1.49 microg/mL.
 
Certain aminotetralins are known to be potent dopamine D2 receptor agonists. N-0923, [-]2-(N-propyl-N-2-thienylethylamino)-5- hydroxytetralin HCl, recognizes the high and low affinity states of the D2 receptor in membranes from bovine caudate with a Klow of 79 nM. The selectivity ratio is D2/D1 = 15 and D2/alpha 2 = 1.4. N-0923 also inhibits dopamine uptake and prolactin secretion, and it is an antagonist at the alpha 2 receptor. N-0923 (3-300 nmol/kg, s.c.) induced dose-dependent contralateral turning behavior in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra. The ED50 of 30 nmol/kg was effective for 1 h. The positive enantiomer (N-0924; 300 nmol/kg, s.c.) was without effect. A hemiparkinsonian syndrome was induced in four Macaca nemestrina monkeys by unilateral infusion of the neurotoxin MPTP into the right carotid artery. Video recordings of free-moving behavior revealed bradykinesia, disuse of the contralateral upper limb and turning in a direction ipsilateral to the lesion. N-0923 (3-300 nmol/kg, i.m.) induced contralateral turning behavior, exploratory activity, and contralateral limb usage. The ED50 for turning (30 nmol/kg) was effective for 0.5 h. The potency order for induction of contralateral rotations was (+)-PHNO > N-0923 > bromocriptine. N-0924 (300 nmol/kg, i.m.) was ineffective. We conclude that N-0923 may be useful as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
 
Parkinson's disease (PD) can present with a variety of motor disorders that fluctuate throughout the day, making assessment a challenging task. Paper-based measurement tools can be burdensome to the patient and clinician and lack the temporal resolution needed to accurately and objectively track changes in motor symptom severity throughout the day. Wearable sensor-based systems that continuously monitor PD motor disorders may help to solve this problem, although critical shortcomings persist in identifying multiple disorders at high temporal resolution during unconstrained activity. The purpose of this study was to advance the current state of the art by (1) introducing hybrid sensor technology to concurrently acquire surface electromyographic (sEMG) and accelerometer data during unconstrained activity and (2) analyzing the data using dynamic neural network algorithms to capture the evolving temporal characteristics of the sensor data and improve motor disorder recognition of tremor and dyskinesia. Algorithms were trained (n = 11 patients) and tested (n = 8 patients; n = 4 controls) to recognize tremor and dyskinesia at 1-second resolution based on sensor data features and expert annotation of video recording during 4-hour monitoring periods of unconstrained daily activity. The algorithms were able to make accurate distinctions between tremor, dyskinesia, and normal movement despite the presence of diverse voluntary activity. Motor disorder severity classifications averaged 94.9% sensitivity and 97.1% specificity based on 1 sensor per symptomatic limb. These initial findings indicate that new sensor technology and software algorithms can be effective in enhancing wearable sensor-based system performance for monitoring PD motor disorders during unconstrained activities. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.
 
In spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs), up to 30% of patients complain of restless legs syndrome (RLS). In primary RLS, a putative role of the dopaminergic system has been postulated. To assess dopaminergic function in SCA1, 2, and 3, dopamine D(2) receptor binding potential (BP) was assessed by [(11)C]raclopride positron emission tomography in 10 SCA patients, 4 of whom suffered from RLS as demonstrated by polysomnography. BP was compared to 9 age-matched control subjects. In 2 SCA patients, striatal BP was clearly reduced (<2 SD below the mean of controls). However, there were no significant group differences between SCA and controls, largely owing to a significantly higher variance of striatal BP in SCA. BP was negatively correlated with disease duration. The fit suggests an increased BP in early stages, followed by a moderate decline in all quantified regions (caudate, dorsal putamen, ventral striatum) presumably reflecting a progressive loss of D(2) receptors. RLS in SCA was not accompanied by a significant reduction of D(2) receptor availability in the striatum. This missing correlation may point to an extrastriatal origin of RLS.
 
At present, the pharmacotherapy of Parkinson's disease (PD) consists mainly of L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and/or dopamine D2 receptor agonists. However, in general the clinical efficacy of D2 agonists is less than that of L-DOPA. Therefore, attention is being focussed on the role of the D1 receptor as a target for therapeutic intervention in PD. Recently, we reported that SKF 81297 is a selective D1 agonist that stimulates motor behavior of unilaterally MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)-lesioned rhesus monkeys. Presently, we studied the effect of coadministration of SKF 81297 and the D2 agonist LY 171555 using the same model of PD. Coadministration of behaviorally active doses of SKF 81297 (0.3 mg/kg) and LY 171555 (0.01 mg/kg) resulted in a prolongation of the motor stimulation induced by either of the drugs alone. Neither administration of SKF 81297, in a dose of 0.03 mg/kg, nor of LY 171555, in a dose of 0.003 mg/kg, were behaviorally active, whereas the combined administration of these compounds induced a significant stimulation of motor behavior. These data suggest that (a) D1 receptor stimulation will prove to be useful in the treatment of PD and (b) better therapeutic results will be obtained by simultaneous stimulation of D1 and D2 receptors as compared with stimulation of both receptors alone.
 
The present study examines the motor responses of 10- to 12-month-old, male C57 mice that were either given intraperitoneal (IP) injections of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP; 30 mg/kg per day) or vehicle for 10 consecutive days, followed by IP injections of levodopa (200 mg/kg) plus carbidopa (25 mg/kg). Five days of MPTP exposure resulted in the Straub tail phenomenon and pronounced hypokinesia. However, during the next 5 days, motor activity returned to baseline, even with continued MPTP treatment. After 10 to 14 days of rest, all mice were then treated with levodopa/carbidopa twice daily for multiple, consecutive days. However, only the previously MPTP-treated animals became hyperkinetic, as compared to levodopa-treated control animals that were not previously exposed to MPTP. Abnormal activity included scratching, running, gnawing, and jumping movements. Hyperactivity lasted for approximately 2 hours after each levodopa injection and then returned to baseline, but the amount of hyperkinesia increased with additional days of levodopa treatment, even though the daily levodopa dose was not changed. These results demonstrate that levodopa can cause reproducible hyperactivity in mice that were previously exposed to MPTP.
 
In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) models of Parkinson's disease (PD), dopaminergic (DA) neurons have been shown to die by apoptosis. Moreover, recent postmortem and in vitro results have indicated that apoptotic cell death induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) may be mediated by caspase-3. To establish whether caspase-3 activation may indeed play a role in an in vivo model of PD, we studied caspase-3 activation in C57Bl/6 mice subchronically intoxicated with MPTP. We show that caspase-3 activation peaks early, at days 1 and 2 after the end of MPTP intoxication. In contrast, pycnotic neurons persist until day 7 postintoxication, indicating that caspase-3 activation is an early and transient phenomenon in apoptotic death of DA neurons. We further demonstrate that loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in this model is indeed due to cell loss rather than to loss of TH protein expression. We conclude that mice subchronically intoxicated with MPTP represent a valid PD model to study and manipulate caspase activation in vivo.
 
Six young adult marmosets received 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in multiple doses (total 8-16 mg/kg over 2-13 days) sufficient to produce a parkinsonian syndrome and were killed up to 3.5 months later. Cellular changes were found in the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and hypothalamus. The earliest histological abnormalities were axonal swellings in proximal parts of nigrostriatal axons. Subsequent changes in the substantia nigra were reduced Nissl staining, reduced cell volume, and aggregation and loss of melanin granules. Other effects were reduced nuclear and nucleolar volumes, depletion of cells, and hyperplasia of glial cells. Shrunken cytoplasm and nuclei stained uniformly with eosin, and no cells showed cytoplasmic swellings or inclusions. These cellular alterations, with nuclear changes resembling karyolysis, do not occur in Parkinson's disease, which is characterised by Lewy body inclusions and signs of chromatolysis. The rapid appearance of axonal swellings, disruption of Nissl substance, and cell shrinkage suggest an insult to energy producing mechanisms. In this study, the absence of histological evidence of toxicity in the locus coeruleus and also in the substantia innominata and in serotonergic cell groups is unlike the more widespread degenerative changes of Parkinson's disease.
 
Central to the neural mechanism of MPTP-induced parkinsonism is overactivity of the subthalamic nucleus. Lesion of the subthalamic nucleus has therefore been performed in two primates with this condition and found to produce a remarkable amelioration of the disorder.
 
The D2 dopamine agonist piribedil is not widely used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease because it was thought to be effective mainly on parkinsonian tremor and to produce a high incidence of peripheral side effects, particular nausea. In this study, we used 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated primates to reevaluate the antiparkinsonian ability of piribedil after its oral administration in the presence or absence of domperidone pretreatment. Adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were treated with the nigral toxin MPTP to induce a parkinsonian syndrome characterised primarily by bradykinesia and other motor deficits. Oral administration of a solution of piribedil [1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)-4-(2-pyrimidinyl)piperazine] produced a dose-related reversal of all MPTP locomotor and behavioural deficits. However, this effect was short lived and associated with unwanted effects, particular nausea and retching, which clearly hindered locomotion. In contrast, after pretreatment with the peripheral dopamine antagonist domperidone, administration of piribedil did not induce nausea or retching in MPTP-treated marmosets. In these animals, piribedil caused a more marked and longer lasting enhancement of locomotor activity and a further reduction in behavioural deficits than that observed after administration of piribedil alone. In addition, piribedil induced increased vigilance and awareness. These data show that piribedil can reverse akinesia and rigidity in MPTP-treated primates. In addition, they show the drug to be effective without peripheral side effects when used in conjunction with domperidone. These data indicate that piribedil should be an effective monotherapy for Parkinson's disease.
 
The motor effects of the short-acting, full D1 agonist SKF 82958 were studied in three drug-naive, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned, parkinsonian monkeys treated for 4 weeks. D1 receptor stimulation with SKF 82958 effectively relieved parkinsonism but induced choreic dyskinesia (n = 2) and a shorter duration of motor benefit (n = 3) over time. Isolated, short-lived D1 receptor activation would not appear to confer advantage over levodopa for dyskinesia prevention. Our data also support the involvement of postsynaptic dopamine receptor mechanisms in the wearing-off phenomenon seen in levodopa-treated parkinsonian patients.
 
The effect of the barbiturate T2000 (1,3-dimethoxymethyl-5,5-diphenyl-barbituric acid; DMMDPB) on essential tremor, given in twice daily doses of 400 and 300 mg, was assessed in two brief, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, double-blinded, single-center trials in 12 and 22 patients, respectively. These trials represent the first clinical use of T2000 for a specific indication. The primary endpoint was the change in the mean scores of the treated and control groups based on the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin tremor scale. In the first study of 12 patients treated with 400 mg or placebo twice daily for 14 days, the mean change from baseline at day 14 was 19.3 (P < 0.0001) in the treated group and 9.0 (P = 0.0121) in the control group. Using a two-factor mixed ANOVA model to evaluate within group and between group changes, the effect of T2000 was significantly different from that of the placebo group (P = 0.03). In the second study of 22 patients treated with 300 mg of T2000 or placebo twice daily for 20 days, statistically significant changes were seen in treated patients compared to baseline, but the ANOVA model did not demonstrate a significant treatment effect of T2000 compared to placebo. When the treated groups from each study are compared, the 800-mg daily group is significantly different from the 600-mg daily group (P = 0.02). Some treated patients in each study, but no placebo patients, experienced marked improvement. These results support further evaluation of T2000 in the treatment of essential tremor.
 
Data on the frequency of alpha-synuclein mutations in Parkinson's disease (PD) are limited. Screening the entire coding region in 1,921 PD patients with denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and subsequent sequencing we only detected silent mutations (g.2654A>G, g.10151G>A, and g.15986A>T) and the c.209G>A substitution corresponding to the p.A53T mutation. These results demonstrate that mutations in the alpha-synuclein gene are rare and suggest that other factors contribute to alpha-synuclein aggregation in the majority of PD patients.
 
Glutamate antagonists decrease dyskinesia and augment the antiparkinsonian effects of levodopa in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we investigated the acute effects of placebo and two doses of a NR2B subunit selective NMDA glutamate antagonist, CP-101,606, on the response to 2-hour levodopa infusions in 12 PD subjects with motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Both doses of CP-101,606 reduced the maximum severity of levodopa-induced dyskinesia approximately 30% but neither dose improved Parkinsonism. CP-101,606 was associated with a dose-related dissociation and amnesia. These results support the hypothesis that glutamate antagonists may be useful antidyskinetic agents. However, future studies will have to determine if the benefits of dyskinesia suppression can be achieved without adverse cognitive effects.
 
Studies of resting regional cerebral glucose consumption (rCMRGlc) in nondemented patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have produced conflicting results, reporting both reduced and normal metabolism in advanced disease and reduced or normal metabolism after dopaminergic therapy. To investigate these issues, [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) was performed in 11 nondemented PD patients with advanced disease and 10 age-matched controls. PD patients were studied after withdrawal of all dopaminergic medication to produce a practically defined off condition, and a second time 1 hour after levodopa, resulting in a clinical on state. Dynamic PET scans and simultaneous arterialised venous blood samples of [(18)F] activity were obtained. A graphical approach was used to generate parametric images of rCMRGlc and statistical parametric mapping to localise significant metabolic changes in PD. Compared with controls, global rCMRGlc was reduced in the on but not in the off condition in PD. In both states, significant regional reductions of glucose uptake were found in the parietal, frontal, temporal cortex, and caudate nucleus. Reductions correlated with the severity of disability in frontal and temporal cortex. Direct comparison between on and off conditions revealed relatively greater reductions of uptake in the ventral/orbital frontal cortex and the thalamus during on. Results suggest that cortical and caudate hypometabolism are common in advanced PD and that caution is mandatory if [(18)F]FDG PET is being used to differentiate advanced PD from dementia and progressive supranuclear palsy where similar reductions are seen. Furthermore, in PD, administration of levodopa is associated with further hypometabolism in orbitofrontal cortex; an area known to be relevant for reversal learning where performance is typically impaired after dopaminergic treatment.
 
Sites of involvement of autonomic gastrointestinal control areas in Parkinson disease (PD). (A) Comparison of numbers of cholinergic neurons in the in dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus in a control subject and in a subject with PD, as determined at post-mortem examination of a section of the medulla immunostained for choline acetyl transferase. (B) Alpha-synuclein immunoreactive Lewy body and Lewy neurites in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus.
Extrinsic innervation of the gut
Disorders of swallowing and gastrointestinal motility are prominent nonmotor manifestations of Parkinson disease (PD). Motility of the gut is controlled both by extrinsic inputs from the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) and paravertebral sympathetic ganglia and by local reflexes mediated by intrinsic neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS). Both the ENS and the DMV are affected by Lewy body pathology at early stages of PD. This early involvement provides insights into the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal dysmotility in this disorder and may constitute an important step in the etiopathogenesis of Lewy body disease.
 
We used electroencephalography (EEG)-polygraphic recordings to classify myoclonus in 109 patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) on the basis of its electromyography (EMG) pattern, time course, distribution, and EEG correlates. We recorded myoclonic jerks in 55 patients (50.4%), and we classified them as periodic myoclonus in 28, rhythmic in 13, and irregular in 20 (6 patients showed two types of myoclonus). Myoclonus occurred as a prominently negative event (interrupting the EMG discharge) in 10. Periodic sharp-wave complexes (PSWCs) were present in all but one patient with myoclonic jerks but were time-locked with EMG-bursts only in case of periodic myoclonus. Jerk-locked back averaging revealed a variable EEG-EMG transfer-time commonly exceeding that characterizing cortical myoclonus. Myoclonus was frequently associated with Met/Met polymorphism at codon 129 of the prion protein gene, but it was also observed in association with Met/Val or Val/Val polymorphisms provided that the EEG showed the presence of the PSWC pattern. The presence of enlarged somatosensory evoked potentials significantly correlated with the myoclonic presentation, as did MR signal hyperintensity involving the cortical mantle. Our observations on the basis of standard polygraphic criteria suggest that CJD associates with a remarkable variety of myoclonic jerks, and therefore different brain structures are probably involved as generators. The significant association between the presence of all myoclonus types with PSWCs suggests that hyperexcitable corticosubcortical loops are always required to generate (or allow) both myoclonus and the EEG complexes, either they are time locked or not.
 
Positron emission tomography (PET) using [(11)C]PK 11195, a ligand for peripheral benzodiazepine receptor binding sites, offers the opportunity to image activated microglia in vivo. This tool may therefore be used to display the occurrence of microglial activation in the course of neurodegeneration. A patient with the clinical diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and left-sided symptoms was studied using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and [(11)C]PK 11195 PET. We found a marked right hemispheric hypometabolism and asymmetric microglial activation in corresponding areas of the basal ganglia and right temporal and parietal cortex. [(11)C]PK 11195 PET suggests involvement of microglial activation in the pathogenesis of CBD.
 
Pallidal stimulation is a convincing and valid alternative for primary generalized dystonia refractory to medical therapy or botulinum toxin. However, the clinical outcome reported in literature is variable most likely because of heterogeneity DBS techniques employed and /or to clinical dystonic pattern of the patients who undergo surgery. In this study, we report the long term follow up of a homogeneous group of eleven subjects affected by segmental dystonia who were treated with bilateral stimulation of the Globus Pallidus pars interna (GPi) from the years 2000 to 2008. All the patients were evaluated, before surgery and at 6-12-24-36 months after the treatment, in accordance with the Burke Fahn Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS). Our study indicates that DBS promotes an early and significant improvement at 6 months with an even and a better outcome later on. The analysis of specific sub items of the BFMDRS revealed an earlier and striking benefit not only as far as segmental motor function of the limbs but also for the complex cranial functions like face, (eyes and mouth), speech and swallowing, differently from results reported in primary generalized dystonia. Deep Brain Stimulation of GPi should be considered a valid indication for both generalized and segmental dystonia when other therapies appear ineffective.
 
Increasing evidence suggests that neuroinflammation is an active process in Parkinson's disease (PD) that contributes to ongoing neurodegeneration. PD brains and experimental PD models show elevated cytokine levels and up-regulation of inflammatory-associated factors as cyclo-oxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide oxidase. Antiinflammatory treatment reduced neuronal degeneration in experimental models. In this review, we summarize the place of neuroinflammation in the pathophysiology of PD. In vivo PET studies are discussed. These methods provide a means to monitor in vivo potential clinical relevance of antiinflammatory treatment strategies in PD.
 
Placebo-associated improvements have been previously documented in small series of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Using a strict definition of placebo-associated improvement, we examined rates and timing of placebo responses to identify patient- and study-based characteristics, predicting positive placebo response in several PD clinical trials. We collected individual patient data from the placebo groups of 11 medical and surgical treatment trials involving PD patients with differing PD severities and placebo-assignment likelihoods. We defined a positive placebo response as > or = 50% improvement in total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor (UPDRSm) score or a decrease by > or = 2 points on at least two UPDRSm items compared to baseline. We calculated positive placebo response rates at early (3-7 weeks), mid (8-18 weeks), and late (23-35 weeks) stages of follow-up. Odds ratios for patient- and study-based characteristics were obtained from a model fitted using generalized estimating equations. There were 858 patients on placebo who met inclusion criteria for analysis. Three studies involved patients without need of symptomatic treatment, two involved patients without motor fluctuations needing symptomatic treatment, and six (three medical and three surgical) involved patients with motor fluctuations. The overall placebo response rate was 16% (range: 0-55%). Patients with higher baseline UPDRSm scores and studies that focused on PD with motor fluctuations, surgical interventions, or those with a higher probability of placebo assignment showed increased odds of positive placebo response. Placebo responses were temporally distributed similarly during early, mid, and late phases of follow-up. Placebo-related improvements occur in most PD clinical trials and are similarly distributed across all 6 months of follow-up. Recognition of factors that impact placebo response rates should be incorporated into individual study designs for PD clinical trials.
 
This study investigated whether abnormalities in serotonin transporter binding occur in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with concurrent depression. We estimated serotonin transporter levels in seven clinically depressed early-stage PD patients and in seven healthy matched-control subjects during a single positron emission tomography (PET) scan with the serotonin transporter radioligand, [(11)C]DASB. Depressed PD patients displayed a wide-spread increase (8-68%) in [(11)C]DASB specific binding outside of the striatum, which was significant in dorsolateral (37%) and prefrontal (68%) cortices. Elevated [(11)C]DASB binding was positively correlated with depressive symptoms but not with disease severity or duration. Compatible with recent PET/[(11)C]DASB findings in major depression, the present preliminary data suggest that increased [(11)C]DASB binding, possibly reflecting greater serotonin transporter density (up-regulation), might be a pathological feature of depression in Parkinson's disease-and possibly a characteristic of depressive illness in general.
 
11C]-(+)-PHNO binding for healthy control subjects (open circle), l-dopa–treated Parkinson's patients without (pale gray circles) and with impulse control disorders (dark gray circles). SN, Substantia Nigra; LST, limbic striatum; AST, associative striatum; SMST, sensorimotor striatum; GP, globus pallidus; VP, ventral pallidum. *P ≤ 0.005; §P ≤ 0.05.
T-statistical maps illustrating (A) greater [11C]-(+)-PHNO BPND in dorsal striatum of l-dopa–treated Parkinson's patients with impulse control disorders than healthy control subjects (threshold p-FWE corrected = 0.01); and (B) lower [11C]-(+)-PHNO BPND in ventral striatum of Parkinson's patients with versus without impulse control disorders (threshold P-uncorrected = 0.05).
Correlation between [11C]-(+)-PHNO binding in ventral striatum of Parkinson's patients with impulse control disorders and gambling severity as rated with the South Oaks Gambling Scale (SOGS) and DSM-IV Questionnaire for Pathological Gambling (DSM-IV PG).
Dopamine agonist medications with high affinity for the D3 dopamine receptor are commonly used to treat Parkinson's disease, and have been associated with pathological behaviors categorized under the umbrella of impulse control disorders (ICD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether ICD in Parkinson's patients are associated with greater D3 dopamine receptor availability. We used positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand imaging with the D3 dopamine receptor preferring agonist [(11) C]-(+)-propyl-hexahydro-naphtho-oxazin (PHNO) in Parkinson's patients with (n = 11) and without (n = 21) ICD, and age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy control subjects (n = 18). Contrary to hypotheses, [(11) C]-(+)-PHNO binding in D3 -rich brain areas was not elevated in Parkinson's patients with ICD compared with those without; instead, [(11) C]-(+)-PHNO binding in ventral striatum was 20% lower (P = 0.011), correlating with two measures of ICD severity (r = -0.8 and -0.9), which may reflect higher dopamine tone in ventral striatum. In dorsal striatum, where [(11) C]-(+)-PHNO binding is associated with D2 receptor levels, [(11) C]-(+)-PHNO binding was elevated across patients compared with controls. We conclude that although D3 dopamine receptors have been linked to the occurrence of ICD in Parkinson's patients. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that D3 receptor levels are elevated in Parkinson's patients with ICD. We also did not find ICD-related abnormalities in D2 receptor levels. Our findings argue against the possibility that differences in D2/3 receptor levels can account for the development of ICD in PD; however, we cannot rule out that differences in dopamine levels (particularly in ventral striatum) may be involved. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
 
Familial Parkinsonism (PARK) genes are strong candidates for conferring susceptibility to common forms of PD. However, most studies to date have provided little evidence that their common variants substantially influence disease risk. Recently, mutations were described in the gene, GIGYF2 (TNRC15), located at the PARK11 locus (2q37.1). Here, we use a haplotype tagging approach to examine common variation in the GIGYF2 gene and PD risk. PD cases (n = 568) and age and gender-matched control subjects (n = 568) were recruited from three specialist movement disorder clinics in Brisbane (Australia) and the Australian electoral roll. Twelve tagging SNPs were assessed in all subjects and haplotype and genotype associations were explored. Overall our findings suggest that common genetic variants of GIGYF2 do not significantly affect sporadic PD risk in Australian Caucasians.
 
Task-specific focal upper limb dystonia can be part of the phenotypic spectrum of different types of hereditary dystonia. We investigated whether writer's cramp as presenting symptom is associated with mutations in DYT11, DYT16, or with the DYT1 GAG deletion in 43 patients. No DYT11 and DYT16 mutations were identified. One patient carried the GAG deletion in the DYT1 gene. In our cohort, writer's cramp as presenting symptom is not associated with mutations in DYT11, DYT16, but it can be the sole manifestation of DYT1 GAG deletion mutation carriers.
 
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative disease presenting with voluntary gaze difficulties, early falls, and Parkinsonism. Neuronal loss, associated with intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and activated microglia, is found targeting the basal ganglia, brainstem nuclei, and frontal cortex. [11C](R)-PK11195 PET is a marker of peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites (PBBS) expressed by activated microglia. We have used [11C](R)-PK11195 PET to demonstrate in vivo the degree and distribution of the glial response to the degenerative process in four patients with PSP. Compared to normal age-matched controls, the PSP patient group showed significantly increased mean [11C](R)-PK11195 binding in the basal ganglia, midbrain, the frontal lobe, and the cerebellum. Two of the patients were rescanned after 6 to 10 months and during that time the level of microglial activation remained stable. [11C](R)-PK11195 PET reveals a pattern of increased microglial activation in PSP patients involving cortical and subcortical regions that corresponds well with the known distribution of neuropathological changes. [11C](R)-PK11195 PET, therefore, may help in characterizing in vivo the underlying disease activity in PSP.
 
Activity of mitochondrial enzyme complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is reduced in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). A less pronounced decrease in the activity of this enzyme has also been reported in platelets of PD patients. To obtain quantitative information on platelet complex I in PD, we studied platelet complex I in 16 PD patients and 16 age-matched controls by using a newly developed technique based on the binding of [3H]dihydrorotenone ([3H]DHR), an analog of the pesticide rotenone, to complex I. We also investigated the inhibitory effect of MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium) on [3H]DHR specific binding to platelet complex I. PD patients and controls showed similar levels of [3H]DHR specific binding; preincubation of platelets with MPP+ caused the same degree of inhibition of [3H]DHR specific binding in the two groups. In PD patients, we observed a direct correlation between MPP+-induced inhibition of [3H]DHR specific binding and the daily intake of levodopa, which may be related to drug-induced changes in the transport of MPP+ into the platelet or in its binding to complex I. These findings demonstrate that the reported reduction in complex I activity in platelets of PD patients can not be accounted for by an abnormality at the level of the rotenone binding site (putatively the ND-1 gene product), although they do not exclude differences in complex I activity between PD patients and controls.
 
Myoclonus-dystonia syndrome (MDS) is an inherited movement disorder with clinical and genetic heterogeneity. The epsilon sarcoglycan (SGCE) gene is an important cause of MDS. We report the results of a clinical and genetic study of 20 patients from 11 families. We disclosed six novel and two previously described mutations in nine families. The majority of patients had a phenotype of myoclonus and dystonia in combination, but clinical findings considered atypical, such a very early onset, distal myoclonus, and legs involvement, were detected in a significant proportion of cases. The disease course was variable, from progression to spontaneous remission of the motor symptoms. There were no obvious differences between mutation-positive and -negative cases.
 
Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is an autosomal dominant movement disorder caused by mutations in the epsilon-sarcoglycan gene (DYT11). We explore pathophysiological characteristics of M-D with the hypothesis that they may be different from those of sporadic or genetic dystonia. We compared five carriers of the DYT11 gene mutation and 10 healthy controls. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation, we measured parameters assessing cortical membrane excitability (active motor threshold, aMT) and synaptic activity (short interval, sICI) and afferent (AI) intracortical inhibitions and their interaction. aMT was significantly higher in the DYT11 gene carriers than in normal subjects. The others parameters (sICI, AI and their interaction) were not different between the two groups. In DYT11 gene carriers cortical membrane excitability was impaired while parameters assessing cortical synaptic activity were normal. Opposite results have been obtained in focal sporadic and generalized DYT1 dystonias.
 
This study examined the nature and prevalence of abnormal movements in adults with Down's syndrome and also the clinical correlates of orofacial dyskinesia and the relationship between dyskinesia and the level of functional and intellectual disability. Movement disorder, language age, and disability were assessed in an epidemiologically based sample of 145 individuals with Down's syndrome. Abnormal involuntary movements were common, with > 90% exhibiting dyskinesia, predominantly orofacial. Stereotypes were present in one-third of the sample. There was an association between the severity of dyskinesia and both current language age and functioning in terms of self-care and practical and academic skills, which suggested that dyskinesia may be a marker of the severity of mental handicap. The presence of dyskinesia was unrelated to neuroleptic exposure. Dyskinesia and stereotypies are very common in individuals with Down's syndrome and may represent an inherent manifestation of the disorder. The relationship between mental age and dyskinesia in Down's syndrome warrants further research.
 
The anti-parkinsonian and levodopa-sparing potential of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor (NOP) antagonist J-113397 has been demonstrated in rodent models of Parkinson's disease. Here, we describe the levodopa-sparing potential of J-113397 in MPTP-lesioned marmosets. Coadministration of J-113397 (30 mg/kg) with a sub-therapeutic dose of levodopa (12.5 mg/kg) produced an anti-parkinsonian action equivalent to that of a therapeutic dose of levodopa. However, these effects were accompanied by an equivalent level of dyskinesia. The actions of NOP antagonists seen in rodents translate to nonhuman primates. However, the present study raises the possibility that these levodopa-sparing benefits may be offset by a propensity to exacerbate dyskinesia.
 
We describe the neurological manifestations of 119 patients with WD (93 index cases and 26 affected family members) seen between 1963 and 2004. The mean age at symptoms onset was 19.6 years (range, 7-37 years). Medical records were reviewed for the patient's first neurological examination. The most frequent neurological manifestations observed were dysarthria (91%), gait disturbance (75%), risus sardonicus (72%), dystonia (69%), rigidity (66%), tremor (60%), and dysphagia (50%). Less frequent manifestations were chorea (16%) and athetosis (14%). Rare neurological presentations were seizures (4.2%), and pyramidal signs (3%).
 
The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of the antibiotic minocycline as a drug treatment in patients with Multiple-System-Atrophy Parkinson-type (MSA-P). Sixty-three patients were randomized to minocycline 200 mg/d (n = 32) or a matching placebo (n = 31). The primary outcome variable was the change in the value of the motor score of the Unified Multiple-System-Atrophy Rating-Scale (UMSARSII) from baseline to 48 weeks. Secondary outcome variables included subscores and individual Parkinsonian symptoms as determined by the UMSARS and the Unified-Parkinson's-Disease Rating-Scale (UPDRS). Health-related quality of life (HrQoL) was assessed using the EQ-5D and SF-12. "Progression rate" was assumed to be reflected in the change in motor function over 48 weeks. At 24 weeks and 48 weeks of follow-up, there was a significant deterioration in motor scores in both groups, but neither the change in UMSARSII nor in UPDRSIII differed significantly between treatment groups, i.e. "progression rate" was considered to be similar in both treatment arms. HrQoL did not differ among the two treatment arms. In a small subgroup of patients (n = 8; minocycline = 3, placebo = 5)[(11)C](R)-PK11195-PET was performed. The three patients in the minocycline group had an attenuated mean increase in microglial activation as compared to the placebo group (P = 0.07) and in two of them individually showed decreased [11C](R)-PK11195 binding actually decreased. These preliminary PET-data suggest that minocycline may interfere with microglial activation. The relevance of this observation requires further investigation. This prospective, 48 week, randomized, double-blind, multinational study failed to show a clinical effect of minocycline on symptom severity as assessed by clinical motor function.
 
Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a neurodegenerative parkinsonian disorder of unknown cause that shows considerable clinical heterogeneity. In CBD, activated microglia have been shown to be associated closely with the extensive tau pathology found in the affected basal ganglia, brainstem nuclei, and cortical regions. We report on the use of [(11)C](R)-(1-[2-chlorophenyl]-N-methyl-N-[1-methylpropyl]-3-isoquinoline carboxamide) (PK11195) positron emission tomography (PET), a marker of peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites (PBBS) that are expressed by activated microglia, to demonstrate in vivo the degree and distribution of glial response to the degenerative process in 4 patients with CBD. Compared with normal age-matched controls, the CBD patient group showed significantly increased mean [(11)C](R)-PK11195 binding in the caudate nucleus, putamen, substantia nigra, pons, pre- and postcentral gyrus, and the frontal lobe. [11C](R)-PK11195 PET reveals a pattern of increased microglial activation in CBD patients involving cortical regions and the basal ganglia that corresponds well with the known distribution of neuropathological changes, which may therefore help to characterize in vivo the underlying disease activity in CBD.
 
We used [11C]raclopride (RACLO) and positron emission tomography (PET) to study longitudinally striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding in nine patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) at an early drug-naive stage and 3-5 years later, when motor fluctuations had appeared in seven of them. Patients were treated with a combination of levodopa and dopamine agonists. Data were compared with 10 healthy controls in the same age range. Initially, patients with PD showed a significant increase of RACLO uptake in the putamen compared with controls (p < 0.04). The caudate nucleus revealed values in the normal range. After 3-5 years, RACLO binding was significantly reduced in the putamen (p < 0.03) and caudate nucleus (p < 0.03) compared with baseline. Values were now in the control range in the putamen and reduced in the caudate nucleus (p < 0.05). The clinical score at "off" had significantly worsened (p < 0.0005) compared with the first PET scan. The nine PD patients reported here had already been investigated 3-4 months after therapy began and that time did not show a reduction of the initially increased RACLO binding capacity (data published previously). These results indicate long-term downregulation of striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding in PD. Receptor changes in the striatum of patients with PD may be induced by chronic dopaminergic therapy or occur independently of treatment, as a result of structural adaptation of the postsynaptic dopaminergic system to the progressive decline of nigrostriatal neurons.
 
The autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias are most commonly caused by nucleotide repeat expansions followed by base-pair changes in functionally important genes. Structural variation has recently been shown to underlie spinocerebellar ataxia types 15 and 20. We applied single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping to determine whether structural variation causes spinocerebellar ataxia in a family from France. We identified an approximately 7.5-megabasepair duplication on chromosome 11q21-11q22.3 that segregates with disease. This duplication contains an estimated 44 genes. Duplications at this locus were not found in control individuals. We have identified a new spastic ataxia syndrome caused by a genomic duplication, which we have denoted as spinocerebellar ataxia type 39. Finding additional families with this phenotype will be important to identify the genetic lesion underlying disease. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
 
Coronal sections through the striatum (left) and substantia nigra (right) of each animal illustrating enhanced labeling for TH in the AAV2-NTN injected hemisphere. Scale bar = 5.0 mm for striatal sections, and 0.1 mm for nigral sections (×10). Quantitative analyses of mean TH staining intensity and mean number of TH positive cells in the substantia nigra are also presented.
Coronal reconstructions of the number and location of TH positive cells intrinsic to the caudate and putamen are illustrated for each animal.
Photomicrographs illustrating enhanced cytoplasmic pERK 1/2 labeling in the substantia nigra of the AAV2-NTN injected hemisphere compared with the uninjected control side (Monkey 202; median response) and results from quantitative analysis of pERK 1/2 labeling in all animals (Mean ± SEM).
Neurturin (NTN) is a potent survival factor for midbrain dopaminergic neurons. CERE-120, an adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) vector encoding human NTN (AAV2-NTN), is currently being developed as a potential therapy for Parkinson's disease. This study examined the bioactivity and safety/tolerability of AAV2-NTN in the aged monkey model of nigrostriatal dopamine insufficiency. Aged rhesus monkeys received unilateral injections of AAV2-NTN into the caudate and putamen, with each animal therefore serving as its own control. Robust expression of NTN within the nigrostriatal system was observed 8 months postadministration. (18)F-fluorodopa imaging using positron emission tomography revealed statistically significant increases in (18)F-fluorodopa uptake in the injected striatum compared with the uninjected side at 4 and 8 months. In addition, at 8 months postadministration, a significant enhancement in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive fibers and an increase in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive cells was observed in the AAV2-NTN injected striatum compared with the uninjected side. Robust activation of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra was also observed. Histopathological analyses revealed no adverse effects of AAV2-NTN in the brain. Collectively, these results are consistent with the neurotrophic effects of NTN on the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system and extend the growing body of evidence supporting the concept that AAV2-NTN may have therapeutic benefit for Parkinson's disease.
 
AAV2-neurturin (CERE-120) is designed to deliver the neurotrophic-factor, neurturin, to the striatum to restore and protect degenerating nigrostriatal neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). A common hypothesis is that following expression in the striatum, neurotrophic-factors like neurturin (NRTN) will be transported from degenerating terminals to their cell bodies in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). We tested this concept using immunohistochemistry, comparing the bioactivity of AAV2-neurturin in brains of PD patients versus those of nonhuman primates similarly treated. NRTN-immunostaining in the targeted striatum was seen in all PD cases (mean putaminal coverage: ∼15% by volume); comparable expression was observed in young, aged, and parkinsonian monkeys. In the SNc cell bodies, however, only rare evidence of neurturin was seen in PD, while ample evidence of intense nigral-NRTN was observed in all monkeys. NRTN-expression was associated with occasional, sparse TH-induction in the striatum of PD, but nothing apparent in the SNc. In primates, NRTN produced robust TH-induction throughout the nigrostriatal neurons. These data provide the first evidence that gene therapy can increase expression of a neurotrophic-factor deep in the PD brain and that clear but modest enhancement of degenerating neurons can be induced. They also provide important insight regarding deficiencies in the status of nigrostriatal neurons in advanced PD, suggesting that serious axon-transport deficits reduced the bioactivity of AAV2-NRTN by limiting the protein exposed to the cell body. Thus, future efforts using neurotrophic-factors to treat neurodegenerative diseases will need to target both the terminal fields and the cell bodies of degenerating neurons to assure maximal benefit is achieved.
 
Neuropsychiatric symptoms are frequent in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with (123)I-labeled ligand N-delta-(fluoropropyl)-2 beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-iodophenyl)tropene ((123)I-FP-CIT), which reliably measures midbrain dopaminergic dysfunction, has provided important evidence on the neurobiological substrate of some of these symptoms including apathy and depression. However, little is known on DAT levels and other distressing symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations. Therefore, (123)I-FP-CIT imaging was performed in 18 well-characterized patients with DLB, and striatal DAT levels were correlated with the frequency/severity ratings of several neuropsychiatric symptoms. A wide range of neuropsychiatric symptoms could be observed in the sample. Significant correlations were observed between decreased striatal DAT levels and visual hallucinations. Although there were no correlations between striatal DAT levels and other neuropsychiatric symptoms, when considering the putamen and the caudate nucleus separately, delusions, depression, and apathy were inversely correlated to decreased caudate DAT levels. The seresults provide intriguing evidence on the involvement of the mesocortical dopaminergic pathways in neuropsychiatric symptoms in DLB.
 
Economic evaluation (Italian NHS perspective) modeling (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT (DaTSCAN) compared to clinical judgment alone for differentiating essential tremor (ET) from Parkinson's Disease (PD). A 5-year Markov model was constructed to assess the cost-effectiveness of (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT to differentiate ET from PD in patients referred to a movement disorder specialist in Italy. Published data and a double-round, Delphi panel of 12 specialists populated the model. Effectiveness was expressed as the projected Years on potentially beneficial therapy (PBTYs). Costs were expressed in Euros (2005 values). The model suggests that over 5 years, the "current" diagnostic pathway generated an average of 2.3 PBTYs/patient at an estimated cost of 8,864 euros. (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT generated an average of 4.1 PBTYs/patient at an estimated cost of 8,422 euros, which represented an additional 1.8 PBTYs at a cost saving of 442 euros/patient (341 euros when discounted at 5%). The estimated cost-effectiveness of (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT is under 1,000 euros per PBTY gained when the underlying disease prevalence is high (55-70%), and cost-saving at prevalence under 55%. (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT is likely to be regarded as economically advantageous to differentiate ET from PD, increasing time on potentially beneficial therapy at a lower overall cost to the healthcare system.
 
Top-cited authors
Werner Poewe
  • Medizinische Universität Innsbruck
Olivier Rascol
  • Paul Sabatier University - Toulouse III
Irene Litvan
  • University of California, San Diego
Glenn T Stebbins
  • Rush University Medical Center
Cristina Sampaio
  • CHDI Foundation