Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Published by Springer Nature

Online ISSN: 1573-4919


Print ISSN: 0300-8177


Damage to cultured lens epithelial cells of squirrels and rabbits by UVA (99.9%) plus UV-B (0.1%) radiation and alpha tocopherol protection
  • Article

March 1995


30 Reads

Seymour Zigman



Joanne B. Schultz




Mohsen Meydani
The purpose of this research is to observe the near-UV radiation induced damage to cultured rabbit and squirrel lens epithelial cells as related to destruction and alterations of specific biochemical targets in the cells and to determine protective effects on the cells and targets that are provided by α-tocopherol. Confluent monolayers of cultured rabbit and squirrel lens epithelial cells were exposed to black light (BL) lamps, which emit predominantly UV-A radiation. These cells received a mixture 3 J/cm2 of UV-A and 4 mJ/cm2 of UV-B per h. This mixture is termed near UVA (ie:predominantly UV-A). Cells were exposed in Tyrode's or in MEM without or with α-tocopherol added at 2.5–10 μg/ml. Analyses of cell viability and survival, the physical state of cytoskeletal actin, and the activities of Na-K-ATPase and catalase were made. Exposure to near UVA damaged these cells as measured by vital staining and colony forming ability. Pretreatment with α-tocopherol decreased the magnitude of near UVA cytotoxicity. Near UVA exposure in MEM always produced more damage to the cells and biochemical targets than in Tyrode's. Cytoskeletal actin was degraded and the activities of Na-K-ATPase and catalase were markedly inhibited by UV-exposure. All of these targets were at least partially protected by α-tocopherol in the medium. Without α-tocopherol added to the media, the viability and survival of the cells did not recover even after 25 h of incubation. Cell viability was better protected from near UVA by α-tocopherol than was the ability to grow into colonies. This indicates that α-tocopherol protects actin, catalase, and Na-K-ATPase from near UVA damage.

Characteristic induction of 70 000 Da-heat shock protein and metallothionein by zinc in HeLa cells

July 1992


15 Reads

The synthesis of a 70,000 dalton-heat shock protein (hsp70) is one of several heat shock proteins induced in HeLa cells during the incubation in medium containing zinc sulphate. The synthesis of hsp70 was increased in the presence of 200 microM zinc sulphate and above, but not at 100 microM zinc sulphate. On the other hand, the synthesis of metallothionein was activated in the presence of 100 microM zinc sulphate and above. Uptake of zinc into the cells depended on the concentration of zinc sulphate in the medium. The separation of intracellular zinc into three fractions by gel filtration chromatography; high molecular, metallothionein, and low molecular fractions, showed that zinc in the low molecular weight and metallothionein fractions was elevated in the presence of 100 microM zinc sulphate in the medium, whereas increase in the zinc content of the high molecular weight fraction occurred at 200 microM zinc sulphate and above. Inhibition of cell growth and cellular protein synthesis was also observed at 200 microM zinc sulphate and above, but not at 100 microM. From these findings, since the induction of hsp70 synthesis and inhibition of cell growth occurred concomitantly with the increase of zinc in the high and low molecular weight fractions, hsp70 seemed not to function in the detoxification of zinc, but it may participate in the repair of zinc-induced damage.

Glucocorticoids induce a 29 000 Mr protein in DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells but not in the DDT1 MF-2 GR glucocorticoid resistant variant

October 1985


21 Reads

We have demonstrated that glucocorticoids induce in DDT1 MF-2 cells by a glucocorticoid mediated mechanism the synthesis of a methionine-cysteine rich protein of 29 000 Mr (p29). Induction of p29 is not observed in DDT1 MF-2 GR glucocorticoid resistant variants which have only 7% of glucocorticoid receptor site per cell compared to wild type cells. Increased synthesis of p29 is specific to glucocorticoids since neither androgens, estrogens, progesterone nor the glucocorticoid antagonist dexamethasone mesylate are effective inducers. Stimulation of p29 synthesis in wild type cells is observed at 10(-10) M triamcinolone acetonide, reaching a maximum at a concentration of 1 X 10(-8) M. The induction of p29 is not a function of glucocorticoid arrest of DDT1 MF-2 cells since DDT1 MF-2 cells promoted to re-enter the cell cycle by 50 ng/ml platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) continue synthesis of p29. Finally, increased levels of p29 translation products are observed in cell free translation assays carried out utilizing poly A+ RNA transcripts isolated from glucocorticoid treated cells. These data suggest that the glucocorticoid stimulation of p29 synthesis is a transcriptional and/or RNA processing event controlled by glucocorticoid receptor complexes.

Hexavalent chromium induces energy metabolism disturbance and p53-dependent cell cycle arrest via reactive oxygen species in L-02 hepatocytes

August 2012


36 Reads

Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] has become a non-negligible pollutant in the world. Cr(VI) exposure leads to severe damage to the liver, but the mechanisms involved in Cr(VI)-mediated toxicity in the liver are unclear. The present study aimed to explore whether Cr(VI) induces energy metabolism disturbance and cell cycle arrest in human L-02 hepatocytes. We showed that Cr(VI) inhibited state 3 respiration, respiratory control rate (RCR), and subsequently induced energy metabolism disturbance with decreased ATP production. Interestingly, cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry and protein expression analysis by western blotting revealed that low dose of Cr(VI) (4 uM) exposure induced S phase cell cycle arrest with decreased mediator of replication checkpoint 1 (Mrc1) and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), while higher doses of Cr(VI) (16, 32 uM) exposure resulted in G2/M phase arrest with decreased budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles-related 1 (BubR1) and cell division cycle 25 (CDC25). Mechanism study revealed that Cr(VI) decreased the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex (MRCC) I and II, thus leading to ROS accumulation. Moreover, inhibiting ROS production by antioxidant N-acetyl-L: -cysteine (NAC) rescued Cr(VI)-induced ATP depletion and cell cycle arrest. ROS-mediated p53 activation was found to involve in Cr(VI)-induced cell cycle arrest, and p53 inhibitor Pifithrin-α (PFT-α) rescued Cr(VI)-induced reduction of check point proteins Mrc1 and BubR1, thus inhibiting cell cycle arrest. In summary, the present study provides experimental evidence that Cr(VI) leads to energy metabolism disturbance and p53-dependent cell cycle arrest via ROS in L-02 hepatocytes.

Fig. 1 A Inhibitory effects of OSU-03012 on A10 cell growth examined by cell counting assay. The cells on 24-well plate were stimulated with 10% FBS with different concentrations of OSU03012 (5, 10, and 15 lM) for 24, 48, 72 h. Cells treated with 0.5% FBS were used as a control. After incubation, cell viability was determined by trypan blue staining. B Inhibitory effects of OSU03012 on A10 cell growth evaluated by MTT assay. The cells on 96-well plate were stimulated with 10% FBS with different concentrations of OSU-03012 (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 lM) for 24 h. The culture medium was then replaced with MTT and the plate was incubated at 37°C for 4 h. A 50 ll aliquot of DMSO was added after 4 h, and the absorbance at 595 nm was measured for each well on an ELISA reader. Values are expressed as a percentage of the control group. The average result ± SE of three independent experiments is shown. * P \ 0.05, ** P \ 0.01, *** P \ 0.001 as compared to the cells stimulated with 10% FBS only. C Morphology alteration of A10 cells stimulated with 10% FBS and treated with different doses of OSU-03012, a Control, b 5 lM, c 10 lM, d 15 lM, and then observed using microscope
Fig. 2 OSU-03012 decreased proliferative protein levels of Raf-1, PCNA, p-Erk and Erk in rat smooth muscle cells. a A10 cells were cultured in 10% FBS medium with various concentrations of OSU-03012 (1, 5, and 10 lM) for 24 h. The cells were then lysed, and 50 lg protein underwent SDS–PAGE followed by Western blotting. b Signal intensity was quantitated using a PhosphoImager. b-actin was used as a loading control. Values are expressed as a percentage of the control group. The average result ± SE of three independent experiments is shown. * P \ 0.05, ** P \ 0.01 as compared with control  
Fig. 3 The DAPI staining demonstrates the apoptotic effects of OSU-03012 on smooth muscle cells. The cells were cultured in 10% FBS with or without 10 lM of OSU- 03012 for 24, 48, and 72 h. After incubated with time periods, the cells were fixed and incubated with DAPI for 1 min, and observed using a fluorescent microscope. White arrows indicate the apoptotic nucleus. All graphs were taken at 9400  
Fig. 4 OSU-03012 enhanced cell apoptosis through upregulating apoptotic proteins and downregulating antiapoptotic proteins in rat smooth muscle cell. a A10 cells were cultured in 10% FBS medium with various concentrations of OSU-03012 (0, 1, 5, and 10 lM) for 24 h. The cells were then lysed, and 50 lg protein underwent SDS–PAGE followed by Western blotting. b A10 cells were treated with 10 lM of OSU-03012 for 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. After incubation for the indicated time periods, the cells were lysed and 50 lg of the protein underwent SDS–PAGE followed by Western blotting. The signal intensity was quantitated using a PhosphoImager. b-actin was used as a loading control. Values are expressed as a percentage of the control group. The average result ± SE of three independent experiments is shown. * P \ 0.05, ** P \ 0.01 as compared with control  
Fig. 5 The decreases in VSMC migration following the treatment of OSU-03012. VSMCs cultured in 10% FBS were treated with or without 10 lM OSU-03012 for 24 h. Cell migration was analyzed by Boyden chamber assay. Cells receiving a 10% FBS only served as a control and b plus 10 lM of OSU-03012 were evaluated. All pictures were taken at 9100  
Exploring the molecular mechanisms of OSU-03012 on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation
  • Article
  • Full-text available

November 2010


106 Reads

Restenosis is resulted from the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from the arterial media into the intima within the vessel lumen following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). OSU-03012, a synthetic compound (2-amino-N-{4-[5-(2-phenanthrenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-phenyl} acetamide) acting as a PDK-1 inhibitor, is used as an apoptosis-promoting anticancer drug. However, whether OSU-03012 can inhibit VSMC proliferation and migration following PTCA remains unclear. In this study, we used A10 smooth muscle cells cultured in 10% FBS for stimulating proliferation and evaluated the inhibitory effects of OSU-03012 on cell proliferation and migration. The data demonstrated that OSU-03012 dose-dependently inhibited A10 cell proliferation examined by Trypan blue, MTT and morphological alteration assays, and inhibited the levels of proliferation-related proteins, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), phosphorylated ERK examined by western blotting. Additionally, 10 μM OSU-03012 also enhanced apoptosis examined using DAPI assay by regulating apoptosis-related proteins. Furthermore, compared with the control group, A10 cells treated with 10 μM OSU-03012 showed a lower number of migrating cells examined by Boyden Chamber assay, and a dose-dependently reduced NFκB-dependent and interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter luciferase activities, implying the anti-migration and anti-inflammation effects of OSU03012. Taken together, this study provides insights into the pharmacological mechanisms of OSU-03012 in preventing smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration, and inflammation supporting the novel discovery of OSU-03012 as an adjuvant therapy for balloon injury-induced restenosis.

Antiproliferative and apoptotic-inducing potential of ellagic acid against 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine-induced colon tumorigenesis in Wistar rats

November 2013


54 Reads

Colon cancer remains one of the major worldwide causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in Western countries and is increasingly common in Asia. Ellagic acid (EA), a major component of polyphenol possesses attractive remedial features. The aim of this study is to divulge the potential effect of EA during 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer in male Wistar albino rats. The rats were segregated into four groups: group I, control rats; group II, rats received EA (60 mg/kg b.wt./day, orally); rats in group III, induced with DMH (20 mg/kg b.wt.) subcutaneously for 15 weeks; DMH-induced group IV rats were initiated with EA treatment. Colon of the rats treated with DMH exhibited higher glycoconjugates and proliferation index such as elevated expressions of argyrophilic nucleolar organizing regions (AgNORs), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteins (MMP-2 and -9), and mast cells. DMH induction also increased phase I-metabolizing enzymes with simultaneous decrease in the phase II detoxifying enzymes. In contrast, dietary administration of EA significantly (p < 0.05) down regulated the proliferation index and restored back the levels of biotransformation enzymes. The carcinogenic insult also altered the expression of pro-apoptotic protein p53, whereas dietary EA administration significantly (p < 0.01) up regulates p53 expression to further induce apoptotic pathway. Ultrastructural changes in colon were also in accord with the above aberrations. Overall findings suggested that the suppression of colon cancer by EA in vivo involves inhibition of cell proliferation, activation of apoptosis, and efficient detoxification.

Selenium as a modulator of membrane stability parameters and surface changes during the initiation phase of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colorectal carcinogenesis

July 2012


21 Reads

The present study evaluated the modulatory potential of selenium on colonic surface abnormalities and membrane fluidity changes following 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced colon carcinogenesis. Rats were segregated into four groups viz., normal control, DMH treated, selenium treated, and DMH + selenium treated. Initiation of molecular events leading to colon carcinogenesis was started following weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (30 mg/Kg body weight) for 10 weeks. Selenium in the form of sodium selenite was supplemented to rats at a dose level of 1 PPM in drinking water, ad libitum for the entire duration of the study. Brush border membranes were isolated from the colon of rats and the viscosity as well as fluidity parameters were assessed using the membrane extrinsic fluorophore pyrene. DMH treatment resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation. Reduced glutathione levels (GSH) and the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were found to be significantly decreased following DMH treatment. On the other hand, supplementation with selenium to DMH treated rats resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of lipid peroxidation but caused a significant increase in the levels of GSH as well in the activities of GR, GST, SOD, CAT, and GPx. The results further, demonstrated a marked decrease in membrane microviscosity following DMH treatment. On the other hand, a significant increase was observed in the excimer/monomer ratio and fluidity parameter of DMH treated rats when compared to normal control rats. However, the alterations in membrane microviscosity and the fluidity parameters were significantly restored following selenium treatment. Further, histological as well as colon surface alterations were also observed following DMH treatment, which however were greatly prevented upon selenium co-administration. The study, therefore, concludes that selenium proves as a useful in modulating the colonic surface abnormalities and membrane stability following DMH induced colon carcinogenesis.

Enalapril reduces the enhanced 1,2-diacylglycerol content and RNA synthesis in spontaneously hypertensive rat hearts before established hypertension

June 1992


11 Reads

There is evidence that cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) occurs before the development of hypertension. 1,2-Diacylglycerol, which is thought to be a second messenger activating protein kinase C, is also produced in excess in SHR hearts at 4 weeks of age, before established hypertension. We determined myocardial 1,2-diacylglycerol content in SHR with and without prazosin and enalapril from 3 to 4 weeks of age. Hearts from untreated SHR had greater RNA and DNA synthesis and greater relative weights at 4 weeks of age than those from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. There was no difference in triglyceride content or phospholipid species between WKY rats and untreated SHR, except for a higher cholesterol content in SHR. Treatment of SHR with enalapril, but not prazosin, lowered not only 1,2-diacylglycerol content but also RNA synthesis to the levels of WKY rats. Moreover, fatty acids involved in 1,2-diacylglycerol were altered by enalapril despite the lack of a difference between WKY rats and untreated SHR. Prazosin did not have any effect on 1,2-diacylglycerol fatty acid composition. Enalapril may decrease cardiac hypertrophy in SHR by lowering myocardial 1,2-diacylglycerol production.

Glycine- and proline-rich glycoprotein regulates the balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis for ACF formation in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-treated A/J mice

February 2009


16 Reads

The objective of this study was to investigate the chemopreventive potentials of glycine- and proline-rich glycoprotein (SNL glycoprotein, 150-kDa) isolated from Solanum nigrum Linne on formation of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 20 mg/kg) in A/J mice. Administration of SNL glycoprotein inhibited phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), expression of colonic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and frequency of colonic ACF in DMH-stimulated mice colon carcinogenesis. In addition, SNL glycoprotein increased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (p21(WAF/Cip1) and p27(Kip1)), whereas reduced expression of precursor form of apoptosis-related proteins [pro-caspase-3 and pro-poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP)] in the mice. Interestingly, the results in this study revealed that SNL glycoprotein has suppressive effects on activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), whereas it has stimulatory effect on the expression of p53, accompanying inhibitory effects on expression of NF-kappaBp50, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in DMH-stimulated ACF formation. Also, SNL glycoprotein has inhibitory effects on the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), on the production of inducible nitric oxide (NO), and on the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the mice plasma. Collectively, our findings in this study suggest that SNL glycoprotein has chemopreventive activity via modulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in DMH-treated A/J mice.

Alteration of 1,2-diacylglycerol content in ischemic and reperfused heart

January 1991


18 Reads

The myocardial 1,2-diacylglycerol (DG) and phospholipid levels during ischemia and reperfusion were studied in open-chest dogs by means of sequential epicardial minibiopsies, followed by quantification based on mass measurement technique. 1,2-DG level increased as early as 5 min after coronary ligation but decreased at 30 min. Also as early as 2 min after postischemic (35 min) reperfusion, 1,2-DG level increased transiently compared to pre-reperfusion level. Prazosin inhibited these changes significantly. A significant change in the incidence of reperfusion-induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) was not obtained in the prazosin-treated group. However, the 1,2-DG level 2 min after reperfusion was significantly higher in the ischemic myocardium developed reperfusion-induced VT than in the undeveloped one. Phospholipid levels remained unchanged during ischemia and reperfusion. These results suggest that alpha 1-adrenergic stimulation occurs early in ischemia and reperfusion and leads to 1,2-DG accumulation, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of ischemic and reperfusion injury.

Norepinephrine-induced 1,2-diacylglycerol accumulation and change in its fatty acid composition in the isolated perfused rat heart

April 1990


31 Reads

Phosphoinositide hydrolysis is elicited by alpha-adrenoceptor stimulation in the myocardium, resulting in the generation of 1,2-diacylglycerol by the direct activation of phospholipase C. However, the physiological role of 1,2-diacylglycerol accumulation in the heart has been largely unexplored. Therefore, we studied the effects of norepinephrine on the accumulation of 1,2-diacylglycerol and its fatty acid composition, as well as its function in isolated perfused rat hearts. A 30 min perfusion with norepinephrine following a stabilization period of 25 min caused increases of 68% and 57% in 1,2-diacylglycerol levels in the heart at 10(-6) M and 5 x 10(-6) M, respectively, compared to controls. Analysis of its fatty acid composition showed a significant elevation in the percentages of 18:2 and 20:4 although the absolute amounts of these increases in fatty acids were relatively low when compared to the elevation in the total amount of 1,2-diacylglycerol. The change in contractility was not consistently related to an increase in 1,2-diacylglycerol. These results indicate that the increase in 1,2-diacylglycerol level in response to norepinephrine perfusion was accompanied by a change in fatty acid composition of 1,2-diacylglycerol.

Naphtho[1,2-b]furan-4,5-dione inhibits MDA-MB-231 cell migration and invasion by suppressing Src-mediated signaling pathways

October 2013


36 Reads

Naphtho[1,2-b]furan-4,5-dione (NFD), a bioactive component of Avicennia marina, has been demonstrated to display anti-cancer activity. Breast cancer is a highly malignant carcinoma and most deaths of breast cancer are caused by metastasis. In this study, we showed that NFD blocked migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells without affecting apoptosis or growth arrest. NFD caused significant block of Src kinase activity in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, NFD treatment was correlated with reduced phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr 576/577, 861 and 925 sites, p130(Cas) at Tyr 410, and paxillin at Tyr 118. NFD also suppressed the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt. Consistent with inhibition of these signaling pathways and invasion, NFD reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9. Furthermore, Src antagonist PP2 caused a significant decrease in the phosphorylation of FAK, p130(Cas), paxillin, and PI3K/Akt. Our findings provide evidences that NFD inhibits Src-mediated signaling pathways involved in controlling breast cancer migration and invasion, suggesting that it has a therapeutic potential in breast cancer treatment.

Generation of superoxide from reaction of 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione with thiols: Implications for dithiolethione chemoprotection

February 2008


19 Reads

3H-1,2-Dithiole-3-thione (D3T), a potent member of dithiolethiones, induces phase 2 enzymes by activating an Nrf2/Keap1-dependent signaling pathway. It was proposed that interaction between D3T and two adjacent sulfhydryl groups of Keap1 might cause dissociation of Keap1 from Nrf2, leading to Nrf2 activation. This study was undertaken to investigate the reactions between D3T and thiols, including the dithiol compound, dithiothreitol (DTT), and the monothiol, glutathione (GSH). We reported here that under physiologically relevant conditions incubation of D3T with DTT caused remarkable oxygen consumption, indicating a redox reaction between D3T and the dithiol molecule. Incubation of D3T with GSH also led to oxygen consumption, but to a less extent. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies showed that the redox reaction between D3T and DTT generated superoxide. Superoxide was also formed from the redox reaction of D3T with GSH. These findings demonstrate that D3T reacts with thiols, particularly a dithiol, generating superoxide, which may provide a mechanistic explanation for induction of Nrf2-dependent phase 2 enzymes by D3T.

Localization of ?1,2,3-subunit isoforms of Na,K-ATPase in cultured neonatal and adult rat myocardium: The immunofluorescence and immunocytochemical study

January 1996


10 Reads

By indirect immunofluorescence and preembedding peroxidase-diaminobenzidine technique the localization of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against α1, α2 and α3 isoforms of the Na,K-ATPase were studied in rat myocardium. The α1-subunit was identified predominantly on sarcolemma of cultured myocytes, neonatal, as well as adult cardiocytes. The α2 signal was localized around nuclei of cultured cardiocytes, very weak signals were seen in neonatal and more intense signal, were dispersed throughout the adult myocytes. The α3-subunit immunoreactivity was weak and localized in cell processes connecting individual cultured cells, on sarcolemma and intercalated discs of neonatal cells and very weak in adult working myocytes. Cytochemically demonstrated ouabain resistant Na,K-ATPase localized in junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum may represent α1 isoenzyme which is directly involved in modulation of action potential fluxes.

Metabolism of glycerol-1,2,3-trimethylsuccinate in rat hepatocytes

September 1999


16 Reads

The metabolism of glycerol-1,2,3-trimethylsuccinate ester was investigated in rat hepatocytes. The ester displayed a greater nutritional value than D-glucose, as a precursor of either CO2 or glycogen. In terms of 14CO2 production, the value calculated from experiments conducted in the presence of 1.9 mM [U-14C] glycerol-1,2,3-trimethylsuccinate, glycerol-1,2,3-trimethyl[1,4-14C] succinate and glycerol- 1,2,3-trimethyl[2,3-14C] succinate represented about 50 times that found in cells incubated with 1.0 mM D-[U-14C] glucose. For glycogen synthesis, the results found with the ester were approximately 7-8 times higher than those found with the hexose. A further advantage of the ester over D-glucose consisted in the fact that, at increasing concentrations of these nutrients, a maximal metabolic response may be reached at lower levels of glycerol- 1,2,3-trimethylsuccinate than D-glucose. By comparison with previous data obtained in the same experimental model, glycerol-1,2,3-trimethylsuccinate was also found to display a higher nutritional value than the dimethyl ester of succinic acid. It is proposed, therefore, that glycerol-1,2,3-trimethylsuccinate could be used to support ATP generation in cells endangered by an imbalance between the rate of synthesis and hydrolysis of this adenine nucleotide.

Inactivation of acetylcholinesterase by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride

January 2004


13 Reads

The neurotoxicant 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) has been shown to reversibly inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase. The inactivation of the enzyme was detected by monitoring the accumulation of yellow color produced from the reaction between thiocholine and dithiobisnitrobenzoate ion. The kinetic parameter, Km for the substrate (acetylthiocholine), was found to be 0.216 mM and Ki for MPTP inactivation of acetylcholinesterase was found to be 2.14 mM. The inactivation of enzyme by MPTP was found to be dose-dependent. It was found that MPTP is neither a substrate of AChE nor the time-dependent inactivator. The studies of reaction kinetics indicate the inactivation of AChE to be a linear mixed-type inhibition. The dilution assays indicate that MPTP is a reversible inhibitor for AChE. These data suggest that once MPTP enters the basal ganglia of the brain, it can inactivate the acetylcholinesterase enzyme and thereby increase the acetylcholine level in the basal ganglia of brain, leading to potential cell dysfunction. It appears that the nigrostriatal toxicity by MPTP leading to Parkinson's disease-like syndrome may, in part, be mediated via the acetylcholinesterase inactivation.

Etoposide stimulates 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 differentiation activity, hormone binding and hormone receptor expression in HL-60 human promyelocytic cells

June 2000


22 Reads

The simultaneous administration of the DNA topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide (0.15 mM) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3) (10 nM) synergistically induced the differentiation of HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells. Similar results were obtained using U-937 human promonocytic cells, or the topoisomerase II inhibitors doxorubicin (15 nM) and mitoxantrone (2.5 nM). When sequential treatments were used, pre-incubation with VD3 had little effect on the subsequent action of etoposide, while pre-incubation with etoposide greatly potentiated the subsequent action of VD3. In addition, etoposide treatment stimulated VD3 binding activity and increased VD3 receptor mRNA and protein levels. The increase in hormone receptor expression may explain, at least in part, the capacity of topoisomerase inhibitors to potentiate the differentiation inducing activity of VD3.

Interaction of 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine with cytosol and mitochondrial deoxyguanosine kinases: possible role in anti-cytomegalovirus activity

December 1985


11 Reads

The acyclic nucleoside 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine (DHPG) is a potent inhibitor of human cytomegalovirus in vitro and in vivo. In order to investigate the phosphorylation of DHPG to the monophosphate and identify the enzyme responsible, attempts were made to isolate DHPG kinase from calf thymus and from human cytomegalovirus-infected lung cells. From calf thymus, a mitochondrial deoxyguanosine kinase was partially purified which co-migrated with DHPG phosphorylating activity on DEAE-cellulose, and had the same mobility by electrophoresis. DHPG triphosphate and DHPG kinase were elevated in cytomegalovirus-infected cells, but not enough enzyme activity was recovered to identify the kinase. However, DHPG was found to inhibit a cytosol deoxyguanosine kinase induced in these infected cells. The role of mitochondrial and cytosol deoxyguanosine kinases is discussed relative to the anti-cytomegalovirus activity of DHPG.

Effect of p58GTA on β-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 activity and cell-cycle in human hepatocarcinoma cells

May 2001


17 Reads

Beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (beta1,4-GT 1) is the key enzyme transferring galactose to the terminal N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) forming Galbeta3-->4GlcNAc structure in the Golgi apparatus. In addition, it also serves as a cell adhesion molecule by recognizing and binding to terminal GlcNAc of glycoconjugates on the adjacent cell surface and matrix through a subpopulation of the enzyme distributed on the cell surface. Transient expression of the p58GTA protein kinase, which belongs to the p34cdc2-related supergene family, could enhance beta1,4-GT 1 total activity in COS cells. In this study, the p58GTA interaction with beta1,4-GT 1 was confirmed using an in vitro assay with the TNT Coupled Reticulocyte Lysate System. An expression vector containing p58GTA was stably transfected into 7721 cells, a human hepatocarcinoma cell line, expression was confirmed by Northern and Western blot analyses. The cells transfected with p58GTA (p58GTA/7721) contained 1.9 times higher total beta1,4-GT 1 activity and 2.6 times higher cell-surface beta1,4-GT 1 activity than the mock transfected cells (pcDNA3/7721). However, Ricinus communis agglutinin-I lectin blot analysis revealed that the enhanced beta1,4-GT1 activity did not increase the Galbetal-->4GlcNAc groups on most of the membrane proteins in p58GTA/7721 cells. By flow cytometry analysis, it was found that the p58GTA/7721 cells were G2/M phase arrested, compared with the pcDNA3/7721 cells. These results suggest that the p58GTA stable transfection into human hepatocarcinoma cells could enhance the two beta1,4-GT1 subcellular pool activities independently and change its cell-cycle without modifying the beta-1,4-linked galactose residues on most membrane proteins.

β-1,4-Galactosyltransferase I involved in Schwann cells proliferation and apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha via the activation of MAP kinases signal pathways

February 2012


20 Reads

β-1,4-galactosyltransferase-I (β-1,4-GalT-I) plays a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of peripheral nervous system inflammatory reaction. However, the exact function of β-1,4-GalT-I in the regulation of SCs proliferation and apoptosis remains unclear. In this study, we found that low concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) induced SCs proliferation, while high concentration of TNF-α induced SCs apoptosis. Meanwhile, the expressions of β-1,4-GalT-I, TNFR1, and TNFR2 were changed following. When β-1,4-GalT I overexpression, low concentration of TNF-α-induced SCs proliferation was partially repressed. Concurrently, the activity of ERK1/2 was decreased. While knocking down β-1,4-GalT I expression, high concentration of TNF-α-induced SCs apoptosis was partially rescued. Consistent with this, the activity of P38 and JNK were decreased. We also found anti-TNFR2 antibody suppressed low concentration of TNF-α-induced SCs proliferation, while anti-TNFR1 antibody inhibited high concentration of TNF-α-induced SCs apoptosis. Thus, present data show that β-1,4-GalT I may play an important role in SCs proliferation and apoptosis induced by TNF-α via different signal pathways and TNFR.

The effect of denaturing conditions on the activity of rabbit muscle amylo-1,6-glucosidase/oligo-1,4 → 1,4-glucantransferase

January 1975


4 Reads

Summary The effects of various denaturing conditions on the activity of purified rabbit muscle amylo-1,6-glucosidase/oligo-1,4 ? 1,4-glucantransferase were investigated. The two enzymatic activities were measured independently of each other as well as by their combined action on glycogen phosphorylase limit dextrin. Arrhenius plots, activity measurements in the presence of urea, and activity measurements following preincubation in urea suggest that the single polypeptide protein may undergo conformational changes under these various conditions which could alter the behavior of the two activities.

Involvement of β 1,4 galactosyltransferase 1 and Galβ 1→4GlcNAc groups in human hepatocarcinoma cell apoptosis

January 2003


20 Reads

Beta 1,4 galactosyltransferase 1 (beta 1,4GT1) synthesizes Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc groups in N-linked sugar chains of animal glycoproteins, which have been demonstrated to play an important role in many biological events, including sperm-egg interaction, cell migration and mammalian embryonic development. In this study, the mRNA level of beta 1,4GT1 was found to increase greatly during the 7721 hepatocarcinoma cells apoptosis induced by cycloheximide. Ricinus Communis Agglutinin-I staining indicated generous increase of Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc groups during apoptosis. Further study showed that the 7721 hepatocarcinoma cells transiently transfected with beta 1,4GT1 were more susceptible to the apoptosis induced by cycloheximide. The increased susceptibility was in accordance to the transfection concentration of beta 1,4GT1, which also led to the increased Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc groups on the transfected cell surface. All the observations suggested that beta 1,4GT1 and Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc groups might be associated with the apoptosis of human hepatocarcinoma cells.

Distinct patterns of expression of the β-1,4-galactosyltransferases during testicular development in the mouse

June 2003


24 Reads

Glycosylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications and it is clear that the single step of beta-1,4-galactosylation is performed by a family of beta-1,4-galactosyltransferases (beta4-GalTs) and that each member of this family may play a distinct role in different tissues and cells. In this study, we characterized the gene expression of six beta4-GalTs in mouse testis and analyzed the changes of galactosylation of testis glycoproteins during postnatal development. Northern blot analysis revealed that beta4-GalT-I and beta4-GalT-IV were expressed mainly in newborn mouse testis and that the expression of beta4-GalT-II increased markedly and persisted at the highest levels in adult mouse testis. The expression of beta4-GalT-III and beta4-GalT-V, however, remained relatively at low levels during mouse testicular development. In contrast, the expression of beta4-GalT-VI was undetectable in mouse testis. The gene expression of beta4-GalT-II in mouse testis was further analyzed by in situ hybridization due to its unique expression pattern. Strong hybridization signals were detected in the seminiferous tubules and the expression varied among the different stages of spermatogenic differentiation. The distinct gene expression patterns of beta4-GalTs in mouse testis could affect the differential galactosylation of testis glycoproteins, as revealed by lectin histochemistry analysis.

Cramoll 1,4 lectin increases ROS production, calcium levels, and cytokine expression in treated spleen cells of rats

September 2010


60 Reads

This study reports the in vivo stimulatory effects of Cramoll 1,4 on rat spleen lymphocytes as evidenced by an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, Ca(2+) levels, and interleukin (IL)-1beta expression. Cramoll 1,4 extracted from seeds of the Leguminosae Cratylia mollis Mart., is a lectin with antitumor and lymphocyte mitogenic activities. Animals (Nine-week-old male albino Wistar rats, Rattus norvegicus) were treated with intraperitoneal injection of Cramoll 1,4 (235 microg ml(-1) single dose) and, 7 days later, spleen lymphocytes were isolated and analyzed for intracellular ROS, cytosolic Ca(2+), and IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1 mRNAs. Cell viability was investigated by annexin V-FITC and 7-amino-actinomycin D staining. The data showed that in lymphocytes activated by Cramoll 1,4 the increase in cytosolic and mitochondrial ROS was related to higher cytosolic Ca(2+) levels. Apoptosis and necrosis were not detected in statistically significant values and thus the lectin effector activities did not induce lymphocyte death. In vivo Cramoll 1,4 treatment led to a significant increase in IL-1beta but IL-6 and -10 levels did not change. Cramoll 1,4 had modulator activities on spleen lymphocytes and stimulated the Th2 response.

Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate mass content in isolated perfused rat heart during alpha-1-adrenoceptor stimulation

March 1996


7 Reads

Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) has been proposed to be a second messenger in response to alpha-1-adrenoceptor stimulation also in myocardial cells. We studied the effect of alpha-1-adrenoceptor stimulation (5 x 10(-5) mol/l phenylephrine or 5 x 10(-5) mol/l noradrenaline both in the presence of 10(-6) mol/l timolol) on IP3 mass content in isolated perfused rat hearts. IP3 content was determined by a specific receptor-binding assay-kit (TRK 1000, Amersham) after validating the method. For comparison also the effect of muscarinic stimulation (10(-4) mol/l carbachol in the presence of 10(-6) mol/l timolol) on IP3 content was measured in corresponding preparations. A basal IP3 level of about 75 pmol/mg protein was found. There were no prominent effects of alpha-1-adrenoceptor stimulation on total IP3 content in isolated perfused rat hearts. Phenylephrine gave a statistically significant increase of about 40% at 1/4 min and a statistically significant decrease of about 25% at 4 min after start of exposure. Noradrenaline, however, gave no statistically significant change of IP3 at the time-points studied. Muscarinic stimulation caused a slight, statistically insignificant, increase of IP3 at 1/4 min. The results are compatible with an assumption that agonist stimulation evokes a localized increase of IP3 which may be masked by a relatively high total IP3 mass content. The IP3 peak after phenylephrine coincided with the early positive inotropic phase of the response reported earlier in perfused rat hearts for alpha-1-adrenoceptor stimulation by phenylephrine. Although this might be compatible with a role for IP3 in this early and transient phase, a mediator function of IP3 in the inotropic response is not established.

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