T-cell growth factor, a mitogenic protein released from lectin- or antigen-activated mononuclear cells, maintains T-lymphocytes in continuous exponential proliferative culture. Studies which explored the parameters required for TCGF production revealed that both mature thymic-dependent T-cells and adherent cells participated in the release of TCGF. Further experimentation suggested that T-cells released TCGF after receiving two signals; (1) lectin or antigen cell membrane binding, and (2) a soluble product derived from adherent cells. A separate subset of T-cells, which did not require thymic influence, responded to TCGF. TCGF appeared to interact with the TCGF-responsive subset via specific membrane receptors: TCGF could be absorbed only by lectin- or antigen-activated living or glutaraldehyde-fixed T-cells. The T-cell response was initiated by lectin or antigen, but proliferation was mediated solely by purified TCGF. Thus, the T-cell immune response, which culminates in clonal expansion and differentiation of antigenreactive cells, appears to be controlled by an endogenously-derived proliferative hormone, which is obligatory for the realization of a competent effector T-cell.
The IFab2 molecule described is expressed by a single gene construct that encodes the VH-CH1 and the Vk-Ck modules of a humanized version of the anti-breast cancer antibody BrE-3, joined via a short peptide linker. It can be shown that this basic genetic construct can lead to the expression of monomers, dimers (IFab2s) and other multimer species, depending on the length of the linker. A 21-residue linker promotes the principal formation of the desired dimer IFab2 molecules. It was also shown that in binding competition assays, purified IFab2 completely retained the affinity and specificity of the original monoclonal antibody.
This study characterized the unique peptide-binding characteristics of HLA-DRB1*12:01 (DR1201), an allele studied in the context of various autoimmune diseases, using a peptide competition assay and structural modeling. After defining Influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 Matrix Protein M1 (H1MP) 40-54 as a DR1201 restricted epitope, the critical anchor residues within this sequence were confirmed by measuring the relative binding of peptides with non-conservative substitutions in competition with biotin labeled H1MP(40-54) peptide. Based on this information, a set of peptides was designed with single amino acid substitutions at these anchor positions. The overall peptide binding preferences for the DR1201 allele were deduced by incubating these peptides in competition with the reference H1MP(40-54) to determine the relative binding affinities of each to recombinant DR1201 protein. As expected, pocket 1 preferred methionine and aliphatic residues, and tolerated phenylalanine. Pocket 4 was mostly composed of hydrophobic residues, thereby preferentially accommodating aliphatic residues, but could also weakly accommodate lysine due to its slightly acidic environment. Pocket 6 accepted a wide range of amino acids because of the diverse residues that comprise this pocket. Pocket 9 accepted aliphatic and negatively charged amino acids, but showed a remarkable preference for aromatic residues due to the conformation of the pocket, which lacks the typical salt bridge between β57Asp and α76Arg. These binding characteristics contrast with the closely related DR1104 allele, distinguishing DR1201 among the alleles of the HLA-DR5 group. These empirical results were used to develop an algorithm to predict peptide binding to DR1201. This algorithm was used to verify T cell epitopes within novel antigenic peptides identified by tetramer staining and within peptides from published reports that contain putative DR1201 epitopes.
HLA molecules are cell-surface glycoproteins that present peptides, derived from intracellular protein antigens, for surveillance by T lymphocytes. Secreted HLA (sHLA) technology is a powerful approach for studying these peptides, since it facilitates large-scale production of HLA-bound peptides. We compared secreted and membrane-bound forms of HLA A2 in terms of intracellular trafficking and their bound peptide repertoire (termed the immunopeptidome). We demonstrate that sHLA and membrane bound HLA (mHLA) negotiate intracellular compartments with similar maturation kinetics. Moreover, mass spectrometry revealed a substantial overlap in the immunopeptidome was observed when HLA A2-bound peptides were purified from various sources of sHLA and mHLA. By combining machine based algorithms with manual validation, we identified 1266 non-redundant peptides. Analysis of these peptides revealed a number bearing post-translational modifications, although some of these may arise spontaneously others represent modifications performed within the cell that survive antigen processing. Peptides bearing some of these modifications have not previously been described for HLA ligands, therefore, this compendium of 1266 non-redundant peptide sequences adds greatly to the existing database of HLA A2 ligands. Peptides from all sources displayed comparable HLA A2 consensus binding motifs, peptide lengths, predicted HLA A2 binding affinities and putative source antigens. We conclude that sHLA is a valid and useful technique for studying the immunopeptidome.
Hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies of different isotypes were isolated from BALB/c antibody responses to the capsid protein VP1 of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strain O1. According to antigen binding measured by ELISA a weak-binding (81D10, IgM) and a strong-binding antibody (113C12, IgG2a) were selected. As RNA sequencing of productive immunoglobulin VH and VK genes turned out, both chains of the weak-binding antibody (81D10) are encoded by germline (i.e. not mutated) genes whereas the gene encoding the strong-binding antibody (113C12) k chain is mutated at several sites. Therefore, rearranged VH and VK genes of 81D10 were cloned, expressed in immunoglobulin non-producing plasmacytoma cells, and mice transgenic for the 81D10 k gene were produced. These mice provide a first step in the development of a transgenic mouse model for genetical investigations in the affinity maturation of anti-viral immunoglobulin variable genes.
Monoclonal anti-DNA autoantibody BV 04-01 catalyzed hydrolysis of DNA in the presence of Mg2+ ions. DNA hydrolyzing activity was associated with BV 04-01 IgG, Fab, and SCA 04-01 proteins. Pronounced cleavage specificity for both ss and dsDNA was observed with efficient hydrolysis of the C-rich region of the oligonucleotide A7C7ATATAGCGCGT7 as well as preference for cleavage within CG-rich regions of double-stranded DNA. Data on specificity of ssDNA hydrolysis and kinetic data obtained from wild-type SCA 04-01 and two SCA 04-01 mutants (L32Phe and L27dHis) were used to model the catalytically active antibody site utilizing the previously resolved X-ray structure of (dT)3 liganded Fab 04-01. The resulting model suggested that BV 04-01 activates the target phosphodiester bond by induction of conformational strain. In addition, the antibody-DNA complex contained a potential Mg2+ ion coordination site composed of the L32Tyr and L27dHis amino acid side chains and a DNA 3'-phosphodiester group. Induction of strain and metal coordination could be constituents of a mechanism by which this antibody catalyzed DNA hydrolysis. Sequence data for BV 04-01 VH and VL genes suggested that the proposed catalytic antibody active site was germ-line encoded. This observation suggests the hypothesis that catalytic activity might represent an important but unspecified function of some antibody molecules.
Subgroup B adenovirus serotype 11 (Ad11) occasionally causes fatal infections in immunocompromised patients. The present study describes a novel Ad11 epitope presented by HLA-A*24:02 that could be used for adoptive immunotherapy. Ten synthetic Ad11 hexon protein-derived nonamer peptides that bound to HLA-A*24:02 were selected by a computer algorithm and MHC stabilization assay. Stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HLA-A*24:02+ donors with each of these synthetic peptides induced peptide-specific CD8(+) T-cells for three peptides. Testing the reactivity of these peptide-specific CD8(+) T-cells against various target cells confirmed that peptide TYFNLGNKF is naturally processed in Ad11-infected cells and is presented by HLA-A*24:02. Emergence of TYFNLGNKF-specific CD8(+) T-cells coincided with the clearance of adenoviruses in a patient with Ad11 disease. Importantly, TYFNLGNKF-specific CD8(+) T-cells were suggested to be not serotype cross-reactive. The novel HLA-A*24:02-restricted Ad11 epitope could be used for anti-Ad11 adoptive immunotherapy and to monitor immunity to Ad11 using MHC tetramers.
HLA-E shares several peptide sequences with HLA-class Ia molecules. Therefore, anti-HLA-E antibodies that recognize the shared sequences may bind to HLA-class Ia alleles. This hypothesis was validated with a murine anti-HLA-E monoclonal antibody (mAb) MEM-E/02, which reacted with microbeads coated with several HLA-B and HLA-C antigens. In this report, the hypothesis was reexamined with another mAb 3D12, considered to be specific for HLA-E. The antibody binding is evaluated by measuring mean fluorescence index [MFI] with Luminex Multiplex Flow-Cytometric technology. The peptide-inhibition experiments are carried out with synthetic shared peptides, most prevalent to HLA-E and HLA-Ia alleles. The results showed that mAb 3D12 simulated MEM-E/02 in recognizing several HLA-B and HLA-C antigens. Both 3D12 and MEM-E/02 did not bind to HLA-A, HLA-F and HLA-G molecules. As observed with MEM-E/02, binding of 3D12 to HLA-E is inhibited by the peptides sequences (115)QFAYDGKDY(123) and (137)DTAAQI(142). Decrease in binding of mAb 3D12 to HLA class Ia, after heat treatment of antigen coated microbeads, supports the contention that the epitope may be located at the outside of the "thermodynamically stable" α-helix conformations of HLA-E. Several sequence and structure-based web-tools were employed to validate the discontinuous epitopes recognized by the mAbs. The scores obtained by these web-tools distinguished the shared peptide sequences that inhibited the mAb binding to HLA-E. Furthermore, ElliPro web tool points out that both mAbs recognize the conformational discontinuous epitopes (the shared inhibitory peptide sequences) in the secondary structure of the HLA-E molecule. The study favors the contention that the domain of the shared inhibitory peptide sequences may be the most immunogenic site of HLA-E molecule. It also postulates and clarifies that amino acid substitution on or near the binding domains may account for the lack of cross reactivity of 3D12 and MEM-E/02 with HLA-A, HLA-F and HLA-G molecules.
The synovial sarcoma X breakpoint (SSX) gene family contains nine members. The SSX proteins are CT (cancer/testis) antigens and can be expressed in many tumor types. T cell immune response against SSX protein can be detected in tumor patients and mice expressing any SSX. Screening predominant protective epitopes might improve the low immunogenicity against these "self" CT antigens. Herein, we predicted HLA-A*0201-restricted epitopes for all nine SSX family members, followed by validation with epitope molecular modeling, peptide/HLA-A*0201 affinity, and binding stability assays. We obtained four highly homologous candidate epitopes with the high immunogenicity scores designated P1, P4, P5 and P6, from the nine SSX members. Each of the four candidates could elicit strong epitope-specific CTL immune responses, but P4 could evoke more interferon gamma (IFN-gamma)-producing T cells and more potent CTLs that could lyse more target cells. Importantly, almost all of the four epitopes induced CTLs could cross-lyse the mutual targets both in vitro in human PBMCs and HLA-A2.1/K(b) transgenic mice, but P4 showed superiority to other epitopes in term of cross-cytolysis. All of these results demonstrate that P4 can induce anti-tumor immunity in a fashion superior to other candidates, and may be the "common" CTL epitope among all SSX-expressing tumors. Due to its documented responses herein, P4 has potential application in peptide-mediated immunotherapy.
We investigated analogues of GP2 (IISAVVGIL), an HLA-A*0201-restricted T-cell epitope derived from residues 654-662 in the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) Her-2/neu. One limiting factor of GP2 is its poor affinity for HLA-A*0201. Conformational analysis revealed the P5-P7 region in GP2 appears to be linked to the stability of P9 side chain interaction with the MHC molecule. To identify variants of GP2 with enhanced presentation to HLA-A*0201, we tested V6S, V6T, V6Q, G7P, G7F, T6F7, and Q6F7 for their capacity to stabilize cell surface HLA-A*0201 molecules. Of the mono-substituted variants, V6Q and G7F exhibited superior stabilization as compared to GP2. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest the improved binding can be attributed to concerted motions in the central and C-terminal regions of the peptide. These data support the notion that amino acids in HLA-A*0201 epitopes may be inter-dependent. Priming HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice with G7F-loaded syngeneic dendritic cells stimulated mouse T cells to produce a higher level of INFgamma than mice immunized with GP2.
The structure of the peptide-binding specificity of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I has been analyzed extensively in human and mouse. For fish, there are no crystallographic models of MHC molecules, neither are there data on the peptide-binding specificity. In this study, we describe for the first time the identification of a fish class I peptide-MHC ligand binding motif. Phage display technology using both 7 mer and 12 mer libraries enabled us to identify peptide ligands with unique specificity that interacts with the recombinant Salmon MHC class I molecule. The recombinant proteins, beta 2m/SasaUBA*0301, were produced in Escherichia coli, in which the carboxyl terminus of beta 2-microglobulin is joined together with a flexible (GGGGS)3 linker to the amino terminus of the heavy chain. One hundred and seven individual phages bound to beta 2m/SasaUBA*0301 were isolated after four rounds of panning from the 7 mer random-peptide library. The peptide encoding sequences were determined and peptide alignment led to the prediction of position-specific anchor residue. A prominent proline at position 2 was observed and we predict that it might be one of the anchors at the N-terminus. Meanwhile, phage display peptide library encoding random 12 mer peptides was also screened against beta 2m/SasaUBA*0301. Eighty-five percentages of the corresponding peptides have an enrichment of leucine, methionine, valine, or isoleucine at the C-terminus. We predict that this particular allele of Salmon class I molecule might have a very similar binding motif at the C-terminus compared with a known mouse class I molecule H2-Kb which has L, or I, V, M at p8. Previous work showed that Atlantic Salmon carrying the allele SasaUBA*0301 are resistant to infectious Salmon aneamia virus and there is a significant association between MHC polymorphism and the disease resistance. Therefore, our study might contribute to designing a peptide vaccine against this viral disease.
A novel TaqI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 4.15 kb is reported using a DR beta probe (pRTV1). This fragment corresponds to the DRB1 locus and allows the subdivision at the DNA level of the DRB1*0301 allele (DR3 antigen), which had not previously been reported. Both splits also distinguish each of the two DR3-bearing extended haplotypes (HLA-B8,SCO1,DR3,DQw2,Dw24 and B18,F1C30,DR3,DQw2,Dw25) found associated to several autoimmune diseases as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and myasthenia gravis. The fact that no polymorphism in the DRB1*0301 coding DNA sequence has been detected indicates that DRB1*0301 intronic, regulatory of neighbouring sequences might also contribute to differential disease associations (and pathogenic mechanisms) found linked to each of the two DR3-bearing haplotypes, i.e. IDDM and B8,DR3,Dw24 in North European/American Caucasoids vs IDDM and B18,DR3,Dw25 in Mediterraneans; SLE and B8,DR3,Dw24 in children vs SLE and B18,DR3,Dw25 in Spanish adults.
Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are initially classified by serotyping but recently can be re-grouped by their peptide-presentation characteristics into supertypes. Both HLA-A*0301 and HLA-A*1101 are grouped into A3 supertype. Although a number of cross-presented T cell epitopes of HLA-A*0301 and HLA-A*1101 have been identified, the molecular mechanisms of cross-presentation remain elusive. Herein, the structures of HLA-A*0301 with two HIV-derived immunodominant T cell epitopes were solved and their characteristics in comparison with HLA-A*1101 presenting the same peptides were analyzed. The comparable structures of HLA-A*0301 and HLA-A*1101 with subtle differences illustrate the common modes of cross-presented peptides and the strict HLA-restriction of T cell receptor (TCR)-recognition.
To study variations in Rheumatoid Factor (RF) autoantibodies between and within healthy individuals, we have produced and analysed the variable heavy chain (VH) regions of 18 new monoclonal IgM RFs from the peripheral blood of two healthy subjects before and after immunization with tetanus toxoid (TT). The majority of these RFs used germline genes of the VH3 family, but RFs of the VH1, VH2 and VH7 families were also found. No RF of the VH4 RF is found. Fourteen different VH germline (GL) genes encoded the RFs, suggesting an extraordinary heterogeneity in structure. Consequently, changes in RF V region structures following immunization were difficult to identify. There were, however, structural differences between RFs from the two donors. RFs from one donor (IP) used more lambda light chains than RFs from the other donor and previously described RFs. In addition, 50% of the RFs from donor IP were encoded by GL genes frequently found to encode RFs from patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) but not described in RFs from other healthy subjects. The predominant use of VH3 RFs in the two healthy donors contrasts with the over-expression and expansion of VH1 RFs in one previously described healthy immunized donor. There are thus large individual differences in RF structures, which might be related to the immunological status, environment or genetic background of the donors. However, since these three donors are all HLA DRB1*0401, it is unlikely that this HLA type, associated with seropositive RA, accounts for the individual differences.
The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory effects of selective ER beta (ER beta) agonist on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) production in peritoneal macrophages (PMs) of endometriosis (EMS).
ER alpha (ER alpha) and ER beta expressions in PMs were analyzed by RT-PCR and immunoblot. The PMs of endometriosis were exposed to increasing concentrations of ER beta agonist ERB-041 over a period from 0.5 to 8h before stimulation with LPS and the levels of iNOS protein were evaluated by immunoblot. Subsequently, the PMs were pretreated with vehicle, ERB-041 or ER alpha agonist PPT before exposing to LPS. iNOS expression, p65 protein and active extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) level accumulated in the nuclear were detected by immunoblot. For experiment investigating the role of ERKs in LPS-induced iNOS expression, the PMs were pretreated with U0126, a specific ERK inhibitor, for 60 min before LPS treatment and iNOS expression was detected by immunoblot.
The PMs of EMS expressed ER beta to a greater extent compared with normal women. Pretreatment the PMs with ERB-041 resulted in a significant inhibition of LPS-induced iNOS expression and NF-kappaB activation by preventing its nuclear translocation. The ERKs pathway was involved in the LPS-induced iNOS production and was not repressed by the activation of ERs.
The inhibitory effect of ER beta agonist on LPS-induced iNOS production in PMs of EMS is likely mediated via repressing of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) but not ERKs signaling pathways.
We have re-examined the interaction of 1,10 phenanthroline with E, EAC1–8 and various other red cell intermediates. Two major findings emerged from this study: (1) 1,10-phenanthroline could mediate lysis of E, EAC4, EAC1–7 or EAC1–8. Under identical conditions of dose, pH and temperature, the rate (though not the extent) of lysis varied for different red cell intermediates, with EAC1–8 being lysed the most rapidly, followed by EAC1–7, EAC4 and E. (2) An intermediate could be isolated following the interaction of E and 1,10-phenanthroline that would lyse in the absence of fluid phase factors. This intermediate could be prevented from releasing its hemoglobin by addition of high molarity EDTA or EGTA. This cell was functionally similar to the E* state isolated during the lysis of E by anti-Forssman antibody and GPC.
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin-D3 (1,25-D3) is known to inhibit DNA synthesis, immunoglobulin and lymphokine production [interleukin-2 (IL-2), gamma interferon (G-IFN), and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)] by mitogen-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Recent data suggest these inhibitory effects are mediated at the gene level through inhibition of mRNA accumulation of specific lymphokines in the activated cells. In previous studies, we have demonstrated the CD8+ T cell population was less sensitive to the anti-proliferative actions of 1,25-D3 than CD4+ T cells. The purpose of this investigation was to further assess ability of 1,25-D3 to regulate CD4+ and CD8+ T cell functions. Initial experiments showed that 1,25-D3 inhibited both IL-2 production and mRNA accumulation in mitogen-stimulated PBMC. However, IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) expression and mRNA accumulation in stimulated PBMC was not affected by 1,25-D3. Both FACS sorted CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressed IL-2R equally upon stimulation and neither showed an inhibitory effect on this expression by 1,25-D3. Human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells showed a stimulus-specific production of IL-2. CD4+ cells stimulated with mitogen and HLA-DR positive accessory cells produced measurable levels of IL-2 that were completely inhibited by 1,25-D3. CD8+ T cells did not generate measurable amounts of IL-2 in this system. However, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells produced large amounts of IL-2 when stimulated with mitogen and a protein kinase C activator, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Under these circumstances, both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell IL-2 production was inhibited completely by 1,25-D3. These data suggest that IL-2R expression in PBMCs and T cell subsets is equal and unaffected by 1,25-D3 while IL-2 production in T cell subsets is stimulus-specific and completely inhibited by 1,25-D3.
Human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells were induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) to differentiate and examined using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) and functional assays. Although morphologically and histochemically these cells appeared to be of the monocyte-macrophage phenotype, there was a decline in Fc receptors for IgGl and no induction of class II HLA antigens. There was, however, dramatic induction of the antigen detected by the myeloid-specific MoAb AML-2-23. These data suggest that the phenotypic changes induced by calcitriol in HL-60 cells are consistent with myelomonocytic differentiation in that the resultant cells possess characteristics of both monocytes (morphology, non-specific esterase staining, high levels of AML-2-23 reactivity) and granulocytes (PMN 29 binding, decreased Fc receptors for IgGl, absence of class II HLA antigens). Perhaps more important, the ability of calcitriol-treated cells to perform antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and phagocytosis was markedly augmented. Lysis of antibody-coated erythrocytes by HL-60 cells increased from 5% in controls to 30-35% with calcitriol treatment for 4 days. This enhanced effector cell function was seen despite a decline in Fc receptors measured by cytofluorography. These data suggest that calcitriol may be involved in both differential and functional activation of myeloid cells.
The Vitamin D binding protein (DBP) is a multifunctional plasma protein that can significantly enhance the chemotactic response to complement fragment C5a. The chemotactic cofactor function of DBP requires cell surface binding in order to mediate this process. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of ligating DBP with its two primary physiological ligands, Vitamin D and G-actin, on both binding to neutrophils and the ability to enhance chemotaxis to C5a. There was no difference in neutrophil binding between of the holo (bound) forms versus the apo (unbound) form of radioiodinated DBP, indicating that the cell binding region of DBP is likely distinct from the Vitamin D sterol and G-actin binding sites. Likewise, G-actin, 25(OH)D3, and G-actin plus 25(OH)D3 bound to DBP did not alter its capacity to enhance chemotaxis toward C5a. However, the active form of Vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) completely eliminated the chemotactic cofactor function of DBP. Dose-response curves demonstrated that as little as 1pM 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly inhibited chemotaxis enhancement. Moreover, at physiological concentrations 1,25(OH)2D3 needs to be bound to DBP to mediate the inhibitory effect. Neutrophil chemotaxis to optimal concentrations of C5a, formyl peptide, CXCL8 or leukotriene B4 was not altered by 1,25(OH)2D3, indicating that the active vitamin does not have a global inhibitory effect on neutrophil chemotaxis. Finally, inhibition of cell surface alkaline phosphatase (AP) with sodium orthovanadate completely reversed the inhibitory effect of 1,25(OH)2D3. These results indicate that the cell binding and co-chemotactic functions of DBP are not altered when the protein binds G-actin and/or Vitamin D. Furthermore, the co-chemotactic signal from DBP can be eliminated or counteracted by 1,25(OH)2D3.
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3) is known to have potent inhibitory effects on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) functions. Previous experiments suggest that addition of interleukin-2 (IL-2) to cell cultures can reverse the antiproliferative action of 1,25-D3. Previous studies have also shown that the CD4+ T-cell subset is more sensitive to the antiproliferative actions of 1,25-D3 than are the CD8+ T-cells. The objective of this study was to determine whether exogenous IL-2 could reverse the antiproliferative and immunoinhibitory action (inhibition of Ig production) in mitogen-activated PBMC cultures and in fluorescein-activated cell sorting (FACS) experiments where CD8+ T-cells were removed from PBMCs before mitogen stimulation with/without exogenous IL-2 added. In these studies, addition of IL-2 to mitogen-activated, 1,25-D3-treated PBMCs allowed the cells to overcome the 1,25-D3 suppressive effect on cell proliferation. However, exogenous IL-2 did not overcome the 1,25-D3-mediated inhibitory effect on PBMC Ig production. Using FACS lymphocyte populations (CD4+, CD8+ and B-cells), we showed that CD4+ T-cell-directed Ig synthesis in co-culture with autologous B-cells was inhibitable by incubation of cells with 1,25-D3, but Ig synthesis was restored to near-normal levels by addition of exogenous IL-2. This clearly contrasts with the inability of Il-2 to reverse the 1,25-D3 inhibitory effect on Ig synthesis in PBMCs. In other experiments, when CD8+ cells were removed from mitogen-stimulated, 1,25-D3-treated PBMCs, addition of exogenous IL-2 resulted in a full reversal of the 1,25-D3-mediated Ig inhibition. These data suggest that the inability of IL-2 to reverse the inhibitory effects of 1,25-D3 on PBMC Ig production is probably a result of a lack of sensitivity of CD8+ T-cells to the antiproliferative and immunoregulatory actions of 1,25-D3. This is possibly because of a differential expression of 1,25-D3 receptors on CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells.
Hymenoptera venom allergy is known to cause life-threatening and sometimes fatal IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions in allergic individuals. About 30-50% of patients with insect venom allergy have IgE antibodies that react with both honeybee and yellow jacket venom. Apart from true double sensitisation, IgE against cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD) are the most frequent cause of multiple reactivities severely hampering the diagnosis and design of therapeutic strategies by clinically irrelevant test results. In this study we addressed allergenic cross-reactivity using a recombinant approach by employing cell lines with variant capacities of alpha-1,3-core fucosylation. The venom hyaluronidases, supposed major allergens implicated in cross-reactivity phenomena, from honeybee (Api m 2) and yellow jacket (Ves v 2a and its putative isoform Ves v 2b) as well as the human alpha-2HS-glycoprotein as control, were produced in different insect cell lines. In stark contrast to production in Trichoplusia ni (HighFive) cells, alpha-1,3-core fucosylation was absent or immunologically negligible after production in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells. Consistently, co-expression of honeybee alpha-1,3-fucosyltransferase in Sf9 cells resulted in the reconstitution of CCD reactivity. Re-evaluation of differentially fucosylated hyaluronidases by screening of individual venom-sensitised sera emphasised the allergenic relevance of Api m 2 beyond its carbohydrate epitopes. In contrast, the vespid hyaluronidases, for which a predominance of Ves v 2b could be shown, exhibited pronounced and primary carbohydrate reactivity rendering their relevance in the context of allergy questionable. These findings show that the use of recombinant molecules devoid of CCDs represents a novel strategy with major implications for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
A series of substituted 2-aryl-1,3-indandiones were investigated for their ability to inhibit the complement system. Some of them were found to be considerably strong inhibitors. The inhibitory activity was mainly dependent on substitutions at positions 3 and 5 of the phenyl ring. 3,5-dichloro-(8), 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)- (7), 3,5-diisopropyl- (3) and 3,5-di-t-butyl- (5) phenylindandiones were the strongest inhibitors of the series. The generation of EAC1-5 cells from EAC1-3 cells and C5 was most strongly inhibited by these compounds although some inhibition of the interaction of EAC1-5 with C6-C9 and EAC1-6 with C7-C9 was also observed. Slight inhibition at other steps of complement activation was also seen but this was not considered to be appreciable. Dialysis of normal serum or purified C5 pre-incubated with compounds 3, 5, 7 and 8 did not cause recovery of the hemolytic activity of normal serum or purified C5. Thus, the main site of inhibition in the complement cascade appeared to be at C5. The total alternative pathway was also inhibited to some extent by these compounds, probably due to their interaction with C5.
Pattern recognition proteins (PRPs), such as lipopolysaccharide and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), have been identified in many animals and play a crucial role in invertebrate defense systems. In the current study, an LGBP gene was cloned from fleshy prawn (Fenneropenaeus chinensis, Fc-LGBP) utilizing homology cloning and RACE methods. The full cDNA of the Fc-LGBP gene in fleshy prawn was 1253bp in size with a deduced 366 amino acid protein that includes a glycosyl hydrolase domain. Northern blot and RT-PCR data suggested that Fc-LGBP mRNA was mostly synthesized in haemocytes and that the expression was down-regulated 24h post-injection of bacteria. In situ hybridization demonstrated that Fc-LGBP mRNA was only detected in haemocyte cytoplasm, with no detection in other tissues. The molecular weight of the purified recombinantly expressed Fc-LGBP was approximately 46kDa. Immunohistochemistry of haemocytes revealed that Fc-LGBP protein was localized on the membrane of most cells. Data from bacterial binding assays utilizing purified protein suggested that rFc-LGBP had strong binding activity to Gram-negative bacteria.